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1. Soga N, Arima K, Sugimura Y: Adjuvant methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin, and cisplatin chemotherapy has potential to prevent recurrence of bladder tumors after surgical removal of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. Int J Urol; 2008 Sep;15(9):800-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin, and cisplatin chemotherapy has potential to prevent recurrence of bladder tumors after surgical removal of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant platinum based chemotherapy in upper urinary tract urothelial cancer following surgical resection in terms of survival benefit and inhibition of bladder cancer recurrence.
  • METHODS: Between April 1986 and August 2005, a total of 132 patients with a diagnosis of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer underwent radical nephroureterectomy with cuff of bladder at our department.
  • A total of 46 patients (13 with pT2pN0M0 and 33 with pT3 pN0M0 transitional cell carcinoma without prior bladder cancer) were enrolled.
  • Patients with locally advanced disease were divided into two groups: the adjuvant chemotherapy group (24 patients) who received adjuvant methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin, and cisplatin (M-VAC) and the non-adjuvant chemotherapy group who did not receive adjuvant M-VAC (22 patients).
  • The recurrence rate in the non-adjuvant chemotherapy group was significantly higher than in the adjuvant chemotherapy group (log-rank test, P < 0.0001).
  • Only non-adjuvant chemotherapy was a significant and independent risk factor (hazard ratio 6.97) for the development of intravesical recurrence (P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: Adjuvant M-VAC is an important optional adjuvant therapy and can prevent recurrent bladder tumors following surgery for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma.
  • To determine whether adjuvant chemotherapy has further benefit, a randomized study would be needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasms, Second Primary / prevention & control. Ureteral Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Case-Control Studies. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18651862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; M-VAC protocol
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2. Tamas EF, Nielsen ME, Schoenberg MP, Epstein JI: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary tract: a clinicopathological study of 30 pure and mixed cases. Mod Pathol; 2007 Aug;20(8):828-34
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  • [Title] Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary tract: a clinicopathological study of 30 pure and mixed cases.
  • We studied 28 cases of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the bladder, one case in the renal pelvis, and one in the urethra.
  • Seventeen cases (56.7%) were pure with the remaining mixed with other patterns of carcinoma, including invasive urothelial carcinoma (n=10), invasive adenocarcinoma (n=3), and squamous cell carcinoma (n=2).
  • The surface demonstrated carcinoma in situ (CIS) in six cases, noninvasive high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma in three cases, and in situ adenocarcinoma in one case.
  • Treatment consisted of radical cystectomy in 13/30 cases (43%); partial cystectomy in 4/30 cases (13%); nephrectomy in one case (3%), and transurethral resection often followed by radiation or chemotherapy in 12/30 (40%) cases.
  • Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, whether in pure or mixed form, has a similar prognosis to ordinary urothelial carcinoma when treated by cystectomy.
  • Of the three pure cases treated by chemotherapy, two were free of disease at 4 and 65 months and the third had recurrent disease at 17 months.
  • Given the association of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma with urothelial carcinoma in 47% of our cases and its propensity for multifocality, partial cystectomy would typically be ill advised for lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Urologic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Disease-Free Survival. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphocytes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17541442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Uekado Y, Kohjimoto Y, Iba A, Kikkawa K, Shintani Y, Shinka T: [Efficacy of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin for carcinoma in situ of bladder]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Jun;52(6):439-44
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  • [Title] [Efficacy of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin for carcinoma in situ of bladder].
  • Three months after an initial 6-week course ofintravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) given between January 1990 and March 2005, 94 (90%) out of 104 patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the bladder achieved a complete response (CR).
  • Only one patient who received a second course of BCG therapy showed disease progression.
  • Two of the 4 patients with BCG-refractory CIS of the bladder achieved CR after intravesical gemcitabine therapy and maintained a tumor-free status beyond 6 months.
