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1. Hochberg F, Grossman SA, Mikkelsen T, Glantz M, Fisher JD, Piantadosi S: Lack of efficacy of 9-aminocamptothecin in adults with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme and recurrent high-grade astrocytoma. NABTT CNS Consortium. Neuro Oncol; 2000 01;2(1):29-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lack of efficacy of 9-aminocamptothecin in adults with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme and recurrent high-grade astrocytoma. NABTT CNS Consortium.
  • Fifty-one patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme received 9-AC treatment prior to radiation therapy and 48 patients with high-grade astrocytomas were treated at the time of tumor recurrence.
  • The study specified that all apparent responders would have central review of their radiologic studies and histopathology.
  • The initial patients treated with 9-AC were also receiving anticonvulsants and were noted to have minimal myelosuppression with this chemotherapy.
  • We defined these MTDs to be 1,776 microg/m2/24 h for newly diagnosed, previously untreated patients and 1,611 microg/m2/24 h for patients with recurrent disease.
  • Of these, 18 had evaluable disease on central review, and 0 of 18 (0%) demonstrated a partial or complete response.
  • Twenty-one patients with recurrent high-grade astrocytomas were treated at 1,611 microg/m2/24 h; 20 had evaluable disease and 0 of 20 (0%) had a partial or complete response.
  • Evidence of drug failure was rapid with tumor progression in one-half of patients after 2 drug cycles.
  • 9-AC lacks evidence of substantial activity in patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent high-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Camptothecin / therapeutic use. Glioblastoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retreatment. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 11302251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA6406-07
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5MB77ICE2Q / 9-aminocamptothecin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1920695
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2. Grossman SA, Carson KA, Phuphanich S, Batchelor T, Peereboom D, Nabors LB, Lesser G, Hausheer F, Supko JG, New Approaches to Brain Tumor Therapy CNS Consortium: Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of karenitecin in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Aug;10(4):608-16
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  • [Title] Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of karenitecin in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • This phase I clinical trial was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of karenitecin in adults with recurrent malignant glioma (MG), to describe the effects of enzyme-inducing antiseizure drugs (EIASDs) on its pharmacokinetics, and to obtain preliminary evidence of activity.
  • Karenitecin was administered intravenously over 60 min daily for 5 consecutive days every 3 weeks to adults with recurrent MG who had no more than one prior chemotherapy regimen.
  • Treatment was continued until disease progression or treatment-related dose-limiting toxicity (DLT).
  • This schedule of karenitecin, a novel lipophilic camptothecin analogue, has little activity in recurrent MG.

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  • (PMID = 18577560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA62475; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA062475; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30-CA0516; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA105689; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA105689
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 24R60NVC41 / cositecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2666235
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3. Gururangan S, Chi SN, Young Poussaint T, Onar-Thomas A, Gilbertson RJ, Vajapeyam S, Friedman HS, Packer RJ, Rood BN, Boyett JM, Kun LE: Lack of efficacy of bevacizumab plus irinotecan in children with recurrent malignant glioma and diffuse brainstem glioma: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jun 20;28(18):3069-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lack of efficacy of bevacizumab plus irinotecan in children with recurrent malignant glioma and diffuse brainstem glioma: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study.
  • PURPOSE: A phase II study of bevacizumab (BVZ) plus irinotecan (CPT-11) was conducted in children with recurrent malignant glioma (MG) and intrinsic brainstem glioma (BSG).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients received two doses of BVZ intravenously (10 mg/kg) 2 weeks apart and then BVZ plus CPT-11 every 2 weeks until progressive disease, unacceptable toxicity, or a maximum of 2 years of therapy.
  • Median time to progression for all 34 eligible patients enrolled was 127 days for MG and 71 days for BSG.
  • Toxicities related to BVZ included grade 1 to 3 fatigue in seven patients, grade 1 to 2 hypertension in seven patients, grade 1 CNS hemorrhage in four patients, and grade 4 CNS ischemia in two patients.
  • Vascular permeability parameters did not change significantly after therapy in either stratum.
  • CONCLUSION: BVZ plus CPT-11 was well-tolerated but had minimal efficacy in children with recurrent malignant glioma and brainstem glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Child. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Humans. Phosphorylation. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20479404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000188; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA081457; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01RR00188; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA81457
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0H43101T0J / irinotecan; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2903337
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4. Iwamoto FM, Lamborn KR, Robins HI, Mehta MP, Chang SM, Butowski NA, Deangelis LM, Abrey LE, Zhang WT, Prados MD, Fine HA: Phase II trial of pazopanib (GW786034), an oral multi-targeted angiogenesis inhibitor, for adults with recurrent glioblastoma (North American Brain Tumor Consortium Study 06-02). Neuro Oncol; 2010 Aug;12(8):855-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II trial of pazopanib (GW786034), an oral multi-targeted angiogenesis inhibitor, for adults with recurrent glioblastoma (North American Brain Tumor Consortium Study 06-02).
  • The objective of this phase II single-arm study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pazopanib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, -2, and -3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha and -beta, and c-Kit, in recurrent glioblastoma.
  • Patients with < or =2 relapses and no prior anti-VEGF/VEGFR therapy were treated with pazopanib 800 mg daily on 4-week cycles without planned interruptions.
  • Brain magnetic resonance imaging and clinical reassessment were made every 8 weeks.
  • Grade 3/4 toxicities included leukopenia (n = 1), lymphopenia (n = 2), thrombocytopenia (n = 1), ALT elevation (n = 3), AST elevation (n = 1), CNS hemorrhage (n = 1), fatigue (n = 1), and thrombotic/embolic events (n = 3); 8 patients required dose reduction.
  • Two patients had a partial radiographic response by standard bidimensional measurements, whereas 9 patients (6 at the 8-week point and 3 only within the first month of treatment) had decreased contrast enhancement, vasogenic edema, and mass effect but <50% reduction in tumor.
  • The median PFS was 12 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8-14 weeks) and only 1 patient had a PFS time > or =6 months (PFS6 = 3%).
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Pyrimidines / administration & dosage. Sulfonamides / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20200024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00459381
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA062421-12; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5-U01CA62399-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA62421-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA062421; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01RR03186; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62399
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Sulfonamides; 7RN5DR86CK / pazopanib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940686
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5. Kamoshima Y, Sawamura Y, Ikeda J, Shirato H, Aoyama H: Late recurrence and salvage therapy of CNS germinomas. J Neurooncol; 2008 Nov;90(2):205-11

