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1. Fukui R, Hata F, Yasoshima T, Honma T, Nomura H, Sasaki K, Nishimori H, Sasaki K, Kutomi G, Ohno K, Oikawa I, Sasaki K, Tarumi K, Ishiyama Y, Kobayashi K, Yamamoto N, Hirata K: Malignant melanoma of the anorectum: report of four cases. Surg Today; 2002;32(6):555-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant melanoma of the anorectum: report of four cases.
  • Four cases of anorectal malignant melanoma are reported in this paper.
  • All patients underwent an abdominoperineal resection with lymph node dissection for a curative operation and received postoperative chemotherapy with dacarbazine, ranimustine, and vincristine, either with or without interferon-beta.
  • The other three patients had advanced diseases at the time of diagnosis, and died within 3 years after operation.
  • The prognosis of anorectal malignant melanoma is considered to be directly related to tumor size and depth.
  • Therefore, a staging system and treatments based on the tumor size and depth (or thickness) are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 12107786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. Seya T, Tanaka N, Shinji S, Shinji E, Yokoi K, Horiba K, Kanazawa Y, Yamada T, Oaki Y, Tajiri T: Case of rectal malignant melanoma showing immunohistochemical variability in a tumor. J Nippon Med Sch; 2007 Oct;74(5):377-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Case of rectal malignant melanoma showing immunohistochemical variability in a tumor.
  • We report on a patient with rectal malignant melanoma.
  • His grandmother had died of pancreatic cancer and his mother had been operated for rectal cancer.
  • A colonoscopic examination revealed an irregular surface mass, approximately 4.0 cm in size, located on the anterior wall of the lower rectum.
  • A biopsy of the rectal tumor showed the proliferation of epithelioid cells with pleomorphic features.
  • Abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple liver and lymph node metastases.
  • With the diagnosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum, abdominoperineal resection was performed.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy using cisplatin and irinotecan via the subcutaneous reservoir port was performed and a partial response was obtained.
  • However, the final pathological diagnosis of the surgically resected specimen was malignant amelanotic melanoma of the rectum.
  • Immunohistochemical expression differed between rectal biopsy specimens and surgically resected specimens.
  • As preoperative pathological diagnosis showed rare rectal tumor, we measured the chemosensitivity of the rectal tumor using the collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) to determine the most appropriate chemotherapy regimen for the patient.
  • However, there were no anticancer drugs tested by CD-DST for malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor / methods. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Interferon-beta / administration & dosage. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17965534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1345-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nippon Med Sch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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3. Nakamura T, Ide H: [Malignant melanoma of the alimentary tract]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 May;30(5):619-25
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  • [Title] [Malignant melanoma of the alimentary tract].
  • We reviewed case reports of malignant melanoma in the alimentary tract and discussed the diagnosis and treatment.
  • Cases of malignant melanoma in the alimentary tract have mostly originated from the esophagus and an anorectal lesion.
  • Malignant melanoma of the alimentary tract might be more aggressive than that of the skin.
  • A combined modality treatment including progressive chemotherapy and biotherapy is expected to improve the prognosis of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Esophageal Neoplasms. Melanoma. Rectal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Nimustine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12795092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; DAV protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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4. Solaz Moreno E, Vallalta Morales M, Silla Búrdalo G, Cervera Miguel JI, Díaz Beveridge R, Rayón Martín JM: [Primary melanoma of the rectum: an infrequent neoplasia with an atypical presentation]. Clin Transl Oncol; 2005 May;7(4):171-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary melanoma of the rectum: an infrequent neoplasia with an atypical presentation].
  • [Transliterated title] Melanoma primario de recto: una neoplasia infrecuente con una forma de presentación atípica.
  • Primary anorectal melanoma is a rare malignancy with an extremely aggressive biological behaviour.
  • The main clinical presentations are local symptoms such as rectal bleeding, anal mass or pain, or a change in bowel habits.
  • The tumour is frequently mistaken for benign conditions as haemorrhoids or rectal polyps.
  • Many treatments can be used: surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy and even bio-therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15960927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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5. Moozar KL, Wong CS, Couture J: Anorectal malignant melanoma: treatment with surgery or radiation therapy, or both. Can J Surg; 2003 Oct;46(5):345-9
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  • [Title] Anorectal malignant melanoma: treatment with surgery or radiation therapy, or both.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anorectal malignant tumours are increasing in frequency for unknown reasons.
  • Surgery is the principal treatment, and the role of adjuvant therapy has not been defined.
  • We therefore decided to review the experience of the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, a large tertiary care cancer hospital, with respect to the surgical management of anorectal melanoma.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the charts of all registered patients with anorectal malignant melanoma (AMM) treated with surgery or radiotherapy, or both, at the hospital between 1980 and 1999, paying particular attention to survival, and local and distant recurrences.
