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Items 1 to 24 of about 24
1. Sim HL, Tan KY, Poon PL, Cheng A: Primary rectal signet ring cell carcinoma with peritoneal dissemination and gastric secondaries. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Apr 7;14(13):2118-20
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  • Colonoscopy showed a stenosing rectal tumour at 7 cm to 8 cm from the anal verge.
  • However, no primary tumour of the stomach was seen.
  • Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed circumferential tumour at the rectosigmoid junction with possible invasion into the left ischiorectal fossa.
  • The patient was referred for palliative chemotherapy in view of the disseminated disease.
  • In the present report, we discuss this interesting pathological entity and review the role of various histolological techniques in helping to identify the primary tumor.

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  • (PMID = 18395918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2701538
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2. Murosaki N, Matsumiya K, Kokado Y, Yoshioka T, Yasunaga Y, Aozasa K, Okuyama A: Retrovesical desmoplastic small round cell tumor in a patient with urinary frequency. Int J Urol; 2001 May;8(5):245-8
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  • [Title] Retrovesical desmoplastic small round cell tumor in a patient with urinary frequency.
  • A 21-year-old man with urological symptoms was found to have a large abdominal tumor in the retrovesical space between the bladder and the rectosigmoid colon.
  • A transrectal biopsy failed to disclose the histopathologic origin of the tumor.
  • Combined histologic and immunohistochemical findings revealed the features of desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT).
  • Despite subsequent multi-agent chemotherapy, the patient died as a result of the growing tumor and liver metastasis.
  • There have been only two prior reports of this neoplasm in the urological literature.

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  • (PMID = 11328427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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3. Zamir N, Ahmed S, Akhtar J: Mucinous adenocarcinoma of colon. APSP J Case Rep; 2010 Jul;1(2):20

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  • He had mucinous adenocarcinoma (T3N0MX) of rectosigmoid region and underwent local complete resection of the tumor with colostomy.
  • He also received postoperative chemotherapy and later underwent colostomy reversal.
  • He is tumor free at two years follow up.
  • The tumor was resected and biopsy reported as poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma with positive mesenteric nodes positive for tumor (T3N2MX).
  • She is on chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 22953263.001).
  • [ISSN] 2218-8185
  • [Journal-full-title] APSP journal of case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APSP J Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3417995
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Bleeding per rectum / Child / Mucinous adenocarcinoma / Colorectum
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4. Park SS, Kim BK, Kim CJ, Kim WS, Kim IO, Park KW, Shin HY, Ahn HS: Colorectal adenocarcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm following rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2000 Aug;15(4):475-7
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  • [Title] Colorectal adenocarcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm following rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder: a case report.
  • Following improvements in therapy for childhood malignancies, the striking increase in survival rate over the past 30 years has led to the increase risk of developing second malignant neoplasms (SMNs).
  • We report a case of colorectal carcinoma as a SMN, following treatment for rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The patient was diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder at his age of three years, and developed adenocarcinoma in the colon 13 years later.
  • Histologic examination of the surgical specimen revealed adenocarcinoma involving the rectosigmoid area with radiation colitis in its background.
  • The tumor cells showed strong immunoreactivity for p53 protein, suggesting the role of irradiation and p53 mutation in carcinogenesis.
  • This case emphasizes the need for dose observation in survivors of early childhood malignancies treated with radiation and multiagent chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Colorectal Neoplasms / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Rhabdomyosarcoma. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Colitis / etiology. Colitis / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Genes, p53. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / etiology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / genetics. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology. Time Factors. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 10983702.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] KOREA (SOUTH)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3054655
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5. Shomura H, Takahashi M, Nakano S, Akabane H, Yanagida N, Takaoka M, Hanamoto T, Kuji M, Kita K, Oikawa F, Miyagi H, Yoneya R: [A case report of metastatic liver tumor from rectosigmoid colon cancer demonstrating a pathological complete response with FOLFOX and FOLFIRI treatment]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2158-9
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  • [Title] [A case report of metastatic liver tumor from rectosigmoid colon cancer demonstrating a pathological complete response with FOLFOX and FOLFIRI treatment].
