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1. Hertzberg H, Kremens B, Velten I, Beck JD, Greil J: Recurrent disseminated retinoblastoma in a 7-year-old girl treated successfully by high-dose chemotherapy and CD34-selected autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2001 Mar;27(6):653-5
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  • [Title] Recurrent disseminated retinoblastoma in a 7-year-old girl treated successfully by high-dose chemotherapy and CD34-selected autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
  • A localized retinoblastoma of the left eye in a 7-year-old girl, was treated by enucleation.
  • She received no additional therapy.
  • Four months later, metastases of retinoblastoma in the lymph nodes, bone and bone marrow were diagnosed.
  • Relapse chemotherapy consisting of three courses of vincristine, cyclophosphamide, etoposide and carboplatin led to a second complete remission.
  • Subsequent high-dose chemotherapy with thiotepa, etoposide and carboplatin and autologous stem cell transplantation with CD34-selected stem cells were successful, with no adverse effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11319597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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2. Balaguer J, Wilson MW, Billups CA, Mancini J, Haik BG, Qaddoumi I, Khoury JD, Rodriguez-Galindo C: Predictive factors of invasion in eyes with retinoblastoma enucleated after eye salvage treatments. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Mar;52(3):351-6
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  • [Title] Predictive factors of invasion in eyes with retinoblastoma enucleated after eye salvage treatments.
  • BACKGROUND: The impact of chemotherapy, focal therapies, radiation and co-existing ocular morbidities on histology of eyes with retinoblastoma enucleated following chemoreduction is not well known.
  • PROCEDURE: Twenty-five eyes (23 patients) with retinoblastoma enucleated after failing eye-salvage therapy were evaluated.
  • Twenty-four eyes had recurrent disease at enucleation; one eye was enucleated for neovascular glaucoma and vitreous hemorrhage.
  • The median time from diagnosis to enucleation was 11 months.
  • Prolonged time to enucleation was significantly associated with the likelihood of choroidal (P = 0.010) and ciliary body (P = 0.021) invasion as well as invasion of multiple sites.
  • CONCLUSION: In eyes with retinoblastoma enucleated after chemoreduction, co-existing ocular morbidities and time to enucleation are predictive of extra-retinal extension.

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  • (PMID = 19021223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA023099; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / PHS HHS / / 21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23099
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS124023; NLM/ PMC4643656
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3. Haddad RI, Weinstein LJ, Wieczorek TJ, Bhattacharya N, Raftopoulos H, Oster MW, Zhang X, Latham VM Jr, Costello R, Faucher J, DeRosa C, Yule M, Miller LP, Loda M, Posner MR, Shapiro GI: A phase II clinical and pharmacodynamic study of E7070 in patients with metastatic, recurrent, or refractory squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: modulation of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation by a novel chloroindolyl sulfonamide cell cycle inhibitor. Clin Cancer Res; 2004 Jul 15;10(14):4680-7
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  • [Title] A phase II clinical and pharmacodynamic study of E7070 in patients with metastatic, recurrent, or refractory squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: modulation of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation by a novel chloroindolyl sulfonamide cell cycle inhibitor.
  • PURPOSE: E7070 is a synthetic sulfonamide cell cycle inhibitor that induces hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and G(1) arrest in vitro.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with metastatic, recurrent, or refractory SCCHN, treated with no more than one prior therapy for recurrent disease, received E7070 at 700 mg/m(2) over 1 h every 3 weeks.
  • CONCLUSIONS: At this dose and schedule, E7070 is unlikely to be superior over single-agent chemotherapy in SCCHN.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sulfonamides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anemia / chemically induced. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Patient Dropouts. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15269140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / N-(3-chloro-7-indolyl)-1,4-benzenedisulphonamide; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / Sulfonamides
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4. Gündüz K, Günalp I, Yalçindağ N, Unal E, Taçyildiz N, Erden E, Geyik PO: Causes of chemoreduction failure in retinoblastoma and analysis of associated factors leading to eventual treatment with external beam radiotherapy and enucleation. Ophthalmology; 2004 Oct;111(10):1917-24
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  • [Title] Causes of chemoreduction failure in retinoblastoma and analysis of associated factors leading to eventual treatment with external beam radiotherapy and enucleation.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the causes of chemoreduction failure in retinoblastoma and to analyze the associated factors for eventual treatment with external beam radiotherapy and enucleation.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-one patients with 105 eyes with intraocular retinoblastoma that underwent chemoreduction therapy between October 1998 and January 2003.
  • INTERVENTION: A 6-treatment cycle of chemoreduction therapy with vincristine, etoposide, and carboplatin was administered at monthly intervals.
  • Unresponsive disease was defined as persistence of retinal tumors, vitreous seeds, or subretinal seeds after the second treatment cycle, with no appreciable sign of regression.
  • Eyes with unresponsive disease were enucleated after the second treatment.
  • Eyes that responded to chemoreduction therapy received focal treatment, including indirect laser photocoagulation, transpupillary thermotherapy, cryotherapy, and ruthenium 106 episcleral plaque radiotherapy after the second chemoreduction treatment, if necessary, to achieve complete tumor regression.
