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1. Ruan J, Martin P, Coleman M, Furman RR, Cheung K, Faye A, Elstrom R, Lachs M, Hajjar KA, Leonard JP: Durable responses with the metronomic rituximab and thalidomide plus prednisone, etoposide, procarbazine, and cyclophosphamide regimen in elderly patients with recurrent mantle cell lymphoma. Cancer; 2010 Jun 1;116(11):2655-64
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PROCARBAZINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Durable responses with the metronomic rituximab and thalidomide plus prednisone, etoposide, procarbazine, and cyclophosphamide regimen in elderly patients with recurrent mantle cell lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Targeting the tumor microenvironment and angiogenesis is a novel lymphoma therapeutic strategy.
  • The authors report safety, activity, and angiogenic profiling results with the rituximab and thalidomide plus prednisone, etoposide, procarbazine, and cyclophosphamide (RT-PEPC) regimen in patients with recurrent mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).
  • METHODS: RT-PEPC included induction (Months 1-3) of rituximab 4 times weekly, daily thalidomide (50 mg), and PEPC followed by maintenance thalidomide (100 mg), oral PEPC titrated to the neutrophil count, and rituximab every 4 months.
  • The median age was 68 years (range, 52-81 years), 24 patients (96%) had stage III or IV disease, 18 patients (72%) had an International Prognostic Index (IPI) score of 3 to 5, and 20 patients (80%) had high-risk Mantle Cell International Prognostic Index (MIPI) scores.
  • Patients had received a median of 2 previous therapies (range, 1-7 previous therapies), and 15 patients (60%) had progressed on bortezomib.
  • Plasma VEGF levels and circulating endothelial cells trended down with treatment.
  • Novel, low-intensity approaches warrant further evaluation, potentially as initial therapy in elderly patients.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 20235190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL046403; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K08 HL091517; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL042493-18; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL090895-03; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL090895; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL042493-18; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K08HL091517; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL042493; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL046403-19
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS257257; NLM/ PMC3004744
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2. Coleman M, Martin P, Ruan J, Furman R, Niesvizky R, Elstrom R, George P, Kaufman TP, Leonard JP: Prednisone, etoposide, procarbazine, and cyclophosphamide (PEP-C) oral combination chemotherapy regimen for recurring/refractory lymphoma: low-dose metronomic, multidrug therapy. Cancer; 2008 May 15;112(10):2228-32
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  • [Title] Prednisone, etoposide, procarbazine, and cyclophosphamide (PEP-C) oral combination chemotherapy regimen for recurring/refractory lymphoma: low-dose metronomic, multidrug therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Many patients with recurrent lymphoma are unable to tolerate intensive therapies, or have disease that is refractory.
  • Metronomic chemotherapy offers a novel, potentially less toxic yet effective treatment strategy.
  • METHODS: An analysis was performed on 75 lymphoma patients who were treated with the PEP-C regimen at a single institution.
  • All medications were administered daily until the white blood cell count fell to less than 3.0 x 10(9)/L, whereupon treatment was withheld until recovery from the nadir.
  • Therapy was then reinstituted on a daily, alternate day, or fractionated weekly basis (eg, 5 of 7 days), depending on patient tolerance.
  • RESULTS: Eighty percent of patients had previously received 2 or more treatments.
  • Overall, 69% achieved an objective response after PEP-C treatment, with 36% complete responses and 33% partial responses.
  • Subjects with indolent histologies had superior overall responses, complete responses, and time on therapy relative to those with aggressive histologies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Metronomic therapy with low-dose oral agents administered in combination for continuous, prolonged periods with minimal drug-free intervals represents a novel, active, easily tolerated approach to management of patients with recurrent lymphoma, particularly those with indolent histologies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18338745.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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3. Rizzieri DA, Sand GJ, McGaughey D, Moore JO, DeCastro C, Chao NJ, Vredenburgh JJ, Gasparetto C, Long GD, Anderson E, Foster T, Toaso B, Adams D, Niedzwiecki D, Gockerman JP: Low-dose weekly paclitaxel for recurrent or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer; 2004 Jun 1;100(11):2408-14
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  • [Title] Low-dose weekly paclitaxel for recurrent or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Many patients with recurrent, intermediate or high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) may not respond to or are not candidates for aggressive salvage chemotherapy.
  • Although high-dose taxanes have not been reported to be very effective for the treatment of lymphoma, different delivery rates may allow for different mechanisms of action to be manifest and result in a different toxicity profile and response rate.
  • The current study tested this hypothesis by using low-dose, weekly paclitaxel in patients with recurrent or refractory NHL.
  • METHODS: Adults age > 18 years with refractory or recurrent, aggressive NHL who were not considered curable with standard high-dose therapy received paclitaxel at a dose of 80 mg/m2 weekly for 5 weeks for 2 cycles.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-four patients with refractory NHL and 4 patients with recurrent disease were treated.
  • The median number of prior regimens received was 3, 74% of the patients had an International Prognostic Index of > or = 3 at the time of study entry, and 29% had failed high-dose therapy with autologous hematopoietic support.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the current study, low-dose, weekly paclitaxel therapy was found to provide a well tolerated and less toxic approach to the treatment of refractory NHL, with encouraging responses noted in heavily pretreated patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / pathology. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Microcirculation. Middle Aged. Remission Induction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15160345.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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4. Khouri IF, Lee MS, Saliba RM, Jun G, Fayad L, Younes A, Pro B, Acholonu S, McLaughlin P, Katz RL, Champlin RE: Nonablative allogeneic stem-cell transplantation for advanced/recurrent mantle-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol; 2003 Dec 1;21(23):4407-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nonablative allogeneic stem-cell transplantation for advanced/recurrent mantle-cell lymphoma.
  • PURPOSE: Patients with relapsed mantle-cell lymphoma have poor prognosis and short survival.
  • Our aim was to determine the efficacy of nonablative allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in patients with relapsed mantle-cell lymphoma.
  • Patients underwent a median of three prior chemotherapy regimens.
  • Donor cell engraftment occurred in all patients.
  • With a median follow-up period of 26 months, the actuarial probability of current-event-free-survival at 3 years was 82% (95% CI, 65% to 99%).