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Late recurrence and salvage therapy of CNS germinomas.
  • Central nervous system (CNS) germinoma is a curable tumor and its recurrence rate after initial therapy may be approximately 10% or higher.
  • This study elucidates the time-course of recurrence and results of salvage therapy.
  • Twenty-five patients with recurrent germinoma treated at Hokkaido University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed.
  • The median age at initial treatment was 12 years (range: 8-37).
  • All patients had been tumor-free for at least 6 months after the initial treatment.
  • The median age at first recurrence was 18 years and the median time to the first recurrence was 50 months.
  • The latest recurrence in a patient occurred 230 months after the initial treatment.
  • The results of salvage therapy were estimated in all 25 patients.
  • Seventeen patients (68%) were salvaged and were tumor-free at the final observation.
  • At first recurrence, 11 patients were treated using radiation therapy with or without surgery and 7 out of the 11 patients died due to the recurrent tumor.
  • On the other hand, 13 patients who received salvage chemotherapy and radiotherapy were tumor-free at the last follow-up.
  • In conclusion, late recurrence is not a rare event in patients with CNS germinoma.
  • As a salvage therapy, platinum-based chemotherapy followed by wide-field low-dose radiation therapy appears to be effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / prevention & control. Germinoma / prevention & control. Salvage Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Secondary Prevention. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18604473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Modak S, Gardner S, Dunkel IJ, Balmaceda C, Rosenblum MK, Miller DC, Halpern S, Finlay JL: Thiotepa-based high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue in patients with recurrent or progressive CNS germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2004 May 15;22(10):1934-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thiotepa-based high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue in patients with recurrent or progressive CNS germ cell tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) followed by autologous stem-cell rescue (ASCR) in patients with relapsed or progressive CNS germ cell tumors (GCTs).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with CNS GCTs who experienced relapse or progression despite having received initial chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy were treated with thiotepa-based HDC regimens followed by ASCR.
  • CONCLUSION: Dose escalation of chemotherapy followed by ASCR is effective therapy for patients with recurrent CNS germinomas and might be effective in patients with recurrent NGGCTs with a low tumor burden.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Germinoma / therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Thiotepa / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Medical Records. New York. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15143087.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa
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7. Khatua S, Dhall G, O'Neil S, Jubran R, Villablanca JG, Marachelian A, Nastia A, Lavey R, Olch AJ, Gonzalez I, Gilles F, Nelson M, Panigrahy A, McComb G, Krieger M, Fan J, Sposto R, Finlay JL: Treatment of primary CNS germinomatous germ cell tumors with chemotherapy prior to reduced dose whole ventricular and local boost irradiation. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Jul 15;55(1):42-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CARBOPLATIN .

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  • [Title] Treatment of primary CNS germinomatous germ cell tumors with chemotherapy prior to reduced dose whole ventricular and local boost irradiation.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a reduced irradiation dose strategy for newly diagnosed primary central nervous system (CNS) germinomas.
  • In 18 patients, chemotherapy was followed by whole ventricular irradiation to 21.6-25.5 Gy with a simultaneous integrated or sequential primary site boost to 30-30.6 Gy.
  • Initial tumor markers for beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCGbeta) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were evaluated in serum and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
  • Neurocognitive function was evaluated periodically following treatment.
  • RESULTS: Eighteen of 20 patients are without evidence of residual or recurrent tumor.
  • Both relapsing patients were subsequently determined to harbor malignant non-germinomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT).
  • CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy followed by reduced dose whole ventricular and local boost irradiation appears to be effective in patients with localized pure CNS germinoma with evidence of preservation of neurocognitive function.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Germinoma / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Etoposide / adverse effects. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20222020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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8. Fouladi M, Stewart CF, Blaney SM, Onar-Thomas A, Schaiquevich P, Packer RJ, Gajjar A, Kun LE, Boyett JM, Gilbertson RJ: Phase I trial of lapatinib in children with refractory CNS malignancies: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Sep 20;28(27):4221-7
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  • [Title] Phase I trial of lapatinib in children with refractory CNS malignancies: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study.
  • PURPOSE: To estimate the maximum-tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and pharmacokinetic properties of lapatinib, a selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ERBB2 inhibitor, in children with refractory or recurrent CNS malignancies.
  • Expression of the four ERBB receptors and downstream signaling elements in tumor tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemistry.
  • Lapatinib dosage was related linearly to area under the [concentration-time] curve from start time to 12 hours later (AUC(0-12)) and dose-normalized maximum serum concentration and AUC values for patients in stratum II were both significantly higher (P = .001) than those for patients in stratum I.
  • Frequent, high-level expression of activated (phosphorylated) EGFR and ERBB2 receptors and downstream signal intermediates were observed in tumors, particularly in ependymomas that displayed prolonged stable disease on lapatinib therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Lapatinib is well tolerated in children with recurrent CNS malignancies, with rash, diarrhea, and fatigue identified as DLTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Quinazolines / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Diarrhea / chemically induced. Exanthema / chemically induced. Fatigue / chemically induced. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Phosphorylation. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / antagonists & inhibitors. Steroids / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome. United States. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20713864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA081457; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA81457
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Steroids; 0VUA21238F / lapatinib; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2953974
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9. Olivi A, Grossman SA, Tatter S, Barker F, Judy K, Olsen J, Bruce J, Hilt D, Fisher J, Piantadosi S, New Approaches to Brain Tumor Therapy CNS Consortium: Dose escalation of carmustine in surgically implanted polymers in patients with recurrent malignant glioma: a New Approaches to Brain Tumor Therapy CNS Consortium trial. J Clin Oncol; 2003 May 1;21(9):1845-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Carmustine .

