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1. Bese T, Simsek Y, Bese N, Ilvan S, Arvas M: Extensive pelvic endometriosis with malignant change in tamoxifen-treated postmenopausal women. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2003 May-Jun;13(3):376-80
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  • A 74-year-old woman with a history of breast carcinoma who received tamoxifen therapy for 2 years was admitted with uterine bleeding.
  • Hysteroscopic polypectomy revealed a hyperplastic polyp.
  • The cervix, rectum, and the accompanying mass were resected.
  • Histopathologic examination revealed endocervical adenocarcinoma and endometriosis involving cervix uteri and the rectal muscular wall.
  • As cervical cancer occurred in a short period, it might be speculated that tamoxifen might have stimulated the proliferative and mitotic activity of cervical endometrial tissue which has progressed into invasive cancer in time.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Pelvis. Postmenopause


2. Ben-Josef E, Han S, Tobi M, Shaw LM, Bonner HS, Vargas BJ, Prokop S, Stamos B, Kelly L, Biggar S, Kaplan I: A pilot study of topical intrarectal application of amifostine for prevention of late radiation rectal injury. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 Aug 1;53(5):1160-4
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  • [Title] A pilot study of topical intrarectal application of amifostine for prevention of late radiation rectal injury.
  • PURPOSE: Clinical symptomatic late injury to the rectal wall occurs in about one-third of patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam irradiation.
  • Reducing the physical dose to the anterior rectal wall without a similar reduction in the posterior peripheral zone is difficult because of the proximity of the prostate to the anterior rectal wall.
  • On the basis of our previous observations in an animal model that intrarectal application of amifostine resulted in very high concentrations of amifostine and its active metabolite WR-1065 in the rectal wall, a Phase I dose-escalation clinical trial was undertaken.
  • The total dose to the prostate was 70.2 Gy in 20 patients and 73.8 Gy in 9 patients.
  • Therapy was delivered using a 4-field technique with three-dimensional conformal planning.
  • Amifostine was administered intrarectally as an aqueous solution 30 min before irradiation on the first 15 days of therapy.
  • Proctoscopy was performed before therapy and at 9 months after completion.
  • The clinical symptoms (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale) and a proctoscopy score were assessed during follow-up.
  • RESULTS: All patients completed therapy with no amifostine-related toxicity at any dose level.
  • With a median follow-up of 26 months, 9 patients (33%) developed rectal bleeding (8 Grade 1, 1 Grade 2).
  • At 9 months, 16 and 3 patients developed Grade 1 and Grade 2 telangiectasia, respectively.
  • This was mostly confined to the anterior rectal wall.
  • Four patients (14%) developed symptoms suggestive of radiation damage that, on sigmoidoscopy, proved to be secondary to unrelated processes.
  • These included preexisting nonspecific proctitis (n = 1), diverticular disease of the sigmoid colon (n = 1), rectal polyp (n = 1), and ulcerative colitis (n = 1).
  • Symptoms developed significantly more often in patients receiving 500-1000 mg than in patients receiving 1500-2500 mg amifostine (7 [50%] of 14 vs. 2 [15%] of 13, p = 0.0325, one-sided chi-square test).
  • Systemic absorption of amifostine and its metabolites is negligible, and close monitoring of patients is not required with rectal administration.
  • Proctoscopy is superior to symptom score as a method of assessing radiation damage of the rectal wall.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Amifostine / administration & dosage. Amifostine / pharmacology. Analysis of Variance. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Humans. Intestines / metabolism. Male. Mercaptoethylamines / pharmacology. Multivariate Analysis. Radiation-Protective Agents / pharmacology. Rectum / pathology. Rectum / radiation effects. Telangiectasis / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12128116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mercaptoethylamines; 0 / Radiation-Protective Agents; 31098-42-7 / WR 1065; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine
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3. Shia J, Teruya-Feldstein J, Pan D, Hegde A, Klimstra DS, Chaganti RS, Qin J, Portlock CS, Filippa DA: Primary follicular lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract: a clinical and pathologic study of 26 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2002 Feb;26(2):216-24
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  • Four of four cases showed cytogenetic or molecular genetic evidence of t(14;18).