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that nonablative allogeneic transplantation is a safe and potentially effective strategy for patients with relapsed and chemosensitive mantle-cell lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Graft Survival. Graft vs Host Disease / epidemiology. Graft vs Host Disease / prevention & control. Graft vs Tumor Effect. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Tacrolimus / therapeutic use. Transplantation Conditioning. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14645431.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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5. Coleman M, Martin P, Ruan J, Furman R, Niesvizky R, Elstrom R, George P, Leonard J, Kaufmann T: Low-dose metronomic, multidrug therapy with the PEP-C oral combination chemotherapy regimen for mantle cell lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2008 Mar;49(3):447-50
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PROCARBAZINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Low-dose metronomic, multidrug therapy with the PEP-C oral combination chemotherapy regimen for mantle cell lymphoma.
  • The prednisone, etoposide, procarbazine and cyclophosphamide (PEP-C) oral combination chemotherapy regimen (prednisone 20 mg, cyclophosphamide 50 mg, etoposide 50 mg, and procarbazine 50 mg with an oral anti-emetic) was employed at our center to treat 22 patients with heavily pretreated, recurrent mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).
  • All medications were administered daily until leukocytes fell to <3.0 x 10(9)/L whereupon treatment was withheld until recovery from the nadir.
  • Therapy was then reinstituted on a daily, alternate day, or fractionated basis (e.g.
  • Median time on therapy was 17 months.
  • Our findings demonstrate that low-dose oral agents administered in combination for continuous, prolonged periods with minimal drug-free intervals (metronomic therapy) may represent a novel, effective, easily tolerated approach to MCL and that this treatment approach warrants further exploration.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18297520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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6. Keating MJ, O'Brien S, Albitar M: Emerging information on the use of rituximab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Semin Oncol; 2002 Feb;29(1S2):70-74

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Rituximab (Rituxan; Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, CA, and IDEC Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets mature B cells in most lymphoid B-cell malignancies.
  • While rituximab was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of recurrent B-cell lymphoma, initial studies suggested that it had less activity in small lymphocytic lymphoma, the nodal counterpart of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
  • Two studies have now investigated the activity of higher-dose and more intensive therapy with rituximab in CLL.
  • This is presumably caused by the overcoming of lower antigen density on CLL cells compared with lymphoma cells, and the shorter half-life of rituximab in small lymphocytic lymphoma.
  • There is now evidence that CD20 is shed into the plasma in patients with CLL, which may explain the shorter half-life of the antibody in small lymphocytic lymphoma/CLL.
  • Toxicity was uncommon except in previously untreated patients and those with atypical forms of CLL such as mantle cell lymphoma and prolymphocytic leukemia.
  • There is now evidence in vitro of additive or synergistic activity of rituximab with a variety of chemotherapeutic agents including fludarabine and cyclophosphamide.
  • Combinations of fludarabine with rituximab or these two drugs combined with cyclophosphamide have given very high complete response rates in series of patients with both previously untreated and treated CLL.
  • It is apparent that rituximab is playing a significant role in the management of patients with CLL as salvage therapy and is a potential potentiating agent for combined chemoimmunotherapy strategies for front-line or relapsed patients with CLL.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2002 W.B. Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 28140094.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Robak T, Smolewski P, Cebula B, Szmigielska-Kaplon A, Chojnowski K, Blonski JZ: Rituximab combined with cladribine or with cladribine and cyclophosphamide in heavily pretreated patients with indolent lymphoproliferative disorders and mantle cell lymphoma. Cancer; 2006 Oct 1;107(7):1542-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rituximab combined with cladribine or with cladribine and cyclophosphamide in heavily pretreated patients with indolent lymphoproliferative disorders and mantle cell lymphoma.
  • METHODS: For the current study, the authors evaluated the feasibility, efficacy, and toxicity of combined regimens that consisted of either rituximab plus cladribine (2-CdA) (the RC regimen) or RC plus cyclophosphamide (the RCC regimen) in the treatment of patients with heavily pretreated, indolent lymphoid malignancies.
  • Fifty-four adult patients with recurrent or refractory, low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (LG-NHL) and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) were treated according to the RC/RCC regimens.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-three patients with B-CLL, 12 patients with LG-NHL and 9 patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) entered the study.
  • Thirty-three patients (61%) had recurrent disease after prior therapy, and 21 patients (39%) had refractory disease.
  • The treatment revealed tolerability, with episodes of severe neutropenia (Grade 3 and 4 [according to World Health Organization criteria]) observed in 6 patients (11%), episodes of Grade 3 and 4 infections observed in 11 patients (20%), and episodes of Grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia observed in 4 patients (7%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The RC and RCC regimens were highly effective and well tolerated modalities of treatment in heavily pretreated patients with indolent lymphoproliferative disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Cladribine / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Rituximab. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16948126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 47M74X9YT5 / Cladribine; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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8. Inwards DJ, Fishkin PA, Hillman DW, Brown DW, Ansell SM, Kurtin PJ, Fonseca R, Morton RF, Veeder MH, Witzig TE: Long-term results of the treatment of patients with mantle cell lymphoma with cladribine (2-CDA) alone (95-80-53) or 2-CDA and rituximab (N0189) in the North Central Cancer Treatment Group. Cancer; 2008 Jul 1;113(1):108-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term results of the treatment of patients with mantle cell lymphoma with cladribine (2-CDA) alone (95-80-53) or 2-CDA and rituximab (N0189) in the North Central Cancer Treatment Group.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test cladribine (2-CDA) alone and in combination with rituximab in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).
  • In Trial 95-80-53, patients received 2-CDA as initial therapy or at relapse.
  • In Trial N0189, patients received combination 2-CDA and rituximab as initial therapy.
  • Twenty-six previously untreated patients and 25 patients who had recurrent disease with a median age of 68 years received single-agent 2-CDA.
  • The ORR was 46% with a 21% CR rate in the recurrent disease group.
  • Twenty-nine eligible patients with a median age of 70 years received 2-CDA plus rituximab.
  • The median duration of response for patients who achieved a CR had not been reached at the time of the current report, and only 3 of the patients who achieved a CR developed recurrent disease at a median follow-up of 21.5 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: 2-CDA had substantial single-agent activity in both recurrent and untreated MCL, and the results indicated that it may be administered safely to elderly patients.