  • Recurrent retinal tumor, vitreous seeds, or subretinal seeds were treated with focal treatments and 2 to 3 additional chemoreduction treatments.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The use of external beam radiotherapy and enucleation for chemoreduction failure, which was defined as unresponsive or recurrent disease.
  • Ten of 105 eyes (9.5%) with unresponsive disease were enucleated after the second treatment.
  • Of the remaining 95 eyes, 42 (44.2%) developed recurrence after chemoreduction.
  • Recurrent disease failing to be treated successfully by other methods was treated with external beam radiotherapy in 26 of 95 eyes (27.4%) and enucleation in 22 of 95 eyes (23.2%).
  • Histopathologically, 29 of 31 enucleated eyes (93.5%) had poorly differentiated or moderately differentiated retinoblastoma.
  • Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, factors predictive of eventual treatment with external beam radiotherapy were female gender (P = 0.010), presence of subretinal seeds (P = 0.023), and a greater number of chemoreduction treatments (P = 0.027).
  • By multivariate analysis, the factors associated with the need for eventual treatment with enucleation were recurrence of retinal tumors (P = 0.004), presence of vitreous seeds (P = 0.008), greater tumor thickness (P = 0.015), presence of subretinal fluid (P = 0.040), and older patient age (P = 0.042).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Chemoreduction failure in this article was defined as unresponsive or, more commonly, recurrent retinoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Eye Enucleation. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy. Retinoblastoma / radiotherapy. Vincristine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Seeding. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 15465557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; CEV regimen
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5. Fortunato P, Pillozzi S, Tamburini A, Pollazzi L, Franchi A, La Torre A, Arcangeli A: Irresponsiveness of two retinoblastoma cases to conservative therapy correlates with up- regulation of hERG1 channels and of the VEGF-A pathway. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:504
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  • [Title] Irresponsiveness of two retinoblastoma cases to conservative therapy correlates with up- regulation of hERG1 channels and of the VEGF-A pathway.
  • BACKGROUND: Treatment strategies for Retinoblastoma (RB), the most common primary intraocular tumor in children, have evolved over the past few decades and chemoreduction is currently the most popular treatment strategy.
  • Despite success, systemic chemotherapeutic treatment has relevant toxicity, especially in the pediatric population.
  • Antiangiogenic therapy has thus been proposed as a valuable alternative for pediatric malignancies, in particolar RB.
  • We present here two cases of sporadic, bilateral RB that did not benefit from the conservative treatment and we provide evidence that the VEGF-A pathway is significantly up-regulated in both RB cases along with an over expression of hERG1 K+ channels.
  • Neither of them got benefits from conservative treatment, and the two eyes were enucleated.
  • Moreover, both the transcripts and proteins of the hERG1 K+ channels turned out to be up-regulated in the two RB cases compared to the non cancerous retinal tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that the VEGF-A pathway is up-regulated in two particular aggressive cases of bilateral RB, which did not experience any benefit from conservative treatment, showing the overexpression of the vegf-a, flt-1, kdr and hif1-α transcripts and the high secretion of VEGF-A.
  • Moreover we also show for the first time that the herg1 gene transcripts and protein are over expressed in RB, as occurs in several aggressive tumors.
  • These results further stress the relevance of the VEGF-A pathway in RB and the correlation with hERG1, making aggressive and recurrent RB cases good candidates for antiangiogenesis therapies based on the targeting of VEGF-A.
  • [MeSH-major] Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Retinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Retinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / metabolism. Retinoblastoma / therapy. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 20860824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels; 0 / KCNH1 protein, human; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2955607
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6. Hajnzic TF, Marotti M, Vrsalovic R: Long-term survival after recurrent retinoblastoma and second malignancy with massive lung metastasis. Eur J Pediatr; 2004 Nov;163(11):685-6
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  • [Title] Long-term survival after recurrent retinoblastoma and second malignancy with massive lung metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humerus. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Retinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Humans. Light Coagulation. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] Med Pediatr Oncol. 2003 Mar;40(3):158-61 [12518344.001]
  • (PMID = 15309622.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-6199
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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7. Bonanomi MT, Almeida MT, Cristofani LM, Odone Filho V: Retinoblastoma: a three-year-study at a Brazilian medical school hospital. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2009 May;64(5):427-34
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  • [Title] Retinoblastoma: a three-year-study at a Brazilian medical school hospital.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present the characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with retinoblastoma.
  • METHODS: A retrospective case series was conducted to review the records of all new patients diagnosed with retinoblastoma between 2003 and 2005.
  • Eyes with early disease, or advanced disease with potential vision were treated with chemotherapy (carboplatin and etoposide) in conjunction with early local therapy (laser or cryo).
  • Radiotherapy was used in cases where the disease did not respond to the above protocols or in recurrent cases.
  • Eyes in the late stage of disease with no potential vision in the initial examination or eyes and where conservative treatment had failed were enucleated.
  • RESULTS: In total, we reviewed 28 new cases of retinoblastoma, 15 of which were unilateral and 13 of which were bilateral (46%).
  • Among the 13 bilateral cases, 13 eyes (50%) were enucleated, 11 eyes (42.4%) were saved with chemotherapy in conjunction with local therapy and 2 eyes (7.6%) were saved using external beam radiotherapy (mean follow-up: 41.91 months).
  • CONCLUSION: In this population, retinoblastoma was diagnosed too late and most eyes were consequently enucleated.