  • Initial treatment modalities included surgery plus chemotherapy (nine cases), surgery alone (seven cases), chemotherapy alone (four cases), observation alone (four cases), and chemotherapy and abdominal radiation (one case).
  • One case presented with rectal polyps and was treated with polypectomy.
  • A complete response was observed in 15 of 22 cases that received treatment, and of the 15 cases, five recurred 27-60 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • No significant correlation was identified between treatment response and various clinical and pathologic features.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cytogenetics. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Analysis


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4. Giardiello FM, Casero RA Jr, Hamilton SR, Hylind LM, Trimbath JD, Geiman DE, Judge KR, Hubbard W, Offerhaus GJ, Yang VW: Prostanoids, ornithine decarboxylase, and polyamines in primary chemoprevention of familial adenomatous polyposis. Gastroenterology; 2004 Feb;126(2):425-31
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  • [Title] Prostanoids, ornithine decarboxylase, and polyamines in primary chemoprevention of familial adenomatous polyposis.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Familial adenomatous polyposis because of germline mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene is characterized by development of colorectal adenomas and, ultimately, colorectal cancer.
  • The usefulness of colorectal mucosal compounds to predict the effect on adenoma development of primary chemoprevention with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac was evaluated.
  • METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 41 subjects genotypically affected with familial adenomatous polyposis but phenotypically unaffected was conducted.
  • The levels of 5 prostanoids, ornithine decarboxylase, and polyamines were measured serially in normal-appearing rectal mucosa.
  • RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups in baseline levels of prostanoids, ornithine decarboxylase, or polyamines.
  • Among the subset of patients taking sulindac, 3 of 5 prostaglandin levels were statistically significantly lower in patients who were polyp free than in those who developed polyps.
  • By contrast, there were no statistically significant differences in ornithine decarboxylase or polyamines between treatment groups or in those on sulindac who were polyp free compared with those who developed polyps.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal mucosal prostaglandin levels, but not ornithine decarboxylase or polyamines, may be valuable biomarkers to assess appropriate drug dosage and medication compliance in patients undergoing primary chemoprevention therapy with sulindac.

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  • (PMID = 14762779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5085
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R24 DK064399-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK064399-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 51085; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 53801; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R24 DK064399; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 63721; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA 93-16
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Polyamines; 0 / Prostaglandins; 184SNS8VUH / Sulindac; EC 4.1.1.17 / Ornithine Decarboxylase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS38268; NLM/ PMC2225536
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5. Terada T: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the digestive organs: a histopathologic study of 31 cases in a single Japanese institute. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2009;3(2):162-8
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  • They consisted of 24 cases of gastric GIST, 1 case of hepatic GIST, 1 case of small intestinal GIST, 4 cases of colon GIST, and 1 case of rectal GIST.
  • Endoscopy and imaging modalities including US, CT and MRI were useful to detect the tumors in all cases, and biopsies confirmed the GIST diagnosis in 21 cases.
  • Grossly, 23 cases were submucosal tumors, 6 serosa-side tumors, 1 solid tumor in the liver, and 1 rectal polyp.
  • Histologically, 28 cases were of spindle cell type and 3 of epithelioid type.
  • The chemotherapy was imatinib mesylate in 6 cases, and none in 25 cases.

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  • (PMID = 20126584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Codon; 0 / Vimentin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2809996
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; GIST / KIT / PDGFRA / clinicopathology / desmin / genetics / immunohisology
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6. Schmiegel W, Pox C, Arnold D, Porschen R, Rödel C, Reinacher-Schick A, Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany, German Cancer Aid, German Cancer Society, German Society for Digestive and Metabolic Diseases, German Society for General and Visceral Surgery, German Society for Hematology and Oncology, German Society for Pathology, German Society for Radiooncology, German Roentgen Society, German Joint Society for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, German Society for Coloproctology, Association of Stoma Patients and Persons with Intestinal Cancer, German Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Association, German Society for Internal Medicine: Colorectal carcinoma: the management of polyps, (neo)adjuvant therapy, and the treatment of metastases. Dtsch Arztebl Int; 2009 Dec;106(51-52):843-8
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  • [Title] Colorectal carcinoma: the management of polyps, (neo)adjuvant therapy, and the treatment of metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the second most common type of cancer in Germany.