  • Five of the 16 patients showing disease progression had upper urinary tract cancer, 4 had recurrent or muscle invasive bladder cancer, 6 had prostatic involvement of CIS, and one patient had urethral recurrence.
  • Bladder preservation was achieved in 97 of the 104 patients, although 7 patients ultimately underwent radical cystectomy and urinary diversion for aggressive disease.
  • In conclusion, some patients may be managed safely by repeated endoscopic resection and intravesical therapy with cystectomy postponed until objective evidence of progression exists.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16848357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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4. Nomata K, Sagara Y, Toubu S, Hakariya T, Tsuda S, Noguchi M, Eguchi J, Kanetaka H: [Feasibility and change in the level of blood paclitaxel concentration after paclitaxel therapy for a hemodialysis patient with cisplatin resistant metastatic transitional cell cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2002 Jul;29(7):1247-50
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  • [Title] [Feasibility and change in the level of blood paclitaxel concentration after paclitaxel therapy for a hemodialysis patient with cisplatin resistant metastatic transitional cell cancer].
  • The patient was a 54-year-old woman with recurrent urinary tract cancer.
  • A CT of the lung showed multiple nodules after bil-nephroureterectomy, cystectomy and combination chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP) and epirubicin (EPI).
  • As second line chemotherapy for the patient, TXL was administered.
  • She was hemodialized after operation, and there are few reports about paclitaxel (TXL) therapy for hemodialysis (HD) patients.
  • However, the TXL therapy was not repeated because of unacceptable neurological side effects.
  • An almost 40% shrinkage in the size of the metastatic lung nodule was obtained after 1 cycle of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / blood. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / blood. Renal Dialysis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / pharmacology. Cystectomy. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 12146008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. Chen AA, Grasso M: Is there a role for FISH in the management and surveillance of patients with upper tract transitional-cell carcinoma? J Endourol; 2008 Jun;22(6):1371-4
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  • [Title] Is there a role for FISH in the management and surveillance of patients with upper tract transitional-cell carcinoma?
  • Food and Drug Administration for the detection of recurrent transitional-cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder and in the initial workup of hematuria.
  • In this study, we retrospectively reviewed our initial 94 FISH specimens taken from patients monitored for upper-tract TCC.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2004 and 2007, 43 patients had one or more FISH assays performed as part of the workup and management of upper-tract TCC.
  • Of 94 specimens sent for FISH analysis, 25 voided specimens collected at an outpatient encounter and 40 specimens taken as a bladder wash or selective upper-tract washing under anesthesia were followed by upper-tract endoscopy.
  • RESULTS: Overall sensitivity of FISH in the detection of TCC in this population was 52%, compared with 26% for urinary cytology.
  • Selective upper-tract washings were more sensitive and specific for upper-tract TCC than bladder washings or voided specimens.
  • CONCLUSIONS: While the sensitivity of FISH for upper-tract TCC parallels its performance in bladder cancer, the preponderance of low-grade, recurrent disease in the population undergoing surveillance and minimally invasive therapy for upper-tract TCC may limit its usefulness in this setting.
  • Until a high-sensitivity marker for low-grade urothelial lesions is developed, the surveillance of upper-tract TCC will continue to require vigilant direct visual inspection.

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  • (PMID = 18578665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Highley MS, Griffiths GO, Uscinska BM, Huddart RA, Barber JB, Parmar MK, Harper PG, NCRI Bladder Cancer Clinical Studies Group: A phase II trial of continuous 5-fluorouracil in recurrent or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2009 Jun;21(5):394-400
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  • [Title] A phase II trial of continuous 5-fluorouracil in recurrent or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract.
  • AIMS: To assess the activity of a continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil in patients with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract.
  • The primary outcome was tumour response at 8 weeks after the start of treatment.