  • We report a case of multiple liver metastases of rectsigmoid colon cancer treated with systemic chemotherapy and hepatectomy.
  • A 40s woman had undergone anterior resection of rectum for rectsigmoid colon cancer with multiple liver metastases.
  • Then FOLFOX4 regimen was performed fifteen times, and FOLFIRI regimen was performed eleven times.
  • After chemotherapy was enforced, an abdominal CT revealed that liver metastases were reduced in size (effect judgment of partial response).
  • Pathological findings of the resected liver revealed no residual cancer cells, indicating that the histological effect of chemotherapy was complete response (CR).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20037355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; Folfox protocol
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6. Aoyagi H, Kaneko J, Ono H, Isogai J, Yoshida M, Someno Y, Katsuta E, Saguchi M, Takahata T, Hasegawa K, Hamada S, Higuchi T, Sugihara K, Maejima S: [A case of unresectable and multiple advanced primary cancers of the stomach and rectosigmoid colon with hepatic metastases successfully treated with FOLFIRI for local control of a gastric lesion]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2433-5
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  • [Title] [A case of unresectable and multiple advanced primary cancers of the stomach and rectosigmoid colon with hepatic metastases successfully treated with FOLFIRI for local control of a gastric lesion].
  • Contrast enhanced abdominal CT showed a rectosigmoid tumor invading the left pelvic wall and multiple metastatic hepatic tumors.
  • Colonoscopy showed a type-2 cancer in the rectosigmoid region.
  • Postoperative upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a type 3 cancer in the fornix.
  • From the above findings, the patient was diagnosed with unresectable gastric and rectosigmoid cancers with multiple hepatic metastases, and systemic chemotherapy was initiated.
  • The first line treatment was two courses of S-1, but it was discontinued due to PD.
  • FOLFIRI was begun as the second line treatment.
  • After 5 courses of FOLFIRI, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a marked reduction in tumor size.
  • Twelve courses of FOLFIRI chemotherapy were performed in total.
  • However, the gastric lesion had been controlled well after the second line treatment.
  • The findings of the present study suggested that FOLFIRI could be an effective treatment for unresectable multiple advanced cancers of the stomach and colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / therapy. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Camptothecin / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 21224597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; IFL protocol
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7. Copur S, Ledakis P, Novinski D, Mleczko KL, Frankforter S, Bolton M, Fruehling RM, VanWie E, Norvell M, Muhvic J: Squamous cell carcinoma of the colon with an elevated serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen responding to combination chemotherapy. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2001 May;1(1):55-8
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the colon with an elevated serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen responding to combination chemotherapy.
  • Because of their extremely rare occurrence, it is difficult to study their natural course, clinical behavior, and response to therapy.
  • This report presents the case of a pure squamous cell colorectal cancer and provides a brief review of the literature, which includes 60 previously published cases.
  • The case of a patient with T3N2M0 primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon, which was initially treated with abdominoperineal resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation, is presented.
  • During the follow-up, an elevated squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag) level led to restaging computed tomography scans, which confirmed recurrent metastatic disease in the liver.
  • Response to chemotherapy with a decrease in tumor size correlated with a decrease in the serum SCC Ag level.
  • Although SCC Ag has been used as a tumor marker for squamous cell cancers of the lung, head and neck, uterine cervix, and esophagus, this is the first reported case of a squamous cell colon carcinoma presenting with an elevated SCC Ag at the time of recurrence.