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  • [Title] Dose escalation of carmustine in surgically implanted polymers in patients with recurrent malignant glioma: a New Approaches to Brain Tumor Therapy CNS Consortium trial.
  • PURPOSE: This New Approaches to Brain Tumor Therapy CNS Consortium study sought to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of carmustine (BCNU) that can be implanted in biodegradable polymers following resection of recurrent high-grade gliomas and the systemic BCNU exposure with increasing doses of interstitial BCNU.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-four adults underwent tumor debulking and polymer placement.
  • RESULTS: No dose-limiting toxicities were identified at the 6.5%, 10%, or 14.5% dose levels, although difficulties with wound healing, seizures, and brain edema were noted.
  • At the 20% dose, these effects seemed more prominent, and six additional patients were treated at this dose and tolerated treatment well.
  • Three of four patients receiving the 28% polymers developed severe brain edema and seizures, and accrual to this cohort was stopped.
  • This polymer provides five times more BCNU than standard commercially available BCNU polymers and results in minimal systemic BCNU exposure.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carmustine / administration & dosage. Glioma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Absorbable Implants. Adult. Aged. Biocompatible Materials. Brain Edema / chemically induced. Female. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Polymers. Seizures / chemically induced. Survival

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  • (PMID = 12721262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-62475
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Polymers; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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10. Terasaki M, Bouffet E, Katsuki H, Fukushima S, Shigemori M: Pilot trial of the rate of response, safety, and tolerability of temozolomide and oral VP-16 in patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant central nervous system tumors. Surg Neurol; 2008 Jan;69(1):46-50
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DACARBAZINE .

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  • [Title] Pilot trial of the rate of response, safety, and tolerability of temozolomide and oral VP-16 in patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant central nervous system tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the response and toxicity of patients with recurrent or treatment-induced brain tumors to TMZ and oral VP-16.
  • METHODS: Eleven patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant CNS tumors, including treatment-induced PNET (in 1 patient), brainstem glioma (in 3 patients; 1 with treatment-induced, 2 with recurrence), recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma (in 3 patients), and recurrent glioblastoma (in 4 patients) were evaluated in a pilot study of TMZ and oral VP-16 chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: None experienced major acute toxicity related to TMZ and oral VP-16 during a total of 52 treatment courses.
  • Five (45%) of 11 patients showed a PR to treatment.
  • Among the 11 patients enrolled, 7 patients are alive with disease at a median of 9 months from time of study entry.
  • The histologic subtype of the tumor, its location, and its maximum response to chemotherapy did not have an impact on the duration of disease control.
  • CONCLUSION: This limited pilot study confirms the innocuousness and the activity of the combination of TMZ and oral VP-16 in recurrent malignant brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18054615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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11. Székessy DP, Stoltenburg-Didinger G: Differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis in primary and recurrent primitive neuroectodermal tumors of childhood. Childs Nerv Syst; 2001 May;17(6):320-7
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  • [Title] Differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis in primary and recurrent primitive neuroectodermal tumors of childhood.
  • Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) of the CNS are a group of embryonal tumors composed of small undifferentiated or poorly differentiated cells.
  • In this study 31 PNETs, including 5 recurrent tumors, were examined.
  • All children underwent neurosurgery and chemotherapy according to the HIT and HIT-SKK protocols.
  • The proportion of apoptotic cells could not be related to the effect of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / physiology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Division / physiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain / pathology. Brain / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 11417411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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12. Grossman SA, Phuphanich S, Lesser G, Rozental J, Grochow LB, Fisher J, Piantadosi S, New Approaches to Brain Tumor Therapy CNS Consortium: Toxicity, efficacy, and pharmacology of suramin in adults with recurrent high-grade gliomas. J Clin Oncol; 2001 Jul 01;19(13):3260-6
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • [Title] Toxicity, efficacy, and pharmacology of suramin in adults with recurrent high-grade gliomas.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the toxicity, efficacy, and pharmacology of suramin in patients with recurrent or progressive recurrent high-grade gliomas.
  • RESULTS: Drug-related toxicities were modest and reversible.
  • Three patients developed grade 3 to 4 neutropenia, constipation, diarrhea, or nausea.
  • No CNS bleeding was observed.
  • Median time to progression was 55 days (range, 17 to 242 days) and median survival was 191 days (range, 42 to 811 days).
  • One patient who "progressed" after 12 weeks of suramin had a subsequent marked reduction in tumor size and has maintained an excellent partial response for over 2 years without other therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that suramin is well tolerated by patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas and may have efficacy in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Suramin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11432894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA62475
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6032D45BEM / Suramin
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13. Vredenburgh JJ, Desjardins A, Herndon JE 2nd, Marcello J, Reardon DA, Quinn JA, Rich JN, Sathornsumetee S, Gururangan S, Sampson J, Wagner M, Bailey L, Bigner DD, Friedman AH, Friedman HS: Bevacizumab plus irinotecan in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Oct 20;25(30):4722-9
ClinicalTrials.gov. clinical trials - ClinicalTrials.gov .