  • The overall response rate at 8 weeks, according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) criteria in 46 evaluable patients, was 15% (95% confidence interval 5-26%) and 20% (95% confidence interval 8-31%) when assessments at all time points were included.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Continuous infusional 5-fluorouracil has activity in transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Infusion Pumps. Urologic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19269798.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 10588
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Investigator] Crawford SM; Cowan R; Logue J; Harper PG; Hoskin P; Ostler P; Roberts JT; Highley MS; Huddart RA; Horwich A; Dalgleish A; Barber JB; Mort D
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7. Giannarini G, Schumacher MC, Thalmann GN, Bitton A, Fleischmann A, Studer UE: Elective management of transitional cell carcinoma of the distal ureter: can kidney-sparing surgery be advised? BJU Int; 2007 Aug;100(2):264-8
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  • [Title] Elective management of transitional cell carcinoma of the distal ureter: can kidney-sparing surgery be advised?
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term oncological outcome of patients with primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the distal ureter electively treated with either kidney-sparing surgery (KSS) or radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) in a retrospective, non-randomized, single-centre study.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 43 consecutive patients with a primary solitary distal ureter TCC, 19 had KSS, consisting of distal ureter resection with bladder cuff excision and ureter reimplantation, and 24 had RNU with bladder cuff excision.
  • A recurrent bladder tumour was diagnosed after a median of 15 months in five of the 19 patients treated by KSS and after a median of 5.5 months in eight of the 24 treated by RNU.
  • Five of the 19 patients treated by KSS and six of the 24 treated by RNU died from metastatic disease despite chemotherapy.
  • Recurrence-free, cancer-specific and overall survival were comparable in the two groups.
  • In two patients (11%) treated by KSS an ipsilateral upper urinary tract TCC recurred after 42 and 105 months, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment by distal ureteric resection is feasible in patients with primary TCC of the distal ureter.
  • Furthermore, kidney preservation is advantageous if adjuvant or salvage chemotherapy is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Kidney / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods. Ureter / surgery. Ureteral Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Feasibility Studies. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydronephrosis / complications. Hydronephrosis / pathology. Hydronephrosis / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / complications. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17532855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. Groutz A, Samandarov A, Gold R, Pauzner D, Lessing JB, Gordon D: Role of urethrocystoscopy in the evaluation of refractory idiopathic detrusor instability. Urology; 2001 Oct;58(4):544-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of diagnostic urethrocystoscopy in the evaluation of women with idiopathic detrusor instability (DI) refractory to conventional pharmacologic management.
  • METHODS: One hundred consecutive women (mean age 62.1 +/- 15.1 years) with idiopathic DI refractory to conventional pharmacologic management were prospectively enrolled.
  • Refractory DI was defined as the lack of clinical improvement after at least 6 months of conventional drug therapy.
  • Diagnostic urethrocystoscopy revealed isolated bladder tuberculosis in one and transitional cell carcinoma in another.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The absence of other alarming signs (ie, recurrent urinary tract infection, hematuria, significant residual urinary volume, positive cytologic findings, or suspicious sonographic findings) cannot confirm the lack of significant lower urinary tract abnormalities among patients with refractory DI.
  • Diagnostic urethrocystoscopy, a simple and safe office procedure, facilitates timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment for these patients.

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  • (PMID = 11597535.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Vogl TJ, Zangos S, Eichler K, Balzer JO, Jacob U, Keilhauer R, Bauer RW: [Transarterial chemoperfusion of the pelvis--results in symptomatic locally recurrent tumors and lymph node metastases]. Rofo; 2007 Nov;179(11):1174-80
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  • [Title] [Transarterial chemoperfusion of the pelvis--results in symptomatic locally recurrent tumors and lymph node metastases].
  • [Transliterated title] Transarterielle Chemoperfusion des Beckens--Ergebnisse bei symptomatischen Rezidivtumoren und Lymphknotenmetastasen.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate local transarterial chemoperfusion (TACP) of therapy-resistant, locally recurrent malignant tumors and lymph node metastases in the pelvis with respect to clinical response, tumor response and survival.
