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1. Jameel A, Jamil SN: Safety of cytotoxic chemotherapy during pregnancy. J Pak Med Assoc; 2007 Sep;57(9):449-52
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  • [Title] Safety of cytotoxic chemotherapy during pregnancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To To present an experience and results of treatment of pregnant cancer patients with cytotoxic chemotherapy from second trimester of pregnancy.
  • METHODS: Eighteen consecutive pregnant patients treated at Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar between December 2000 and August 2006 for different types of malignancies are reported.
  • Six patients (33%) had breast cancer, four (22%) had chronic myeloid leukaemia, two (11%) had Hodgkin's disease, two (11%) had acute myeloid leukaemia and one each had recurrent ovarian carcinoma (5.7%), soft-tissue sarcoma (5.7%), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (5.7%) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (5.7%).
  • RESULTS: Two patients were lost to follow-up after one course of chemotherapy while two patients chose to have therapeutic abortion.
  • Out of the remaining 14 patients, one patient had spontaneous abortion while one patient had an intra-uterine death of foetus during chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy during the second and third trimester of pregnancy can be safe if proper obstetric and radiologic monitoring is performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Cytotoxins / adverse effects. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Pregnancy Complications. Pregnancy Outcome
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, Second. Prospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18072640.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cytotoxins
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2. Tarella C, Cuttica A, Vitolo U, Liberati M, Di Nicola M, Cortelazzo S, Rosato R, Rosanelli C, Di Renzo N, Musso M, Pavone E, Santini G, Pescarollo A, De Crescenzo A, Federico M, Gallamini A, Pregno P, Romano R, Coser P, Gallo E, Boccadoro M, Barbui T, Pileri A, Gianni AM, Levis A: High-dose sequential chemotherapy and peripheral blood progenitor cell autografting in patients with refractory and/or recurrent Hodgkin lymphoma: a multicenter study of the intergruppo Italiano Linfomi showing prolonged disease free survival in patients treated at first recurrence. Cancer; 2003 Jun 1;97(11):2748-59
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  • [Title] High-dose sequential chemotherapy and peripheral blood progenitor cell autografting in patients with refractory and/or recurrent Hodgkin lymphoma: a multicenter study of the intergruppo Italiano Linfomi showing prolonged disease free survival in patients treated at first recurrence.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to evaluate in a multicenter setting the feasibility and efficacy of a high-dose sequential (HDS) chemotherapy regimen that combined intensive debulking and high-dose therapy (HDT) with peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) autografting in patients with refractory or recurrent Hodgkin lymphoma (HL).
  • There were five toxic deaths (treatment-related mortality rate, 4.9%) and six secondary malignan cies (five patients developed myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myelogenous leukemia, and one patient developed colorectal carcinoma).
  • Patients who received HDS chemotherapy after multiple recurrences had an intermediate outcome.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that refractory disease and systemic symptoms at the time of initial presentation were associated significantly associated with poor OS and EFS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The use of HDS chemotherapy for patients with refractory and/or recurrent HL is feasible at the multicenter level.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Melphalan / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12767087.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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3. Gil L, Styczynski J, Dytfeld D, Debski R, Kazmierczak M, Kolodziej B, Rafinska B, Kubicka M, Nowicki A, Komarnicki M, Wysocki M: Activity of bortezomib in adult de novo and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia. Anticancer Res; 2007 Nov-Dec;27(6B):4021-5
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  • [Title] Activity of bortezomib in adult de novo and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia.
  • AIM: The aim of the study was the analysis of in vitro drug resistance to bortezomib and other anticancer drugs in de novo and relapsed adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The leukemic cells of 46 adult patients with AML were tested for the in vitro drug resistance profile.
  • The group included 20 de novo and 26 relapsed AML patients, among whom, 12 relapsed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and 4 after autologous HSCT.
  • The MTT assay was performed for 21 drugs.
  • RESULTS: No significant differences in drug resistance were found for all tested drugs between de novo and relapsed AML samples, while expression of PGP, MRP1 and LRP was higher in relapsed patients.
  • Patients with refractory or relapsed disease, had higher resistance of myeloblasts to cyclophosphamide (RR = 2.4, p = 0.050), and better sensitivity to busulfan (RR = 0.4, p = 0.054) and topotecan (RR = 0.4, p = 0.031).
  • Those who have died due to refractory/relapsed disease (n = 16) had better sensitivity to bortezomib (RR = 0.6, p = 0.046) and treosulfan (RR = 0.1, p = 0.018).
  • CONCLUSION: In vitro drug resistance in relapsed adult AML is comparable to that in de novo disease.
  • Activity in vitro of bortezomib might be a rationale for its use in refractory/relapsed AML adult patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Boronic Acids / pharmacology. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Pyrazines / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bortezomib. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Flow Cytometry. HL-60 Cells. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins / biosynthesis. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins / metabolism. P-Glycoprotein / biosynthesis. P-Glycoprotein / metabolism. Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles / biosynthesis. Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18225565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / Pyrazines; 0 / Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles; 0 / major vault protein; 0 / multidrug resistance-associated protein 1; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib
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4. Yin CC, Abruzzo LV, Qiu X, Apostolidou E, Cortes JE, Medeiros LJ, Lu G: del(15q) is a recurrent minor-route cytogenetic abnormality in the clonal evolution of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2009 Jul;192(1):18-23
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  • [Title] del(15q) is a recurrent minor-route cytogenetic abnormality in the clonal evolution of chronic myelogenous leukemia.