  • In addition, this patient showed an objective partial response to combination chemotherapy, with a decrease in the serum level of this tumor marker.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Serpins
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 12445380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0028
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Serpins; 0 / squamous cell carcinoma-related antigen; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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8. Matter MJ, Gygi C, Gillet M, Gebhard S, Bouzourene H: Malacoplakia simulating organ invasion in a rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum; 2001 Sep;44(9):1371-5
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  • [Title] Malacoplakia simulating organ invasion in a rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma: report of a case.
  • He presented with a rectosigmoid tumor that seemed to infiltrate the urinary bladder and the sacrum on the preoperative CT scan and echography and at laparotomy.
  • The pathologic analysis showed a pT3pN0 adenocarcinoma with an extensive malacoplakia infiltrating the bladder and the pericolic and perirectal tissues.
  • Our observation confirms the association of malacoplakia, colorectal carcinoma, and steroid treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Inflammation. Lung Diseases / drug therapy. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Steroids / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11584219.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids
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9. Burton S, Brown G, Daniels I, Norman A, Swift I, Abulafi M, Wotherspoon A, Tait D: MRI identified prognostic features of tumors in distal sigmoid, rectosigmoid, and upper rectum: treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Jun 1;65(2):445-51
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  • [Title] MRI identified prognostic features of tumors in distal sigmoid, rectosigmoid, and upper rectum: treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: Neoadjuvant therapy is traditionally reserved for locally advanced mid and low rectal cancers.
  • In tumors above this level, the need for adjuvant treatment is based on poor histopathologic features, but this approach has potential disadvantages.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could accurately stage tumors of the distal sigmoid, rectosigmoid, and upper rectum and help direct preoperative treatment.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 75 patients with distal sigmoid, rectosigmoid, and upper rectal tumors were assessed preoperatively by MRI.
  • If tumor extended beyond the planned surgical resection plane, chemoradiotherapy was offered.
  • The histopathologic examination confirmed tumor downstaging in 9 of the 18 patients who underwent chemoradiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that tumors of the distal sigmoid, rectosigmoid, and upper rectum can be staged accurately using high spatial resolution MRI and that those with poor prognostic disease may benefit from preoperative therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Rectal Neoplasms. Sigmoid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16690432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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10. Scarabelli C, Gallo A, Franceschi S, Campagnutta E, De G, Giorda G, Visentin MC, Carbone A: Primary cytoreductive surgery with rectosigmoid colon resection for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Cancer; 2000 Jan 15;88(2):389-97
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  • [Title] Primary cytoreductive surgery with rectosigmoid colon resection for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
  • The authors investigated whether primary cytoreductive surgery including rectosigmoid colon resection would affect the recurrence free interval and survival of these patients.
  • METHODS: Between April 1990 and April 1997, 66 previously untreated Stage IIIC-IV ovarian carcinoma patients with macroscopic involvement of the rectosigmoid colon were enrolled.
  • All patients underwent cytoreductive surgery with rectosigmoid colon resection to remove residual tumor less than 2 cm in greatest dimension and received 6 cycles of cisplatin-based postoperative chemotherapy.
  • In multivariate analysis, residual disease and depth of tumor infiltration of the bowel wall were independently associated with overall survival and recurrence free interval.
  • Residual tumor was the most strongly predictive factor for recurrence or death.
  • The 2-year estimated survival rates according to the amount of residual tumor were 100% for 24 patients with no macroscopic residual disease and 77.3% for 28 patients with residual disease less than 1 cm.
  • Overall, 48 patients (72.7%) developed disease recurrence: 43 (65.1%) in the abdomen, 19 (29.8%) in the liver, and 3 (4.5%) in the pelvis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that cytoreductive surgery with rectosigmoid colon resection should be considered for ovarian carcinoma patients with bulky pelvic disease to help ensure that they are left with no residual disease after debulking surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Colon, Sigmoid / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 10640973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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11. Luccichenti G, Cademartiri F, Sianesi M, Roncoroni L, Pavone P, Krestin GP: Radiologic assessment of rectosigmoid cancer before and after neoadjuvant radiation therapy: comparison between quantitation techniques. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 Feb;184(2):526-30
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  • [Title] Radiologic assessment of rectosigmoid cancer before and after neoadjuvant radiation therapy: comparison between quantitation techniques.