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  • [Title] Bevacizumab plus irinotecan in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme.
  • PURPOSE: The prognosis for patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme is poor, with a median survival of 3 to 6 months.
  • The dose of irinotecan was based on the patient's anticonvulsant: Patients taking enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs) received 340 mg/m2, and patients not taking EIAEDs received 125 mg/m2.
  • After this regimen was deemed safe and effective, the irinotecan schedule was changed to an accepted brain tumor regimen of four doses in 6 weeks, in anticipation of a phase III randomized trial of irinotecan versus irinotecan and bevacizumab.
  • One patient developed a CNS hemorrhage, which occurred in his 10th cycle.
  • Four patients developed thromboembolic complications (deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary emboli).
  • CONCLUSION: Bevacizumab and irinotecan is an effective treatment for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme and has moderate toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2008 Apr;5(4):186-7 [18285760.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2007 Oct 20;25(30):4705-6 [17947716.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Nov 10;26(32):5304-5; author reply 5305 [18854564.001]
  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2008 May;4(5):242-3 [18212790.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Feb 20;26(6):1012-3; author reply 1013 [18281677.001]
  • (PMID = 17947719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 4 R37 CA11898; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 P50 CA108786; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 5 P50 NS20023
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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14. Kunwar S, Prados MD, Chang SM, Berger MS, Lang FF, Piepmeier JM, Sampson JH, Ram Z, Gutin PH, Gibbons RD, Aldape KD, Croteau DJ, Sherman JW, Puri RK, Cintredekin Besudotox Intraparenchymal Study Group: Direct intracerebral delivery of cintredekin besudotox (IL13-PE38QQR) in recurrent malignant glioma: a report by the Cintredekin Besudotox Intraparenchymal Study Group. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Mar 1;25(7):837-44
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • [Title] Direct intracerebral delivery of cintredekin besudotox (IL13-PE38QQR) in recurrent malignant glioma: a report by the Cintredekin Besudotox Intraparenchymal Study Group.
  • PURPOSE: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain tumor with a median survival of 6 months after recurrence.
  • Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a locoregional-administration method leading to high-tissue concentrations with large volume of distributions.
  • We assessed the use of intracerebral CED to deliver CB in patients with recurrent malignant glioma (MG).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three phase I clinical studies evaluated intracerebral CED of CB along with tumor resection.
  • The main objectives were to assess the tolerability of various concentrations and infusion durations; tissue distribution; and methods for optimizing delivery.
  • All patients underwent tumor resection followed by a single intraparenchymal infusion (in addition to the intraparenchymal one following resection), with a portion of patients who had a preresection intratumoral infusion.
  • The maximum tolerated intraparenchymal concentration was 0.5 microg/mL and tumor necrosis was observed at this concentration.
  • Postoperative catheter placement appears to be important for optimal drug distribution.
  • CB- and procedure-related adverse events were primarily limited to the CNS.
  • CED is a complex delivery method requiring catheter placement via a second procedure to achieve accurate catheter positioning, better drug distribution, and better outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Exotoxins / administration & dosage. Glioma / drug therapy. Immunotoxins / administration & dosage. Interleukin-13 / administration & dosage. Supratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Catheterization. Convection. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 17327604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Exotoxins; 0 / IL13-PE38QQR; 0 / Immunotoxins; 0 / Interleukin-13
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15. Phuphanich S, Carson KA, Grossman SA, Lesser G, Olson J, Mikkelsen T, Desideri S, Fisher JD, New Approaches to Brain Tumor Therapy (NABTT) CNS Consortium: Phase I safety study of escalating doses of atrasentan in adults with recurrent malignant glioma. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Aug;10(4):617-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase I safety study of escalating doses of atrasentan in adults with recurrent malignant glioma.
  • Patients with recurrent malignant glioma received oral atrasentan at >or=10 mg/day.
  • Patients were evaluated for response every 8 weeks and remained on the study until the tumor progressed or toxicities occurred.
  • Twenty-two patients had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 2 had anaplastic astrocytoma, and 1 had an anaplastic oliogodendroglioma; 24 patients had received one prior chemo therapy regimen before being enrolled in the study.
  • One patient developed grade 3 hypoxia and peripheral edema at a dose of 90 mg/day.
  • We conclude that the MTD of daily oral atrasentan in patients with recurrent malignant glioma is 70 mg/day.
  • Further study of atrasentan with radiation therapy and temozolomide in newly diagnosed GBM is warranted to evaluate the efficacy of this novel agent.

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  • (PMID = 18477765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA062406; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA062475; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA62406; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA-62475
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Pyrrolidines; V6D7VK2215 / atrasentan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2666236
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16. Garcia AA, Hirte H, Fleming G, Yang D, Tsao-Wei DD, Roman L, Groshen S, Swenson S, Markland F, Gandara D, Scudder S, Morgan R, Chen H, Lenz HJ, Oza AM: Phase II clinical trial of bevacizumab and low-dose metronomic oral cyclophosphamide in recurrent ovarian cancer: a trial of the California, Chicago, and Princess Margaret Hospital phase II consortia. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jan 1;26(1):76-82
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  • [Title] Phase II clinical trial of bevacizumab and low-dose metronomic oral cyclophosphamide in recurrent ovarian cancer: a trial of the California, Chicago, and Princess Margaret Hospital phase II consortia.
  • Inhibitors of VEGF suppress tumor growth in OC models.
  • Metronomic chemotherapy, defined as frequent administration of low doses of cytotoxic chemotherapy, suppresses tumor growth, possibly by inhibiting angiogenesis.
  • A phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the antitumor activity and adverse effects of bevacizumab and metronomic oral cyclophosphamide in women with recurrent OC.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with measurable disease and prior treatment with a platinum-containing regimen were eligible.
  • Up to two different regimens for recurrent disease were allowed.
  • Treatment consisted of bevacizumab 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks and oral cyclophosphamide 50 mg/d.
  • The probability of being alive and progression free at 6 months was 56% (+/- 6% SE).
  • Median time to progression and survival were 7.2 and 16.9 months, respectively.
  • Bevacizumab-related toxicities included four episodes of gastrointestinal perforation or fistula, two episodes each of CNS ischemia and pulmonary hypertension, and one episode each of gastrointestinal bleeding and wound healing complication.
  • There were three treatment-related deaths.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of bevacizumab and metronomic cyclophosphamide is active in recurrent OC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. California. Chicago. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. E-Selectin / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / metabolism. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Thrombospondin 1 / metabolism. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18165643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / CM-17102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / CM17107; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / CM62203; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N01 CM62209; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 14089
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / E-Selectin; 0 / Thrombospondin 1; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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17. Grimm S, Chamberlain MC: Adult primary spinal cord tumors. Expert Rev Neurother; 2009 Oct;9(10):1487-95