  • [MeSH-major] Retinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19488609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2694247
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8. Roth DB, Scott IU, Murray TG, Kaiser PK, Feuer WJ, Hughes JR, Rosa RH Jr: Echography of retinoblastoma: histopathologic correlation and serial evaluation after globe-conserving radiotherapy or chemotherapy. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus; 2001 May-Jun;38(3):136-43
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  • [Title] Echography of retinoblastoma: histopathologic correlation and serial evaluation after globe-conserving radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the sensitivity of echography in detecting retinoblastoma, compare tumor features observed by echography with histopathology data, and assess the usefulness of echography in serially following retinoblastoma tumors after globe-conserving treatments.
  • METHODS: The medical and echography records of all patients treated for retinoblastoma at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute between 1991 and 1997 were reviewed.
  • All eyes underwent pretreatment echographic evaluation, and eyes treated with external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, or chemotherapy underwent serial follow-up echography.
  • Echography demonstrated evidence of retinoblastoma in 69 of 69 (100%) eyes and calcification in 63 (91.3%) eyes.
  • CONCLUSION: Echography is a useful adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in establishing the diagnosis of retinoblastoma.
  • While not as specific as histopathology, echographic evaluation before and after treatment of retinoblastoma permits monitoring of treatment response and may aid in detecting recurrent tumor growth or failure to respond to treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Retinal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Retinoblastoma / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Brachytherapy. Child, Preschool. Drug Therapy. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 11386645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0191-3913
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Shields CL, Shields JA: Intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma: the beginning of a long journey. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2010 Aug;38(6):638-43
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  • [Title] Intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma: the beginning of a long journey.
  • Conservative management of retinoblastoma has evolved from external beam radiotherapy to systemic chemotherapy by intravenous route and now to localized chemotherapy by intra-arterial route in some cases.
  • With 16-year experience, systemic chemotherapy has been found effective for minimal to moderately advanced retinoblastoma with tumour control of 90% or better, few side effects and even hope for return of some vision.
  • Localized intra-arterial chemotherapy with delivery under fluoroscopy and catheterization of the ophthalmic artery is now undergoing evaluation and appears to provide striking control for retinoblastoma, particularly recurrent tumour seeds following other therapies.
  • Toxicity of the chemotherapy to the delicate retinal vessels is unknown.
  • Despite its allure, intra-arterial chemotherapy should be used with caution, as in other fields of paediatric oncology it has been found to provide no advantage over intravenous chemotherapy.
  • Time will tell.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Retinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20584015.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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10. Demirci H, Eagle RC Jr, Shields CL, Shields JA: Histopathologic findings in eyes with retinoblastoma treated only with chemoreduction. Arch Ophthalmol; 2003 Aug;121(8):1125-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histopathologic findings in eyes with retinoblastoma treated only with chemoreduction.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the histopathologic findings in the eyes with retinoblastoma that had been treated only with chemoreduction.
  • Study Material Ten eyes of 8 patients with retinoblastoma that were enucleated after therapy consisting only of systemic chemotherapy (chemoreduction).
  • Adjuvant treatment to the tumor was not provided in any case.
  • Main Outcome Measure Histopathologic features of retinoblastoma following chemoreduction.
  • The indication for enucleation was retinoblastoma recurrence as subretinal and/or vitreous seeds in 7 eyes and extensive vitreous hemorrhage in 3 with uncertainty about viable-appearing tumor.
  • In 8 of 10 eyes, histopathologic examination disclosed tumor regression without viable-appearing retinoblastoma in the main tumor.
  • In the remaining 2 eyes, an area of posttherapeutic regression was present but contained foci of mitotically active, viable-appearing malignant retinoblastoma cells.
  • Of those 7 eyes enucleated for recurrent subretinal and/or vitreous seeds, viable tumor seeds were confirmed histopathologically in all cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Histopathologic examination of 10 enucleated eyes following chemoreduction alone revealed that the main retinoblastoma regressed in all eyes.
  • Despite the lack of viable-appearing retinoblastoma within the main tumor, enucleation was performed for viable subretinal and/or vitreous seeds in 7 cases and confirmed histopathologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Retinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retinal Neoplasms / pathology. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy. Retinoblastoma / pathology. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12912690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9950
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; CEV regimen
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11. Makimoto A: Results of treatment of retinoblastoma that has infiltrated the optic nerve, is recurrent, or has metastasized outside the eyeball. Int J Clin Oncol; 2004 Feb;9(1):7-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Results of treatment of retinoblastoma that has infiltrated the optic nerve, is recurrent, or has metastasized outside the eyeball.
  • Since the development of chemotherapy regimens for patients with retinoblastoma started in the 1950s, various agents and regimens have been employed for various kinds of patients.
  • Chemotherapy has been employed for:.
  • With the addition of appropriate chemotherapies to the conventional treatment modalities such as enucleation and radiotherapy, patients with advanced retinoblastoma are expected to obtain a survival benefit.
  • Moreover, a new modality combined with autologous stem cell support allowed us to use high-dose alkylating agents such as thiotepa, melphalan, and cyclophosphamide, which resulted in better prognosis for patients with metastatic retinoblastoma.
  • Because of the small number of patients with retinoblastoma and the diversity of the disease characteristics in individual patients, there have been no clinical trials to determine whether to recommend a particular regimen, or to identify specific criteria in patients who would benefit from chemotherapy.