  • OBJECTIVE: Volumetric analysis was compared with conventional unidimensional measurements for follow-up of rectosigmoid cancer before and after radiation therapy.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with rectosigmoid cancer underwent helical CT before and after neoadjuvant radiation therapy.
  • The helical CT examination was performed after colon distention with air and IV administration of an antiperistaltic drug.
  • The maximal wall thickness and the volumetric analysis of the tumor were obtained through manual segmentation.
  • RESULTS: The mean of the differences between the volumetric analysis of the scans obtained before and after radiation therapy was 8.3 +/- 10.3 (SD) mL (-22.7%) (p <0.05).
  • The mean of the differences between the maximal wall thickness of the pre- and post-radiation therapy scans was 3.4 +/- 2.6 mm (-19.1%) (p <0.05).
  • A significant difference was observed between the variation of the maximal wall thickness and the variation of volumetric analysis in pre- and post-radiation therapy scans (p <0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Volumetric analysis of rectosigmoid cancer is feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Rectal Neoplasms / radiography. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Sigmoid Neoplasms / radiography. Sigmoid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15671374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Bhutani MS, Nadella P: Utility of an upper echoendoscope for endoscopic ultrasonography of malignant and benign conditions of the sigmoid/left colon and the rectum. Am J Gastroenterol; 2001 Dec;96(12):3318-22
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  • The forward-oblique-viewing upper echoendoscope has been mostly applied for staging rectal cancer.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-six exams were done for staging of rectosigmoid carcinoma, follow-up after chemotherapy and/or radiation, or to look for recurrence after resection of colorectal cancer.
  • One patient subsequent to EUS imaging also underwent a linear EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration of a submucosal mass in the rectum with the fine-needle aspirate consistent with a myogenic tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Colon, Sigmoid / ultrasonography. Colonic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Humans. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 11774943.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Dauplat J, Le Bouëdec G, Pomel C, Scherer C: Cytoreductive surgery for advanced stages of ovarian cancer. Semin Surg Oncol; 2000 Jul-Aug;19(1):42-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytoreductive surgery for advanced stages of ovarian cancer.
  • The residual tumor volume after surgery is one of the strongest prognostic factors, and only patients who undergo complete or optimal surgery are likely to be long-term survivors (i.e., 50% after five years).
  • A well-trained surgeon in the field of gynecologic oncology can achieve an optimal tumor reduction in up to 75% of patients with advanced stage ovarian cancer.
  • During the procedure, bowel resection, especially rectosigmoid, must be undertaken in 30% to 40% of cases, and para-aortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy should be performed after adequate tumor reduction in the abdominal cavity.
  • The experienced surgeon can perform these surgeries with an acceptable morbidity, allowing chemotherapy to be undertaken within the month following surgery.
  • However, very advanced cancer with massive peritoneal carcinomatosis and/or Stage IV disease requires a very aggressive surgical procedure but yields a poor prognosis and a higher risk of unacceptable complications.
  • For these worst cases, the concept of cytoreductive surgery is moving toward the alternative strategy of chemosurgical cytoreduction, in which interval cytoreductive surgery is undertaken after three cycles of front-line chemotherapy.
  • The goal of this experimental strategy is to achieve a complete tumor response after front-line chemosurgical therapy, and a better quality of life.
  • [MeSH-minor] Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 10883023.001).
  • [ISSN] 8756-0437
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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14. Svrcek M, Tiret E, Bennis M, Guyot P, Fléjou JF: KSHV/HHV8-associated intestinal Kaposi's sarcoma in patient with ulcerative colitis receiving immunosuppressive drugs: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Jan;52(1):154-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] KSHV/HHV8-associated intestinal Kaposi's sarcoma in patient with ulcerative colitis receiving immunosuppressive drugs: report of a case.