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  • [Copyright] (Copyright) 2008 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 18470909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037417; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA035431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA035269; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-37404; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35090; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA060276; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35195; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037404; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA063848; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA035195; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35103; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-25224; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-60276; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA035272; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA035101; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA035113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA015083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-63848; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA035415; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA063849; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35415; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA035431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-37417; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35272; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35269; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35101; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA025224; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA035090; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-15083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-63849; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA015083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA035103
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 47M74X9YT5 / Cladribine; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS407157; NLM/ PMC3465670
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9. Haas RL, Poortmans P, de Jong D, Verheij M, van der Hulst M, de Boer JP, Bartelink H: Effective palliation by low dose local radiotherapy for recurrent and/or chemotherapy refractory non-follicular lymphoma patients. Eur J Cancer; 2005 Aug;41(12):1724-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effective palliation by low dose local radiotherapy for recurrent and/or chemotherapy refractory non-follicular lymphoma patients.
  • In this work, we have studied the response rates and duration of response after low-dose (4 Gy) involved field radiotherapy (LD-IF-RT) in relapsed or chemotherapy refractory indolent and aggressive lymphoma patients.
  • 71 patients (177 symptomatic sites) received LD-IF-RT consisting of 39 males and 32 females with a median age of 69 years (range 43-93).
  • Patients included were those with small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (n=23), marginal zone lymphoma, nodal type (n=18), mantle cell lymphoma (n=17), and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n=13).
  • A median of two prior chemotherapy regimens (range 0-10) preceded LD-IF-RT.
  • Median time since diagnosis was 31 months (range 1-216 months).
  • Time to (local) progression was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method.
  • The median time to progression (TP) was 12 months and the median time to local progression (TLP) was 22 months.
  • None of the factors studied (age, sex, lymphoma subtype, radiotherapy regimen, number of prior regimens or time since diagnosis, number of positive sites or largest lymphoma diameter) were found to relate to response.
  • At time of death 70% of patients were without in-field progression after LD-IF-RT.
  • It appears that LD-IF-RT is a valuable asset in the management of relapsed disease in both indolent and aggressive lymphoma and should be considered to palliate symptoms in patients with recurrent and/or chemotherapy refractory disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / radiotherapy. Palliative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16039113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. Matoba M, Oota K, Tonami H, Masaki Y, Sakai T, Umehara H: Palliative radiotherapy with 1 x 8 Gy using conformal radiotherapy for chemotherapy-refractory, recurrent, aggressive lymphomas. Jpn J Radiol; 2010 Apr;28(3):220-3
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  • [Title] Palliative radiotherapy with 1 x 8 Gy using conformal radiotherapy for chemotherapy-refractory, recurrent, aggressive lymphomas.
  • We performed palliative radiotherapy with a single-fraction of 8 Gy using a three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) technique for patients with dyspnea due to a bulky nasooropharyngeal lesion who had chemotherapy-refractory, recurrent, aggressive lymphoma.
  • These results indicated that a single fraction of 8 Gy using 3D-CRT is an effective palliative treatment for chemotherapy-refractory, recurrent, aggressive lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / radiotherapy. Palliative Care. Radiotherapy, Conformal
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Dose Fractionation. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • [Cites] Eur J Cancer. 2005 Aug;41(12):1724-30 [16039113.001]
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  • (PMID = 20437133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1867-108X
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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11. Grosso LE, Collins BT, Visconti J: Blastic variant of mantle cell lymphoma following interfollicular Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2001 May;41(5-6):675-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Blastic variant of mantle cell lymphoma following interfollicular Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Infrequently, patients are diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma and a morphologically distinct lymphoma.
  • While specific subtypes of lymphomas (including Hodgkin's lymphoma) may present diagnostic difficulties, fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is sometimes useful in the evaluation and classification of these lymphoproliferative processes.
  • We report a case of the blastic variant of mantle cell lymphoma following Hodgkin's lymphoma, interfollicular variant.
  • A 66-year-old woman with a history of Hodgkin's lymphoma presented with increasing contralateral cervical adenopathy three years after receiving chemotherapy.
  • FNAB with ancillary immunophenotypic characterization identified mantle cell lymphoma, blastic variant.
  • Subsequent excisional biopsy confirmed this diagnosis and also aided in the exclusion of recurrent Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • In addition to identifying the previously unreported combination of blastic variant of mantle cell lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma, this case emphasizes the utility of FNAB in evaluation of new masses in patient's with a previous diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Follicular / complications. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11378586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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12. Kiss TL, Mollee P, Lazarus HM, Lipton JH: Stem cell transplantation for mantle cell lymphoma: if, when and how? Bone Marrow Transplant; 2005 Oct;36(8):655-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Stem cell transplantation for mantle cell lymphoma: if, when and how?
  • Although the prognosis for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients has improved in recent years, the outlook for those with advanced or recurrent disease remains poor.
  • High-dose chemotherapy and autografting performed early in responding patients appears to be a method to extend progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
  • The use of monoclonal antibody therapy added into the initial therapy and in the peritransplant period may improve on these results.
  • Myeloablative allogeneic transplant appears to be a modality capable of providing curative therapy, but is plagued by a high treatment-related mortality, especially in older patients.
  • Trials designed to look at newly diagnosed patients with MCL examining the outcomes after planned autologous and allogeneic transplant as part of the initial management are needed to confirm the role of these various modalities in the overall therapy of this poor-outcome lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation / methods

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  • (PMID = 16007106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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13. Rohatiner AZ: High-dose treatment with autologous haemopoietic progenitor cell support for large B-cell, follicular and mantle-cell lymphoma. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol; 2002 Sep;15(3):467-80
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  • [Title] High-dose treatment with autologous haemopoietic progenitor cell support for large B-cell, follicular and mantle-cell lymphoma.
  • The purpose of this chapter is to review the available information on the use of high-dose treatment (HDT) in large B-cell, follicular and mantle-cell lymphoma.
  • The last 10 years have seen a dramatic increase in the number of patients receiving high-dose treatment with autologous haemopoietic progenitor cell support for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • In patients with recurrent large B-cell lymphoma, HDT is now accepted as the 'standard of care', provided responsiveness to conventional chemotherapy at the time of recurrence has been demonstrated.