  • The del(15q) chromosomal abnormality is known to occur in acute leukemias, but has rarely been described in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).
  • Bone marrow aspirate smears showed increased blasts in all cases at the time of del(15q) detection, in accelerated phase in two cases and myeloid blast phase in three.
  • All patients received imatinib mesylate; four received additional chemotherapy, and two had allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT).
  • These findings indicate that del(15q) is a recurrent cytogenetic abnormality that may be seen at initial presentation of advanced disease or may emerge during disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15. Clone Cells / pathology. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Chromosome Aberrations. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gene Frequency. Humans. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19480932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS627187; NLM/ PMC4167428
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5. Camera A, Rinaldi CR, Palmieri S, Cantore N, Mele G, Mettivier V, Miraglia E, Mastrullo L, Grimaldi F, Luciano L, Guerriero A, Rotoli B, Ferrara F: Sequential continuous infusion of fludarabine and cytarabine associated with liposomal daunorubicin (DaunoXome) (FLAD) in primary refractory or relapsed adult acute myeloid leukemia patients. Ann Hematol; 2009 Feb;88(2):151-8
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  • [Title] Sequential continuous infusion of fludarabine and cytarabine associated with liposomal daunorubicin (DaunoXome) (FLAD) in primary refractory or relapsed adult acute myeloid leukemia patients.
  • A large proportion of adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse after treatment, and some of them are resistant to primary induction chemotherapy.
  • Sixty-one patients from seven hematological centers with poor-risk AML, primary refractory (n = 16), or relapsed (n = 45) were treated with a salvage regimen, including fludarabine (2 days) and cytarabine (3 days) in a sequential continuous infusion, associated with liposomal daunorubicin (3 days) (FLAD).
  • Complete response rate was 44% and 56% for refractory and relapsed patients, respectively, with an overall response rate of 52% (32 of 61).
  • Twenty-two patients (36%) were resistant to the salvage therapy.
  • Seven patients (12%) died early during chemotherapy, four of them because of sepsis.
  • Nineteen patients in complete remission (CR) underwent a stem-cell transplant (SCT) procedure: five autologous, nine from a HL-A identical sibling, and five from HL-A matched unrelated donors.
  • Post-treatment aplasia and mucositis were major toxicities.
  • Twenty patients (62.5%) relapsed after this treatment in a median of 7.3 months; ten patients relapsed after a SCT procedure.
  • Nine patients are alive and disease free; three of them were rescued after a further cytotoxic treatment.
  • The FLAD regimen proved to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment, with acceptable toxicity in this group of high-risk patients.
  • A better response rate was obtained in the subgroup of relapsed patients, compared to patients treated for refractory disease.
  • More then half (five of nine) of long-surviving patients are those who were submitted to a transplant procedure; thus, the main indication for FLAD seems to be to try to induce a rapid CR with minimum toxicity in order to perform a transplant as soon as possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Liposomes. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Salvage Therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18709502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0584
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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6. Joo M, Lee HK, Kang YK, Kim JH: Granulocytic sarcoma of the breast preceding acute myelogenous leukemia: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2000 Aug;15(4):457-9
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  • [Title] Granulocytic sarcoma of the breast preceding acute myelogenous leukemia: a case report.
  • We report a case of granulocytic sarcoma presented as a recurrent breast tumor in a 42-year-old woman with no history of leukemia.
  • The case was initially diagnosed as malignant lymphoma on a previous biopsy specimen and she refused chemotherapy.
  • At the time of recurrence of the breast tumor, the patient showed full-blown features of leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 10983697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] KOREA (SOUTH)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3054663
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7. Falini B, Mecucci C, Tiacci E, Alcalay M, Rosati R, Pasqualucci L, La Starza R, Diverio D, Colombo E, Santucci A, Bigerna B, Pacini R, Pucciarini A, Liso A, Vignetti M, Fazi P, Meani N, Pettirossi V, Saglio G, Mandelli F, Lo-Coco F, Pelicci PG, Martelli MF, GIMEMA Acute Leukemia Working Party: Cytoplasmic nucleophosmin in acute myelogenous leukemia with a normal karyotype. N Engl J Med; 2005 Jan 20;352(3):254-66
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  • [Title] Cytoplasmic nucleophosmin in acute myelogenous leukemia with a normal karyotype.
  • METHODS: We used immunohistochemical methods to study the subcellular localization of NPM in bone marrow-biopsy specimens from 591 patients with primary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).
  • RESULTS: Cytoplasmic NPM was detected in 208 (35.2 percent) of the 591 specimens from patients with primary AML but not in 135 secondary AML specimens or in 980 hematopoietic or extrahematopoietic neoplasms other than AML.
  • It was associated with a wide spectrum of morphologic subtypes of the disease, a normal karyotype, and responsiveness to induction chemotherapy, but not with recurrent genetic abnormalities.
  • There was a high frequency of FLT3 internal tandem duplications and absence of CD34 and CD133 in AML specimens with a normal karyotype and cytoplasmic dislocation of NPM, but not in those in which the protein was restricted to the nucleus.
