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1. Zidan J, Robenstein W, Abzah A, Taman S: Treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma with vinblastine in patients with disseminated dermal disease. Isr Med Assoc J; 2001 Apr;3(4):251-3
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  • [Title] Treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma with vinblastine in patients with disseminated dermal disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Classic Kaposi's sarcoma is a rare tumor with an indolent behavior.
  • Local therapy is not applicable in disseminated cutaneous disease.
  • Patients with advanced disease are usually treated with systemic chemotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and toxicity of single-agent vinblastine in the treatment of disseminated and recurrent Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • METHODS: Ten patients with wide cutaneous spread of classic Kaposi's sarcoma were treated with single-agent vinblastine, 6 mg/m2 intravenously once every 2 weeks.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Vinblastine is very effective in the treatment of extensive classic 'Kaposi's sarcoma, and results in a high response rate, long survival and disease-free survival with tolerable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Vinblastine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Israel. Jews. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11344835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine
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2. Yildiz F, Genc M, Akyurek S, Cengiz M, Ozyar E, Selek U, Atahan IL: Radiotherapy in the management of Kaposi's sarcoma: comparison of 8 Gy versus 6 Gy. J Natl Med Assoc; 2006 Jul;98(7):1136-9
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy in the management of Kaposi's sarcoma: comparison of 8 Gy versus 6 Gy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the efficacy of a single fraction of high-dose radiotherapy in patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • PATIENTS: Between 1994 and 2004, 47 patients with Kaposi's sarcoma were treated at Hacettepe University, Department of Radiation Oncology.
  • Thirteen (28%) patients received chemotherapy before radiotherapy and were referred due to recurrent or progressive disease or intolerance to chemotherapy.
  • Radiotherapy consisted of a single fraction of 8 Gy in the first four years and 6 Gy thereafter.
  • Of 203 fields treated, 51 and 152 fields were treated with 8 Gy and 6 Gy, respectively.
  • Overall response rates (RR) at 12 months for 8- and 6 Gy were 93% and 86%, which were not statistically different.
  • However, the difference between complete RRs at 12 months (93% and 60% for 8 Gy and 6 Gy respectively) was significant (p<0.0001).
  • CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy is an effective mode of treatment for Kaposi's sarcoma, and a single dose of 8 Gy is more effective in terms of complete RR compared to 6 Gy, though overall response and progression-free survival rates were similar.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Hospitals, Teaching. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Treatment Outcome. Turkey

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  • (PMID = 16895284.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-4693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2569458
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3. Vogel M, Voigt E, Schäfer N, Goldmann G, Schwarz N, Kalff JC, Sauerbruch T, Wolff M, Rockstroh JK, Spengler U: Orthotopic liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients: outcome of 7 patients from the Bonn cohort. Liver Transpl; 2005 Dec;11(12):1515-21
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  • The outcome and clinical features of 7 HIV-positive patients who were liver transplanted at Bonn University in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between 1997 and 2004, analyzed by retrospective chart review, are reported.
  • HAART was reinitiated 1 month after transplantation, and immunosuppression was carefully adapted to account for drug-drug interactions between cyclosporine A and protease inihibitors.
  • The spectrum of postoperative complications was no different from HIV-negative patients apart from Kaposi's sarcoma and multicentric Castleman's disease in a single patient.
  • Recurrent hepatitis B infection was efficiently prevented, whereas hepatitis C reinfection occurred in all 4 patients who had preexisting hepatitis C.
  • Earlier reports on fatal courses of recurrent hepatitis C infection, high rates of organ rejection, and HAART-related liver toxicity were not observed in our patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. DNA, Viral / analysis. Follow-Up Studies. Graft Rejection / prevention & control. HIV Antibodies / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16315295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-6465
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Transpl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / HIV Antibodies
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4. Kawakami K, Kawakami M, Puri RK: Nitric oxide accelerates interleukin-13 cytotoxin-mediated regression in head and neck cancer animal model. Clin Cancer Res; 2004 Aug 1;10(15):5264-70
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  • Receptors for interleukin-13 (IL-13R) are overexpressed on several types of solid cancers including gliobastoma, renal cell carcinoma, AIDS Kaposi's sarcoma, and head and neck cancer.
  • Recombinant fusion proteins IL-13 cytotoxin (IL13-PE38QQR or IL13-PE38) have been developed to directly target IL-13R-expressing cancer cells.