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adult primary spinal cord tumors.
  • Primary spinal cord tumors represent 2-4% of all neoplasms of the CNS.
  • Resective surgery can usually be accomplished with spinal ependymomas owing to separation of tumor from spinal cord and, when complete, require no further therapy.
  • Chemotherapy is administered for recurrent primary spinal cord tumors without other options, that is, reoperation or re-irradiation.
  • Problematic, however, is the lack of clinical trials in general for these CNS tumors and for spinal cord tumors in particular.
  • Consequently, treatment is similar to that for intracranial tumors with a similar histology.
  • Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of primary spinal cord tumors allows for early treatment, potentially minimizes neurologic morbidity and improves outcome.
  • Primary treatment is surgery in essentially all spinal cord tumors, and predictors of outcome include preoperative functional status, histological grade of tumor and extent of surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Spinal Cord Neoplasms / classification. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neurosurgical Procedures. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19831838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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18. Weingart J, Grossman SA, Carson KA, Fisher JD, Delaney SM, Rosenblum ML, Olivi A, Judy K, Tatter SB, Dolan ME: Phase I trial of polifeprosan 20 with carmustine implant plus continuous infusion of intravenous O6-benzylguanine in adults with recurrent malignant glioma: new approaches to brain tumor therapy CNS consortium trial. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Feb 1;25(4):399-404
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  • [Title] Phase I trial of polifeprosan 20 with carmustine implant plus continuous infusion of intravenous O6-benzylguanine in adults with recurrent malignant glioma: new approaches to brain tumor therapy CNS consortium trial.
  • PURPOSE: This phase I trial was designed to (1) establish the dose of O6-benzylguanine (O6-BG) administered intravenously as a continuous infusion that suppresses O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) levels in brain tumors, (2) evaluate the safety of extending continuous-infusion O6-BG at the optimal dose with intracranially implanted carmustine wafers, and (3) measure the pharmacokinetics of O6-BG and its metabolite.
  • Tumor samples were evaluated for AGT levels.
  • Future trials are required to determine if the inhibition of tumor AGT levels results in increased efficacy.

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  • (PMID = 17264335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA14599; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA062475; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000055; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA069852-12; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000055-400764; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA69852; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR000055-400764; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA069852-12; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599-289015; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62475; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA069852; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014599-289015
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / carmustine with prolifeprosan 20; 19916-73-5 / O(6)-benzylguanine; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS66419; NLM/ PMC2556256
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19. Doyle DM, Einhorn LH: Delayed effects of whole brain radiotherapy in germ cell tumor patients with central nervous system metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Apr 1;70(5):1361-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Delayed effects of whole brain radiotherapy in germ cell tumor patients with central nervous system metastases.
  • PURPOSE: Central nervous system (CNS) metastases are uncommon in patients with germ cell tumors, with an incidence of 2-3%.
  • CNS metastases have been managed with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and concomitant cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy.
  • Our previous study did not observe serious CNS toxicity (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1991;22:17-22).
  • We now report on 5 patients who developed delayed significant CNS toxicity.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We observed 5 patients with delayed CNS toxicity.
  • Of the 5 patients, 3 had CNS metastases at diagnosis and 2 developed relapses with CNS metastases.
  • These 5 patients underwent WBRT to 4,000-5,000 cGy in 18-28 fractions concurrently with cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: All 5 patients developed delayed symptoms consistent with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.
  • The median time from WBRT to CNS symptoms was 72 months (range, 9-228).
  • Treatment with surgery and/or steroids had modest benefit.
  • The progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy resulted in significant debility in all 5 patients, resulting in death (3 patients), loss of work, steroid-induced morbidity, and recurrent hospitalizations.
  • CONCLUSION: Whole brain radiotherapy is not innocuous in young patients with germ cell tumors and can cause late CNS toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / radiation effects. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / complications. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Choriocarcinoma / blood. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Radiotherapy Dosage. Salvage Therapy / methods. Stem Cell Transplantation. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 Apr 1;70(5):1300-2 [18374219.001]
  • (PMID = 18374223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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20. da Fonseca CO, Schwartsmann G, Fischer J, Nagel J, Futuro D, Quirico-Santos T, Gattass CR: Preliminary results from a phase I/II study of perillyl alcohol intranasal administration in adults with recurrent malignant gliomas. Surg Neurol; 2008 Sep;70(3):259-66; discussion 266-7
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  • [Title] Preliminary results from a phase I/II study of perillyl alcohol intranasal administration in adults with recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • The intranasal delivery allows drugs that do not cross the BBB to enter the CNS; moreover, it eliminates the need for systemic delivery, thereby reducing unwanted systemic side effects.
  • METHODS: We are conducting a phase I/II study to evaluate the antitumoral activity of POH intranasal delivery in a 4x daily schedule in patients with recurrent MG.
  • The objective was to determine PFS at 6 months and the safety for POH in adult patients who failed conventional treatment.
  • Thirty-seven patients with progressive disease after prior surgery, radiotherapy, and at least temozolomide-based chemotherapy were enrolled, 29 of whom had GBM, 5 who had anaplastic astrocytoma, and 3 had AO.
  • Perillyl alcohol is well tolerated and regression of tumor size in some patients is suggestive of antitumor activity.
  • This work discusses POH intranasal delivery as a potential adjuvant therapeutic strategy for patients with malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Administration, Intranasal. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Monoterpenes / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Blood-Brain Barrier / drug effects. Blood-Brain Barrier / physiology. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Disease Progression. Drug Administration Schedule. Enzyme Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / physiopathology. Oncogene Protein p21(ras) / drug effects. Oncogene Protein p21(ras) / genetics. Oncogene Protein p21(ras) / metabolism. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Signal Transduction / physiology. Survival Rate. Transforming Growth Factor beta / drug effects. Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18295834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Monoterpenes; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 319R5C7293 / perilla alcohol; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 3.6.5.2 / Oncogene Protein p21(ras)
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21. Grossman SA, Alavi JB, Supko JG, Carson KA, Priet R, Dorr FA, Grundy JS, Holmlund JT: Efficacy and toxicity of the antisense oligonucleotide aprinocarsen directed against protein kinase C-alpha delivered as a 21-day continuous intravenous infusion in patients with recurrent high-grade astrocytomas. Neuro Oncol; 2005 Jan;7(1):32-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy and toxicity of the antisense oligonucleotide aprinocarsen directed against protein kinase C-alpha delivered as a 21-day continuous intravenous infusion in patients with recurrent high-grade astrocytomas.
  • Aprinocarsen is an antisense oligonucleotide against PKC-alpha that reduces PKC-alphain human cell lines and inhibits a human glioblastoma tumor cell line in athymic mice.
  • In this phase 2 study, aprinocarsen was administered to patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas by continuous intravenous infusion (2.0 mg/kg/day for 21 days per month).
  • Their median age was 46 years (range, 28-68 years), median Karnofsky performance status was 80 (range, 60-100), median tumor volume was 58 cm3 (range, 16-254 cm3), and histology included glioblastoma multiforme (n = 16), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 4), and anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 1).
  • The number of prior chemotherapy regimens included none (n = 3), one (n = 10), and two (n = 8).
  • No tumor responses were observed.
  • Patients on this therapy rapidly developed symptoms of increased intracranial pressure with increased edema, enhancement, and mass effect on neuroimaging.
  • The median time to progression was 36 days, and median survival was 3.4 months.
  • The observed toxicities were mild, reversible, and uncommon (grade 3 thrombocytopenia [n = 3] and grade 4 AST [n = 1]), and no coagulopathy or CNS bleeding resulted from this therapy.
  • The rapid deterioration seen in these patients could result from tumor growth or an effect of aprinocarsen on bloodbrain barrier integrity.