  • AML specimens with cytoplasmic NPM carried mutations of the NPM gene that were predicted to alter the protein at its C-terminal; this mutant gene caused cytoplasmic localization of NPM in transfected cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cytoplasmic NPM is a characteristic feature of a large subgroup of patients with AML who have a normal karyotype, NPM gene mutations, and responsiveness to induction chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Mutation. Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Base Sequence. Cell Nucleolus. DNA Mutational Analysis. Humans. Karyotyping. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Transfection. Translocation, Genetic


8. Tsimberidou A, Estey E, Cortes J, Thomas D, Faderl S, Verstovsek S, Garcia-Manero G, Keating M, Albitar M, O'Brien S, Kantarjian H, Giles F: Gemtuzumab, fludarabine, cytarabine, and cyclosporine in patients with newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Cancer; 2003 Mar 15;97(6):1481-7
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  • [Title] Gemtuzumab, fludarabine, cytarabine, and cyclosporine in patients with newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.
  • BACKGROUND: Gemtuzumab is used to treat patients with previously untreated or recurrent acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).
  • The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of a combination regimen of gemtuzumab, fludarabine, ara-C, and the MDR modifier (cyclosporine [CyA]) in patients with previously untreated AML, refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB), or RAEB in transformation (RAEBT).
  • RESULTS: Fifty-nine evaluable patients were treated: 39 patients (66%) had AML and 20 patients (34%) had RAEB/RAEBT.
  • Infections complicated 38% of the courses of chemotherapy.
  • Four patients (7%) developed hepatic venoocclusive disease (VOD).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The MFAC regimen may merit further study in patients with AML if measures to avoid and/or treat VOD can be incorporated into the regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoglycosides. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alanine Transaminase / analysis. Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Aspartate Aminotransferases / analysis. Cyclosporine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hyperbilirubinemia / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Survival. Treatment Outcome


9. Sternberg DW, Aird W, Neuberg D, Thompson L, MacNeill K, Amrein P, Shulman LN: Treatment of patients with recurrent and primary refractory acute myelogenous leukemia using mitoxantrone and intermediate-dose cytarabine: a pharmacologically based regimen. Cancer; 2000 May 1;88(9):2037-41
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  • [Title] Treatment of patients with recurrent and primary refractory acute myelogenous leukemia using mitoxantrone and intermediate-dose cytarabine: a pharmacologically based regimen.
  • BACKGROUND: Although chemotherapy can achieve a high rate of disease remission induction in patients with newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), patients with recurrent or refractory AML generally have a poorer rate of response.
  • This study assessed the utility of mitoxantrone and intermediate-dose cytarabine (Ara-C) in the treatment of patients with recurrent or refractory AML.
  • METHODS: Forty-seven patients with recurrent or refractory AML were treated with Ara-C, 0.5 gm/m2, intravenously (i.v.) every 12 hours x 12 doses on Days 1-6 and mitoxantrone, 5 mg/m2, i.v. on Days 1-5.
  • Of the 25 patients age > or = 60 years, 19 (76%) had a complete disease remission and the median duration of disease remission in this group was 114 days (range, 33-370 days), although all patients subsequently developed a disease recurrence.
  • The chemotherapy generally was well tolerated, with a mean duration of neutropenia of 31 days and a mean duration of thrombocytopenia of 33 days.
  • Three patients died of infectious complications between 23-26 days after the initiation of chemotherapy, 1 patient died of sudden cardiac arrest 13 days after the initiation of chemotherapy, and 1 patient developed cutaneous desquamation.
  • Three patients developed acute cerebellar dysfunction.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The use of mitoxantrone and Ara-C is effective in the treatment of patients with recurrent and refractory AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Cause of Death. Cerebellar Diseases / chemically induced. Death, Sudden, Cardiac / etiology. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Exanthema / chemically induced. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Remission Induction. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10813714.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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10. Ando T, Mitani N, Matsui K, Yamashita K, Nomiyama J, Tsuru M, Yujiri T, Tanizawa Y: Recurrent extramedullary relapse of acute myelogenous leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a patient with the chromosomal abnormality t(8;21) and CD56-positivity. Int J Hematol; 2009 Oct;90(3):374-7
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  • [Title] Recurrent extramedullary relapse of acute myelogenous leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a patient with the chromosomal abnormality t(8;21) and CD56-positivity.
  • Isolated extramedullary (EM) relapse of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is rare.
  • We describe an AML patient showing the chromosomal abnormality t(8;21) and CD56 expression who experienced a unique EM relapse after allo-HSCT.
  • Although we administered only local radiotherapy and not systemic chemotherapy, he showed no bone marrow relapse on long-term follow-up after achieving complete hematological remission.
  • These findings suggest that the graft-versus-leukemia effect may preferentially maintain marrow remission rather than prevent EM relapse.
  • In addition, our findings show that extended survival is possible after EM relapse following allo-HSCT in patients with marrow hematopoiesis of donor origin, and that augmentation of the graft-versus-leukemia effect may be useful.
  • [MeSH-major] Graft vs Leukemia Effect. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute. Stomach Neoplasms. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Humans. Male. Recurrence. Transplantation, Homologous. Young Adult


11. Phan CL, Megat Baharuddin PJ, Chin LP, Zakaria Z, Yegappan S, Sathar J, Tan SM, Purushothaman V, Chang KM: Amplification of BCR-ABL and t(3;21) in a patient with blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2008 Jan 1;180(1):60-4
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  • [Title] Amplification of BCR-ABL and t(3;21) in a patient with blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia.
