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1. Mendrzyk F, Korshunov A, Benner A, Toedt G, Pfister S, Radlwimmer B, Lichter P: Identification of gains on 1q and epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression as independent prognostic markers in intracranial ependymoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Apr 1;12(7 Pt 1):2070-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of gains on 1q and epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression as independent prognostic markers in intracranial ependymoma.
  • Novel recurrent genomic gains were validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a tissue microarray consisting of 170 intracranial ependymomas.
  • Candidate genes were also tested for mRNA expression by quantitative real-time PCR, and protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on the tissue microarray.
  • RESULTS: Chromosomal gain of 1q correlated with pediatric patients (P = 0.004), intracranial ependymomas (P = 0.05), and tumors of grade III (P = 0.002).
  • Recurrent gains at 5p15.33 covering hTERT were validated by immunohistochemistry, and elevated protein levels correlated with adverse prognosis (P = 0.01).
  • Moreover, EGFR might serve as therapeutic target for more specific chemotherapy applications.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16609018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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2. McGregor LM, Spunt SL, Santana VM, Stewart CF, Ward DA, Watkins A, Laningham FH, Ivy P, Furman WL, Fouladi M: Phase 1 study of an oxaliplatin and etoposide regimen in pediatric patients with recurrent solid tumors. Cancer; 2009 Feb 1;115(3):655-64
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  • [Title] Phase 1 study of an oxaliplatin and etoposide regimen in pediatric patients with recurrent solid tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The combination of a platinating agent and etoposide has induced responses in various pediatric tumors.
  • The study estimated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of an oxaliplatin and etoposide regimen in children with recurrent solid tumors.
  • Responses were observed in patients with medulloblastoma (1 complete response) and pineoblastoma (1 partial response); 3 others with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, ependymoma, and soft tissue sarcoma had prolonged disease stabilization.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 19117350.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; None / None / / P30 CA021765-31; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-31
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS131860; NLM/ PMC2852396
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3. Hargrave DR, Bouffet E, Gammon J, Tariq N, Grant RM, Baruchel S: Phase I study of fotemustine in pediatric patients with refractory brain tumors. Cancer; 2002 Sep 15;95(6):1294-301
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  • [Title] Phase I study of fotemustine in pediatric patients with refractory brain tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Fotemustine is a nitrosourea with theoretic and preclinical advantages over the original analogs, carmustine and lomustine, in the treatment of brain tumors.
  • This is the first pediatric Phase I study of fotemustine.
  • METHODS: Patients younger than 21 with recurrent/resistant brain tumors were enrolled in a conventional Phase I study.
  • There were three documented radiologic responses (20% of patients) comprising one partial response and two minor responses in patients with a sarcoma, medulloblastoma, and ependymoma, respectively.
  • This is the first dedicated Phase I study of a single agent nitrosourea in a pediatric population.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nitrosourea Compounds / therapeutic use. Organophosphorus Compounds / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anemia / chemically induced. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Sarcoma / drug therapy. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12216098.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; GQ7JL9P5I2 / fotemustine
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4. Sangra M, Thorp N, May P, Pizer B, Mallucci C: Management strategies for recurrent ependymoma in the paediatric population. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Oct;25(10):1283-91
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  • [Title] Management strategies for recurrent ependymoma in the paediatric population.
  • INTRODUCTION: The management of recurrent ependymoma within the paediatric population remains a therapeutic challenge.
  • The options available are varied and patients may have already received prior radio- or chemotherapy.
  • As yet, no consensus exists regarding their optimal treatment.
  • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Survival following recurrence is poor and those prognostic factors that predispose to recurrence include extent of surgical resection and the timing of administration of adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Child. Humans. Prognosis. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / mortality. Spinal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19484246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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5. Chamberlain MC: Recurrent intracranial ependymoma in children: salvage therapy with oral etoposide. Pediatr Neurol; 2001 Feb;24(2):117-21
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  • [Title] Recurrent intracranial ependymoma in children: salvage therapy with oral etoposide.
  • Chronic oral VP-16 (etoposide) is a chemotherapy regimen with a wide application in oncology and documented efficacy against germ cell tumors, lymphomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, and primary brain tumors.
  • This study was performed to assess the toxicity and activity of chronic oral etoposide in the management of children with recurrent intracranial nondisseminated ependymoma.