  • In the case of clinical and radiological progression, therapy was stopped and the patient was referred to the hospital's tumor board.
  • In the case of radiological response and clinical progression or clinical response and radiological progression, therapy was continued.
  • Therapy could be stopped by the patient at any time.
  • RESULTS: Treatment was tolerated well by all patients.
  • Tumor-related pain, bleeding, restricted mobility of the lower extremities, incontinence, urinary tract obstruction, and constipation were reduced in 9/17, 5/6, 3/3, 1/3, 2/5, and 1/3 of cases (clinical response rate: 54%).
  • Tumor response (median survival since first TACP) was as follows: colorectal: 2 PR, 7 SD, 2 PD (11.5 months), ovarian: 1 SD, 2 PD (8.5 mon), cervical: 1 PR, 1 SD (6 mon), breast: 2 SD (6 mon), gastric: 1 PD (11 mon), adrenal gland: 1 PD (12 mon), anal: 1 PD (10 mon), prostate: 1 PD (20 mon), Gartner's duct: 1 PR (20 mon), renal cell carcinoma: 1 SD (10 mon).
  • CONCLUSION: Since tumor-related complaints were improved in 54% of the cases and control of tumor growth (PR+SD) was achieved in 67% of the cases, TACP for recurrent pelvic malignancies should be considered as a palliative oncological treatment option.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arteries. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Injections, Intra-Arterial / adverse effects. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Perfusion / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17805998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9029
  • [Journal-full-title] RöFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rofo
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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10. Riadh BS, El Atat R, Sfaxi M, Derouiche A, Kourda N, Chebil M: Clinical presentation and outcome of bladder schistosoma-unrelated squamous cell carcinoma: report on 33 consecutive cases. Clin Genitourin Cancer; 2007 Sep;5(6):409-12
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  • [Title] Clinical presentation and outcome of bladder schistosoma-unrelated squamous cell carcinoma: report on 33 consecutive cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Pure squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare entity in Western countries.
  • The management of SCC still remains similar to that of transitional carcinoma, although it is a different entity.
  • A retrospective review is helpful in understanding the epidemiologic aspects, pathogenesis, and treatment and prognosis of schistosoma-unrelated SCC.
  • Eleven patients (34%) had a bladder stone with recurrent urinary tract infection; they had been treated since age 6-17 years.
  • Twenty-one patients underwent radical cystectomy, followed by chemotherapy in 2 cases.
  • CONCLUSION: The unrelated SCC has an unfavorable prognosis, mostly caused by the locally advanced disease at the time of presentation.
  • The transfer of novel chemotherapy regimens and preoperative radiation therapy should be considered because pelvic recurrences are the leading cause of progression in SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / parasitology. Schistosoma haematobium / isolation & purification. Schistosomiasis haematobia / parasitology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / parasitology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Child. Cystectomy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Urinary Bladder Calculi / etiology. Urinary Bladder Calculi / surgery. Urinary Tract Infections / etiology. Urinary Tract Infections / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17956717.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-7673
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical genitourinary cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Genitourin Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Tu WH, Jensen K, Freiha F, Liao JC: A case of prostatic adenocarcinoma recurrence presenting as ductal carcinoma of the prostate. Nat Clin Pract Urol; 2008 Jan;5(1):55-8
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  • [Title] A case of prostatic adenocarcinoma recurrence presenting as ductal carcinoma of the prostate.
  • BACKGROUND: A 61-year-old man with a history of recurrent prostate cancer presented with obstructive urinary symptoms.
  • He had been diagnosed with locally invasive adenocarcinoma of the prostate 10 years previously and treated with neoadjuvant hormonal and external beam radiation therapies.
  • The patient presented to the urology clinic with worsening lower urinary tract symptoms consisting of nocturia, urgency, and weak stream.
  • Laboratory tests showed no evidence of urinary tract infection, but confirmed a rising PSA level despite low serum testosterone levels.
  • Pathologic analysis confirmed the presence of ductal carcinoma of the prostate.