  • Because IL-13 cytotoxin is currently being tested in the clinic for the treatment of patients with recurrent glioblastoma maltiforme, our current findings suggest maintaining macrophage and NO-producing cellular function for optimal therapeutic effect of this targeted agent.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytotoxins / metabolism. Drug Synergism. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Interleukin-13 / biosynthesis. Nitric Oxide / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15297430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytotoxins; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Exotoxins; 0 / IL13-PE38QQR; 0 / Immunotoxins; 0 / Interleukin-13; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 27JT06E6GR / omega-N-Methylarginine; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide
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5. Shahmanesh M, Brooks J, Shaw PJ, Miller RF: Inferior vena cava filters for HIV infected patients with pulmonary embolism and contraindications to anticoagulation. Sex Transm Infect; 2000 Oct;76(5):395-7
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  • Contraindications were concomitant intracerebral pathology in two patients (one also had bleeding from gastric Kaposi's sarcoma and the other was cognitively impaired with HIV associated dementia complex) and alcohol induced liver disease/binge drinking in the third patient.
  • During follow up (7, 8, and 21 months) no complications or recurrent pulmonary emboli occurred.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticoagulants / contraindications. HIV Infections / complications. Pulmonary Embolism / therapy. Vena Cava Filters
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Interactions. Female. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


6. Osawa R, Kato N, Yanagi T, Yamane N: Clearance of recurrent, classical Kaposi's sarcoma using multiple paclitaxel treatments. Acta Derm Venereol; 2007;87(5):435-6
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  • [Title] Clearance of recurrent, classical Kaposi's sarcoma using multiple paclitaxel treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 17721656.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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7. Hsu CH, Chen MY, Cheng AL: Treatment of recurrent Kaposi's sarcoma of an AIDS patient with weekly paclitaxel. Anticancer Res; 2000 Mar-Apr;20(2B):1159-61
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  • [Title] Treatment of recurrent Kaposi's sarcoma of an AIDS patient with weekly paclitaxel.
  • Paclitaxel was recently recognized as an active chemotherapeutic agent for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • Herein, we reported an AIDS-associated KS patient whose disease progressed on the first-line chemotherapy with doxorubicin and bleomycin, but later responded well to weekly 1-hour infusion of 70 mg/m2 paclitaxel.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Diphenhydramine / therapeutic use. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Ranitidine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 10810414.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GREECE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 884KT10YB7 / Ranitidine; 8GTS82S83M / Diphenhydramine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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8. Dhillon T, Stebbing J, Bower M: Paclitaxel for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2005 Apr;5(2):215-9
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  • [Title] Paclitaxel for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Treatment options are limited for patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS).
  • The management of early stage cutaneous AIDS-KS has been revolutionized by the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy and for most patients highly active antiretroviral therapy alone will control early stage AIDS-KS.
  • However, patients with advanced stage Kaposi's sarcoma with visceral disease, tumor-associated edema or extensive oral disease require systemic chemotherapy in addition to antiretrovirals.
  • The standard first-line therapy for these affected individuals is a liposomal anthracycline, and response rates of around 70% are usually achieved.
  • For patients with refractory or recurrent AIDS-KS, treatment algorithms are less well defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Herpesviridae Infections / complications. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15877519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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9. Brambilla L, Labianca R, Ferrucci SM, Taglioni M, Boneschi V: Treatment of classical Kaposi's sarcoma with gemcitabine. Dermatology; 2001;202(2):119-22
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  • [Title] Treatment of classical Kaposi's sarcoma with gemcitabine.
  • BACKGROUND: Several drugs are active in aggressive classical Kaposi's sarcoma (CKS); chemotherapeutic agents with fewer side-effects, more rapid response and able to overcome resistance to previous treatment are advisable when treating patients in a second line.
  • Gemcitabine, an analogue of deoxycytidine with cytotoxic activity in the treatment of solid tumours, has been found to have no serious side-effects.
  • METHODS: Twelve patients with a recurrent aggressive form of CKS previously treated with chemotherapy were treated with gemcitabine.
  • The drug was administered intravenously at the dose of 1.2 g/week for 2 weeks, followed by a 1-week interval, until maximal response was reached.
  • CONCLUSION: This study shows the usefulness of treating patients affected with aggressive CKS with gemcitabine, in order to obtain control of the disease and to reduce the related symptoms as well as to overcome a possible resistance to previous treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 11306832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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10. Tardivo JP, Del Giglio A, Paschoal LH, Baptista MS: New photodynamic therapy protocol to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Photomed Laser Surg; 2006 Aug;24(4):528-31
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  • [Title] New photodynamic therapy protocol to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with phenotiazinium compounds (methylene blue and toluidine blue) and excitation by a non-coherent light source (RL50) to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (Sk-AIDS).
  • BACKGROUND DATA: Sk-AIDS is a malignant disease that is recurrent in AIDS patients.