  • The Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, or t(9;22), is the hallmark of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).
  • Blast crisis is characterized by the rapid expansion of a population of differentiation arrested blast cells (myeloid or lymphoid cells population), with secondary chromosomal abnormalities present.
  • We report a case of myeloid blast crisis of CML resistant to imatinib mesylate and chemotherapy.
  • By use of cytogenetic, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and comparative genomic hybridization methods, we identified a cluster of BCR-ABL amplification on inverted duplication of the Ph chromosome with t(3;21)(q26;q22) and increased genomic levels of the RUNX1 gene (previously AML1).
  • The t(3;21)(q26;q22) is a recurrent chromosomal abnormality in some cases of CML blast phase and in treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Amplification or copy number increase of RUNX1 has been reported in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Our study indicated that the progenitor of CML was BCR-ABL dependent through the amplification of Ph chromosome as a mechanism of resistance to imatinib therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3. Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl / genetics. Gene Amplification. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / genetics. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blast Crisis. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Karyotyping

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  • (PMID = 18068536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.2 / Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl
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12. Cornely OA, Böhme A, Reichert D, Reuter S, Maschmeyer G, Maertens J, Buchheidt D, Paluszewska M, Arenz D, Bethe U, Effelsberg J, Lövenich H, Sieniawski M, Haas A, Einsele H, Eimermacher H, Martino R, Silling G, Hahn M, Wacker S, Ullmann AJ, Karthaus M, Multinational Case Registry of the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society for Hematology and Oncology: Risk factors for breakthrough invasive fungal infection during secondary prophylaxis. J Antimicrob Chemother; 2008 Apr;61(4):939-46
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  • BACKGROUND: Intensive chemotherapy with severe neutropenia is associated with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) leading to high mortality rates.
  • During leukaemia induction chemotherapy, IFI often prohibited further curative treatment, thus predisposing for leukaemia relapse.
  • Continuing myelosuppressive chemotherapy after diagnosis of IFI has become feasible with the now expanding arsenal of safe and effective antifungals.
  • Secondary prophylaxis of IFI is widely administered, but reliable data on outcome and risk factors for recurrent IFI during subsequent chemotherapy are not available.
  • This study determines risk factors for recurrent IFI in leukaemia patients.
  • METHODS: From 25 European cancer centres, 166 consecutive patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) and a recent history of proven or probable pulmonary IFI were included.
  • Patients were followed for recurrence or breakthrough IFI during the subsequent chemotherapy cycle.
  • Recurrent IFI occurred in 26 patients (15.7%).
  • Multiple logistic regressions yielded predisposing factors: duration of neutropenia [per additional day; odds ratio (OR) 1.043, confidence interval (CI) 1.008-1.078], high-dose cytarabine (OR 3.920, CI 1.120-12.706), number of antibiotics (per antibiotic; OR 1.504, CI 1.089-2.086), partial response as outcome of prior IFI (OR 4.037, CI 1.301-12.524) and newly diagnosed AML (OR 3.823, CI 0.953-15.340).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Duration of neutropenia, high-dose cytarabine, prior antibiotic therapy and a partial response to the first IFI therapy were risk factors for recurrent IFI and should be considered in AML patients with prior pulmonary IFI undergoing further chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Mycoses / epidemiology. Mycoses / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemoprevention. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18272515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2091
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents
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13. Yamamoto K, Nagata K, Morita Y, Inagaki K, Hamaguchi H: Isodicentric Philadelphia chromosome in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with der(7;12)(q10;q10). Leuk Res; 2007 May;31(5):713-8
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  • [Title] Isodicentric Philadelphia chromosome in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with der(7;12)(q10;q10).
  • We describe here the first case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with an isodicentric Philadelphia [idic(Ph)] chromosome.
  • A 35-year-old man was diagnosed as ALL because of the infiltration of CD10(+)CD19(+)CD33(+)CD34(+) lymphoblasts in the bone marrow and the expression of p190-type BCR/ABL fusion transcript.
  • The idic(Ph) chromosome was spindle-shaped and supposed to be formed by two Ph chromosomes joined at their q terminals, whereas idic(Ph) chromosomes in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) have been shown to be fused at the satellite regions of p arms.
  • The patient did not respond to any chemotherapy and could not achieve remission.
  • Furthermore, considering other three reported cases, der(7;12)(q10;q10) may be one of the recurrent translocations in ALL.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Philadelphia Chromosome. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Translocation, Genetic / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Karyotyping. Male

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  • (PMID = 16979235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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14. Vidarsson B, Abonour R, Williams EC, Woodson RD, Turman NJ, Kim K, Mosher DF, Wiersma SR, Longo WL: Fludarabine and cytarabine as a sequential infusion regimen for treatment of adults with recurrent, refractory or poor prognosis acute leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma; 2001 Apr;41(3-4):321-31
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  • [Title] Fludarabine and cytarabine as a sequential infusion regimen for treatment of adults with recurrent, refractory or poor prognosis acute leukemia.
  • We did a retrospective analysis on the safety and efficacy of sequential infusion fludarabine and cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) in treating refractory, recurrent or poor prognosis acute leukemia in adult patients.
  • Forty-five adult patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) received a total of 68 courses of sequential continuous infusion of fludarabine for 2 days (total dose 71.5 mg/m(2) ) followed by 3 days of ara-C (total dose 7590 mg/m(2) ).