  • The patient was started on docetaxel-based chemotherapy for hormone refractory recurrence of prostate cancer as ductal carcinoma of the prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18185514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4289
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Davis JW, Sheth SI, Doviak MJ, Schellhammer PF: Superficial bladder carcinoma treated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin: progression-free and disease specific survival with minimum 10-year followup. J Urol; 2002 Feb;167(2 Pt 1):494-500; discussion 501
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  • [Title] Superficial bladder carcinoma treated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin: progression-free and disease specific survival with minimum 10-year followup.
  • PURPOSE: Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) treatment of high risk superficial bladder cancer has reduced recurrence and progression, and lengthened disease specific survival.
  • However, documentation of treatment durability is limited.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1981 and 1989, 98 patients with high risk or recurrent transitional cell carcinoma were treated with complete transurethral resection followed by 1 or more 6-week induction courses of BCG, and were followed through 2000.
  • A total of 44 cases were carcinoma in situ plus or minus papillary and 35 were stage T1, which was assigned only if muscularis propria free of tumor was present on the biopsy specimen.
  • RESULTS: Of 98 patients with minimum followup greater than 10 years disease progressed to stage T2 or greater in 27 at a median of 30.7 months (range 1.2 to 143.7), of whom cystectomy was performed in 16, cystectomy for recurrent high risk Ta/T1 disease was required in 10, death from transitional cell carcinoma occurred in 13 at a median of 69.7 months (range 11 to 135), upper tract tumor developed in 13 at a median of 49 months (range 9 to 146) and there was evidence of prostatic urethral involvement in 21.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After complete tumor resection and careful pathological staging intravesical BCG for high risk and/or recurrent superficial bladder carcinoma resulted in overall progression-free and disease specific survival rates that support this bladder sparing strategy.
  • Patients must be followed closely and cystectomy recommended for those with an initial incomplete response after initial therapy or recurrent high risk disease.
  • [MeSH-major] BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11792905.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
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13. Hofer C, Kübler H, Hartung R, Breul J, Avril N: Diagnosis and monitoring of urological tumors using positron emission tomography. Eur Urol; 2001 Nov;40(5):481-7
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and monitoring of urological tumors using positron emission tomography.
  • The purpose of this article was to critically review the diagnostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) in urological oncology.
  • Urinary tract tumor assessment is hampered by the renal elimination of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), the most commonly used PET radiopharmaceutical.
  • As a result of the low metabolic activity of prostate cancer, PET does not differentiate adequately between adenoma and carcinoma, nor detect local recurrence after radical prostatectomy with sufficient sensitivity.
  • However, lymph node staging with FDG-PET, specifically in bladder cancer, has been shown to have a potential clinical benefit.
  • Further studies are required to determine the clinical value of retroperitoneal lymph node staging and recurrent disease detection in germ cell tumors.
  • Finally, encouraging early results exist for the use of serial PET measurements to predict and assess therapy response to chemotherapy which may also be valuable in urological oncology.
  • [MeSH-major] Tomography, Emission-Computed. Urogenital Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Male. Prostatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Seminoma / radionuclide imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Testicular Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 11752853.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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14. Koga H, Naito S: [Recent progress in the treatment for urothelial cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Feb;33(2):164-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Recent progress in the treatment for urothelial cancer].
  • Recent progress in the treatment for urothelial cancer is reviewed, especially concerning systemic chemotherapy and surgical techniques.
  • A guideline for chemotherapy of urothelial cancer according to clinical stage is shown on the basis of evidence level in Japan.
  • MVAC chemotherapy is regarded as the gold standard for advanced metastatic urothelial cancer.
  • Randomized controlled trial revealed that gemcitabine in combination with cisplatin (GC therapy) has an efficacy similar to MVAC and is less toxic.
  • Thus, GC therapy will become the standard treatment for advanced metastatic urothelial cancer instead of MVAC.