  • Several phase III studies have been conducted, comparing conventional chemotherapy with either: the same treatment followed by HDT or an abbreviated number of cycles of conventional therapy followed by HDT.
  • In mantle-cell and follicular lymphoma, HDT should still be regarded as experimental.
  • Current studies are evaluating the use of anti-CD20, given either as part of the treatment prior to HDT or as maintenance therapy.
  • In view of the propensity for both of these illnesses to involve the bone marrow, a number of studies have addressed the question of in vitro treatment of the stem cell product.
  • In follicular lymphoma, there is a correlation between freedom from recurrence and persistent PCR negativity for bcl-2 rearrangement-containing cells in follow-up bone marrow samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / mortality. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy. Lymphoma, Follicular / mortality. Lymphoma, Follicular / therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / mortality. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / therapy. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / mortality. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / therapy. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12468400.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6926
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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14. Hentrich M, Gerl A, Lutz L, Karthaus M, Schiel X: Unexpected toxicity (UT) and opportunistic infections (OI) after rituximab-containing therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e19546

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unexpected toxicity (UT) and opportunistic infections (OI) after rituximab-containing therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • : e19546 Background: Rituximab (R) is increasingly used for the treatment of B-NHL.
  • METHODS: The records of consecutive pts treated at 2 institutions from 01/06 to 12/08 with R-containing chemotherapy or R-maintenance therapy (R-M) for NHL were analyzed for severe UT and OI.
  • 7 of 99 pts (7%) (2 females, 5 males) with a median age of 69.5 yrs (range 41-76) experienced UT (n=4) or OI (n=3).
  • UT consisted of interstitial pneumonitis (IP) in 2 pts after 8 and 6 cycles of R-CHOP for diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL), a case of congestive heart failure (NYHA III°) after 6x R-CHOP + 2x R-M for follicular lymphoma (FL) and a case of grade 4 pancytopenia lasting for 22 days following 2x R-FC for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • IP completely resolved after initiation of prednisone (n=1) or under empiric antimicrobial therapy (n=1).
  • Congestive heart failure improved under appropriate therapy and the pt received 2 more cycles of R-M.
  • Pancytopenia slowly recovered under therapy with G-CSF, R was terminated.
  • OI consisted of pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia after 5x R-CHOP-14 for DLCL, Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV)-associated hepatitis after 5x R-CHOP-21 for relapsed FL and generalized herpes zoster following 6x R-bendamustine (RB) + 1x R-M for recurrent BALT-lymphoma.
  • Infections resolved under antimicrobial therapy.
  • Moreover, 2 pts were transferred to us for therapy of enterovirus-induced encephalitis after 6x R-CHOP-21 + 2x R-M for FL (n=1) and cerebral toxoplasmosis in a pt heavily pretreated with R-containing therapy for relapsed mantle cell lymphoma (n=1).
  • Awareness of UT/OI, rapid diagnostic proceedings and, whenever possible, initiation of therapy are essential.

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  • (PMID = 27960975.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Ruan J, Martin P, Coleman M, Furman R, Glynn P, Joyce M, Cheung K, Shore T, Schuster M, Leonard J: Durable responses with the antiangiogenic metronomic regimen RT-PEPC in elderly patients with recurrent mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):8525

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Durable responses with the antiangiogenic metronomic regimen RT-PEPC in elderly patients with recurrent mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).
  • : 8525 Background: Targeting tumor microenvironment and angiogenesis is a novel therapeutic strategy in lymphoma.
  • Two putative anti-angiogenic regimens, RT (rituximab with thalidomide) and PEPC oral metronomic chemotherapy (prednisone, etoposide, procarbazine and cyclophosphamide) are clinically active.
  • We report phase II safety, activity, and angiogenic profiling data with the novel combination RT-PEPC in elderly patients with recurrent MCL.
  • Translational studies assessed the angiogenic phenotypes of tumor cells, and dynamic levels of circulating endothelial and hematopoietic progenitors in response to treatment.
  • The median number of prior therapies was two (range 1 to 7), and 15 pts (60%) progressed on bortezomib.
  • QoL was maintained or improved on treatment.
  • Correlative studies demonstrated pre-therapy autocrine angiogenic loop in tumor cells evidenced by expression of VEGFA and VEGFR1.
  • Novel low-intensity anti-angiogenic approaches warrant further evaluation in MCL and other NHL subtypes, potentially as initial therapy in elderly patients.

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  • (PMID = 27960902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Park B, Kim W, Eom H, Kim J, Oh S, Suh C: A phase II trial of gemcitabine, ifosfamide, dexamethasone, and oxaliplatin (GIDOX) for patients with refractory or relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):8559

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase II trial of gemcitabine, ifosfamide, dexamethasone, and oxaliplatin (GIDOX) for patients with refractory or relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • : 8559 Background: Gemcitabine combined with cisplatin has been known as an effective regimen for lymphoma treatment in salvage setting.
  • We investigated the response rate and toxicity of gemcitabine, ifosfamide, dexamethasone, and oxaliplatin (GIDOx) for recurrent or refractory aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), looking for the more effective and less toxic therapy.
  • METHODS: Patients with recurrent or refractory diffuse large B-cell NHL or mantle cell lymphoma, measurable disease, and more than one previous chemotherapy regimen were eligible.
  • Treatment consisted of gemcitabine 1000 mg/m<sup>2</sup> intravenously (i.v.) on Days 1 and 8, ifosfamide 2000 mg/m<sup>2</sup> i.v. on Day 1, dexamethasone 40 mg orally on Days 1-4, and oxaliplatin 130mg/m<sup>2</sup> i.v. on Day 2, every 21 days.
  • Patients could then proceed to stem cell transplantation (SCT) or receive up to six treatment cycles.
  • The median age of the patients was 54 years (range, 18-75 years) and most had diffuse large-cell lymphoma.
  • The RR after completion of all protocol chemotherapy including SCT was 44% (10 CR, 2 PR).
  • CONCLUSIONS: GIDOx is an active salvage regimen in aggressive B-cell NHL and can be administered with acceptable toxicity.

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  • (PMID = 27960992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Hon C, Chan RT, Ma ES, Shek TW, Yau K, Au WY: Lymphomatous proptosis as a novel feature of mantle cell lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 Jan;47(1):71-5
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  • [Title] Lymphomatous proptosis as a novel feature of mantle cell lymphoma.