  • Thirty-nine patients had refractory or recurrent disease, and six had other adverse prognostic features.
  • Thirty-six patients had AML, seven had ALL, and two had CML in blastic phase.
  • Complete remission was seen in 20 patients (44%), and partial remission in 5 patients (11%), giving a total response rate of 56%, similar for both AML and ALL.
  • Duration of response to prior therapy did not affect the response rate.
  • Pulmonary toxicity was seen in 8 patients, of whom 2 died from adult respiratory distress syndrome.
  • We conclude that the sequential infusion of fludarabine and ara-C is an effective non-cardiotoxic regimen for adults with refractory, recurrent or poor prognosis acute leukemia, may be particularly useful for resistant Philadelphia chromosome positive ALL, and may warrant further investigation in this subset.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Leukemia / complications. Leukemia / drug therapy. Vidarabine / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / toxicity. Cohort Studies. Cytogenetic Analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Hematologic Diseases / etiology. Humans. Infection / etiology. Infusion Pumps. Lung Diseases / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Nervous System Diseases / etiology. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11378544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 14520
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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15. Cortes J, Giles F, O'Brien S, Thomas D, Albitar M, Rios MB, Talpaz M, Garcia-Manero G, Faderl S, Letvak L, Salvado A, Kantarjian H: Results of imatinib mesylate therapy in patients with refractory or recurrent acute myeloid leukemia, high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, and myeloproliferative disorders. Cancer; 2003 Jun 1;97(11):2760-6
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  • [Title] Results of imatinib mesylate therapy in patients with refractory or recurrent acute myeloid leukemia, high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, and myeloproliferative disorders.
  • c-kit is expressed in most patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and PDGF has been implicated in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative disorders (MPD).
  • Forty-eight patients with AML (n = 10), MDS (n = 8), myelofibrosis (n = 18), atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (CML; n = 7), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML; n = 3), or polycythemia vera (n = 2) were treated with imatinib 400 mg daily.
  • RESULTS: None of the patients with AML or MDS responded.
  • Both patients with polycythemia vera needed fewer phlebotomies (from 2-3 per year to none during the 8 months of therapy and from 3-6 per year to 1 during 9 months of therapy).
  • Treatment was well tolerated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Within these small subgroups of disease types, single-agent imatinib did not achieve a significant clinical response among patients with AML, MDS, atypical CML, or CMML without PDGF-R fusion genes.
  • Therefore, a combination treatment regimen including imatinib may be more effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Myeloproliferative Disorders / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Benzamides. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Polycythemia Vera / drug therapy. Primary Myelofibrosis / drug therapy. Recurrence


16. Pan J, Xue Y, Qiu H, Chen S, Zhang J, Wu Y, Shen J, Wang Y: A pericentric inv(9)(p22q34) of the der(9)t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) is a recurrent secondary anomaly in Ph-positive leukemia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2010 Dec;203(2):333-40
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  • [Title] A pericentric inv(9)(p22q34) of the der(9)t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) is a recurrent secondary anomaly in Ph-positive leukemia.
  • A pericentric inv(9)(p22q34) of the derivative chromosome 9 that resulted from a standard t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) was identified by R-banding karyotypic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays in 4 (0.18%) of 2,200 Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive leukemia patients, including 3 with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase and 1 with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in our hospital since 2004.
  • FISH also found a deletion of partial sequence of BCR on der(9)t(9;22)(q34;q11.2)inv(9)(p22q34) in 67.5% of bone marrow cells in the AML patient, but did not detect the deletion of the sequence of ASS/9q34 in these four patients.
  • Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed a b3a2 type of BCR/ABL1 fusion transcript in all of them, proving their disease to be Ph-positive leukemia.
  • On reviewing the literature, only two solitary Ph-positive leukemia patients have been noticed to have the inv(9)(p22q34) anomaly.
  • These two patients, together with our four documented patients, indicate that inv(9)(p22q34) is a novel, rare, but recurrent secondary chromosomal abnormality for Ph-positive leukemia.
  • Despite receiving hydroxyurea therapy (n = 3 patients), combined chemotherapy (n = 2), even imatinib treatment (n = 1), three patients, including one with AML and two with CML (one of whom progressed into the lymphoblastic blast phase), died with survival times of 28 days, 13 months, and 34 months, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Inversion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow Cells / cytology. Chromosome Aberrations. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Deletion. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21156255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Imoto S, Murayama T, Gomyo H, Mizuno I, Sugimoto T, Nakagawa T, Koizumi T: Long-term molecular remission induced by donor lymphocyte infusions for recurrent acute myeloblastic leukemia after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2000 Oct;26(7):809-10
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  • [Title] Long-term molecular remission induced by donor lymphocyte infusions for recurrent acute myeloblastic leukemia after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
  • A case of acute myelogenous leukemia with a t(8;21) translocation relapsed 5 months after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT).
  • After chemotherapy-induced hematologic remission, the patient received donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI); 4.9 x 108/kg T cells were infused.
  • After DLI, she achieved molecular CR for the first time after allo-BMT, which lasted for 40 months.
  • However, she suffered from grade III acute GVHD of the skin and the liver.