  • Twelve children (median age of 8 years) with recurrent ependymoma who were refractory to surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy (carboplatinum or the combination of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) were treated with chronic oral etoposide (50 mg/m(2)/day).
  • Treatment-related complications included the following: alopecia (10 children), diarrhea (6), weight loss (5), anemia (4), neutropenia (3), and thrombocytopenia (3).
  • Three children required transfusion (two with packed red blood cells; two with platelets), and two children developed neutropenic fever.
  • No treatment-related deaths occurred.
  • In this small cohort of children with recurrent intracranial ependymoma, oral etoposide was well tolerated, produced modest toxicity, and had apparent activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11275460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-8994
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
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6. Bouffet E, Capra M, Bartels U: Salvage chemotherapy for metastatic and recurrent ependymoma of childhood. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Oct;25(10):1293-301
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  • [Title] Salvage chemotherapy for metastatic and recurrent ependymoma of childhood.
  • INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapy has limited role in the up-front management of ependymoma.
  • At the time of recurrence, the role of chemotherapy is also ill defined and the choice of chemotherapeutic agents is often arbitrary, based on anecdotal data and personal experience.
  • METHODS: The purpose of this review is to describe and critically analyze the published literature on chemotherapy in patients with recurrent and metastatic ependymoma.
  • DISCUSSION: The disappointing response rate with single agents (12.9%) and combinations (17.4%) emphasizes the need to re-evaluate the current chemotherapeutic approach of intracranial ependymoma, and biological studies are needed to identify targets that may be considered for clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Child. Humans. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19360417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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7. Dreyer ZE, Kadota RP, Stewart CF, Friedman HS, Mahoney DH, Kun LE, McCluggage CW, Burger PC, Kepner J, Heideman RL, Pediatric Oncology Group: Phase 2 study of idarubicin in pediatric brain tumors: Pediatric Oncology Group study POG 9237. Neuro Oncol; 2003 Oct;5(4):261-7
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  • [Title] Phase 2 study of idarubicin in pediatric brain tumors: Pediatric Oncology Group study POG 9237.
  • For this reason, the Pediatric Oncology Group conducted a Phase 2 trial of IDA for children with recurrent or progressive brain tumors.
  • Patients were stratified by tumor types into 6 categories: stratum 1, low-grade astrocytoma; stratum 2, malignant glioma (glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma); stratum 3, medulloblastoma; stratum 4, brainstem glioma; stratum 5, ependymoma; and stratum 6, miscellaneous malignant tumors not included in the previous diagnoses.
  • Cycles were repeated at approximately 21-day intervals until patients developed progressive disease or had completed 6 cycles with stable or improved disease.
  • Most patients developed progressive disease; however, in 21 patients with medulloblastoma there was 1 partial response, and 6 patients had stable disease (SD) that in 4 patients lasted more than 20 weeks.
  • Only 1 patient developed reduced cardiac function.
  • The systemic clearance data for IDA and IDOL were nearly identical to those published on patients with leukemia, and the plasma elimination of the IDOL metabolite was substantially longer than that of the parent drug IDA.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Idarubicin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 14565163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1920677
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8. Gururangan S, Petros WP, Poussaint TY, Hancock ML, Phillips PC, Friedman HS, Bomgaars L, Blaney SM, Kun LE, Boyett JM: Phase I trial of intrathecal spartaject busulfan in children with neoplastic meningitis: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study (PBTC-004). Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Mar 1;12(5):1540-6
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  • [Title] Phase I trial of intrathecal spartaject busulfan in children with neoplastic meningitis: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study (PBTC-004).
  • PURPOSE: A phase I trial of intrathecal Spartaject Busulfan (SuperGen, Inc., San Ramon, CA) was conducted in children with neoplastic meningitis following recurrent primary brain tumors to describe toxicities, estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and document evidence of responses to this agent.