  • We report the rare case of an intestinal (small intestine and rectosigmoid) Kaposi's sarcoma in a 62-year-old HIV-negative man with ulcerative colitis.
  • This patient was receiving immunosuppressive therapy with steroids and azathioprine.
  • We report for the first time, the expression of HHV8 (by using immunohistochemistry) in colonic Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with an ulcerative colitis-related tumor.
  • Forty months after surgery and following withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy, the patient had no evidence of any disease and a normal abdominal and thoracic CT scan.
  • Cases of colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma complicating inflammatory bowel disease should be managed with a conservative approach and discontinuation of the immunosuppressive treatment.
  • However, discontinuation of the immunosuppression is not always possible and in those cases chemotherapy may be indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Colitis, Ulcerative / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • (PMID = 19273971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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15. Biswal BM, Sain AH, Othman NH, Baba A: Adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer. Experience from a referral center in eastern peninsular Malaysia. Trop Gastroenterol; 2002 Jul-Sep;23(3):134-7
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  • [Title] Adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer. Experience from a referral center in eastern peninsular Malaysia.
  • BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the West, but in Asia the incidence is low.
  • However in Malaysia, colorectal cancer is increasing with a reported figure of 15% of all cancer cases.
  • The present retrospective analysis was performed to document the effect of such therapy among patients with colorectal cancer in Malaysia.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study on the use of adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancers.
  • Patients with histopathological evidence of risk factors were subjected to adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • Cancers confined to rectum and rectosigmoid were subjected to pelvic radiotherapy to a tumor dose of 45 Gy in 20 fractions over 4-week period.
  • 5-flurouracil based chemotherapy was predominantly offered for colonic cancers.
  • RESULTS: One hundred thirty patients with colorectal cancers received adjuvant treatment with a median age of 58 years (range 22-76 years).
  • Modified Dukes' stage B2 (28%) and C (38%) constituted the majority, which were distributed in rectum (40%), rectosigmoid (19%), and in the remaining colon (41%).
  • Following treatment, the 2-year actuarial survival was 28% and 54% in colon and rectum cancer respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that colorectal cancer is not infrequent among Malays in this region and rectal cancers had better survival than the colonic cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Incidence. Malaysia / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12693156.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-636X
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical gastroenterology : official journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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16. Law WL, Chu KW: Outcomes of resection of stage IV rectal cancer with mesorectal excision. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Jun 1;93(7):523-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes of resection of stage IV rectal cancer with mesorectal excision.
  • BACKGROUND: There is no consensus as to the management of the primary rectal cancer in the presence of distant metastasis and data on the outcomes of radical resection in stage IV rectal cancer are limited.
  • This study aims to evaluate the results of resection of rectal cancer in the patients with stage IV disease and to analyze the factors that might affect the survival of these patients.
  • METHODS: Of the 744 patients with radical resection of primary rectal and rectosigmoid cancer during the study period from August 1993 to July 2002, 70 had stage IV disease on the initial presentation.
  • The demographics, the operative details, the tumor characteristics, the postoperative outcomes and survival of the patients were collected prospectively.
  • The median level of the tumor from the anal verge was 10 cm (range 3-20 cm).
  • The median cancer-specific survival of the patients who survived the surgery was 15.2 months.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of gross residual local disease, lymph node metastasis, liver involvement of over 50%, the absence of surgical management of liver metastasis and those without chemotherapy were independent factors associated with poor survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative mortality and morbidity were acceptable in patients with stage IV rectal cancer.
  • Surgical management of the metastasis and the administration of chemotherapy are associated with better survival.
  • However, the optional treatment regimes are yet to be defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery. Sigmoid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16705728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Bookman ID, Redston MS, Greenberg GR: Successful treatment of cap polyposis with infliximab. Gastroenterology; 2004 Jun;126(7):1868-71
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of cap polyposis with infliximab.