  • In view of recent major changes in the diagnosis and treatment of CRC, the S3 guideline for CRC published in its full version in 2004 was partially updated in 2008 and again in 2009.
  • METHOD: The literature was systematically searched for all articles published from 2004 onward concerning polyp management, (neo-)adjuvant treatment, and treatment of metastatic disease.
  • Evidence-based recommendations were developed in a consensus conference.
  • RESULTS: For some patients who have undergone polypectomy, the time to follow-up with colonoscopy can be lengthened.
  • In UICC stage III colon cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy with an oxaliplatin-based regimen is recommended.
  • In stage II colon cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered mainly when risk factors are present.
  • In stages II and III, neo-adjuvant therapy should be given before resection in rectal cancer.
  • In patients with metastatic disease, the use of all possible treatment options results in a median overall survival time of 24 months.
  • In some patients with primarily non-resectable liver metastases, systemic treatment may enable a secondary, potentially curative resection.
  • Therapeutic agents are chosen individually on the basis of clinical factors including the goal of treatment, the patient's general condition, and tumor molecular markers.
  • CONCLUSION: The S3 guideline contains evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps / diagnosis. Colonic Polyps / therapy. Medical Oncology / standards. Neoadjuvant Therapy / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / therapy. Germany. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20062582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1866-0452
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsches Ärzteblatt international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch Arztebl Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803611
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adjuvant therapy / cancer treatment / colorectal carcinoma / palliative treatment / polyps
  • [Investigator] Schmitt W; Riemann JF; Baretton G; Faiss S 3rd; Gabbert HE; In der Smitten S; Mössner J; Neuhaus H; Pommer G; Pox C; Reiser M; Schoppmeyer K; Schumacher B; Wittekind Ch; Porschen R; Sauer R; Arnold D; Budach W; Folprecht G; Geissler M; Hofheinz RD 3rd; Köhne CH; Link KH; Rödel C; Reinacher-Schick A; Tannapfel A; Schmoll HJ; Graeven U; Bechstein WO; Eichler K; Heinemann V; Höhler T; Overkamp F; Petrasch S; Raab HR; Schmiegel W; Seufferlein T; Trarbach T; Vanhöfer U; Vogl T
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7. Young-Fadok TM, Radice E, Nelson H, Harmsen WS: Benefits of laparoscopic-assisted colectomy for colon polyps: a case-matched series. Mayo Clin Proc; 2000 Apr;75(4):344-8
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  • [Title] Benefits of laparoscopic-assisted colectomy for colon polyps: a case-matched series.
  • OBJECTIVE: To clarify the true benefits of laparoscopic-assisted colectomy by comparing clinical outcomes from a series of laparoscopic right colectomies with matched open colectomies, all performed for the singular indication of polyp not amenable to colonoscopic removal.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-matched study was performed of consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic-assisted right hemicolectomy for polyps between January 1992 and July 1997.
  • Each case was matched to a control undergoing the equivalent open procedure for the same indication during the same time period.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients undergoing laparoscopic-assisted right hemicolectomy for polyps were identified, and matches were found.
  • Operative times were longer for laparoscopic-associated colectomy (median, 208 minutes vs 150 minutes, P < .001).
  • Laparoscopic-assisted colectomy resulted in shorter postoperative ileus (time to flatus, 3.0 vs 4.0 days, P < .001; time to bowel movement, 3.5 vs 5.0 days, P < .001) and in earlier tolerance of regular diet (3.5 vs 6.0 days, P < .001).