  • Further study is necessary before DLI can be considered to be a beneficial therapy for acute leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Lymphocyte Transfusion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blood Donors. Disease-Free Survival. Fatal Outcome. Female. Graft vs Host Disease / etiology. Humans. Liver Diseases / etiology. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 11042667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
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18. Mielcarek M, Storer BE, Flowers ME, Storb R, Sandmaier BM, Martin PJ: Outcomes among patients with recurrent high-risk hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2007 Oct;13(10):1160-8
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  • [Title] Outcomes among patients with recurrent high-risk hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
  • We retrospectively analyzed outcomes among 307 consecutive patients who had recurrent or persistent acute leukemia (n = 244), chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast phase (CML; n = 28), or advanced myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS; n = 35) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and who received at least 1 relapse-directed intervention: withdrawal of immunosuppression, chemotherapy, or donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI).
  • Transplants were performed at a single institution between 1995 and 2004, and outcomes were analyzed according to time intervals from transplantation to detection of malignancy: "early," <100 days (n = 111); "intermediate," 100-200 days (n = 73); and "late," >200 days (n = 123).
  • Individual types or combinations of these nonrandomly assigned relapse-directed interventions were not associated with higher or lower probabilities of remission or survival.
  • More effective intervention strategies are needed for treatment of recurrent high-risk hematologic malignancies after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

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  • (PMID = 17889352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-8791
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA18029; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL36444; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA78902; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK064715; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA15704; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA078902
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Yamaguchi H, Inokuchi K, Dan K: The study for loss of bcl-xs expression as a prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia. Leuk Res; 2002 Dec;26(12):1119-23
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  • [Title] The study for loss of bcl-xs expression as a prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia.
  • We reported here abnormal expression profile of the bcl-x gene is associated with the recurrence in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).The bcl-x gene product exists in two forms, bcl-xl and bcl-xs.
  • Mononuclear cells of bone marrow cells were obtained from 50 patients with recurrent AML at diagnosis prior to treatment and during relapse.
  • Some refractory leukemic cells which escape chemotherapy-induced apoptosis due to loss of the bcl-xs transcript may continue to proliferate, resulting in the relapse of chemotherapy-resistant leukemia.
  • The examination of the expression status of the bcl-x gene could facilitate the prediction of chemotherapy resistance and the prognosis of patients with refractory AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Bone Marrow Cells. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Recurrence. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. bcl-X Protein

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  • (PMID = 12443885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / bcl-X Protein
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20. de Lima M, Giralt S, Thall PF, de Padua Silva L, Jones RB, Komanduri K, Braun TM, Nguyen HQ, Champlin R, Garcia-Manero G: Maintenance therapy with low-dose azacitidine after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for recurrent acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome: a dose and schedule finding study. Cancer; 2010 Dec 01;116(23):5420-31
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  • [Title] Maintenance therapy with low-dose azacitidine after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for recurrent acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome: a dose and schedule finding study.
  • BACKGROUND: Recurrence is a major cause of treatment failure after allogeneic transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and treatment options are very limited.
  • Azacitidine is a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor with activity in myeloid disease.
  • By using a Bayesian adaptive method to determine the best dose/schedule combination based on time to toxicity, the authors investigated combinations of 5 daily azacitidine doses, 8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 mg/m2, and 4 schedules: 1, 2, 3, or 4 cycles, each with 5 days of drug and 25 days of rest.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Azacitidine at 32 mg/m2 given for 5 days is safe and can be administered after allogeneic transplant for at least 4 cycles to heavily pretreated AML/MDS patients.
  • The trial also suggested that this treatment may prolong event-free and overall survival, and that more cycles may be associated with greater benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Azacitidine / administration & dosage. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / surgery. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. DNA Methylation. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Graft vs Host Disease / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Transplantation, Homologous


21. Femiano F, Gombos F, Scully C: Sweet's syndrome: recurrent oral ulceration, pyrexia, thrombophlebitis, and cutaneous lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2003 Mar;95(3):324-7
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  • [Title] Sweet's syndrome: recurrent oral ulceration, pyrexia, thrombophlebitis, and cutaneous lesions.
  • We report a case of Sweet's syndrome with recurrent oral ulceration, pyrexia, skin lesions, and migratory thrombophlebitis, with no detectable systemic cause, during a 2-year follow-up.
  • In approximately 10% of patients with Sweet's syndrome, there is an associated malignancy--most commonly acute myelogenous leukemia--but some cases, as here, are unassociated with detectable malignant or other disease, although the syndrome may precede the onset of definable systemic disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. Drug Combinations. Erythema / drug therapy. Erythema / etiology. Erythema / pathology. Female. Fever / drug therapy. Fever / etiology. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Neutrophil Activation. Prednisolone / therapeutic use. Thrombophlebitis / drug therapy. Thrombophlebitis / etiology. Thrombophlebitis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12627104.001).
  • [ISSN] 1079-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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22. Carpenter PA, Snyder DS, Flowers ME, Sanders JE, Gooley TA, Martin PJ, Appelbaum FR, Radich JP: Prophylactic administration of imatinib after hematopoietic cell transplantation for high-risk Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Blood; 2007 Apr 1;109(7):2791-3
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. IMATINIB MESYLATE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prophylactic administration of imatinib after hematopoietic cell transplantation for high-risk Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia.
  • Relapse occurs frequently after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for treatment of high-risk Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukemia.