  • METHODS: A single patient with multiple lesions who had undergone chemotherapy without success was treated with several applications of PDT, and the patient was closely evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Photochemotherapy / methods. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16942436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-5418
  • [Journal-full-title] Photomedicine and laser surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photomed Laser Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Harsch IA, Kraetsch HG, Amann K, Hahn EG, Ficker JH, Konturek PC: Disseminated manifestation of Kaposi's Sarcoma in newly diagnosed AIDS in an african female. Med Sci Monit; 2001 Nov-Dec;7(6):1303-6
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  • [Title] Disseminated manifestation of Kaposi's Sarcoma in newly diagnosed AIDS in an african female.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcomas are the most frequent malignancies in patients with AIDS and there is increasing evidence of an association with human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8).
  • A reconstitution of the immune response due to different regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the most important step in treatment of Kaposi's sarcomas.
  • Local treatment options include the topic application of alitretionin (9-cis-retinoic acid) as a gel, cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen and intralesional vinblastine, as well as local laser or low-dose X-ray treatment.
  • A systemic chemotherapy can be taken under consideration in selected cases with clinical significant visceral lesions or aggressive sarcomatous behavior with anthracyclines, taxanes, as well as an immunomodulatory treatment with alpha Interferon.
  • Hospitalized due to recurrent fever and diarrhea, the diagnosis of AIDS was quickly established.
  • The physical examination revealed multiple nodular, painless skin lesions suspicious of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • In patients with HIV-infection, nodular skin lesions should lead suspicion to Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS Serodiagnosis. Adult. Benzoxazines. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Lamivudine / administration & dosage. Lamivudine / therapeutic use. Nelfinavir / administration & dosage. Nelfinavir / therapeutic use. Oxazines / administration & dosage. Oxazines / therapeutic use. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Stavudine / administration & dosage. Stavudine / therapeutic use


12. Boratyńska M, Zmonarski SC, Klinger M: Reccurence of Kaposi's sarcoma after increased exposure to sirolimus. Int Immunopharmacol; 2006 Dec 20;6(13-14):2018-22
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  • [Title] Reccurence of Kaposi's sarcoma after increased exposure to sirolimus.
  • The conversion to sirolimus treatment is recently indicated as an effective therapy of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in transplant patients.
  • We present two treatment modalities in patients with KS and recurrence of the disease after increasing sirolimus dose.
  • Two patients developed cutaneous tumor; one disseminated disease, including the skin, mediastinal lymph nodes and both lungs.
  • After histological confirmation of KS immunosuppression was minimized: Two were converted to sirolimus (1-2 mg/day, level 5-8 ng/ml) treatment; the third patient discontinued tacrolimus and was administered 1 g/day mycophenolate mofetil.
  • Recurrent disease developed afterwards involving diffuse interstitial infiltrates with nodular changes in both lungs.
  • For the second time the dose of sirolimus was reduced to 1 mg/day (level 4-5 ng/ml) and lung lesions regressed 5 months later.
  • IN CONCLUSION: treatment by low sirolimus or mycophenolate mofetil doses caused regression of KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Transplantation. Sarcoma, Kaposi / chemically induced. Sirolimus / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Mycophenolic Acid / adverse effects. Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Mycophenolic Acid / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 17161356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-5769
  • [Journal-full-title] International immunopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. Immunopharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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13. Dezube BJ, Krown SE, Lee JY, Bauer KS, Aboulafia DM: Randomized phase II trial of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor COL-3 in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: an AIDS Malignancy Consortium Study. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Mar 20;24(9):1389-94
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  • [Title] Randomized phase II trial of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor COL-3 in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: an AIDS Malignancy Consortium Study.
  • PURPOSE: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in tumor metastasis and are overexpressed in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cells.
  • In a phase I trial of the MMP inhibitor COL-3 in patients with AIDS-related KS, the drug was well tolerated, KS regression was observed, and MMP-2 levels decreased significantly in responders compared with nonresponders.
  • Antiretroviral therapy was permitted but not required.
  • Study end points were progressive KS and recurrent dose-limiting toxicity.
  • Fifty-seven patients (76%) had received prior KS therapy.
  • There were significant declines in MMP-2 and MMP-9 plasma levels from baseline to minimum value with treatment (MMP-2, P < .001; MMP-9, P = .001).
  • CONCLUSION: COL-3, when administered as 50 mg/d, is both active and well tolerated in the treatment of AIDS-related KS.
  • COL-3 is a promising agent for the treatment of this opportunistic neoplasm of AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Tetracyclines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / blood. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / blood. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16549833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070047; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070062; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070072; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070080; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA071375; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA083038; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA083118; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA083216; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA70058; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA70081
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tetracyclines; 0 / tetracycline CMT-3; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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14. Gabizon AA: Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin: metamorphosis of an old drug into a new form of chemotherapy. Cancer Invest; 2001;19(4):424-36
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin: metamorphosis of an old drug into a new form of chemotherapy.
  • Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil, Caelyx) is a formulation of doxorubicin in poly(ethylene glycol)-coated (stealth) liposomes with a prolonged circulation time and unique toxicity profile.
  • We review the preclinical and clinical pharmacology as well as recent clinical data obtained in specific cancer types.
  • Doxil liposomes retain the drug payload during circulation and accumulate preferentially in tissues with increased microvascular permeability, as often is the case of tumors.
  • Doxil is probably one of the most active agents in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma and has a definite role in management of recurrent ovarian cancer.
  • The potential of Doxil in the treatment of other cancer types and the opportunities it offers in combination with other drugs and therapeutic modalities are under active investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Alopecia / chemically induced. Anaphylaxis / chemically induced. Animals. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Diseases / chemically induced. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cardiomyopathies / chemically induced. Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Dogs. Drug Carriers. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Drug Hypersensitivity / etiology. Drug Synergism. Female. Forecasting. Half-Life. Humans. Lethal Dose 50. Liposomes. Macrophages / metabolism. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Mice. Mononuclear Phagocyte System / metabolism. Nausea / chemically induced. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rats. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Solubility. Stomatitis / chemically induced. Suspensions. Tissue Distribution. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 11405181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Suspensions; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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15. Ramon I, Libert M, Guillaume MP, Corazza F, Karmali R: Recurrent haemophagocytic syndrome in an HIV-infected patient. Acta Clin Belg; 2010 Jul-Aug;65(4):276-8
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  • [Title] Recurrent haemophagocytic syndrome in an HIV-infected patient.
  • We describe a case of recurrent haemophagocytic syndrome (HS) in an HIV-infected patient.The first episode was associated with active human herpesvirus 8 infection and progressive Kaposi's sarcoma which was successfully treated with splenectomy, foscarnet and chemotherapy.
  • The second episode was triggered by a Clostridium difficile colitis and resolved completely after treatment with metronidazole only.
  • Recurrent HS has rarely been described in adult patients out of the setting of relapsing malignancy or autoimmune disease.The chronic immune dysregulation and suppression due to HIV-infection may predispose our patient to development of associated HS.
  • Rapidly unmasking the causative factor and timely instauration of adequate treatment are critical and may improve outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20954469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1784-3286
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta clinica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Clin Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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16. Chamberlain MC: Recurrent intracranial ependymoma in children: salvage therapy with oral etoposide. Pediatr Neurol; 2001 Feb;24(2):117-21
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ETOPOSIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent intracranial ependymoma in children: salvage therapy with oral etoposide.
  • Chronic oral VP-16 (etoposide) is a chemotherapy regimen with a wide application in oncology and documented efficacy against germ cell tumors, lymphomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, and primary brain tumors.
  • This study was performed to assess the toxicity and activity of chronic oral etoposide in the management of children with recurrent intracranial nondisseminated ependymoma.
  • Twelve children (median age of 8 years) with recurrent ependymoma who were refractory to surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy (carboplatinum or the combination of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) were treated with chronic oral etoposide (50 mg/m(2)/day).
  • Treatment-related complications included the following: alopecia (10 children), diarrhea (6), weight loss (5), anemia (4), neutropenia (3), and thrombocytopenia (3).
  • Three children required transfusion (two with packed red blood cells; two with platelets), and two children developed neutropenic fever.
  • No treatment-related deaths occurred.
  • In this small cohort of children with recurrent intracranial ependymoma, oral etoposide was well tolerated, produced modest toxicity, and had apparent activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11275460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-8994
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
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17. Boeckle E, Boesmueller C, Wiesmayr S, Mark W, Rieger M, Tabarelli D, Graziadei I, Hoefer D, Antretter H, Stelzmueller I, Krugmann J, Zangerle R, Huemer H, Poelzl G, Margreiter R, Bonatti H: Kaposi sarcoma in solid organ transplant recipients: a single center report. Transplant Proc; 2005 May;37(4):1905-9
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  • [Title] Kaposi sarcoma in solid organ transplant recipients: a single center report.
  • BACKGROUND: Human herpes virus (HHV8) is associated with Castleman's disease, primary effusion lymphoma, and the Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • The heart recipient developed a tumor on the planta pedis; one renal recipient, on both legs.
  • Treatment in all cases consisted of reduction in immunosuppression, together with surgery (n = 1), chemotherapy (n = 1), or irradiation (n = 2).
  • One renal recipient died without evidence of recurrent disease from myocardial infarction.
  • The cardiac and two renal recipients are alive between 4 months and 17 years with well-functioning grafts and no evidence of recurrent disease.