  • Laparoscopic-assisted resection has become our preferred approach for polyps not amenable to colonoscopic polypectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Colectomy / methods. Colonic Polyps / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analgesics, Opioid / administration & dosage. Blood Loss, Surgical. Case-Control Studies. Defecation. Diet. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Pain, Postoperative / drug therapy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10761487.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-6196
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid
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8. Cruz-Correa M, Shoskes DA, Sanchez P, Zhao R, Hylind LM, Wexner SD, Giardiello FM: Combination treatment with curcumin and quercetin of adenomas in familial adenomatous polyposis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2006 Aug;4(8):1035-8
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  • [Title] Combination treatment with curcumin and quercetin of adenomas in familial adenomatous polyposis.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Familialadenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by the development of hundreds of colorectal adenomas and eventual colorectal cancer.
  • Regression of adenomas in this syndrome occurs with the administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, but these compounds can have considerable side effects.
  • METHODS: Five FAP patients with prior colectomy (4 with retained rectum and 1 with an ileal anal pouch) received curcumin 480 mg and quercetin 20 mg orally 3 times a day.
  • The number and size of polyps were assessed at baseline and after therapy.
  • The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to determine differences in the number and size of polyps.
  • Treatment side effects and medication compliance also were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: All 5 patients had a decreased polyp number and size from baseline after a mean of 6 months of treatment with curcumin and quercetin.
  • The mean percent decrease in the number and size of polyps from baseline was 60.4% (P < .05) and 50.9% (P < .05), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination of curcumin and quercetin appears to reduce the number and size of ileal and rectal adenomas in patients with FAP without appreciable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antioxidants / therapeutic use. Curcumin / therapeutic use. Quercetin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sigmoidoscopy


9. Gence A, Sahin C, Celayir AC, Yavuz H: Primary Burkitt lymphoma presenting as a solitary rectal polyp in a child. Pediatr Surg Int; 2008 Nov;24(11):1215-7
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  • [Title] Primary Burkitt lymphoma presenting as a solitary rectal polyp in a child.
  • Primary rectal lymphoma in childhood is extremely rare.
  • This report focuses on the importance of considering the possibility of malignancy in rectal polyps.
  • We report a 5-year-old girl with fresh rectal bleeding who was admitted in our clinic.
  • In physical exam, we found a single pedicled polyp on the posterior wall of the rectum.
  • Surgical removal under general anesthesia involved polyp and its pedicle.
  • Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry study of the polyp revealed a high-grade B-cell lymphoma (Burkitt lymphoma).
  • The patient was referred to pediatric oncology center for chemotherapy.
  • Primary rectal lymphoma in childhood is extremely rare; therefore, the possibility of malignancy in rectal polyps should be considered in the pediatric patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / surgery. Intestinal Polyps / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18810465.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. Floyd ND, Saclarides TJ: Transanal endoscopic microsurgical resection of pT1 rectal tumors. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Feb;49(2):164-8
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  • [Title] Transanal endoscopic microsurgical resection of pT1 rectal tumors.
  • This study will show that transanal endoscopic microsurgical treatment of pT1 rectal cancers is safe and achieves low local recurrence and high survival rates.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review performed of all pT1 rectal cancers treated by a single surgeon (TS) using transanal endoscopic microsurgery between 1991 and 2003.
  • Patient age, gender, tumor distance from the anal verge, lesion size, operative time, blood loss, complications, recurrence, and survival rates were prospectively recorded.
  • Radiation and/or chemotherapy were not administered.
  • Sixteen patients had pT1 lesions removed piecemeal during colonoscopy; there was no residual tumor after transanal endoscopic microsurgical resection of the polyp site.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transanal endoscopic microsurgical resection of pT1 rectal cancers yields low recurrence rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Proctoscopy / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Microsurgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16362801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Matsushita D, Kitazono M, Baba K, Ishigami S, Shinchi H, Ueno S, Ogawa H, Natsugoe S: [A case of advanced rectal cancer with liver and lung metastasis showing a complete response by neo-adjuvant FOLFOX4 chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Jan;37(1):173-6
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced rectal cancer with liver and lung metastasis showing a complete response by neo-adjuvant FOLFOX4 chemotherapy].