  • Administration of imatinib early after HCT might provide an effective approach for preventing recurrent Ph+ leukemia, but the feasibility of this approach has not been systematically tested.
  • Twenty-two patients, 15 with Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 7 with high-risk chronic myelogenous leukemia, were enrolled in a prospective study and given imatinib from the time of engraftment until 365 days after HCT.
  • We conclude that imatinib can be safely administered early after myeloablative allogeneic HCT at a dose intensity comparable to that used in primary therapy.

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  • [Cites] Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2001 Feb;15(1):21-36 [11258387.001]
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  • (PMID = 17119111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA018029; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA18029
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1852215
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23. Gabriel DA, Shea TC, Serody JS, Moore DT, Kirby SL, Harvey D, Krasnov C: Cytoprotection by amifostine during autologous stem cell transplantation for advanced refractory hematologic malignancies. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2005 Dec;11(12):1022-30
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  • This study evaluated whether amifostine protects against mucositis and other toxicities in patients with advanced, refractory, or recurrent hematologic malignancies undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and total body irradiation.
  • Thirty-five patients (20 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 12 with Hodgkin disease, and 3 with acute myelogenous leukemia) who underwent autologous stem cell transplantation were conditioned with total body irradiation 2 Gy twice daily on days -8 through -6; cyclophosphamide 6 g/m(2), etoposide 1.8 g/m(2), and carboplatin 1 g/m(2) on days -5 through -3; and amifostine 500 mg/m(2) on days -8 through -2.
  • Granulocyte and platelet engraftment times were similar.
  • Prospective trials with innovative designs and clearly defined stopping rules are warranted to confirm whether amifostine reduces the toxicities of a myelosuppressive conditioning regimen before autologous stem cell transplantation without compromising therapeutic response.
  • [MeSH-major] Amifostine / administration & dosage. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Radiation-Protective Agents / administration & dosage. Transplantation Conditioning
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Cytoprotection / drug effects. Female. Graft Survival / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Myeloablative Agonists / administration & dosage. Narcotics / administration & dosage. Parenteral Nutrition / methods. Prospective Studies. Time Factors. Transplantation, Autologous. Whole-Body Irradiation / methods

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  • (PMID = 16338625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-8791
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Myeloablative Agonists; 0 / Narcotics; 0 / Radiation-Protective Agents; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine
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24. Kaufmann SH, Karp JE, Letendre L, Kottke TJ, Safgren S, Greer J, Gojo I, Atherton P, Svingen PA, Loegering DA, Litzow MR, Sloan JA, Reid JM, Ames MM, Adjei AA, Erlichman C: Phase I and pharmacologic study of infusional topotecan and Carboplatin in relapsed and refractory acute leukemia. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 15;11(18):6641-9
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • [Title] Phase I and pharmacologic study of infusional topotecan and Carboplatin in relapsed and refractory acute leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the maximum tolerated dose, toxicities, pharmacokinetics, and antileukemic activity of topotecan and carboplatin in adults with recurrent or refractory acute leukemias.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-one patients received a total of 69 courses of therapy.
  • Dose-limiting toxicity consisted of grade 4/5 typhlitis and grade 3/4 mucositis after one course of therapy or grade 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia lasting >50 days when a second course was administered on day 21.
  • Among 45 evaluable patients, there were 7 complete remissions, 2 partial remissions, 1 incomplete complete remission, and 1 reversion to chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia.
  • No accumulation of topotecan or ultrafilterable platinum occurred between days 1 and 5 of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Bone Marrow Cells / drug effects. Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Carboplatin / pharmacokinetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Combined Modality Therapy. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. HL-60 Cells. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Immunoblotting. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Topotecan / administration & dosage. Topotecan / adverse effects. Topotecan / pharmacokinetics. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16166443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA73709; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA69854; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA69912
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; EC 5.99.1.2 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type I
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25. Roche-Lestienne C, Deluche L, Corm S, Tigaud I, Joha S, Philippe N, Geffroy S, Laï JL, Nicolini FE, Preudhomme C, Fi-LMC group: RUNX1 DNA-binding mutations and RUNX1-PRDM16 cryptic fusions in BCR-ABL+ leukemias are frequently associated with secondary trisomy 21 and may contribute to clonal evolution and imatinib resistance. Blood; 2008 Apr 1;111(7):3735-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Acquired molecular abnormalities (mutations or chromosomal translocations) of the RUNX1 transcription factor gene are frequent in acute myeloblastic leukemias (AMLs) and in therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes, but rarely in acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs) and chronic myelogenous leukemias (CMLs).
  • Among 18 BCR-ABL+ leukemias presenting acquired trisomy of chromosome 21, we report a high frequency (33%) of recurrent point mutations (4 in myeloid blast crisis [BC] CML and one in chronic phase CML) within the DNA-binding region of RUNX1.
  • In addition, we also report a high frequency of cryptic chromosomal RUNX1 translocation to a novel recently described gene partner, PRDM16 on chromosome 1p36, for 3 (21.4%) of 14 investigated patients: 2 myeloid BC CMLs and, for the first time, 1 therapy-related BCR-ABL+ ALL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Blast Crisis / genetics. Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl / genetics. Leukemia / genetics. Piperazines / administration & dosage. Pyrimidines / administration & dosage. Transcription Factors / genetics. Trisomy / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Benzamides. Chromosomes, Human. Chronic Disease. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Male. Middle Aged. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / chemically induced. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / genetics. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / metabolism. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / mortality. Phenotype. Point Mutation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Translocation, Genetic / drug effects. Translocation, Genetic / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18202228.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / PRDM16 protein, human; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / RUNX1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.2 / Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Investigator list not found.