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  • (PMID = 15701280.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA062475; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA-26406; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA-62475
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides; EC 2.7.11.13 / PRKCA protein, human; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C-alpha; FMT95051CQ / aprinocarsen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871621
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22. Nicholson HS, Kretschmar CS, Krailo M, Bernstein M, Kadota R, Fort D, Friedman H, Harris MB, Tedeschi-Blok N, Mazewski C, Sato J, Reaman GH: Phase 2 study of temozolomide in children and adolescents with recurrent central nervous system tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer; 2007 Oct 1;110(7):1542-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase 2 study of temozolomide in children and adolescents with recurrent central nervous system tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • BACKGROUND: Effective chemotherapy is lacking for most types of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in children.
  • Temozolomide, an agent with activity against adult brain tumors, was investigated in children and adolescents with recurrent CNS tumors.
  • RESULTS: The cohort comprised 122 patients, including 113 with CNS tumors.
  • Among 104 evaluable patients with CNS tumors, 5 PRs and 1 CR were observed.
  • PRs occurred in 1 of 23 evaluable patients with high-grade astrocytoma, 1 of 21 with low-grade astrocytoma, and 3 of 25 with medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET).
  • No responses were observed in patients with ependymoma, brain-stem glioma, or other CNS tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although overall objective responses were limited, further exploration of temozolomide may be warranted in children with medulloblastoma and other PNETs, or in patients with low-grade astrocytoma, perhaps in a setting of less pretreatment than the patients in the current study, or in the context of multiagent therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome


23. Arita H, Izumoto S, Kinoshita M, Okita Y, Hashimoto N, Fujita T, Ichimaru N, Takahara S, Yoshimine T: Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders of the central nervous system after kidney transplantation: single center experience over 40 years. Two case reports. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(12):1079-83
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  • [Title] Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders of the central nervous system after kidney transplantation: single center experience over 40 years. Two case reports.
  • PTLD sometimes involves the central nervous system (CNS), but the clinical characteristics are not well recognized.
  • Two of the 631 patients (0.32%) developed CNS PTLD.
  • A 40-year-old Japanese woman suffered onset of CNS PTLD 5 years after renal transplantation.
  • She underwent second biopsy and the diagnosis was recurrent CNS PTLD.
  • A 61-year-old woman suffered onset of CNS PTLD 19 years after renal transplantation.
  • After tumor removal, whole brain irradiation was performed.
  • Histological examination showed polymorphic-type PTLD in both cases.
  • The first case of polymorphic CNS PTLD was successfully treated by modulation of immunosuppressants without radiation therapy even at recurrence.
  • PTLD should be included in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors in recipients of solid organ transplantation, and histological subtype should be carefully identified to establish the correct treatment strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Diseases / pathology. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Mycophenolic Acid / administration & dosage. Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Steroids / administration & dosage. Steroids / adverse effects. T-Lymphocytes / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21206182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Steroids; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid
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24. Papadakis V, Dunkel IJ, Cramer LD, Kramer E, Papadopoulos E, Goldman S, Packer RJ, Willoughby M, Baker D, Garvin J, Strandjord S, Coccia P, Kaplan AM, Klemperer M, Finlay JL: High-dose carmustine, thiotepa and etoposide followed by autologous bone marrow rescue for the treatment of high risk central nervous system tumors. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2000 Jul;26(2):153-60
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. THIO-TEPA .

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  • [Title] High-dose carmustine, thiotepa and etoposide followed by autologous bone marrow rescue for the treatment of high risk central nervous system tumors.
  • Forty-two patients (29 newly diagnosed) with high grade gliomas (n = 37), medulloblastoma (n = 2) or non-biopsied tumors (n = 3) with supratentorial (n = 24), brain stem (n = 11), posterior fossa (n = 5) or spinal (n = 2) location were eligible for this study with adequate organ function and no bone marrow tumor infiltration.
  • Of eight evaluable patients with recurrent disease, one achieved CR and two PR, while one remained in CCR and four with stable disease for 1 to 110.2 months.
  • Overall survival was 36%, 24% and 17% at 1, 2 and 3 years following ABMR, with three newly diagnosed patients and one patient treated for recurrent disease being alive, without disease progression 64.4, 67.0, 86.3 and 110.2 months after ABMR, respectively.
  • The combination of high-dose BCNU/ thiotepa/VP-16 has substantial toxicity but definite activity for high risk CNS tumors.
  • Similar protocols with lower toxicity merit further evaluation in both newly diagnosed and recurrent CNS tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / toxicity. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / complications. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carmustine / administration & dosage. Carmustine / toxicity. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / toxicity. Female. Graft Survival. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Infant. Kidney Diseases / chemically induced. Lung Diseases / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Organ Failure / chemically induced. Nervous System Diseases / chemically induced. Survival Rate. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Thiotepa / toxicity. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10918425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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25. Mulne AF, Ducore JM, Elterman RD, Friedman HS, Krischer JP, Kun LE, Shuster JJ, Kadota RP: Oral methotrexate for recurrent brain tumors in children: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 Jan-Feb;22(1):41-4
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHOTREXATE .

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  • [Title] Oral methotrexate for recurrent brain tumors in children: a Pediatric Oncology Group study.
  • PURPOSE: Children with recurrent or progressive central nervous system (CNS) tumors have an unfavorable prognosis.
  • Patients in six different brain tumor strata were accrued.
  • RESULTS: The response rates (complete or partial responses) were as follows: astrocytoma 2 of 10, malignant glioma 1 of 19, medulloblastoma 0 of 18, brainstem tumor 0 of 12, ependymoma 1 of 7, and miscellaneous histologic types 0 of 12.
  • CONCLUSION: Low-dose oral MTX showed no significant activity against malignant glioma, medulloblastoma, brainstem tumors, and miscellaneous histologic types.
  • This regimen will not be recommended for front-line therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn

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  • (PMID = 10695820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-03161; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-29691; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-69177; etc
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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26. Hukin J, Siffert J, Velasquez L, Zagzag D, Allen J: Leptomeningeal dissemination in children with progressive low-grade neuroepithelial tumors. Neuro Oncol; 2002 10;4(4):253-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Our purpose is to describe the incidence and clinical features of leptomeningeal dissemination (LM) in children with progressive low-grade neuroepithelial tumor (LGN).
  • We have continuously tracked all patients with primary CNS tumors since 1986.
  • Satisfactorily followed data were obtained on 427 of the 588 patients with localized LGN at diagnosis between 1986 and 1998, 177 (42%) of whom developed progressive or recurrent disease.
  • The primary tumor sites were diencephalon (6), brainstem (3), cerebellum (2), cerebrum (1), and spinal cord (1).
  • Management included chemotherapy (2) or radiotherapy (3) or both (7); 1 patient received only radical resections of symptomatic lesions.
  • We strongly urge that for optimum treatment planning all patients with recurrent LGN be staged with an enhanced spine and brain MRI before adjuvant therapy is initiated.
  • The good survival of patients with LGN and LM reflects a more indolent disease than malignant CNS tumors with LM.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12356355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1920666
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27. Iwanami H, Odaka M, Hirata K: [A case of acute lymphocytic leukemia relapsed as meningoradiculoneuropathy after bone marrow transplantation]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku; 2006 Feb;46(2):157-9
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  • [Title] [A case of acute lymphocytic leukemia relapsed as meningoradiculoneuropathy after bone marrow transplantation].
  • We report a 21-year-old woman who had acute lymphocytic leukemia with a relapse in the peripheral nervous system after bone marrow transplantation.
  • She developed gait disturbance and numbness of the lower limb extremities, with gradual worsening.
  • Neurological examination detected paraparesis associated with areflexia and stocking-type paresthesia.
  • Based on the diagnosis of recurrent acute lymphocytic leukemia with tumor infiltration to the meninges (meningeal leukemia), she received chemotherapy, after which her neurological symptoms and signs gradually improved.
  • We would like to emphasize that neurological examination is important to detect CNS relapse in a patient with leukemia, even in hematological complete remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Meningeal Neoplasms / etiology. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / etiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Polyradiculoneuropathy / etiology. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 16619843.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-918X
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinshō shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Shinkeigaku
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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28. Phuphanich S, Baker SD, Grossman SA, Carson KA, Gilbert MR, Fisher JD, Carducci MA: Oral sodium phenylbutyrate in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas: a dose escalation and pharmacologic study. Neuro Oncol; 2005 Apr;7(2):177-82
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • [Title] Oral sodium phenylbutyrate in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas: a dose escalation and pharmacologic study.
  • We determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity profile, pharmacokinetic parameters, and preliminary efficacy data of oral sodium phenylbutyrate (PB) in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • Twenty-three patients with supratentorial recurrent malignant gliomas were enrolled on this dose escalation trial.
  • At 36 g/day, two of four patients developed dose-limiting grade 3 fatigue and somnolence.
  • At the MTD of 27 g/day, one of seven patients developed reversible grade 3 somnolence.
  • Median survival from time of study entry was 5.4 months.
  • The mean value for PB clearance in this patient population was 22 liters/h, which is significantly higher than the 16 liters/h reported in patients with other malignancies who were not receiving P450 enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant drugs (P = 0.038).
  • This study defines the MTD and recommended phase 2 dose of PB at 27 g/day for heavily pretreated patients with recurrent gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 15831235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA062475; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 62475
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Phenylbutyrates; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871887
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29. Batchelor TT, Gilbert MR, Supko JG, Carson KA, Nabors LB, Grossman SA, Lesser GJ, Mikkelsen T, Phuphanich S, NABTT CNS Consortium: Phase 2 study of weekly irinotecan in adults with recurrent malignant glioma: final report of NABTT 97-11. Neuro Oncol; 2004 Jan;6(1):21-7
ClinicalTrials.gov. clinical trials - ClinicalTrials.gov .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase 2 study of weekly irinotecan in adults with recurrent malignant glioma: final report of NABTT 97-11.
  • The primary objective of this study was to determine the proportion of patients exhibiting a radiographic response in a cohort of patients with recurrent malignant glioma who were treated with irinotecan.
  • Twelve patients received concurrent enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs, and 6 did not.
  • One patient had a complete response, 5 patients had stable disease, 5 patients had radiographic progression, 6 patients were removed from the study because of toxicity, and 1 patient refused further therapy and was removed from the study.
  • Irinotecan had minimal efficacy in this cohort of 18 patients with recurrent malignant glioma.