  • Nevertheless, awareness of KS is important for early diagnosis and optimal treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Transplantation / physiology. Kidney Transplantation / physiology. Liver Transplantation / physiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Immunosuppression / methods. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15919500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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18. Shetty K: Current role of thalidomide in HIV-positive patients with recurrent aphthous ulcerations. Gen Dent; 2007 Nov-Dec;55(6):537-42
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. THALIDOMIDE .

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  • [Title] Current role of thalidomide in HIV-positive patients with recurrent aphthous ulcerations.
  • Among patients with HIV/AIDS, mucosal lesions of unknown etiology such as recurrent aphthous ulcerations (RAUs) often are unresponsive to standard therapies, resulting in substantial morbidity.
  • Later, it was used as an investigational agent for the treatment of Hansen's disease, Kaposi's sarcoma, myelofibrosis, RAUs, and wasting associated with HIV.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Stomatitis, Aphthous / drug therapy. Thalidomide / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18050580.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6771
  • [Journal-full-title] General dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
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19. Ramírez-Amador VA, Espinosa E, González-Ramírez I, Anaya-Saavedra G, Ormsby CE, Reyes-Terán G: Identification of oral candidosis, hairy leukoplakia and recurrent oral ulcers as distinct cases of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Int J STD AIDS; 2009 Apr;20(4):259-61
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of oral candidosis, hairy leukoplakia and recurrent oral ulcers as distinct cases of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.
  • To document oral manifestations attributable to immune reconstitution, we conducted a longitudinal follow-up of a cohort of HIV+ individuals starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and completing oral pathology follow-up up to 12 weeks after treatment initiation.
  • Among individuals with satisfactory viral response and recovery of > or =50 CD4+ T-cell/microL, eight patients complied with strict IRIS criteria: two developed clinical signs of oral candidosis (OC), two oral ulcers, three HL and one Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Our findings show that cases of OC, HL and recurrent ulcers can be instances of IRIS.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Biomarkers / analysis. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Oral. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / immunology. Humans. Treatment Failure


20. Samantas E, Kalofonos H, Linardou H, Nicolaides C, Mylonakis N, Fountzilas G, Kosmidis P, Skarlos D: Phase II study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin: inactive in recurrent small-cell lung cancer. A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Study. Ann Oncol; 2000 Nov;11(11):1395-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DOXORUBICIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin: inactive in recurrent small-cell lung cancer. A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Study.
  • PURPOSE: Although clinical experience with liposomal doxorubicin is still limited in solid tumours, single agent Caelyx (pegylated liposomal doxorubicin) treatment has shown promising results in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma, metastatic breast and ovarian cancer and anecdotally in other solid tumours.
  • The objective of this multicenter phase II study was to evaluate the safety, tolerance and anti-tumour activity of Caelyx as monotherapy in patients with recurrent SCLC.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 14 patients with recurrent SCLC who had not received prior treatment with doxorubicin, were accrued into this phase II study.
  • All patients had progressed or relapsed after first-line chemotherapy.
  • All but one had achieved objective responses to first-line treatment with median duration of five months (range 2-18 months) but half of them had experienced 'refractory' relapses (within 3-4 months).
  • Study treatment consisted of Caelyx 50 mg/m2 (1-hour i.v infusion every 4 weeks for 6 cycles).
  • The median number of cycles was 2 per patient, with 11 of 14 patients not completing 6 cycles of Caelyx treatment.
  • Overall, treatment was well tolerated with no episodes of grade 4 toxicity and only two episodes of grade 3 toxicities: one of thrombocytopenia and one of prolonged palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE).

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  • (PMID = 11142478.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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21. Roberts MS, Wu ZY, Siebert GA, Anissimov YG, Thompson JF, Smithers BM: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of melphalan in isolated limb infusion for recurrent localized limb malignancy. Melanoma Res; 2001 Aug;11(4):423-31
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MELPHALAN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of melphalan in isolated limb infusion for recurrent localized limb malignancy.
  • It has a lower morbidity in treating localized recurrences and in transit metastases of the limb for tumours such as melanoma, Merkel cell tumour and Kaposi's sarcoma, allowing administration of high concentrations of cytotoxic agent to the affected limb under hypoxic conditions.
  • Melphalan is the preferred cytotoxic agent for the treatment of melanoma by ILP or ILI.
  • The kinetics of drug distribution in the limb was calculated using a two-compartment vascular model, where both tissue and infusate act as well-stirred compartments.
  • Recirculation and wash-out flow rates, tissue concentrations and the permeability surface area product (PS) were calculated.
  • Correlations between the PS value and the drug concentrations in the perfusate and tissue were supported by the results.
  • These data contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of melphalan during ILI in the limb, and offer the opportunity to optimize the drug regimen for patients undergoing ILI.