  • Cap polyposis is a disorder characterized by bloody diarrhea with rectosigmoid polyps covered by a cap of fibropurulent exudate.
  • Drug therapies are usually unsuccessful, and treatment requires sigmoid resection or, if the disease recurs after initial surgical resection, panproctocolectomy.
  • The patient's disease was unresponsive to treatment with mesalamine, antibiotics, lidocaine enemas, and corticosteroids.
  • Well-being with normal endoscopy and histology has been maintained at 38 months, without further treatment.
  • It was concluded that infliximab is effective therapy for cap polyposis and avoids the requirement for surgery.
  • No clinical evidence was obtained to support mucosal prolapse as a causative factor, but the response to infliximab suggests a role for tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the pathogenesis of this disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use. Intestinal Polyposis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Endoscopy, Digestive System. Female. Humans. Infliximab. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 15188181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5085
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab
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18. Ulrich U, Richter O, Wardelmann E, Valter M, Schmutzler R, Sillem M, Possover M, Mallmann P: [Endometriosis and malignoma]. Zentralbl Gynakol; 2003 Jul-Aug;125(7-8):239-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The most common extragonadal manifestations are the rectosigmoid and the rectovaginal septum.
  • For extragonadal malignant tumors arising from endometriosis, complete resection followed by post-operative radiotherapy, possibly plus adjuvant progestin therapy, is the treatment of choice.
  • While their treatment follows that of common ovarian cancer, a poorer response to chemotherapy must be considered.
  • As unopposed estrogen replacement therapy has been identified as a risk factor for the development of endometriosis-associated cancer, it is not recommended for hormone replacement therapy in women with a history of endometriosis.
  • Loss of heterozygosity and mutations of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene may be early events of tumorigenesis.

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  • (PMID = 14505256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4197
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Gynakol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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19. Abraham NS, Gossey JT, Davila JA, Al-Oudat S, Kramer JK: Receipt of recommended therapy by patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Am J Gastroenterol; 2006 Jun;101(6):1320-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Receipt of recommended therapy by patients with advanced colorectal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate utilization of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy among patients with stage II or III colon cancer and stage II/III rectal or rectosigmoid cancer, as recommended by current national guidelines.
  • DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center (Houston, TX) used 1999-2003 administrative data to identify patients with a diagnostic code for colorectal cancer.
  • Medical charts were then abstracted to identify an incident cohort with stage II or III cancer.
  • Outcome of interest was receipt of recommended therapy defined as surgery only (stage II colon) or surgery with adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy (stage III colon or stage II/III rectal/rectosigmoid cancer).
  • Potential determinants of receipt of recommended therapy were analyzed using logistic regression.
  • 87% of stage II and 71% of stage III colon cancer patients received recommended therapy, compared to only 42.5% of rectal cancer patients.
  • Predictors of receipt of recommended therapy among rectal cancers included being married (OR, 5.3; 95% CI: 1.6-17.1), presentation at tumor board (OR, 3.6; 95% CI: 1.2-11.2), or age<65 yr (OR, 3.5; 95% CI: 1.3-9.3).
  • When patient's comorbidity and physician's decision-making process were considered in the assessment of the outcome, only presentation at tumor board remained predictive of receipt of recommended therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most colon cancer patients at a major VA medical center receive recommended therapy.
  • Among rectal cancer patients, those presented at tumor board are most likely to receive recommended therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / therapy. Patient Acceptance of Health Care

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  • (PMID = 16771956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Liang JT, Lai HS, Lee PH: Laparoscopic medial-to-lateral approach for the curative resection of right-sided colon cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Jun;14(6):1878-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic medial-to-lateral approach for the curative resection of right-sided colon cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: Our previous randomized clinical trial comparing the laparoscopic medial-to-lateral dissection with the more classic lateral-to-medial approach for resection of rectosigmoid cancer showed that the medial approach reduces the operative time and the postoperative proinflammatory response.