  • Well-designed prospective controlled trials are warranted to establish a standard treatment strategy for patients with extraocular retinoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Optic Nerve / pathology. Retinal Neoplasms / pathology. Retinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / pathology. Retinoblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy / trends. Eye / pathology. Humans. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation / trends. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 15162820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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12. Stannard C, Sealy R, Hering E, Hough J, Knowles R, Lecuona K, Reddi VB: Postenucleation orbits in retinoblastoma: treatment with 125I brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 Dec 1;54(5):1446-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Postenucleation orbits in retinoblastoma: treatment with 125I brachytherapy.
  • PURPOSE: Children with retinoblastoma that extends into or through the choroid, sclera, or optic nerve are at risk of developing orbital disease, as well as metastases.
  • Previously, these enucleated orbits were treated with external beam radiotherapy in addition to chemotherapy.
  • In 1983, he developed a technique to irradiate the contents of the orbit while limiting the dose to the bony orbit and eyelids.
  • Between 1983 and 2000, 57 orbits were treated in 56 children with retinoblastoma.
  • They received a median dose of 34 Gy in 70 h; 30 also received chemotherapy.
  • Children with tumor at the resection line of the nerve also received treatment to the craniospinal axis.
  • No orbital recurrences developed in any of the patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Orbital brachytherapy is an effective method of irradiating the orbit to prevent recurrent tumor, the treatment time is short, and the cosmesis is much more acceptable than with other forms of irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / instrumentation. Brachytherapy / methods. Eye Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Retinoblastoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Follow-Up Studies. Hot Temperature. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Metastasis. Radiometry. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12459368.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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13. Scott IU, McCabe CM, Murray TG, Rosa RH Jr, Toledano S, Markoe AM: Eyelid and scleral necrosis following bare iridium-192 seed for retinoblastoma. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging; 2003 Jul-Aug;34(4):324-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Eyelid and scleral necrosis following bare iridium-192 seed for retinoblastoma.
  • A 2 1/2-year-old girl with a history of bilateral retinoblastoma underwent primary enucleation of the right eye and was referred for further management of persistent tumor in the fellow eye.
  • Previous treatment of the left eye included external beam radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, laser photocoagulation, cryotherapy, and direct scleral application of a bare iridium-192 radioactive seed.
  • Examination revealed focal full-thickness necrosis of the left upper and lower eyelid and a large inferonasal viable retinoblastoma tumor with overlying retinal detachment.
  • Systemic chemotherapy and direct laser photocoagulation were administered.
  • Four months after presentation, the patient developed focal scleral necrosis with 360 degrees hemorrhagic choroidal detachment.
  • Enucleation was performed and histopathologic examination demonstrated full-thickness scleral necrosis with adjacent viable retinoblastoma tumor cells.
  • Follow-up examinations showed no evidence of recurrent or metastatic tumor.
  • This case is the first report of scleral necrosis following combined modality treatment of retinoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelids / radiation effects. Iridium Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Retinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Retinoblastoma / radiotherapy. Sclera / radiation effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Necrosis

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  • (PMID = 12875466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-8877
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic surgery, lasers & imaging : the official journal of the International Society for Imaging in the Eye
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iridium Radioisotopes
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14. Malik M, Prabhakar R, Sharma DN, Rath GK: Retinoblastoma with cerebrospinal fluid metastasis treated with orbital and craniospinal irradiation using IMRT. Technol Cancer Res Treat; 2006 Oct;5(5):497-501
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  • [Title] Retinoblastoma with cerebrospinal fluid metastasis treated with orbital and craniospinal irradiation using IMRT.
  • Clinical examination and computed tomography revealed a unilateral retinoblastoma involving the left globe.
  • However, he did not report for treatment and presented six months later with a recurrent mass in the left orbit with intracranial extension.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology was positive for malignant retinoblastoma cells.
  • He received multiagent chemotherapy with vincristine, carboplatin, and etoposide along with intrathecal methotrexate.
  • Although the recurrent orbital mass reduced significantly with chemotherapy, malignant cells persisted in the CSF.
  • He was subsequently treated using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to treat the left orbital mass along with craniospinal axis irradiation.
  • Computed tomography done at three and nine months after completion of radiotherapy showed complete disappearance of orbital tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebrospinal Fluid / cytology. Cranial Irradiation / methods. Orbit / radiation effects. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods. Retinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Retinoblastoma / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16981792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0346
  • [Journal-full-title] Technology in cancer research & treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Leal-Leal CA, Rivera-Luna R, Flores-Rojo ME, Amador-Zarco J, Juarez-Echenique C: Treatment of metastatic retinoblastoma with paclitaxel. Preliminary results of a pilot study with seven patients. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):8569

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  • [Title] Treatment of metastatic retinoblastoma with paclitaxel. Preliminary results of a pilot study with seven patients.
  • : 8569 Background: Metastatic retinoblastoma has a very high mortality rate in most of the cases in spite that international efforts have been made with different chemotherapy regimens.
  • Only high doses of chemotherapy followed by steam cells rescue have proved to provide long lasting survival.
  • METHODS: In a prospective study patients with pathological diagnosis of metastatic retinoblastoma were included, regardless of having recurrent disease or metastasis at time of diagnosis.