  • [MeSH-major] Infusion Pumps. Leg. Melphalan / pharmacokinetics. Melphalan / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11479432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan
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22. Régnier-Rosencher E, Barrou B, Marcelin AG, Jacobzone-Leveque C, Cadranel J, Leblond V, Francès C: [Primary effusion lymphoma in two kidney transplant recipients]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Apr;137(4):285-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Lymphome des séreuses chez le transplanté rénal: deux cas.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a highly malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8 infection (KSHV/HHV-8).
  • OBSERVATION: We describe two male kidney transplant recipients, aged 47 and 51 years, followed for Kaposi's sarcoma in skin, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal (GI) tract and lung whose disease was poorly controlled by sirolimus and chemotherapy.
  • Recurrent pleural effusion contrasted with reduction of cutaneous Kaposi lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: The contrast between a very low KHSV viral load in plasma and a very high viral load pleural effusion should alert physicians and prompt suspicion of PEL in Kaposi's sarcoma patients with recurrent serous effusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / etiology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Kidney Transplantation. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / etiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Digestive System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Digestive System Neoplasms / secondary. Digestive System Neoplasms / virology. Fatal Outcome. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / complications. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / virology. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / virology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / cytology. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / virology. Viral Load

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20417362.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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23. Flaitz CM, Nichols CM, Walling DM, Hicks MJ: Plasmablastic lymphoma: an HIV-associated entity with primary oral manifestations. Oral Oncol; 2002 Jan;38(1):96-102
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  • We present a 50 year-old HIV-positive, bisexual, white male with a CD4 count 300/mm(3) and a viral HIV-RNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) load of 237 copies/ml, who developed a painful, purple-red mass in the edentulous area of the maxillary right first molar.
  • In addition, the patient was being managed with antiretroviral therapy and liposomal doxorubicin for recurrent cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • Although oral KS was suspected, the gingival lesions were biopsied because they were refractory to chemotherapy and a lymphoma could not be excluded.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Fatal Outcome. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis


24. Ives NJ, Gazzard BG, Easterbrook PJ: The changing pattern of AIDS-defining illnesses with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)in a London clinic. J Infect; 2001 Feb;42(2):134-9
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  • [Title] The changing pattern of AIDS-defining illnesses with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)in a London clinic.
  • OBJECTIVES: To quantify the progressive impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the incidence of AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) over a 9-year period.
  • Incidence rates for the 12 most frequent ADIs were compared for two time periods, 1990-1995 (pre-HAART) and 1996-1998 (post-HAART), using Poisson regression methods.
  • RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 35 months, 450 (29%) patients had developed AIDS.
  • Between the two time periods there was a significant decrease in the incidence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) by 35% (4.11 per 100 person-years in 1990-1995 vs. 2.67 in 1996-1998;P= 0.007), Kaposi's sarcoma by 34% (3.27 vs. 2.17;P= 0.022) and cryptosporidiosis by 60% (0.76 vs. 0.31;P= 0.029).
  • The incidence of cerebral toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, recurrent bacterial chest infections and dementia remained stable.
  • There was a clear stepwise reduction in the incidence of PCP, Kaposi's sarcoma and cryptosporidiosis with the use of non-H AART and HAART regimens relative to no ART.
  • In a multivariate analysis, the use of ART and HAART explained the progressive decrease in incidence of PCP and Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • The striking reduction in the inci-dence of PCP and Kaposi's sarcoma since 1996 can be attributed to the use of combination ART and particularly HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV-1
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Candidiasis / epidemiology. Cohort Studies. Cryptosporidiosis / epidemiology. Cryptosporidiosis / etiology. Cryptosporidium. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Incidence. London / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Male. Mycobacterium avium Complex. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection / epidemiology. Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pharyngeal Diseases / epidemiology. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / epidemiology. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Tuberculosis / epidemiology. Tuberculosis / etiology


25. Duggal MS, Abudiak H, Dunn C, Tong HJ, Munyombwe T: Effect of CD4+ lymphocyte count, viral load, and duration of taking anti-retroviral treatment on presence of oral lesions in a sample of South African children with HIV+/AIDS. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent; 2010 Oct;11(5):242-6
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  • [Title] Effect of CD4+ lymphocyte count, viral load, and duration of taking anti-retroviral treatment on presence of oral lesions in a sample of South African children with HIV+/AIDS.
  • AIMS: This was to determine the presence and types of oral mucosal lesions in a sample of HIV(+)/AIDS South African children taking antiretroviral therapy and to investigate the relationship between CD4(+) lymphocyte counts, viral load, duration of taking antiretroviral therapy (DART), and age on presence of oral lesions.