  • Patients with stable disease or an objective response continued to receive intrathecal Spartaject Busulfan plus systemic chemotherapy at regular intervals.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Busulfan / therapeutic use. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningitis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / blood. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cohort Studies. Ependymoma / blood. Ependymoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Female. Glioma / blood. Glioma / cerebrospinal fluid. Glioma / drug therapy. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / blood. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / cerebrospinal fluid. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16533779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 U01 CA081457
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan
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9. Peres E, Wood GW, Poulik J, Baynes R, Sood S, Abidi MH, Klein J, Bhambhani K, Dansey R, Abella E: High-dose chemotherapy and adoptive immunotherapy in the treatment of recurrent pediatric brain tumors. Neuropediatrics; 2008 Jun;39(3):151-6
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  • [Title] High-dose chemotherapy and adoptive immunotherapy in the treatment of recurrent pediatric brain tumors.
  • Pediatric patients with recurrent brain tumors have a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options.
  • We investigated the use of high-dose chemotherapy with adoptive immunotherapy for recurrent brain tumors.
  • Three pediatric patients with recurrent brain tumors received high-dose chemotherapy.
  • The objectives of this study included (1) establishing the safety and feasibility of this potential treatment, (2) measuring changes in immune response after high-dose chemotherapy and adoptive immunotherapy, and (3) determining whether adoptive immunotherapy would be able to translate into a clinical response.
  • Immune function was tested in all patients at the time of enrollment into the study.
  • Humoral responses to recall antigens delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) were intact in all patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Immunotherapy, Adoptive / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Adolescent. Antigens, CD3 / immunology. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / immunology. Astrocytoma / therapy. Cancer Vaccines / administration & dosage. Cancer Vaccines / adverse effects. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic. Drug Therapy / methods. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / immunology. Ependymoma / therapy. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Hypersensitivity, Delayed / etiology. Hypersensitivity, Delayed / immunology. Hypersensitivity, Delayed / therapy. Infant. Injections, Intradermal. Lymph Nodes / immunology. Lymphocyte Activation / immunology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18991194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0174-304X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Cancer Vaccines
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10. Yoffe R, Khakoo Y, Dunkel IJ, Souweidane M, Lis E, Sklar C: Recurrent ependymoma treated with high-dose tamoxifen in a peripubertal female: Impact on tumor and the pituitary-ovarian axis. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Oct 15;49(5):758-60
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  • [Title] Recurrent ependymoma treated with high-dose tamoxifen in a peripubertal female: Impact on tumor and the pituitary-ovarian axis.
  • Due to high rates of recurrence, the prognosis of childhood ependymoma remains guarded.
  • Anecdotal evidence suggests that tamoxifen may have a role in the treatment of these tumors.
  • We present a case of a child with recurrent ependymoma treated with tamoxifen who showed tumor regression on two separate occasions.
  • However, treatment with tamoxifen resulted in the development of large ovarian cysts associated with supraphysiological plasma concentrations of estradiol.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / complications. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ovarian Cysts / chemically induced. Tamoxifen / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Estradiol / blood. Female. Humans. Puberty. Recurrence. Tumor Burden / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16261561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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11. Kano H, Yang HC, Kondziolka D, Niranjan A, Arai Y, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: Stereotactic radiosurgery for pediatric recurrent intracranial ependymomas. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Nov;6(5):417-23
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  • [Title] Stereotactic radiosurgery for pediatric recurrent intracranial ependymomas.
  • OBJECT: To evaluate the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with recurrent or residual intracranial ependymomas after resection and fractionated radiation therapy (RT), the authors assessed overall survival, distant tumor relapse, progression-free survival (PFS), and complications.
  • All patients underwent resection of an ependymoma followed by cranial or neuraxis (if spinal metastases was confirmed) RT.
  • Eleven patients had adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The median radiosurgical target volume was 2.2 cm(3) (range 0.1-21.4 cm(3)), and the median dose to the tumor margin was 15 Gy (range 9-22 Gy).
  • RESULTS: Follow-up imaging demonstrated therapeutic control in 23 (72%) of 32 tumors at a mean follow-up period of 27.6 months (range 6.1-72.8 months).
  • Adverse radiation effects developed in 2 patients (9.5%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stereotactic radiosurgery offers an additional option beyond repeat surgery or RT in pediatric patients with residual or recurrent ependymomas after initial management.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Disease-Free Survival. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 21039163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Massimino M, Giangaspero F, Garrè ML, Genitori L, Perilongo G, Collini P, Riva D, Valentini L, Scarzello G, Poggi G, Spreafico F, Peretta P, Mascarin M, Modena P, Sozzi G, Bedini N, Biassoni V, Urgesi A, Balestrini MR, Finocchiaro G, Sandri A, Gandola L, AIEOP Neuro-Oncology Group: Salvage treatment for childhood ependymoma after surgery only: Pitfalls of omitting "at once" adjuvant treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Aug 1;65(5):1440-5
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  • [Title] Salvage treatment for childhood ependymoma after surgery only: Pitfalls of omitting "at once" adjuvant treatment.