  • Once the staging procedure with imaging was performed, the patients were treated with paclitaxel as a single agent at a dose of 150 mg/m<sup>2</sup> days 1, 4 and 7 days every 21 days from 2-6 courses. RESULTS: .
  • At the present time 7 patients were registered into the study.
  • The time prior to develop metastasis was 11 months and a SD of 13 months.
  • All patients presented complete remission as per CAT scan and MRI studies by the second chemotherapy cycle, even intraocular dieses went to ptisis bublbi.
  • By the 20<sup>th</sup> month of follow up all children have died with tumor activity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, placlitaxel showed to be an effective drug against intraocular and metastatic Retinoblastoma.
  • However, it should be tested in combination with other drugs in order to obtain long lasting survival for affected patients.

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  • (PMID = 28013865.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Gorlick RG, Abramson DH, Sowers R, Mazza BA, Dunkel IJ: Impairments in antifolate transport are common in retinoblastoma tumor samples. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):573-6
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  • [Title] Impairments in antifolate transport are common in retinoblastoma tumor samples.
  • BACKGROUND: Many patients with retinoblastoma have a genetic predisposition to cancer and external beam radiation therapy and alkylating agent chemotherapy may increase their risk of secondary malignancy.
  • Identification of effective chemotherapy agents for retinoblastoma that are not associated with an elevated risk of secondary malignancy would be beneficial.
  • PROCEDURE: Twenty-six specimens of fresh retinoblastoma tumor cells were studied in vitro with a PT430 competitive displacement assay.
  • CONCLUSION: These results would support consideration of a phase II study to determine the effectiveness of trimetrexate for recurrent intra-ocular retinoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / metabolism. Folic Acid Antagonists / metabolism. Membrane Transport Proteins / metabolism. Methotrexate / pharmacology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Retinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Retinoblastoma / metabolism. Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Trimetrexate / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Binding, Competitive. Biological Transport / genetics. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Child. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasms, Second Primary / chemically induced. Neoplasms, Second Primary / prevention & control. Reduced Folate Carrier Protein. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17554792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Folic Acid Antagonists; 0 / Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Reduced Folate Carrier Protein; 0 / SLC19A1 protein, human; 0 / fluoresceinated methotrexate; EC 1.5.1.3 / Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase; UPN4ITI8T4 / Trimetrexate; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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17. Shields CL, Shelil A, Cater J, Meadows AT, Shields JA: Development of new retinoblastomas after 6 cycles of chemoreduction for retinoblastoma in 162 eyes of 106 consecutive patients. Arch Ophthalmol; 2003 Nov;121(11):1571-6
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  • [Title] Development of new retinoblastomas after 6 cycles of chemoreduction for retinoblastoma in 162 eyes of 106 consecutive patients.
  • PARTICIPANTS: A total of 162 eyes of 106 patients with retinoblastoma treated with 6 cycles of chemoreduction between January 1, 1995, and May 31, 2002.
  • INTERVENTION: All patients received intravenous chemoreduction with vincristine sulfate, etoposide, and carboplatin, combined with focal treatment (cryotherapy or thermotherapy) to each retinal tumor.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Development of new intraretinal retinoblastoma during or after treatment with chemoreduction.
  • Recurrent subretinal tumor seeds or vitreous seeds were excluded from this analysis, and only primary new intraretinal tumors were included.
  • RESULTS: Of 28 patients with unilateral retinoblastoma, new intraretinal tumor development was found during or after chemoreduction in 2 (9%) of the 23 patients with sporadic disease and 4 (80%) of the 5 patients with familial disease.
  • Of the 78 patients with bilateral retinoblastoma, new tumor development was found during or after chemoreduction in 11 (19%) of the 57 patients with sporadic disease and 8 (38%) of the 21 patients with familial disease.
  • By multivariate analysis, the most important risk factors for the development of new tumors was younger age at presentation (median age, 2 months with new tumor vs 9 months without new tumor) and family history of retinoblastoma (12 [48%] of patients with new tumor vs 14 [17%] without new tumor).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Children with retinoblastoma treated with chemoreduction should be followed for new intraretinal tumor development, as it peaks at a mean interval of 5 months after initiation of chemoreduction and affects 24% of patients by 5 years of follow-up.
  • New tumors are most commonly found in those who develop disease as young infants and those with a family history of retinoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy. Vincristine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cryotherapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperthermia, Induced. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 14609913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9950
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; CEV regimen
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18. Shields CL, Mashayekhi A, Sun H, Uysal Y, Friere J, Komarnicky L, Shields JA: Iodine 125 plaque radiotherapy as salvage treatment for retinoblastoma recurrence after chemoreduction in 84 tumors. Ophthalmology; 2006 Nov;113(11):2087-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Iodine 125 plaque radiotherapy as salvage treatment for retinoblastoma recurrence after chemoreduction in 84 tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To assess tumor control and complications of iodine 125 (I125) plaque radiotherapy for retinoblastoma recurrence after chemoreduction (CRD).
  • PARTICIPANTS: Children with retinoblastoma treated on the Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, initially examined from July 1994 to April 2005.
  • The only alternatives to plaque radiotherapy in these cases would have been external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), additional chemotherapy, or enucleation.