  • Encouraged by the above-mentioned positive findings, we therefore further conduct this phase II clinical trial to examine the feasibility and surgical outcomes regarding the utilization of this medial-to-lateral laparoscopic dissection approach for the curative resection of right-sided colon cancer.
  • METHODS: A total of 104 patients (from December 2000 to January, 2005) with advanced right-sided colon cancer (TNM stage II: n = 56; stage III: n = 48) requiring a curative right hemicolectomy were subjected to the laparoscopic medial-to-lateral approach that included initial exploration and ligation of ileocolic, right colic, and middle colic vessels in no-touch isolation fashion, subsequent medial-to-lateral extension of retroperitoneal dissection along Gerota fascia, opening of lesser sac by transection of gastrocolic ligament, and the final mobilization of hepatic flexure and lateral attachments of ascending colon (Fig. 1).
  • Postoperatively, adjuvant chemotherapy with Mayo Clinic Regimen was given in patients with stage III diseases.
  • RESULTS: The laparoscopic medial-to-lateral approach for a curative right hemicolectomy can be preformed with acceptable operation time (192.6 +/- 32.8 min, mean +/- standard deviation) and little blood loss (48.4 +/- 14.4 ml) through a small wound (6.0 +/- 0.8 cm).
  • During the follow-up periods (median: 30 months, range 6-55 months), recurrence of tumor developed in 6 (10.7%) of stage II and 10 (20.8%) of stage III patients, with liver metastasis in six patients, lung metastasis in 4, liver and lung metastasis in 1, intraperitoneal recurrence in 2, bone metastasis in 1, brain metastasis in 1, and port-site recurrence in 1.
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood Loss, Surgical. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dissection / methods. Feasibility Studies. Follow-Up Studies. Hospitalization. Humans. Ileus / etiology. Ligaments / surgery. Ligation. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Pain, Postoperative / etiology. Postoperative Complications. Prospective Studies. Recovery of Function / physiology. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17377832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Bleeker WA, Hayes VM, Karrenbeld A, Hofstra RM, Hermans J, Buys CC, Plukker JT: Impact of KRAS and TP53 mutations on survival in patients with left- and right-sided Dukes' C colon cancer. Am J Gastroenterol; 2000 Oct;95(10):2953-7
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  • [Title] Impact of KRAS and TP53 mutations on survival in patients with left- and right-sided Dukes' C colon cancer.
  • METHODS: The primary tumors of 55 patients with a sporadic Dukes' C colon cancer, all treated with adjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed for the presence of KRAS and TP53 mutations.
  • Mutation detection of the KRAS and TP53 genes was performed on paraffin-embedded tumor material, using denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis.
  • The 5-yr survival rates of KRAS and TP53 mutated tumors were analyzed regarding right-sided tumors (defined as tumors up to the splenic flexure) and left-sided tumors (defined as tumors from the splenic flexure to the rectosigmoid peritoneal reflection).
  • This suggests that other genetic factors may play a role in tumor genesis in this subgroup of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Genes, ras / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Colon / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11051374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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22. Simpkins F, Belinson JL, Rose PG: Avoiding bevacizumab related gastrointestinal toxicity for recurrent ovarian cancer by careful patient screening. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Oct;107(1):118-23
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  • [Title] Avoiding bevacizumab related gastrointestinal toxicity for recurrent ovarian cancer by careful patient screening.
  • A prior study from our institution demonstrated frequent (26%) transmural bowel wall involvement from ovarian cancer among patients who undergo intestinal resection at initial surgery.
  • Since the initial report of this complication, we have limited bevacizumab treatment to patients without:.
  • 1) clinical symptoms of bowel obstruction 2) evidence of rectosigmoid involvement on pelvic exam 3) bowel involvement on CT scan.
  • METHODS: Patients with advanced recurrent ovarian cancer treated with single agent or combination bevacizumab therapy (15 mg/kg every 21 days) were retrospectively identified.