  • Colonoscopy detected rectal cancer and sigmoid al polyps.
  • The biopsy results suggested that the rectal lesion was well- to moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma and the sigmoidal polyp contained well -differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • CT scan revealed multiple lung, liver and lymph node metastasis.
  • We judged the case to be inoperable and decided to start systemic chemotherapy (FOLFOX4).
  • After treatment with chemotherapy, the tumor shrank and metastatic lesions disappeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy

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  • (PMID = 20087057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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12. Freedman AN, Slattery ML, Ballard-Barbash R, Willis G, Cann BJ, Pee D, Gail MH, Pfeiffer RM: Colorectal cancer risk prediction tool for white men and women without known susceptibility. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Feb 10;27(5):686-93
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  • METHODS: The development of separate CRC absolute risk models for men and women included estimating relative risks and attributable risk parameters from population-based case-control data separately for proximal, distal, and rectal cancer and combining these estimates with baseline age-specific cancer hazard rates based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) incidence rates and competing mortality risks.
  • RESULTS: For men, the model included a cancer-negative sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy in the last 10 years, polyp history in the last 10 years, history of CRC in first-degree relatives, aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, cigarette smoking, body mass index (BMI), current leisure-time vigorous activity, and vegetable consumption.
  • For women, the model included sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy, polyp history, history of CRC in first-degree relatives, aspirin and NSAID use, BMI, leisure-time vigorous activity, vegetable consumption, hormone-replacement therapy (HRT), and estrogen exposure on the basis of menopausal status.
  • CONCLUSION: We developed absolute risk prediction models for CRC from population-based data, and a simple questionnaire suitable for self-administration.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / adverse effects. Body Mass Index. Colonoscopy. Diet. European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Humans. Intestinal Polyps. Leisure Activities. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Theoretical. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk Factors. Sigmoidoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19114701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2645090
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13. Solaz Moreno E, Vallalta Morales M, Silla Búrdalo G, Cervera Miguel JI, Díaz Beveridge R, Rayón Martín JM: [Primary melanoma of the rectum: an infrequent neoplasia with an atypical presentation]. Clin Transl Oncol; 2005 May;7(4):171-3
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  • [Title] [Primary melanoma of the rectum: an infrequent neoplasia with an atypical presentation].
  • The main clinical presentations are local symptoms such as rectal bleeding, anal mass or pain, or a change in bowel habits.
  • The tumour is frequently mistaken for benign conditions as haemorrhoids or rectal polyps.
  • Many treatments can be used: surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy and even bio-therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15960927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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14. Kuhne HP, Göller T, Schneider I, Bozkurt T, Becker HP: [Unclear per anum bleeding during pregnancy]. Chirurg; 2005 Aug;76(8):765-8
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  • Rectoscopy showed the cause to be a polyp the size of a fingertip 9 cm from the anus.
  • Seeking a prognosis optimal for the newborn child, the interdisciplinary decision was made for primary surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Polyps / diagnosis. Melena / etiology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications / etiology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Puerperal Disorders / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Intestinal Mucosa / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Rectum / pathology. Rectum / surgery


15. Chmiel B, Nocoń G: [Secondary primary, bilocal sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma in a patient previously treated for testicular cancer]. Wiad Lek; 2004;57(5-6):288-9
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  • The patient underwent nearly total colectomy and resection of the rectal polyp.
  • This case is an illustration of the problem of cancerogenesis within polyps of the large bowel in patients treated before by chemotherapy because of testicular cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Rectal Neoplasms. Sigmoid Neoplasms. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15518079.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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16. Bollen P, Bourgain C, Van Berlaer G, Duville L, Vandenplas Y: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma presenting as a solitary rectal polyp. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 2000 Aug;31(2):193-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin lymphoma presenting as a solitary rectal polyp.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Polyps / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Rectum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Child. Colonoscopy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage. Humans. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Immunophenotyping. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methylprednisolone / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10941976.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; COPADEM protocol
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17. Radonak J, Lakyová L, Toporcer T: [Uncommon rectal adenocarcinoma metastases]. Rozhl Chir; 2010 Aug;89(7):441-5
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  • [Title] [Uncommon rectal adenocarcinoma metastases].