  • Of the 59 recurrent tumors after CRD alone, 56 (95%) were controlled with plaque radiotherapy.
  • Of the 25 recurrent tumors after CRD and EBRT, 100% were controlled with plaque radiotherapy.
  • Of the 3 failures after plaque radiotherapy, the median time to failure (tumor recurrence) was 4 months and all recurrences were detected within 1 year.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Retinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Retinoblastoma / radiotherapy. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Eye Diseases / etiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16949158.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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19. Hon C, Chan GC, Ha SY, Ma SK, Wong KF, Au WY: Bone marrow transplantation for therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia in congenital retinoblastoma associated with 13q deletion syndrome. Ann Hematol; 2004 Jul;83(7):481-3
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  • [Title] Bone marrow transplantation for therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia in congenital retinoblastoma associated with 13q deletion syndrome.
  • Children with constitutional deletion of the long arm of chromosome 13 are at risk for retinoblastoma (RB) due to loss of the RB tumor suppressor gene.
  • The prognosis is poor since the tumors are often bilateral, aggressive, and recurrent and the patients often harbor other congenital abnormalities.
  • One further complication is that of therapy-related malignancies later in life.
  • We report a case of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia in an 8-year-old girl after multimodality treatment for refractory bilateral relapsing RB, with excellent outcome in both the ophthalmic and marrow disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13 / ultrastructure. Enzyme Inhibitors / adverse effects. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / therapy. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Proto-Oncogenes. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy. Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 15170522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / MLL protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Topoisomerase II Inhibitors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; 957E6438QA / Teniposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
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20. Taçyildiz N, Yavuz G, Unal E, Gündüz K, Günalp I, Ekinci C: Encouraging result of tamoxifen in a retinoblastoma patient with central nervous system metastasis. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2003 Sep;20(6):473-6
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  • [Title] Encouraging result of tamoxifen in a retinoblastoma patient with central nervous system metastasis.
  • Extraocular retinoblastoma occurs more frequently in developing countries as a delayed diagnosis and prognosis of patients with conventional therapy is very poor.
  • Metastatic retinoblastoma, especially in the central nervous system (CNS), is a highly lethal disease.
  • Tamoxifen has been used in some previous studies with variety of responses to therapy in patients with unresectable recurrent brain tumors.
  • A 7-year-old girl with recurrent metastatic retinoblastoma received 60 mg/m2 tamoxifen in addition to chemotherapy and CNS radiotherapy.
  • The authors think that tamoxifen can be added to treatment protocols of metastatic retinoblastoma to provide longer and at least higher quality of life for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Eye Neoplasms / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Retinoblastoma / secondary. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Eye Enucleation. Female. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Humans. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 14631622.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CEV regimen
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21. Chantada G, Fandiño A, Dávila MT, Manzitti J, Raslawski E, Casak S, Schvartzman E: Results of a prospective study for the treatment of retinoblastoma. Cancer; 2004 Feb 15;100(4):834-42
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  • [Title] Results of a prospective study for the treatment of retinoblastoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The objectives of this prospective study were to avoid adjuvant treatment for patients with intraocular disease and patients with postlaminar optic nerve invasion (PL-ONI) without full choroidal or scleral invasion.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy (Regimen 1) was given to patients with scleral invasion, PL-ONI without cut section, and full choroidal and/or scleral invasion.
  • A more intensive regimen of higher dose intravenous chemotherapy (Regimen 2) and local radiotherapy was given to patients with PL-ONI and compromise at the cut end and to patients with overt extraocular disease.
  • METHODS: Six-month intravenous chemotherapy included carboplatin plus etoposide alternating with cyclophosphamide plus vincristine (Regimen 1) and the same drugs at higher dosage plus idarubicin (Regimen 2).
  • None of 22 patients with isolated PL-ONI developed recurrent disease, whereas 2 of 8 patients with concomitant risk factors had tumor recurrences and died.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant therapy can be avoided in patients with intraocular and isolated PL-ONI.
  • Patients with PL-ONI who also had other risk factors required intensive adjuvant therapy, such as patients with cut-end and overt extraocular disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy. Retinoblastoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Eye Enucleation. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / drug therapy. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Scleral Diseases / drug therapy. Scleral Diseases / pathology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 14770442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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22. Gilheeney SW, Khakoo Y, Souweidane M, Wolden S, Boulad F, Dunkel IJ: Thiotepa/topotecan/carboplatin with autologous stem cell rescue in recurrent/refractory/poor prognosis pediatric malignancies of the central nervous system. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Apr;54(4):591-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thiotepa/topotecan/carboplatin with autologous stem cell rescue in recurrent/refractory/poor prognosis pediatric malignancies of the central nervous system.
  • We present ten patients with recurrent or progressive central nervous system malignancies treated on a myeloablative regimen using these drugs.
  • METHODS: Treatment included: Thiotepa 300 mg/m(2) on days -8, -7, and -6; topotecan 2 mg/m(2) on days -8, -7, -6, -5, and -4; and carboplatin approximately 500 mg/m(2) (Calvert formula-area under the curve = 7) on days -5, -4, and -3.
  • Five had medulloblastoma (MB), four had high grade glioma (HGG), and one had trilateral retinoblastoma/pineoblastoma (tRB/PB).