  • RESULTS: Oral Candidiasis was the most common lesion reported in 19/56 children, followed by Recurrent Herpetic Infection in 9 children.
  • Other lesions such as Kaposi's sarcoma, Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia, Oral Hairy Leukoplakia, Linear Gingival Erythema, and oral ulceration were also present.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy. Mouth Diseases / diagnosis. Viral Load / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Adolescent. Age Factors. Candidiasis, Oral / diagnosis. Child. Child, Preschool. Erythema / diagnosis. Female. Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Gingival Diseases / epidemiology. Humans. Infant. Leukoplakia, Hairy / diagnosis. Male. Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. South Africa. Stomatitis, Herpetic / diagnosis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20932399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1818-6300
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of paediatric dentistry : official journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Paediatr Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
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26. Di Benedetto F, Di Sandro S, De Ruvo N, Berretta M, Montalti R, Guerrini GP, Ballarin R, De Blasiis MG, Spaggiari M, Smerieri N, Iemmolo RM, Guaraldi G, Gerunda GE: Human immunodeficiency virus and liver transplantation: our point of view. Transplant Proc; 2008 Jul-Aug;40(6):1965-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been able to improve the immune system function and survival of HIV patients with a consequent increase in the number of HIV patients affected by end-stage liver disease (ESLD).
  • METHODS: All patients were treated with HAART before transplantation; treatment was interrupted on transplantation day and was restarted once the patients' conditions stabilized.
  • Four patients suffered from a cholestatic HCV recurrent hepatitis treated with antiviral therapy (peginterferon and Ribavirin).
  • DISCUSSION: The outcome of liver transplantation in HIV patients was influenced by infections (HCV, CMV, and EBV) and Kaposi's Sarcoma.
  • Drug interaction between HAART and immunosuppressants occurs; longer follow-up and better experience may improve the management of these drug interactions.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Hepatitis C / complications. Hepatitis C / surgery. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Liver Failure / complications. Liver Failure / surgery. Liver Transplantation / contraindications. Liver Transplantation / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. HIV Seropositivity. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma, Kaposi. Tissue Donors. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis


27. Valbuena JR, Levenback C, Mansfield P, Liu J: Angiosarcoma of the spleen clinically presenting as metastatic ovarian cancer. A case report and review of the literature. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2005 Oct;9(5):289-92
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  • Grossly, this neoplasm appears as hemorrhagic and/or cystic nodules, with a low-density signal seen on computed tomographic scans.
  • The differential diagnosis includes a variety of benign and malignant vascular proliferations (littoral cell angioma and Kaposi's sarcoma) as well as metastatic tumors.
  • We report a case of the 43-year-old woman with a long-standing history of recurrent ovarian carcinoma treated with surgery and multiple courses of radiation therapy and chemotherapy who clinically appeared to have a metastatic ovarian cancer to the spleen and treated with partial resection of stomach and splenectomy.


28. Baccaglini L, Atkinson JC, Patton LL, Glick M, Ficarra G, Peterson DE: Management of oral lesions in HIV-positive patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2007 Mar;103 Suppl:S50.e1-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate the evidence for treatment of the most common oral lesions associated with HIV: oral candidiasis with or without oropharyngeal involvement (OPC), oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL), recurrent aphthous-like ulcerations (RAU), oral Kaposi's sarcoma (OKS), orolabial herpes simplex infection (HSV), oral herpes zoster infection (VZV), intraoral or perioral warts (HPV), and HIV-associated periodontal diseases.
  • Treatment of HIV-associated salivary gland disease is addressed in a different section of this World Workshop.
  • We found the largest body of evidence for treatment of OPC in HIV patients.
  • Future trials will be needed to test drugs currently in development for treatment of Candida strains that are resistant to existing therapies.
  • There were no double blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (RCT) for topical treatment of OHL, and only one RCT for systemic treatment of the lesion with desciclovir.
  • Systemic thalidomide was the only drug tested in RCT for treatment or prevention of RAU.
  • Only 1 double-blind RCT comparing vinblastine and sodium tetradecyl sulfate was identified for localized treatment of OKS.
  • Three drugs (famciclovir, acyclovir, and valaciclovir) were shown to be effective in randomized, double-blind trials for treatment or suppression of mucocutaneous HSV lesions in HIV patients.
  • In all 3 trials, the effects of these medications on orolabial HSV lesions were not reported separately.
  • There were no double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT testing topical treatments for orolabial HSV lesions in HIV patients.
  • No trials testing treatments of oral VZV were identified.
  • There were no double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT for treatment of HIV-associated intraoral or perioral warts or periodontal diseases.