  • Rectal cancer treatment has become multimodal as a result of significant advances in imaging diagnostic, in surgery technique of re section and in neo and adjuvant therapy.
  • The patient was reoperated because of metastasis of adenocarcinoma in the abdominal wall (16 x 15 x 20 cm) after chemotherapy (FUL-5-fluorouracyl) and radiation dose of 50.4 Gy.
  • The metastasis of abdominal wall was extirpated after another cycle of adjuvant therapy of FUL+Leukovorin.
  • 26 months after the first operation, a new sessile polyp was found in the hepatal flexurae with histological finding of well differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • Since lymphatic nodes were without metastasis, the patient was not indicated for chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Abdominal Wall. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20925261.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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18. Stănciulea O, Preda C, Herlea V, Popa M, Ulmeanu D, Vasilescu C: [Rare indication of cephalic duodenopancreatectomy with total gastrectomy--periampullary carcinoma in moderate form of familial adenomatous polyposis]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2007 Mar-Apr;102(2):215-20
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  • [Title] [Rare indication of cephalic duodenopancreatectomy with total gastrectomy--periampullary carcinoma in moderate form of familial adenomatous polyposis].
  • We present the case of a 52 years old man, with significant familial history, diagnosed with familial adenomatous polyposis-attenuated form, with no clinical and endoscopic surveillance until 2001 when he was admitted for an upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage episode.
  • Upper gastrointestinal scopy revealed duodenal adenomatous polyps and gastric hyperplastic polyps.
  • The histopathological exam revealed duodenal G2 adenocarcinoma pT3N0, and gastric hyperplastic polyps with no signs of dysplasia.
  • The surgical procedure was followed by chemotherapy.
  • In 2002 the patient was admitted for rectal bleeding and colonoscopy showed 2 sigmoid polyps, appropriate for endoscopic removal and a poly-lobate polyp in the transverse colon.
  • March 2003--the patient underwent endoscopic removal for a rectal polyp (histopathological exam: moderate dysplasia).
  • Intraoperatively were noted: peritoneal carcinomatosis and multiple liver metastasis.
  • The surgical procedure recommended in patients with attenuated form of familial adenomatous polyposis and suspect periampullary lesions is duodenopancreatectomy.
  • The particularity of the case is the association of total gastrectomy for gastric hyperplastic polyps.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery. Duodenal Neoplasms / surgery. Gastrectomy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Pancreaticoduodenectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Ampulla of Vater. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome


19. Cruz-Correa M, Hylind LM, Romans KE, Booker SV, Giardiello FM: Long-term treatment with sulindac in familial adenomatous polyposis: a prospective cohort study. Gastroenterology; 2002 Mar;122(3):641-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term treatment with sulindac in familial adenomatous polyposis: a prospective cohort study.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Management of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) can consist of colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA).
  • Sulindac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, causes regression of colorectal adenomas in the retained rectal segment of FAP patients, although long-term use of this therapy has not been studied.
  • We evaluated the long-term effectiveness and toxicity of sulindac in attempting to maintain retained rectal segments free of adenomas.
  • Number, size, and histologic grade of polyps, side effects, and medication compliance were assessed every 4 months.
  • RESULTS: Seven of 12 patients (58%) remained in the study (6 of these polyp-free) for a mean of 76.9 +/- 27.5 months.
  • A significant regression of polyp number was observed in all patients at 12 months (P = 0.039) and at a mean of 63.4 +/- 31.3 months (P = 0.006).
  • At 35 months of follow-up, 1 patient developed stage III cancer in the rectal stump.
  • The most common side effect was rectal mucosal erosions in 6 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term use of sulindac seems to be effective in reducing polyp number and preventing recurrence of higher-grade adenomas in the retained rectal segment of most FAP patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / drug therapy. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage. Sulindac / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Prospective Studies. Rectum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11874996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5085
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 184SNS8VUH / Sulindac
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