  • We describe eight cases of acute proptosis due to mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), among 26 consecutive MCL cases.
  • The median time of onset was 29 months (range 0-102) from diagnosis.
  • Two cases presented initially with orbital masses while five as sudden disease progression after multiple courses of chemotherapy.
  • In each case, there was dramatic loss of vision and severe proptosis, which uniformly responded to radiotherapy and/or further chemotherapy.
  • Unilateral blindness only occurred in two cases, with recurrent orbital relapse and repeated retinal irradiation and retro-orbital optic nerve involvement, respectively.
  • The high incidence, as well as bilateral and recurrent nature, of orbital involvement suggested a homing mechanism of MCL to this site.
  • [MeSH-major] Exophthalmos / etiology. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / therapy. Recurrence. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16321830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Agathocleous A, Rohatiner A, Rule S, Hunter H, Kerr JP, Neeson SM, Matthews J, Strauss S, Montoto S, Johnson P, Radford J, Lister A: Weekly versus twice weekly bortezomib given in conjunction with rituximab, in patients with recurrent follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma and Waldenström macroglobulinaemia. Br J Haematol; 2010 Nov;151(4):346-53
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  • [Title] Weekly versus twice weekly bortezomib given in conjunction with rituximab, in patients with recurrent follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma and Waldenström macroglobulinaemia.
  • The combination of bortezomib and rituximab was evaluated in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), follicular lymphoma (FL) and Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM), in a Phase I and later, a randomized Phase II study.
  • In the randomized study, 42 patients with recurrent/refractory disease received either: bortezomib 1·3 mg/m(2) on days 1, 4, 8 and 11 of a 3-week cycle with rituximab 375 mg/m(2) on day 1 (21 patients) or: bortezomib 1·6 mg/m(2) and rituximab on days 1, 8, 15 and 22 of a 5-week cycle (with rituximab being given only in cycles 1 and 4).Twenty-eight patients were withdrawn (toxicity 16, progression 7, and 'patient choice' 5).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived / adverse effects. Boronic Acids / administration & dosage. Boronic Acids / adverse effects. Bortezomib. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Lymphoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Pyrazines / administration & dosage. Pyrazines / adverse effects. Rituximab. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20880120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Pyrazines; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib
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19. Kikuchi T, Asano N, Noguchi T, Nomura E, Uchimi K, Kagaya H, Suzuki S, Suzuki M, Kayaba Y, Tateno H, Onodera H: [A case of primary gastric mantle cell lymphoma]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Aug;106(8):1168-76
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  • [Title] [A case of primary gastric mantle cell lymphoma].
  • After 20 months, the gastroduodenal erosions developed into mucosal ulcers, and the systemic lymph node swelling progressed.
  • Histological examination of the neck lymph node showed mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).
  • This case was diagnosed as recurrent primary gastric MCL in other areas, with systemic lymph node metastasis and bone marrow invasion.
  • Hyper-CVAD (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone), high-dose methotrexate and cytarabine in combination with Rituximab and stem cell transplantation was performed.
  • The gastroduodenal lesions and atypical cells in the bone marrow disappeared after 2 cycles of the chemotherapy.
  • Metastatic lymph node swelling regressed after stem cell transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged


20. Lin P, Medeiros LJ, Yin CC, Abruzzo LV: Translocation (3;8)(q26;q24): a recurrent chromosomal abnormality in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Apr 1;166(1):82-5
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Translocation (3;8)(q26;q24): a recurrent chromosomal abnormality in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia.
  • In three patients, the AML or MDS developed 36, 52, and 57 months following chemotherapy for soft tissue sarcoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, respectively; in these three patients, the neoplasms were considered to be therapy-related.
  • All patients were treated with combination chemotherapy; at writing, four were still alive and one had died during a follow-up period ranging from 1 to 16 months.
  • We conclude that the t(3;8)(q26;q24) is a recurrent translocation associated with therapy-related MDS/AML or de novo AML, and is frequently associated with monosomy 7.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Karyotyping. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma / drug therapy. Sarcoma / pathology


21. Plosker GL, Figgitt DP: Rituximab: a review of its use in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Drugs; 2003;63(8):803-43
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  • [Title] Rituximab: a review of its use in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that has demonstrated efficacy in patients with various lymphoid malignancies, including indolent and aggressive forms of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL).
  • While the optimal use of the drug in many clinical settings has yet to be clarified, two pivotal trials have established rituximab as a viable treatment option in patients with relapsed or refractory indolent NHL, and as a standard first-line treatment option when combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (the most common type of aggressive NHL).
  • The latter was a randomised comparison of eight cycles of CHOP plus rituximab 375 mg/m(2) intravenously (one dose per cycle) versus CHOP alone in previously untreated elderly patients (60 to 80 years of age) with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Treatment with rituximab is generally well tolerated, particularly in terms of adverse haematological effects and serious or opportunistic infections relative to standard chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clinical trials with rituximab indicate that the drug has broad application to B-cell malignancies, although further clarification is needed to determine its optimal use in many of these clinical settings.
  • Importantly, rituximab in combination with CHOP chemotherapy has emerged as a new treatment standard for previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, at least in elderly patients.
  • Compared with conventional chemotherapy, rituximab is associated with markedly reduced haematological events such as severe neutropenia, as well as associated infections.
  • Rituximab may be particularly suitable for elderly patients or those with poor performance status, and its tolerability profile facilitates its use in combination with cytotoxic drugs.
  • Although treatment with rituximab induces lymphopenia in most patients, typically lasting about 6 months, a full recovery of B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood is usually seen 9-12 months after therapy, as CD20 is not expressed on haematopoietic stem cells.
  • CD20 is, however, expressed on >90% of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) and to a lesser degree on B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells.
  • In addition, in vitro data indicate that rituximab sensitises tumour cells to the effects of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs.
  • PHARMACOKINETIC PROPERTIES: Serum rituximab concentrations increased in proportion to dose across a wide range of single- and multiple-dose intravenous regimens in patients with B-cell NHL.