  • PURPOSE: To discuss the results obtained by giving adjuvant treatment for childhood ependymoma (EPD) at relapse after complete surgery only.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1993 and 2002, 63 children older than 3 years old entered the first Italian Association for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology protocol for EPD (group A), and another 14 patients were referred after relapsing after more tumor excisions only (group B).
  • RESULTS: Mean time to first local progression in group B had been 14 months.
  • Eight children were referred NED and 6 ED after two or more operations, 5 had cranial nerve palsy, 1 had recurrent meningitis, and 2 had persistent hydrocephalus.
  • All received radiotherapy (RT) to tumor bed and 5 also had pre-RT chemotherapy.
  • Considering only PF tumors and setting time 0 as at the last surgery for group B, progression-free survival and overall survival were 32% and 50% for group B and 52% (p < 0.20)/70% (p < 0.29) for the 46 patients in group A with PF tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Salvage Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Neoplasm, Residual. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16863927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Hurwitz CA, Strauss LC, Kepner J, Kretschmar C, Harris MB, Friedman H, Kun L, Kadota R: Paclitaxel for the treatment of progressive or recurrent childhood brain tumors: a pediatric oncology phase II study. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2001 Jun-Jul;23(5):277-81
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  • [Title] Paclitaxel for the treatment of progressive or recurrent childhood brain tumors: a pediatric oncology phase II study.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and define the toxicity of paclitaxel given at a dosage of 350 mg/m2 every 3 weeks as a 24-hour continuous infusion to children with recurrent or progressive primary brain tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three eligible patients, ages 4 months to 19 years, with progressive or recurrent primary brain tumors were treated according to a Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) phase II protocol with paclitaxel (POG 9330).
  • Tumor histologic strata included: astrocytoma (n = 4), malignant glioma (n = 13), medulloblastoma (n = 16), brain stem glioma (n = 15), ependymoma (n = 13), and miscellaneous histologies (n = 12).
  • All patients had previous histologic confirmation of a primary intracranial or spinal cord tumor with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography documentation of unequivocally measurable progressive or recurrent disease.
  • All patients had received previous therapy including surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy, but no patient had been previously treated on more than one phase II trial.
  • Patients were allowed to continue therapy for a total of 18 cycles in the absence of progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity.
  • RESULTS: Seventy-five patients were enrolled onto the POG 9330 protocol; two ineligible patients were removed from the study before receiving any therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Paclitaxel is well tolerated in children with recurrent or progressive brain tumors at this dosage and schedule and may result in short-term disease stabilization in this patient population.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Drug Hypersensitivity / prevention & control. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Nausea / chemically induced. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 11464982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03161; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA07431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA15525; etc
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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14. Mulne AF, Ducore JM, Elterman RD, Friedman HS, Krischer JP, Kun LE, Shuster JJ, Kadota RP: Oral methotrexate for recurrent brain tumors in children: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 Jan-Feb;22(1):41-4
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  • [Title] Oral methotrexate for recurrent brain tumors in children: a Pediatric Oncology Group study.
  • PURPOSE: Children with recurrent or progressive central nervous system (CNS) tumors have an unfavorable prognosis.
  • Based on Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) institutional pilot data, low-dose oral methotrexate (MTX) was studied.
  • RESULTS: The response rates (complete or partial responses) were as follows: astrocytoma 2 of 10, malignant glioma 1 of 19, medulloblastoma 0 of 18, brainstem tumor 0 of 12, ependymoma 1 of 7, and miscellaneous histologic types 0 of 12.
  • CONCLUSION: Low-dose oral MTX showed no significant activity against malignant glioma, medulloblastoma, brainstem tumors, and miscellaneous histologic types.
  • Indeterminate but low response rates were observed in children with astrocytoma and ependymoma.