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26. Bilgi N, Bell K, Ananthakrishnan AN, Atallah E: Imatinib and Panax ginseng: a potential interaction resulting in liver toxicity. Ann Pharmacother; 2010 May;44(5):926-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of imatinib-induced hepatotoxicity after concurrent ginseng ingestion in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).
  • Liver biopsy showed acute lobular hepatitis favoring a drug-induced etiology, and a diagnosis of imatinib-induced hepatotoxicity was made.
  • Imatinib was later restarted at the same dose with no recurrent elevations in his liver enzyme levels.
  • DISCUSSION: Imatinib-associated hepatotoxicity usually presents within 1-2 years of therapy initiation, with the median time to hepatotoxicity being 100 days.
  • Based on the Naranjo probability scale, it is probable that imatinib caused this patient's hepatotoxicity, and the Horn drug interaction probability scale also indicates a probable interaction between imatinib and ginseng.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case emphasizes the importance of continuous monitoring of liver function tests even after several years of imatinib therapy and the importance of advising patients to avoid ginseng and any other over-the-counter herbal supplements that may interact with imatinib.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / etiology. Herb-Drug Interactions. Panax / adverse effects. Piperazines / adverse effects. Pyrimidines / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Benzamides. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A / metabolism. Dietary Supplements / adverse effects. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Liver Function Tests. Male

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  • (PMID = 20332334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-6270
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 1.14.13.67 / CYP3A4 protein, human; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
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27. Aschoff P, Häntschel M, Oksüz M, Werner MK, Lichy M, Vogel W, Pfannenberg C: Integrated FDG-PET/CT for detection, therapy monitoring and follow-up of granulocytic sarcoma. Initial results. Nuklearmedizin; 2009;48(5):185-91

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  • [Title] Integrated FDG-PET/CT for detection, therapy monitoring and follow-up of granulocytic sarcoma. Initial results.
  • AIM: Granulocytic sarcomas (GS) are rare extramedullary manifestations of myeloid or lymphoblastic leukaemia.
  • The FDG uptake of GS was analyzed and the sensitivity of lesion detection was compared to PET and CT alone.
  • The changes in FDG uptake after therapy were compared to morphological changes detected by CT and follow-up / clinical outcome.
  • RESULTS: 52 untreated or recurrent GS lesions were detected by FDG-PET/CT and all showed an increased FDG uptake with a mean SUVmax and SUVavg of 5.1 and 3.4, respectively.
  • Changes in FDG uptake after therapy correlated with clinical outcome and were more reliable than CT assessment alone.
  • PET/CT identified recurrent GS in 3 patients.
  • Using this metabolic information and morphologic CT criteria, combined FDG-PET/CT was more accurate in lesion detection than FDG-PET or CT alone.
  • Changes in FDG uptake after therapy might be a useful additional parameter for therapy monitoring.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Myeloid / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / radiography. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / radionuclide imaging. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / radiography. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19710955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-5566
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nuklearmedizin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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28. Sakamaki H: [The role of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia patients]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Sep;35(9):1629-34
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  • [Title] [The role of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia patients].
  • Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin (GO) targets leukemia cells expressing CD33 by means of a monoclonal antibody conjugated to a cytotoxic agent, calicheamicin.
  • GO has been approved in Japan as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML)since 2005.
  • GO administered as a single agent has resulted in overall response rates of about 30% in previously relapsed adult AML.
  • Although caution is advised when administering GO within 115 days of a stem cell transplantation (SCT) procedure because of veno-occlusive disease, recent clinical studies overseas suggest that GO can be integrated into reduced-intensity conditioning therapy before allogeneic SCT in patients with relapsed AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoglycosides / immunology. Aminoglycosides / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / immunology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Humans. Immunotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18799927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / gemtuzumab
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29. Nimer SD: Is it important to decipher the heterogeneity of "normal karyotype AML"? Best Pract Res Clin Haematol; 2008 Mar;21(1):43-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is it important to decipher the heterogeneity of "normal karyotype AML"?
  • Almost half of adult acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is normal cytogenetically, and this subgroup shows a remarkable heterogeneity of genetic mutations at the molecular level and an intermediate response to therapy.
  • The finding of recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities has influenced, in a primary way, the understanding and treatment of leukemias.
  • Yet "normal karyotype AML" lacks such obvious abnormalities, but has a variety of prognostically important genetic abnormalities.
  • Although resistance to treatment is associated with specific mutations, the degree to which the leukemia resembles a stem cell in its functional properties may provide greater protection from the effects of treatment.
  • Although usually all of the circulating leukemia cells are cleared following treatment, a small residual population of leukemic cells in the bone marrow persists, making this disease hard to eradicate.
  • Increased understanding of the biological consequences of at least some of these mutations in "normal karyotype AML" is leading to more targeted approaches to develop more effective treatments for this disease.

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  • (PMID = 18342811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6926
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK052621; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK052621-08; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R56 DK052208-09A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA102202-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA102202-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R56 DK052208; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA102202; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK052208-09A1; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK052621-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 76
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS44325; NLM/ PMC2654590
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