  • When administered at a dose of 375 mg/m(2) once weekly for 4 weeks in a pivotal trial in patients with relapsed or refractory indolent B-cell NHL (follicular or small lymphocytic subtypes), peak serum concentrations essentially doubled from the first (239.1 mg/L) to the fourth (460.7 mg/L) infusion, while elimination half-life (t(1/2)) increased from 76.3 to 205.8 hours (3.2 to 8.6 days).
  • The pharmacokinetic properties of rituximab are also characterised by wide inter-individual variability, and serum drug concentrations that are correlated with clinical response.
  • Although pharmacokinetic data are limited in patients with aggressive forms of NHL, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, rituximab appears to have a similar pharmacokinetic profile in these patients to that in patients with indolent B-cell NHL.
  • The pharmacokinetics of rituximab are also reported to be similar whether the drug is administered with or without cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy.
  • THERAPEUTIC USE: A number of studies have demonstrated efficacy of intravenous rituximab in patients with various lymphoid malignancies of B-cell origin, including indolent (e.g. follicular lymphoma) and aggressive (e.g. diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) forms of NHL, and CLL, but the drug has not yet been approved for use in CLL, and approved indications in NHL vary between countries.
  • In the US, for example, rituximab is available for the treatment of patients with low-grade or follicular, relapsed or refractory, CD20-positive B-cell NHL.
  • In Europe, the drug has similar approval for relapsed or refractory follicular NHL as in the US, but has also been approved for use in combination with CHOP chemotherapy for the most common aggressive form of NHL (CD20-positive, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma).
  • In Japan, rituximab has been approved for indolent B-cell NHL and mantle cell lymphoma (an aggressive form of B-cell NHL), primarily on the basis of results of a Japanese phase II trial.
  • Indolent NHL: Results of several studies evaluating rituximab 375 mg/m(2) once weekly for 4 weeks in patients with indolent forms of B-cell NHL (primarily follicular and small lymphocytic lymphomas) showed objective response (OR) rates ranging from approximately 40-60% in those receiving the drug for relapsed or refractory indolent B-cell NHL, and slightly higher (50-70%) for those receiving rituximab as first-line therapy.
  • In a pivotal trial in 166 patients with relapsed or refractory low-grade or follicular B-cell NHL, intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed an OR rate of 48%, and a projected median time to progression of 13 months.
  • CHOP, fludarabine-containing regimens) or other drugs (e.g. interferon-alpha2a) in previously untreated patients with indolent forms of B-cell NHL (primarily follicular and small lymphocytic subtypes).
  • Follow-up data from a study in 40 patients with low-grade or follicular B-cell NHL treated with rituximab plus CHOP as first-line therapy showed that responses were durable with a progression-free survival and median duration of response >5 years.Bcl-2 gene rearrangement (t14;18) occurs in malignant cells in up to 85% of patients with follicular lymphoma, and minimal residual disease in peripheral blood and bone marrow can be monitored using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • Aggressive NHL: Studies with rituximab as monotherapy in aggressive B-cell NHL, a potentially curable disorder, have generally been restricted to patients with relapsed or recurrent disease, since CHOP has traditionally been the standard first-line treatment regimen.
  • However, promising results from phase II monotherapy studies prompted further clinical investigation of rituximab in conjunction with chemotherapy.
  • Thus, most studies with rituximab in patients with aggressive forms of B-cell NHL have involved combination therapy, including a pivotal randomised trial comparing eight cycles of standard CHOP therapy plus rituximab 375 mg/m(2) (one dose per cycle) versus CHOP alone in 399 previously untreated elderly patients (60-80 years of age) with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Other, smaller trials with rituximab in combination with CHOP or other chemotherapeutic regimens, either as first-line therapy or for patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive B-cell NHL, have also shown promising results in terms of clinical response rates.CLL: In relatively small trials (n < 40) conducted primarily in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell CLL, rituximab monotherapy (various regimens) achieved OR rates of 23-45%, with median duration of response ranging from approximately 3-10 months. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Rituximab

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  • (PMID = 12662126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Number-of-references] 177
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22. Vose JM, Bierman PJ, Lynch JC, Atkinson K, Juttner C, Hanania CE, Bociek G, Armitage JO: Transplantation of highly purified CD34+Thy-1+ hematopoietic stem cells in patients with recurrent indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2001;7(12):680-7
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  • [Title] Transplantation of highly purified CD34+Thy-1+ hematopoietic stem cells in patients with recurrent indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the results of high-dose chemotherapy and transplantation of highly purified "mobilized" peripheral blood CD34+Thy-1+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in patients with recurrent indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) or mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with recurrent indolent NHL or MCL were mobilized witheither granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone or cyclophosphamide plus G-CSF.
  • Apheresis was performed, and the product was purified using the Isolex immunomagnetic positive CD34+ cell selection device initially and subsequent high-speed flow-cytometric cell sorting for the final purification of CD34+Thy-1+ HSCs.
  • The patients received high-dose chemotherapy with BEAC (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and cyclophosphamide) followed by transplantation with the purified HSCs in 2 dose cohorts (cohort 1: > or =5 x 10(5) viable and pure HSC/kg; cohort 2: > or =3 x 10(5) HSC/kg).
  • Patients in cohort 1 engrafted at a median of day 12 to an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >500/microL, a median of day 19 for platelet transfusion independence, and a median of day 20 for red blood cell transfusion independence.
  • Patients in cohort 2 engrafted at a median of day 12 to an ANC >500/microL, a median of day 12 for platelet transfusion independence, and a median of day 12 for red blood cell transfusion independence.
  • With a median follow-up of 38 months, 8 of the 20 patients have had progressive lymphoma and 5 patients have died.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CD34+Thy-1+ HSCs can be collected successfully from most lymphoma patients mobilized with G-CSF alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Thy-1 / analysis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / toxicity. Biomarkers. Cell Count. Cell Separation. Cohort Studies. Feasibility Studies. Female. Flow Cytometry. Graft Survival. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / cytology. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / immunology. Humans. Immune System / growth & development. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / complications. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11787531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-8791
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, Thy-1; 0 / Biomarkers
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23. Aghajanian C, Blessing JA, Darcy KM, Reid G, DeGeest K, Rubin SC, Mannel RS, Rotmensch J, Schilder RJ, Riordan W, Gynecologic Oncology Group: A phase II evaluation of bortezomib in the treatment of recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian or primary peritoneal cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Nov;115(2):215-20
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  • [Title] A phase II evaluation of bortezomib in the treatment of recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian or primary peritoneal cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible women with recurrent EOC/PPC progressing between 6 and 12 months after initial chemotherapy were treated with bortezomib on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 [1.5 (cohort I) and 1.3 (cohort II) mg/m(2)/dose].