  • This regimen will not be recommended for front-line therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 10695820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-03161; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-29691; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-69177; etc
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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15. Sandri A, Massimino M, Mastrodicasa L, Sardi N, Bertin D, Basso ME, Todisco L, Paglino A, Perilongo G, Genitori L, Valentini L, Ricardi U, Gandola L, Giangaspero F, Madon E: Treatment with oral etoposide for childhood recurrent ependymomas. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Sep;27(9):486-90
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  • [Title] Treatment with oral etoposide for childhood recurrent ependymomas.
  • In this study the authors retrospectively evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of prolonged oral etoposide therapy in children with recurrent ependymoma.
  • Twelve ependymoma patients with documented recurrent or persistent disease were treated between May 1998 and October 2003.
  • These results emphasize that oral etoposide is an attractive option for childhood recurrent ependymomas in terms of administration, tolerability, and neuroradiologic response.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16189442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
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16. Bomgaars L, Kerr J, Berg S, Kuttesch J, Klenke R, Blaney SM: A phase I study of irinotecan administered on a weekly schedule in pediatric patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Jan;46(1):50-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase I study of irinotecan administered on a weekly schedule in pediatric patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), pharmacokinetics, and anti-tumor effect of irinotecan in pediatric patients with recurrent or refractory malignancies.
  • PROCEDURE: Twenty-three patients between 1 and 21 years of age, with a solid tumor refractory to standard therapy or for which there was no standard therapy were enrolled.
  • A MTD was defined in heavily-pretreated and less-heavily-pretreated (< or =2 prior chemotherapy regimens, no prior bone marrow transplantation, and no central axis radiation) patients.
  • Five patients had stable disease for two to four cycles including one patient each with rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, neuroblastoma, and two patients with ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose

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  • (PMID = 15768380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR00188-37
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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17. Rostomily RC, Halligan J, Geyer R, Stelzer K, Lindsley K, Berger MS: Permanent low-activity (125)I seed placement for the treatment of pediatric brain tumors: preliminary experience. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2001 Apr;34(4):198-205
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  • [Title] Permanent low-activity (125)I seed placement for the treatment of pediatric brain tumors: preliminary experience.
  • Although external beam radiation therapy is effective in the treatment of many pediatric brain neoplasms its use in this patient population has been associated with the development of significant cognitive and endocrine dysfunction and is severely limited as an option in previously irradiated patients.
  • Therefore, we have adopted a strategy for management of residual microscopic disease by implantation of low-activity (125)I seeds in the tumor bed at the time of surgery.
  • Six patients aged 2-14 years with recurrent tumors including two supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (n = 2), one medulloblastoma, one malignant ependymoma (n = 1), glioblastoma (n = 1) and one pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma were implanted at the time of reoperation.
  • A total of 11-126 seeds were implanted resulting in total doses of 16-21.8 Gy (after theoretical infinite time) at a depth of 5 mm from the implanted resection bed.
  • Five patients had prior external beam radiation while the other patient (2 years old at initial diagnosis) progressed after surgery and chemotherapy.
  • These results suggest that the use of permanent low-activity (125)I seeds as an adjunct to surgery can provide good local tumor control and is a suitable treatment option for pediatric patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brain / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Implants. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 11359113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / 2T 32-N07144
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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18. Benesch M, Siegler N, Hoff Kv, Lassay L, Kropshofer G, Müller H, Sommer C, Rutkowski S, Fleischhack G, Urban C: Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study. Anticancer Drugs; 2009 Oct;20(9):794-9
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  • [Title] Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study.
  • This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with refractory or recurrent brain tumors.
  • Nineteen heavily pretreated patients (males, n = 14; females, n = 5; median age at diagnosis 8.5 years; range, 1.4-22 years) were given intrathecal liposomal cytarabine on a compassionate use basis for recurrent refractory medulloblastoma (n = 12), mixed germ cell tumor (n = 2), central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pons (n = 1), anaplastic ependymoma (n = 1), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 1), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (n = 1), or rhabdoid papillary meningioma (n = 1).
  • Duration of treatment ranged from (1/2) to 10 months.
  • Eleven patients (57.9%) did not show any side effects, whereas eight patients (42.1%) developed side effects related to either chemical arachnoiditis (n = 4) or neurological progression (n = 2).
  • Less typical treatment-related symptoms (e.g. lethargy, ataxia, and slurred speech) were observed in two patients.