  • Objective tumor assessments and CA-125 Rustin Criteria were used to measure response and progression.
  • Response to therapy was stratified by the presence or absence of bulky disease.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (21 primary ovarian cancers; 4 primary peritoneal) had received a median of 5 (range 2-12) prior chemotherapy regimens and 3 (range 1-6) prior platinum containing regimens.
  • All patients were platinum resistant prior to bevacizumab therapy.
  • Ten patients (40%; 95% CI: (27%, 63%)) received a median of 4 cycles (range 1-24) of bevacizumab as a single agent and 15 patients (60%; 95% CI: (41%, 77%)) received bevacizumab in combination with cytotoxic therapy.
  • The overall response rate (partial response) was 28% (7 patients; 95% CI: (14%, 48%)) with a 20% (2 of 10 patients; 95% CI: (5.7%, 51%)) and 33% (5 of 15 patients; 95% CI: (15%, 58%)) response rate with bevacizumab as single agent therapy and as combination therapy, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Bevacizumab demonstrates activity in recurrent platinum resistant ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Intestines / drug effects. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bevacizumab. Drug Resistance, Bacterial. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Patient Selection. Platinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17658587.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Platinum Compounds; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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23. Eisenkop SM, Spirtos NM, Lin WC: Splenectomy in the context of primary cytoreductive operations for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Feb;100(2):344-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Splenectomy in the context of primary cytoreductive operations for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine if the need to perform splenectomy due to metastatic disease in the context of complete primary cytoreduction for ovarian cancer diminishes the prognosis for survival.
  • METHODS: Between 1990 and 2004, 356 stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer patients underwent resection of all visible disease before systemic platinum-based combination chemotherapy.
  • The frequency of performing other procedures, operative time, blood loss, transfusion rate, and hospitalization, was compared (Chi-square test; discrete and binomial data, t test; continuous data) on the basis of whether a splenectomy was required.
  • The splenectomy subgroup more commonly required en-bloc resection of reproductive organs with rectosigmoid (89.8% vs. 55.7%, P < 0.001), diaphragm stripping (63.3% vs. 33.6%, <0.001)), full-thickness diaphragm resection (28.6% vs. 9.4%, P < 0.001), and resection of grossly positive retroperitoneal nodes (67.3% vs. 46.3%, P = 0.006).
  • The splenectomy group had a longer operative time (238 min vs. 192 min, P = 0.004), estimated blood loss (1663 ml vs. 1167 ml, P = 0.001), transfusion rate (5.3 units prbc vs. 3.2 units prbc, P = 0.002), and hospitalization (16.1 vs. 12.2 days P = 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The need for splenectomy to achieve complete cytoreduction is a reflection of advanced disease but is not a manifestation of tumor biology precluding long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Splenectomy


24. Soran A, Harlak A, Wilson JW, Nesbitt L, Lembersky BC, Wienad HS, O'Connell MJ: Diverticular disease in patients with colon cancer: subgroup analysis of national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project protocol C-06. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2006 Jul;6(2):140-5
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  • [Title] Diverticular disease in patients with colon cancer: subgroup analysis of national surgical adjuvant breast and bowel project protocol C-06.
  • BACKGROUND: Similar epidemiologic characteristics suggest a common etiology for colon cancer (CC) and diverticular disease of the colon (DD).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The NASBP enrolled 1,608 patients who had undergone potentially curative resection for stage II/III colon cancer from 256 medical sites between February 14, 1997, and March 31, 1999.
  • Colon cancer was located in the rectosigmoid in 46.88% of patients with DD and in 31.92% of patients without DD (P < 0.05).
  • Patients with CC with and without DD differed from each other with respect to age, tumor location, and ethnicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / complications. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diverticulum, Colon / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Tegafur / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16945170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0028
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA-12027; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA-37377; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA-69651; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA-69974
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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