  • Many chemotherapeutic regimens including gemcitabine and taxane have been introduced for patients with MVAC refractory or recurrent urothelial cancer.
  • It was not yet clarified whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy provides survival benefits.
  • Recent metaanalysis, however, revealed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy, especially cisplatin-based chemotherapy, has a survival advantage compared with total cystectomy alone.
  • Intravesical BCG instillation is the standard treatment for carcinoma in situ and prophylaxis of recurrence for high-risk superficial bladder cancer.
  • For higher efficacy and lower adverse effect, maintenance instillation and low-dose therapy are proposed, respectively, but further investigation is needed.
  • Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for patients with upper urinary tract cancer is reported to show the same efficacy at point of cancer control in comparison with traditional open surgery.
  • Endoscopic treatment for upper tract urothelial cancer using laser can be safe and effective for a properly selected patient with a normal contralateral kidney.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urologic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Bridged Compounds / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Laparoscopy. Laser Therapy. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16484850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine; 0 / Bridged Compounds; 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 1605-68-1 / taxane; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; M-VAC protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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15. Halling KC, Kipp BR: Bladder cancer detection using FISH (UroVysion assay). Adv Anat Pathol; 2008 Sep;15(5):279-86
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  • [Title] Bladder cancer detection using FISH (UroVysion assay).
  • UroVysion is a fluorescence in situ hybridization assay that was developed for the detection of bladder cancer in urine specimens.
  • The UroVysion assay works by detecting urinary cells that have chromosomal abnormalities consistent with a diagnosis of bladder cancer.
  • Studies have shown that UroVysion is more sensitive than urine cytology for the detection of all stages and grades of bladder cancer.
  • UroVysion is Food and Drug Administration-approved for the detection of recurrent bladder cancer in voided urine specimens from patients with a history of bladder cancer and for the detection of bladder cancer in voided urine specimens from patients with gross or microscopic hematuria, but no previous history of bladder cancer.
  • Recent studies also suggest that UroVysion may be useful for assessing superficial bladder cancer patients' response to bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy and in detecting upper tract urothelial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / urine. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / urine
  • [MeSH-minor] BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. BK Virus. Chromosome Aberrations. Device Approval. Hematuria / diagnosis. Humans. Polyomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Urine / cytology

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  • (PMID = 18724101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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16. Lee LS, Thong PS, Olivo M, Chin WW, Ramaswamy B, Kho KW, Lim PL, Lau WK: Chlorin e6-polyvinylpyrrolidone mediated photodynamic therapy--A potential bladder sparing option for high risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther; 2010 Dec;7(4):213-20
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  • [Title] Chlorin e6-polyvinylpyrrolidone mediated photodynamic therapy--A potential bladder sparing option for high risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Bladder sparing treatment options for high risk non-muscle invasive blader cancer (NMIBC) after intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) failure are limited.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate photodynamic therapy (PDT) using chlorin e6-polyvinylpyrrolidone (Ce6-PVP) as a bladder sparing therapy for NMIBC refractory to intravesical BCG therapy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between July 2004 and June 2009, patients with recurrent NMIBC after induction intravesical BCG therapy were treated with PDT performed with a 665nm laser and light dosimetry of 10-24J/cm(2).
  • Post treatment lower urinary tract symptoms and bladder capacity were also monitored.
  • RESULTS: Five patients underwent PDT, with a total of seven treatments performed.
  • At a median follow-up of 29 months (mean 25 months, range 6-36 months), two patients were disease free, two patients developed recurrence and one patient progressed to muscle invasive disease.