  • In conclusion, there is a need for well-designed RCTs to assess the safety and efficacy of topical and systemic treatments of most oral mucosal and perioral lesions in HIV patients.
  • There is also a need to develop newer drugs for treatment of resistant fungal and viral microorganisms.
  • Finally, standardized outcome measures should be developed for future clinical trials to allow comparisons of studies using different populations.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Herpes Simplex / drug therapy. Mouth Diseases / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Mouth Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mouth Neoplasms / virology. Periodontitis / virology. Warts / therapy. Warts / virology

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  • (PMID = 17379155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R13 DE016480
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 187
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29. Tejada-Berges T, Granai CO, Gordinier M, Gajewski W: Caelyx/Doxil for the treatment of metastatic ovarian and breast cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2002 Apr;2(2):143-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Caelyx/Doxil for the treatment of metastatic ovarian and breast cancer.
  • The FDA and EMEA have approved its use for the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma and, more recently, for recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
  • Numerous investigations have focused on its use in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, as well as recurrent squamous cell cervical carcinoma, soft tissue sarcoma, squamous head and neck cancers, prostate cancers and malignant gliomas.
  • Ongoing clinical studies of combination regimens incorporating Caelyx/Doxil will further clarify its role in the treatment of advanced solid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clinical Trials as Topic / methods. Clinical Trials as Topic / statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy


30. Biel MA: Photodynamic therapy of head and neck cancers. Methods Mol Biol; 2010;635:281-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy of head and neck cancers.
  • These patients include a mixture of presentations including primary, recurrent, and metastatic lesions.
  • The predominant histology is squamous cell carcinoma, but other histologies treated include mucosal melanoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, adenocarcinoma, metastatic breast carcinoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • Several multi-institutional phase II clinical trials evaluating PDT treatment of head and neck cancers have demonstrated the efficacy of this minimally invasive therapy in the treatment of early oropharyngeal primary and recurrent cancers as well as the palliative treatment of refractory head and neck cancers.
  • Of 518 patients treated with Cis, T1, or T2 cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and nasopharynx, 462 (89.1%) obtained a complete clinical response after one PDT treatment.
  • Photodynamic therapy is as effective as conventional therapies for the treatment of early (Cis, T1, T2) squamous cell cancers of the head and neck.
  • It is also a promising therapy to be used in association with surgery to increase tumor-free margins and therefore increase cure rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20552353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6029
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Kawakami K, Kawakami M, Puri RK: Overexpressed cell surface interleukin-4 receptor molecules can be successfully targeted for antitumor cytotoxin therapy. Crit Rev Immunol; 2001;21(1-3):299-310
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  • [Title] Overexpressed cell surface interleukin-4 receptor molecules can be successfully targeted for antitumor cytotoxin therapy.
  • This agent showed remarkable antitumor activity in AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma, glioblastoma multiforme, and breast cancer models in immunodeficient animals. cpIL4-PE caused partial or complete regression of established human tumors.
  • Preclinical efficacy and toxicity studies provided a therapeutic window in which this cancer-targeted agent could be used.
  • On the basis of these studies, we initiated a Phase I clinical trial for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme.
  • Our preliminary clinical results suggest that cpIL4-PE has antitumor activity against the deadliest form of brain tumors, without detectable toxicity to normal brain tissues.
  • Thus, IL-4 receptors represent novel targets for cancer cytotoxin therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Immunotoxins / therapeutic use. Receptors, Interleukin-4 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic. Humans. Interleukin-4. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 11642612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8401
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunotoxins; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-4; 0 / interleukin 4 (38-37)-PE38KDEL; 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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32. Greenspan D, Komaroff E, Redford M, Phelan JA, Navazesh M, Alves ME, Kamrath H, Mulligan R, Barr CE, Greenspan JS: Oral mucosal lesions and HIV viral load in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2000 Sep 1;25(1):44-50
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • No significant differences were found for recurrent aphthous ulcers, herpes simplex lesions, or papillomas.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma was seen in 0.5% of HIV-positive and 0% of HIV-negative women.
  • Using multiple logistic regression models controlling for use of antiretrovirals and antifungals, in HIV-positive women the presence of oral candidiasis was associated with a CD4 count <200 cells/microl, cigarette smoking, and heroin/methadone use; the presence of hairy leukoplakia was not related to CD4 count but was associated with high viral load.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / virology. Adolescent. Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Candidiasis, Oral / complications. Candidiasis, Oral / drug therapy. Candidiasis, Oral / epidemiology. Female. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Seropositivity. Humans. Leukoplakia, Hairy / complications. Leukoplakia, Hairy / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Oral Ulcer / complications. Oral Ulcer / epidemiology. Prevalence. RNA, Viral / analysis. Regression Analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Viral Load






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