  • Patients must have had initial chemotherapy only.
  • Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) was assessed by computed tomography (CT) scan every 2 cycles.
  • 20S proteasome activity was quantified in three pre-treatment and a 1-hour post-treatment (cycle one, day 1) whole blood lysates.
  • Given concerns that treatment discontinuations due to toxicity limited drug exposure/activity a second cohort of 29 evaluable patients was accrued at 1.3 mg/m(2)/dose.
  • The 1.3 mg/m(2)/dose regimen is currently approved as an indication for multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma.
  • Treatment was more tolerable, although objective responses remained low at 6.9% (2/29, partial responses).
  • Bortezomib effectively inhibited 20S proteasome activity in whole blood lysates between 37 and 92% in 24/25 (96%) patients in cohort I, and 14-84% in 27/28 (96%) patients in cohort II who provided satisfactory pre- and post-treatment specimens for testing.
  • CONCLUSION: Bortezomib has minimal activity as a single-agent in the treatment of recurrent platinum-sensitive EOC/PPC.
  • Treatment with bortezomib at 1.5 mg/m(2)/dose was not feasible in this patient population due to excess toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Boronic Acids / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pyrazines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bortezomib. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Protease Inhibitors / adverse effects. Protease Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19712963.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 11479; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37517; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA27469
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrazines; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
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24. Hosing C, Champlin RE: The choice of allogeneic or autologous hematopoietic transplantation for NHL. Cytotherapy; 2002;4(3):259-69
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  • Although a subset of patients can be cured with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, the outlook is generally poor for patients with refractory or recurrent disease.
  • High-dose therapy supported by both autologous and allogeneic transplantation has been widely studied in this group of patients.
  • Autologous transplantation may be considered standard therapy for patients with diffuse large-cell NHL in chemotherapy-sensitive relapse.
  • A GvL effect leads to a lower rate of disease recurrence than occurs with autologous transplants, but this benefit is offset by higher risk of treatment related mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Transplantation Conditioning
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / therapy. Prognosis. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 12194722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3249
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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25. He H, Cheng L, Weiss LM, Chu PG: Clinical outcome of incidental pelvic node malignant B-cell lymphomas discovered at the time of radical prostatectomy. Leuk Lymphoma; 2007 Oct;48(10):1976-80
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  • [Title] Clinical outcome of incidental pelvic node malignant B-cell lymphomas discovered at the time of radical prostatectomy.
  • Incidental pelvic node malignant B-cell lymphomas diagnosed at the time of radical prostatectomy are rare.
  • Of 13 cases, 9 were chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), 3 marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZL) and 1 mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).
  • All 13 patients did not receive radiation or chemotherapy; and five of 13 cases showed hematologic evidence of lymphoma progression between 1 and 5 months after radical prostatectomy.
  • After progression, the mantle cell lymphoma patient received aggressive chemotherapy and had systemic dissemination.
  • Two of 13 cases had recurrent prostate carcinoma.
  • None of 13 patients had died from lymphoma or prostate carcinoma at the last follow-up.
  • In conclusion, most incidental pelvic node lymphomas (8/13) showed no evidence of systemic dissemination to peripheral blood or bone marrow after a mean 42.8 weeks of follow-up despite the fact that no additional treatment was given.
  • Strong consideration should be given to withholding further treatment in patients diagnosed with pelvic low-grade B-cell lymphoma at the time of radical prostatectomy until disease progression occurs.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / immunology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Prostatectomy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17917966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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26. Robak T, Lech-Maranda E, Janus A, Blonski J, Wierzbowska A, Gora-Tybor J: Cladribine combined with cyclophosphamide and mitoxantrone is an active salvage therapy in advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2007 Jun;48(6):1092-101
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  • [Title] Cladribine combined with cyclophosphamide and mitoxantrone is an active salvage therapy in advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility, efficacy and toxicity of the combined therapy consisting of cladribine (2-CdA), mitoxantrone and cyclophosphamide (CMC regimen) in patients with refractory or relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • Thirty six patients, 14 with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 10 with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 5 with follicular lymphoma (FL), 3 with small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), and 4 with T-cell lymphoma were enrolled to the study.
  • Seven of 19 patients with CR/PR are still in remission with a median follow-up of 3 months (range, 2-17 months).
  • There was a significant difference in OS between responders and nonresponders after CMC therapy (log rank test, P = 0.015).
  • When different disease status before CMC treatment was considered, a trend toward longer survival of recurrent patients was observed (log rank test, P = 0.08).
  • Grade 3-4 neutropenia developed in 14 (39%) patients, and 16 episodes (15%) of grade 3-4 infections were observed.
  • The results of our study show that the CMC regimen is effective salvage therapy with acceptable toxicity in heavily pretreated patients with NHL including MCL and DLBCL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cladribine / adverse effects. Cladribine / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitoxantrone / adverse effects. Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use. Salvage Therapy / adverse effects. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17577772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 47M74X9YT5 / Cladribine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; CMC protocol 2
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27. Friedberg JW, Sharman J, Sweetenham J, Johnston PB, Vose JM, Lacasce A, Schaefer-Cutillo J, De Vos S, Sinha R, Leonard JP, Cripe LD, Gregory SA, Sterba MP, Lowe AM, Levy R, Shipp MA: Inhibition of Syk with fostamatinib disodium has significant clinical activity in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood; 2010 Apr 01;115(13):2578-85
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  • [Title] Inhibition of Syk with fostamatinib disodium has significant clinical activity in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • Certain malignant B cells rely on B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated survival signals.
  • In in vivo analyses of B-cell lymphoma cell lines and primary tumors, Syk inhibition induces apoptosis.
  • These data prompted a phase 1/2 clinical trial of fostamatinib disodium, the first clinically available oral Syk inhibitor, in patients with recurrent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL).