  • Prior treatment for all patients included surgery and chemotherapy (1-7 regimens, median 2).
  • Three patients had residual disease at the time of transplant.
  • Four patients are event-free survivors at a median of 6 years (range 2.8-7.6 years) after treatment including 2/5 MB patients, 1/4 HGG patients, and the tRB/PB patient.
  • Four of the seven patients with no evidence of disease/minimal residual disease status at the time of stem cell rescue are long-term survivors versus 1/3 with measurable disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Prognosis. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Thiotepa / adverse effects. Topotecan / administration & dosage. Topotecan / adverse effects. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19998470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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23. Jin JO, Lehmann J, Taxy J, Huo D, Stöckle M, Vogelzang NJ, Steinberg G, Stadler WM: Phase II trial of adjuvant gemcitabine plus cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced bladder cancer. Clin Genitourin Cancer; 2006 Sep;5(2):150-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II trial of adjuvant gemcitabine plus cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced bladder cancer.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-five patients (90%) completed 4 cycles of chemotherapy.
  • With a median follow-up of 22.8 months (range, 7-70 months), 13 patients (33%) had recurrent disease, 1 patient at 6 years after completion of therapy.
  • Twelve patients (31%) died, including 11 (28%) with recurrent disease.
  • The favorable prognostic value of altered p16 and pRB raises the hypothesis of a relative beneficial effect of chemotherapy in this population but needs verification in other studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17026804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-7673
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical genitourinary cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Genitourin Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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24. Michaud K, Solomon DA, Oermann E, Kim JS, Zhong WZ, Prados MD, Ozawa T, James CD, Waldman T: Pharmacologic inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 arrests the growth of glioblastoma multiforme intracranial xenografts. Cancer Res; 2010 Apr 15;70(8):3228-38
eagle-i research resources. PMID 20354191 (Special Collections) .

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  • [Title] Pharmacologic inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 arrests the growth of glioblastoma multiforme intracranial xenografts.
  • In vitro testing of PD-0332991 against a panel of GBM cell lines revealed a potent G(1) cell cycle arrest and induction of senescence in each of 16 retinoblastoma protein (Rb)-proficient cell lines regardless of other genetic lesions, whereas 5 cell lines with homozygous inactivation of Rb were completely resistant to treatment.
  • PD-0332991 was found to efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier and proved highly effective in suppressing the growth of intracranial GBM xenograft tumors, including those that had recurred after initial therapy with temozolomide.
  • Remarkably, no mice receiving PD-0332991 died as a result of disease progression while on therapy.
  • Additionally, the combination of PD-0332991 and radiation therapy resulted in significantly increased survival benefit compared with either therapy alone.
  • In total, our results support clinical trial evaluation of PD-0332991 against newly diagnosed as well as recurrent GBM, and indicate that Rb status is the primary determinant of potential benefit from this therapy.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20354191.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115699-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115699-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA159467; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115699-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115699; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115699-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115699
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6; G9ZF61LE7G / palbociclib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS183898; NLM/ PMC2855904
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25. Balk SP, Knudsen KE: AR, the cell cycle, and prostate cancer. Nucl Recept Signal; 2008 Feb 01;6:e001
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  • The dependence of this tumor type on AR activity is exploited in treatment of disseminated prostate cancers, wherein ablation of AR function (achieved either through ligand depletion and/or the use of AR antagonists) is the first line of therapeutic intervention.
  • However, recurrent, incurable tumors ultimately arise as a result of inappropriately restored AR function.
  • Mechanistic investigation has revealed that AR acts as a master regulator of G1-S phase progression, able to induce signals that promote G1 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity, induce phosphorylation/inactivation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB), and thereby govern androgen-dependent proliferation.

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  • (PMID = 18301781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-7629
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear receptor signaling
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Recept Signal
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA099996-09; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES016675-10; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES016675-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA099996-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA099996; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES016675
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Androgen Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinases; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 126
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2254330
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26. Lin FM, Tsai CH, Yang YC, Tu WC, Chen LR, Liang YS, Wang SY, Shyur LF, Chien SC, Cha TL, Hsiao PW: A novel diterpene suppresses CWR22Rv1 tumor growth in vivo through antiproliferation and proapoptosis. Cancer Res; 2008 Aug 15;68(16):6634-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Androgen receptor (AR) is the main therapeutic target for treatment of metastatic prostate cancers (PCa).
  • As recurrent tumors restore AR activity independent of hormones, new therapies that abolish AR activity have been sought to prevent or delay the emergence of ablation-resistant disease.
  • HDHS treatment of androgen-dependent LNCaP and androgen-responsive 22Rv1 cells induced apoptosis as shown by nucleosome release, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase accompanied with concomitant up-regulation of tumor suppressor p53.
  • HDHS also decreased the protein expression of cyclins (D1 and E), cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6), and retinoblastoma phosphorylation in PCa cells, which suggest cell cycle arrest in the G(1) phase.