  • The patient receiving intravenous Ce6-PVP developed an enterovesical fistula 16 months post PDT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite being a small pilot study, intravesical Ce6-PVP mediated PDT is a feasible bladder sparing treatment option for recurrent high risk non-muscle invasive bladder carcinoma in selected individuals.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Povidone / therapeutic use. Protoporphyrins / therapeutic use. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Failure

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2010 Dec;7(4):221 [21112543.001]
  • (PMID = 21112542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1597
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine; 0 / Photolon; 0 / Protoporphyrins; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 9003-39-8 / Povidone
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17. Colombel M, Saint F, Chopin D, Malavaud B, Nicolas L, Rischmann P: The effect of ofloxacin on bacillus calmette-guerin induced toxicity in patients with superficial bladder cancer: results of a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo controlled, multicenter study. J Urol; 2006 Sep;176(3):935-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The effect of ofloxacin on bacillus calmette-guerin induced toxicity in patients with superficial bladder cancer: results of a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo controlled, multicenter study.
  • PURPOSE: We determined whether prophylaxis with ofloxacin could decrease the toxicity of bacillus Calmette-Guerin for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, multicenter study 115 patients with primary or recurrent superficial bladder cancer (Ta/T1, CIS, G1-G3) and no prior bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment were randomized to induction treatment with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (6 plus 3 instillations) plus 200 mg ofloxacin in group 1 or plus placebo in group 2.
  • Although ofloxacin decreased adverse events involving the lower urinary tract, it did not prevent class I adverse events.
  • Compliance with full bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment was also improved.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic ofloxacin decreased the incidence of moderate to severe adverse events associated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin intravesical therapy, particularly class III events, which are primarily associated with patient dropout.
  • Compliance with induction and maintenance therapy may be improved by adjuvant ofloxacin therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. BCG Vaccine / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Ofloxacin / therapeutic use. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2007 Jun;4(6):304-5 [17426721.001]
  • (PMID = 16890660.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / BCG Vaccine; A4P49JAZ9H / Ofloxacin
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18. Bono AV, Lovisolo JA, Saredi G: Transurethral resection and sequential chemo-immunoprophylaxis in primary T1G3 bladder cancer. Eur Urol; 2000 Apr;37(4):478-83
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  • [Title] Transurethral resection and sequential chemo-immunoprophylaxis in primary T1G3 bladder cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: T1G3 superficial bladder cancer is considered to be at high risk for progression, and in some institutions early cystectomy is advocated.
  • Other authors and personal experience suggest that conservative treatment, such as TURBT followed by intravesical prophylaxis, may be adequate in the majority of cases.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: 81 patients with primary T1G3 superficial bladder cancer, without evidence of Tis or upper tract tumor, underwent TURBT and intravesical prophylaxis with weekly epirubicin 50 mg for 8 weeks followed by weekly BCG Connaught 120 mg for 6 weeks.
  • Then patients were followed-up with 3-month urinary cytology and cystoscopy.
  • After a mean follow-up of 48 months recurrent tumors were found in 19 patients (23.4%) and progressive disease in 6 cases (7.4%).
  • CONCLUSION: Sequential chemo-immunoprophylaxis with epirubicin followed by BCG is well tolerated and seems to be efficacious in primary T1G3 bladder cancer.
  • The recurrence progression and disease-specific mortality rates were acceptable so that this study seems to confirm previous data which show that TURBT and intravesical prophylaxis are appropriate treatment for the majority T1G3 tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Immunotherapy / methods. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy / methods. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10765080.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin
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19. Schöder H, Larson SM: Positron emission tomography for prostate, bladder, and renal cancer. Semin Nucl Med; 2004 Oct;34(4):274-92
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  • [Title] Positron emission tomography for prostate, bladder, and renal cancer.
  • Prostate cancer, renal cancer, bladder, and other urothelial malignancies make up the common tumors of the male genitourinary tract.
  • For prostate cancer, common clinical scenarios include managing the patient presenting with 1) low-risk primary cancer;.
  • 2) high-risk primary cancer;.
  • 3) prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence after apparently successful primary therapy;.
  • The role of positron emission tomography (PET) is still evolving but is likely to be most important in determining early spread of disease in patients with aggressive tumors and for monitoring response to therapy in more advanced patients.