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  • (PMID = 14769136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA062475; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA62475
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871974
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30. Wong ET, Tishler R, Barron L, Wu JK: Immunochemotherapy with rituximab and temozolomide for central nervous system lymphomas. Cancer; 2004 Jul 1;101(1):139-45
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  • [Title] Immunochemotherapy with rituximab and temozolomide for central nervous system lymphomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Methotrexate-based and alkylator-based chemotherapy regimens are associated with renal and bone marrow toxicities, which limit their use in patients with central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas.
  • The authors report their experience with an immunochemotherapy regimen consisting of rituximab and temozolomide in patients with primary or metastatic CNS lymphoma.
  • METHODS: Seven patients who had received rituximab and temozolomide were identified from the database of the brain tumor clinic at the authors' institution: three patients had developed recurrent primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL), one patient had newly diagnosed PCNSL but had poor renal function, and three other patients with systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma developed recurrent lymphoma in the brain only.
  • Thereafter, their treatment included a total of up to 8 maintenance cycles of temozolomide alone on Days 1-5 of a 28-day cycle.
  • A gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance image of the head was obtained after every two cycles of treatment.
  • Five patients achieved a radiographic complete response, and two patients had partial responses after induction treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Drug Synergism. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Rituximab. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • [CommentIn] Cancer. 2004 Dec 15;101(12):2900-1; author reply 2901-2 [15529311.001]
  • (PMID = 15221999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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31. Kieran MW, Packer RJ, Onar A, Blaney SM, Phillips P, Pollack IF, Geyer JR, Gururangan S, Banerjee A, Goldman S, Turner CD, Belasco JB, Broniscer A, Zhu Y, Frank E, Kirschmeier P, Statkevich P, Yver A, Boyett JM, Kun LE: Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the oral farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib administered twice daily to pediatric patients with advanced central nervous system tumors using a modified continuous reassessment method: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Jul 20;25(21):3137-43
ClinicalTrials.gov. clinical trials - ClinicalTrials.gov .

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  • [Title] Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the oral farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib administered twice daily to pediatric patients with advanced central nervous system tumors using a modified continuous reassessment method: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study.
  • PURPOSE: A dose-escalation phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib (SCH66336) was conducted in children with recurrent or progressive CNS tumors.
  • A modified continual reassessment method (CRM) was used to estimate the MTD based on actual dosages of lonafarnib administered and toxicities observed during the initial 4 weeks of treatment.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-three children with progressive or recurrent brain tumors were enrolled, with a median age of 12.2 years (range, 3.9 to 19.5 years).
  • Both radiographic response (one anaplastic astrocytoma) and stable disease (one medulloblastoma, two high-grade and four low-grade gliomas, one ependymoma, and one sarcoma) were noted, and seven patients remained on treatment for 1 year or longer.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / mortality. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics. Farnesyltranstransferase / antagonists & inhibitors. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Piperidines / pharmacokinetics. Pyridines / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17634493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA81457
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Pyridines; 193275-84-2 / lonafarnib; EC 2.5.1.29 / Farnesyltranstransferase
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32. Dreyer ZE, Kadota RP, Stewart CF, Friedman HS, Mahoney DH, Kun LE, McCluggage CW, Burger PC, Kepner J, Heideman RL, Pediatric Oncology Group: Phase 2 study of idarubicin in pediatric brain tumors: Pediatric Oncology Group study POG 9237. Neuro Oncol; 2003 Oct;5(4):261-7
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  • [Title] Phase 2 study of idarubicin in pediatric brain tumors: Pediatric Oncology Group study POG 9237.
  • In previous reports, the alcohol metabolite of IDA, 4-demethoxydaunorubicinol (idarubicinol, or IDOL), had cytotoxic activity and the ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier.
  • For this reason, the Pediatric Oncology Group conducted a Phase 2 trial of IDA for children with recurrent or progressive brain tumors.
  • Patients were stratified by tumor types into 6 categories: stratum 1, low-grade astrocytoma; stratum 2, malignant glioma (glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma); stratum 3, medulloblastoma; stratum 4, brainstem glioma; stratum 5, ependymoma; and stratum 6, miscellaneous malignant tumors not included in the previous diagnoses.
  • Cycles were repeated at approximately 21-day intervals until patients developed progressive disease or had completed 6 cycles with stable or improved disease.
  • Most patients developed progressive disease; however, in 21 patients with medulloblastoma there was 1 partial response, and 6 patients had stable disease (SD) that in 4 patients lasted more than 20 weeks.
  • Only 1 patient developed reduced cardiac function.
  • The systemic clearance data for IDA and IDOL were nearly identical to those published on patients with leukemia, and the plasma elimination of the IDOL metabolite was substantially longer than that of the parent drug IDA.
  • We conclude from this data and from that in nonhuman primates that it is unlikely that IDA, daunomycin, or other related anthracyclines will be useful for treating primary CNS tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Idarubicin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 14565163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1920677
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33. Ribi C, Sztajzel R, Delavelle J, Chizzolini C: Efficacy of TNF {alpha} blockade in cyclophosphamide resistant neuro-Behçet disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2005 Dec;76(12):1733-5
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  • Behçet disease is a chronic relapsing inflammatory condition, predominantly affecting young adults, characterised by recurrent bipolar aphtae and systemic manifestations for which tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha blockade has recently emerged as an effective treatment.
  • We report the case of a patient presenting with mucocutaneous and ocular manifestations who in the course of his disease developed CNS parenchymal involvement.
  • While being treated with pulsed cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids, he suffered a relapse of his CNS involvement that was efficaciously controlled by infliximab.
  • However, 7 months after the last administration of infliximab and still under immunosuppressant agents, CNS lesions recurred.
  • The sequence of events observed in this patient suggests that TNF blockade is efficacious in suppressing neuro-Behçet disease and once introduced should be maintained for a prolonged period of time.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antirheumatic Agents / therapeutic use. Behcet Syndrome / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cyclophosphamide / pharmacology. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Infliximab. Male. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 16291906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3050
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1739470
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