  • Treatment with intrathecal liposomal cytarabine was discontinued twice because of side effects.
  • In conclusion, although intrathecal liposomal cytarabine was generally well tolerated, it should be used cautiously and only with dexamethasone prophylaxis in extensively pretreated patients with recurrent brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Compassionate Use Trials. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Injections, Spinal. Liposomes / administration & dosage. Male. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19617818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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19. Sardi I, Cetica V, Massimino M, Buccoliero AM, Giunti L, Genitori L, Aricò M: Promoter methylation and expression analysis of MGMT in advanced pediatric brain tumors. Oncol Rep; 2009 Oct;22(4):773-9
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  • [Title] Promoter methylation and expression analysis of MGMT in advanced pediatric brain tumors.
  • To investigate the clinical relevance of MGMT expression, we analyzed MGMT levels by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, and the methylation of gene promoter in patients with relapsed or refractory brain tumor, enrolled in an off-label trial with oral temozolomide.
  • The drug was administered at the dose of 200 mg/m(2)/day in patients with no prior cranio-spinal irradiation, and 180 mg/m(2)/day in those with previous radiotherapy and/or high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue.
  • Nine patients with recurrent ependymoma (n=3), low grade glioma (n=3), glioblastoma (n=1), relapsed medulloblastoma (n=2) were enrolled in the study.
  • Methylation of MGMT promoter was detected in only one ependymoma sample.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation / genetics. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19724855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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20. Kieran MW, Packer RJ, Onar A, Blaney SM, Phillips P, Pollack IF, Geyer JR, Gururangan S, Banerjee A, Goldman S, Turner CD, Belasco JB, Broniscer A, Zhu Y, Frank E, Kirschmeier P, Statkevich P, Yver A, Boyett JM, Kun LE: Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the oral farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib administered twice daily to pediatric patients with advanced central nervous system tumors using a modified continuous reassessment method: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Jul 20;25(21):3137-43
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  • [Title] Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the oral farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib administered twice daily to pediatric patients with advanced central nervous system tumors using a modified continuous reassessment method: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study.
  • PURPOSE: A dose-escalation phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib (SCH66336) was conducted in children with recurrent or progressive CNS tumors.
  • A modified continual reassessment method (CRM) was used to estimate the MTD based on actual dosages of lonafarnib administered and toxicities observed during the initial 4 weeks of treatment.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-three children with progressive or recurrent brain tumors were enrolled, with a median age of 12.2 years (range, 3.9 to 19.5 years).
  • Both radiographic response (one anaplastic astrocytoma) and stable disease (one medulloblastoma, two high-grade and four low-grade gliomas, one ependymoma, and one sarcoma) were noted, and seven patients remained on treatment for 1 year or longer.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / mortality. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics. Farnesyltranstransferase / antagonists & inhibitors. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Piperidines / pharmacokinetics. Pyridines / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17634493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA81457
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Pyridines; 193275-84-2 / lonafarnib; EC 2.5.1.29 / Farnesyltranstransferase
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21. Marcus KJ, Goumnerova L, Billett AL, Lavally B, Scott RM, Bishop K, Xu R, Young Poussaint T, Kieran M, Kooy H, Pomeroy SL, Tarbell NJ: Stereotactic radiotherapy for localized low-grade gliomas in children: final results of a prospective trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Feb 1;61(2):374-9
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  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for small, localized, pediatric brain tumors and to determine the patterns of failure.
  • Of the 81 patients, 50 had low-grade astrocytoma, 23 had residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma, 4 had posterior fossa ependymoma, and 4 had other histologic types.
  • The indications for treatment of patients with low-grade gliomas were progression during or after chemotherapy or progression after surgery alone.
  • CT and MRI fusion was used for treatment planning.
  • Three to nine arcs were used to deliver a mean total dose of 52.2 Gy in 1.8-Gy daily fractions.
  • Five patients, all with optic system/hypothalamic primary tumors, developed central nervous system dissemination 1.0-7.4 years after SRT.
  • One patient developed a presumed radiation-induced primitive neuroectodermal tumor 6 years after initial treatment.
  • All 6 cases of local progression were within the primary tumor bed at the time of progression and had received the full prescription dose.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Confidence Intervals. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 15667955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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