  • Available PET tracers for assessment of prostate cancer include FDG, 11C or 18F choline and acetate, 11C methionine, 18F fluoride, and fluorodihydrotestosterone.
  • Proper staging of prostate cancer is particularly important in high-risk primary disease before embarking on radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy.
  • PSA relapse frequently is the first sign of recurrent or metastatic disease after radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy.
  • However, essentially all studies have shown that the sensitivity for recurrent disease detection is higher with either acetate or choline as compared with FDG.
  • Although more data need to be gathered, it is likely that these two agents will become the PET tracers of choice for staging prostate cancer once metastatic disease is strongly suspected or documented.
  • Several studies suggest that FDG uptake in metastatic prostate cancer lesions reflects the biologic activity of the disease.
  • Accordingly, FDG can be used to monitor the response to chemotherapy and hormonal therapy.
  • Androgen receptor imaging agents like fluorodihydrotestosterone are being explored to predict the biology of treatment response for progressive tumor in late stage disease in castrated patients.
  • The assessment of renal masses and primary staging of renal cell carcinoma are the domain of helical CT.
  • The value of other PET tracers in renal cell carcinoma is under investigation.
  • Few studies have addressed the role of PET in bladder cancer.
  • Because of its renal excretion, FDG is not a useful tracer for the detection of primary bladder tumors.
  • The few studies that investigated its role in the detection of lymph node metastases at the time of primary staging were largely disappointing.
  • Bladder cancer imaging with 11C choline, 11C methionine, or 11C- acetate deserves further study.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Kidney Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Radioisotopes. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Treatment Outcome


20. Gemmel C, Jacek G, Lücking HC, Rebel M, Spiethoff A, Schilling D, Riemann JF: [Scrotal abscess with inguinal lymph node swelling in an 86-year-old man]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2004 Sep 24;129(39):2032-4
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  • [Transliterated title] Skrotalabszess mit inguinaler Lymphknotenschwellung bei einem 86-jährigen Patienten.
  • Five and a half years before admission carcinoma of the bladder (pT1,G2) had been diagnosed and was treated with several transurethral endoscopic resections as well as repeated instillations of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) into the bladder.
  • DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND COURSE: Tuberculostatic therapy was started soon after surgery.
  • After seven weeks of treatment no more mycobacteria could be detected in sputum and urine control specimens.
  • At a follow up after twelve months there was no evidence of recurrent disease.
  • CONCLUSION: We describe the late manifestation of a BCG infection including the lungs and the urogenital tract.
  • This is a rare complication with potentially serious consequences and requires rapid diagnosis and urgent treatment by a multidisciplinary team.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use. Bacteriuria / microbiology. Groin. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Orchiectomy. Sputum / microbiology. Testis / microbiology. Testis / pathology. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / drug therapy. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / etiology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15386205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-0472
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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21. Ferber W, Schramek P: [Urological therapy of renal cell cancer]. Wien Med Wochenschr; 2008;158(11-12):307-11
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  • [Title] [Urological therapy of renal cell cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Die urologische Therapie des Nierenzellkarzinoms.
  • Patients can present with a range of symptoms due to the tumor itself (e.g., mass, pain), invasion of the urinary tract (e.g., hematuria), paraneoplastic syndromes, or the presence of metastases.
  • Renal cell cancer is more frequently being diagnosed incidentally as a consequence of increased use of imaging procedures for other reasons.
  • Surgery is curative in the majority of patients without metastatic disease and is therefore the preferred treatment for patients with stages I, II, and III disease.
  • The five-year survival following the treatment correlates well with the anatomic extent of disease.
  • Systemic therapy with molecularly targeted therapy or immunotherapy is the primary approach for patients with unresectable or recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Austria. Diagnostic Imaging. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Delivery Systems. Female. Humans. Immunotherapy. Incidental Findings. Kidney Cortex / pathology. Laparoscopy / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 18641931.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5341
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien Med Wochenschr
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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