  • Sixty-eight patients with recurrent B-NHL were then enrolled in 3 cohorts:.
  • (1) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), (2) follicular lymphoma (FL), and (3) other NHL, including mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas, and small lymphocytic leukemia/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (SLL/CLL).
  • Disrupting BCR-induced signaling by inhibiting Syk represents a novel and active therapeutic approach for NHL and SLL/CLL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Neoplasm Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Oxazines / therapeutic use. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyridines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Diarrhea / chemically induced. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Hypertension / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Salvage Therapy. Syk Kinase. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19965662.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00446095
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA130805; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-130805
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oxazines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / SYK protein, human; EC 2.7.10.2 / Syk Kinase; SQ8A3S5101 / fostamatinib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2852362
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28. Rieger K, Von Grünhagen U, Fietz T, Thiel E, Knauf W: Efficacy and tolerability of alemtuzumab (CAMPATH-1H) in the salvage treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia--change of regimen needed? Leuk Lymphoma; 2004 Feb;45(2):345-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy and tolerability of alemtuzumab (CAMPATH-1H) in the salvage treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia--change of regimen needed?
  • We report on the response rate and tolerability of Alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) in a series of heavily pretreated patients with B-CLL with a special focus on treatment-related problems.
  • Thirteen patients with B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), 1 prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL), 1 mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and 1 leukemic immunocytoma (IC) transformed into a high-grade NHL were included.
  • All patients received 3, 10 and 30 mg of Campath-1H on sequential days, and then were subsequently scheduled for 30 mg 3 times weekly.
  • Beginning with initiation of treatment recurrent profound leukopenia became evident in 13 out of 16 patients leading to treatment discontinuation.
  • Therefore, we developed a steroid co-medication regimen for the first 4 Campath-1H applications with quick tapering thereafter.
  • Infectious complications leading to treatment discontinuation consisted of pulmonary aspergillosis in one and bacterial pneumonia in another case.
  • In our series, application 3 times weekly was not possible due to hematotoxicity.
  • We recommend, therefore, flexible time intervals depending on the leukocyte counts.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Neoplasm / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, B-Cell / drug therapy. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Female. Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Steroids / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15101722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CD52 antigen; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Steroids; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab
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29. Keating M, O'Brien S: High-dose rituximab therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Semin Oncol; 2000 Dec;27(6 Suppl 12):86-90
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  • [Title] High-dose rituximab therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • Rituximab (Rituxan; Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, CA and IDEC Pharmaceutical Corporation, San Diego, CA) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets mature B cells in most lymphoid B-cell malignancies.
  • Rituximab is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for therapy for recurrent B-cell lymphoma.
  • In initial clinical trials the activity in small lymphocytic lymphoma, the counterpart of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), was less than 20%.
  • In an attempt to increase the level of rituximab activity in CLL, we conducted a phase I dose-escalation study to overcome both the lower CD20 antigen density on CLL cells compared with lymphoma cells and the shorter half-life of rituximab in small lymphocytic lymphoma.
  • Severe toxicity (grades 3 and 4) noted following the first dose of therapy in variant forms of CLL, namely mantle cell lymphoma and prolymphocytic leukemia, was uncommon in typical CLL.
  • Further exploration of the dosing schedule of rituximab in CLL and development of combination therapies is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphoid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antigens, CD20 / physiology. Clinical Protocols. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Recurrence. Rituximab


30. Bashey A, Medina B, Corringham S, Pasek M, Carrier E, Vrooman L, Lowy I, Solomon SR, Morris LE, Holland HK, Mason JR, Alyea EP, Soiffer RJ, Ball ED: CTLA4 blockade with ipilimumab to treat relapse of malignancy after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Blood; 2009 Feb 12;113(7):1581-8
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  • [Title] CTLA4 blockade with ipilimumab to treat relapse of malignancy after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
  • Relapse of malignancy after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) remains a therapeutic challenge.
  • Twenty-nine patients with malignancies that were recurrent or progressive after allo-HCT, received ipilimumab as a single infusion at dose cohorts between 0.1 and 3.0 mg/kg.
  • Organ-specific immune adverse events (IAE) were seen in 4 patients (grade 3 arthritis, grade 2 hyperthyroidism, recurrent grade 4 pneumonitis).
  • Three patients with lymphoid malignancy developed objective disease responses following ipilimumab: complete remission (CR) in 2 patients with Hodgkin disease and partial remission (PR) in a patient with refractory mantle cell lymphoma.

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  • (PMID = 18974373.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00060372
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 9389-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CTLA-4 Antigen; 0 / CTLA4 protein, human; 0 / ipilimumab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2644086
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31. Keating MJ, O'Brien S, Albitar M: Emerging information on the use of rituximab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Semin Oncol; 2002 Feb;29(1 Suppl 2):70-4
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Rituximab (Rituxan; Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, CA, and IDEC Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets mature B cells in most lymphoid B-cell malignancies.
  • While rituximab was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of recurrent B-cell lymphoma, initial studies suggested that it had less activity in small lymphocytic lymphoma, the nodal counterpart of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
  • Two studies have now investigated the activity of higher-dose and more intensive therapy with rituximab in CLL.
  • This is presumably caused by the overcoming of lower antigen density on CLL cells compared with lymphoma cells, and the shorter half-life of rituximab in small lymphocytic lymphoma.
  • There is now evidence that CD20 is shed into the plasma in patients with CLL, which may explain the shorter half-life of the antibody in small lymphocytic lymphoma/CLL.
  • Toxicity was uncommon except in previously untreated patients and those with atypical forms of CLL such as mantle cell lymphoma and prolymphocytic leukemia.
  • There is now evidence in vitro of additive or synergistic activity of rituximab with a variety of chemotherapeutic agents including fludarabine and cyclophosphamide.
  • Combinations of fludarabine with rituximab or these two drugs combined with cyclophosphamide have given very high complete response rates in series of patients with both previously untreated and treated CLL.
  • It is apparent that rituximab is playing a significant role in the management of patients with CLL as salvage therapy and is a potential potentiating agent for combined chemoimmunotherapy strategies for front-line or relapsed patients with CLL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antigens, CD20. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Humans. Rituximab. Vidarabine / administration & dosage. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 by W.B. Saunders Company.
  • (PMID = 11842391.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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