  • Overall, our data suggest that HDHS has potential for use in chemoprevention and chemotherapy of PCa.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Diterpenes, Abietane / therapeutic use. Phytotherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Androgen Receptor Antagonists. Animals. Cryptomeria / chemistry. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / metabolism. Cyclins / metabolism. G1 Phase / drug effects. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Plant Bark / chemistry. Receptors, Androgen / genetics. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 18701487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 6-hydroxy-5,6-dehydrosugiol; 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Androgen Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Diterpenes, Abietane; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
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27. van der Flier S, Brinkman A, Look MP, Kok EM, Meijer-van Gelder ME, Klijn JG, Dorssers LC, Foekens JA: Bcar1/p130Cas protein and primary breast cancer: prognosis and response to tamoxifen treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2000 Jan 19;92(2):120-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bcar1/p130Cas protein and primary breast cancer: prognosis and response to tamoxifen treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: The product of the Bcar1/p130Cas (breast cancer resistance/p130Crk-associated substrate) gene causes resistance to antiestrogen drugs in human breast cancer cells in vitro.
  • The levels of Bcar1/p130Cas protein were tested for associations and trends against clinicopathologic and patient characteristics, the lengths of relapse-free survival and overall survival (n = 775), and the efficacy of first-line treatment with tamoxifen for recurrent or metastatic disease (n = 268).
  • The response to tamoxifen therapy in patients with recurrent disease was reduced in patients with primary tumors that expressed high levels of Bcar1/p130Cas.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with primary breast tumors expressing a high level of Bcar1/p130Cas protein appear to experience more rapid disease recurrence and have a greater risk of (intrinsic) resistance to tamoxifen therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use. Genes, BRCA1 / drug effects. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / metabolism. Phosphoproteins / genetics. Proteins. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blotting, Western. Crk-Associated Substrate Protein. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Receptors, Estrogen / drug effects. Receptors, Progesterone / drug effects. Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10639513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / BCAR1 protein, human; 0 / Crk-Associated Substrate Protein; 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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28. Ferrandina G, Stoler A, Fagotti A, Fanfani F, Sacco R, De Pasqua A, Mancuso S, Scambia G: p21WAF1/CIP1 protein expression in primary ovarian cancer. Int J Oncol; 2000 Dec;17(6):1231-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • p21WAF1/CIP1 protein is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, able to prevent the CDK2/cyclin E induced retinoblastoma protein (pRB) phosphorylation, thus inhibiting cell cycle progression at G1 phase. p21WAF1/CIP1 protein levels were examined in a series of 102 ovarian tissue samples including normal ovary, primary ovarian tumors, omental metastasis, recurrent disease and residual tumor after chemotherapy exposure, by Western blot analysis.
  • The association of p21WAF1/CIP1 status with clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcome was also investigated. p21WAF1/CIP1 protein was detectable in 76 out of 102 (74%) ovarian tissue samples.
  • We observed a significant trend of p21 levels to gradually increase from normal ovarian tissues (median 0 a.u.) through primary ovarian cancers (median 0.19 a.u.
  • In the group of stage III-IV ovarian cancer patients, p21-positive cases showed a more favourable prognosis with respect to p21-negative cases: the 3-year time to progression (TTP) rate was 58% for p21-positive compared with 33% of p21-negative cases (p=0.036).
  • In conclusion, p21WAF1/CIP1 expression levels seem to be correlated with tumor status at the time of diagnosis and can predict TTP in a selected group of patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / genetics. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secondary. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / surgery. Cell Cycle. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Disease Progression. Female. Genes, p53. Humans. Life Tables. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm, Residual. Omentum. Ovary / metabolism. Peritoneal Neoplasms / metabolism. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11078810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] GREECE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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29. Hale GA: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for pediatric solid tumors. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2005 Oct;5(5):835-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • While advances in the treatment of pediatric cancers have increased cure rates, children with metastatic or recurrent solid tumors have a dismal prognosis despite initial transient responses to therapy.
  • While clearly demonstrated to improve outcomes in patients with metastatic neuroblastoma, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is also frequently used to treat patients with other high-risk diseases such as Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms' tumor, retinoblastoma, germ cell tumors, lymphomas and brain tumors.
  • These published literature demonstrate that autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation results in most cases in equivalent or superior outcomes when compared with conventional therapies.
  • Since the inception of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, regimen-related toxicity has markedly decreased and the vast majority of treatment failures are now due to disease recurrence.
  • Prospective clinical trials are needed to identify specific high-risk patient populations, with randomization (when possible) to compare outcomes of patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with those receiving standard therapy.
  • In addition, investigators need to better define the role of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in these solid tumors, particularly in combination with other therapeutic modalities such as immunotherapy and novel cell processing methodologies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Neoplasms / therapy. Patient Selection. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Factors. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16221053.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 109
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30. Ragusa R, Russo S, Villari L, Schilirò G: Hodgkin's disease as a second malignant neoplasm in childhood: report of a case and review of the literature. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2001 Sep;18(6):407-14
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  • Hodgkin's disease is, after retinoblastoma, the most common primary tumor that is associated with development of second malignant neoplasm.
  • We report the case of a eight-year-old girl who developed HD 6 years after treatment for common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • Our experience suggests that we should follow strictly our patients with ALL and be ready to intervene with invasive diagnostic procedures at the least suspicion of a second or recurrent neoplasm.
  • The most frequent causes of second tumors are radiotherapy, genetic susceptibility and prior treatment with certain chemotherapeutic agents, such as nitrogen mustards.
  • It is likely that any type of immunodeficiency, even without symptoms, might play a role in the development of second tumors in childhood.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 11554236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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