  • RESULTS: There were 14 patients, all of whom were followed up to the time of death or for a minimum of 28 months for surviving patients.
  • The mean ages at diagnosis were 56 years for men and 68 years for women.
  • Local therapy included local resection alone in 7 cases and abdominoperineal resection in 7.
  • Seven patients received pelvic irradiation at some time during their disease, using different doses and fractionation schemes.
  • Three of them had concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy with no tumour regression.
  • Six patients were alive 1 year after treatment (median survival 32.5 mo [range from 21-51 mo]).
  • The overall survival was poor regardless of local treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colostomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Palliative Care. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 14577706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-428X
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3211713
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6. Stroh C, Manger T: [Primary amelanotic anorectal melanoma--a case report]. Zentralbl Chir; 2007 Dec;132(6):560-3
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  • [Title] [Primary amelanotic anorectal melanoma--a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Das primäre amelanotische Melanom des Rektums - Ein Fallbericht.
  • BACKGROUND: The amelanotic melanoma of the rectal mucosa is very rare with an unfavourable prognosis.
  • Therefore transrectal ultrasound is of major importance in the preoperative staging and postoperative follow-up especially in diagnosis of local recurrence by using the ultrasound-guided, transrectal aspiration.
  • METHODS: In literature 5 cases of amelanotic malignant melanoma were reported.
  • The overall survival time is 10 months after diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: We report about a 55-year-old female patient with an amelanotic melanoma of rectal mucosa.
  • 7 months after a wide local excision of the tumour and interferon therapy in case of the absence of pararectal, inguinal metastases and other metastases the patient developed pararectal metastasis.
  • We started chemotherapy with Dacarbazin and with regard of the tumour progress the chemotherapy was changed to Vindesin 25 months after first operation supported by a radiotherapy with 40 Gray.
  • The patient died 36 months after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of primary malignant anorectal melanoma is poor, irrespective of surgical treatment.
  • Wide local resection is the first choice for primary anorectal melanoma.
  • Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy should be considered in the treatment of anorectal melanoma to influence the overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Amelanotic / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease Progression. Endosonography. Fatal Outcome. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Intestinal Mucosa / surgery. Intestinal Mucosa / ultrasonography. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Proctoscopy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 18098086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-409X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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7. Korenkov M, Gönner U, Dünschede F, Junginger T: [Rectal melanoma: the value of modern treatment]. Zentralbl Chir; 2008 Dec;133(6):564-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Rectal melanoma: the value of modern treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Rektummelanome: Stellenwert der modernen Therapie.
  • Rectal melanoma is a rare disease.
  • There is much controversy concerning cause, incidence and treatment of the disease and the spreading of recurrence.
  • In this article, we discuss actual aspects of diagnostic, therapy and prognosis on the basis of our series of seven patients as well as a literature review.
  • The surgical therapy in the form of local tumour excision with a disease-free margin of up to 1-2 cm is the initial therapeutic modality of choice.
  • Such tumours should be treated by a combination of neoadjuvant radiation and chemotherapy for down-staging with subsequent local excision (LE) or abdomino-perineal rectum extirpation (APR).
  • The prognosis of rectal melanoma is markedly poor and is primarily related with the stage of disease.
  • Patients with stage II and III tumours have appreciably shorter survival times of 12 months on the average.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Errors. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy. Proctoscopy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rectum / pathology. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19090435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-409X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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8. Yaramov N, Sokolov M, Angelov K, Petrov B, Pavlov V: [Malignant melanoma of the anus and rectum]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2010;(2-3):5-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Malignant melanoma of the anus and rectum].
  • There is approximately 300 cases of malignant melanoma written in the world literature.
  • We write up 13 operated from us for 15 years cases of melanoma of the anus and rectum.
  • Despite the complex treatment--surgical, chemotherapy etc. the prognosis is at large poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21972686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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9. Tsigris C, Pikoulis E, Bramis J, Leppäniemi A, Alexiou D, Bastounis E: Malignant melanoma of the anorectal area. Report of two cases. Dig Surg; 2000;17(2):194-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant melanoma of the anorectal area. Report of two cases.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Primary anorectal melanoma is a very rare malignant tumor with no more than 300 cases reported in the literature.
  • METHODS: Two cases of anorectal melanoma are reported herein.
  • RESULTS: Both patients, aged 44 and 74 years, presented at the outpatient department with anal bleeding, one after being treated for 3 months with antihemorrhoidal drugs.
  • The diagnosis was established with proctoscopy and biopsy, and a palliative abdominoperineal resection in the presence of lymph node metastases was performed followed by chemotherapy with vindesine.
  • CONCLUSIONS: For the time being there is no convincing proof of the value of either types of proposed surgical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Hemorrhoids / diagnosis. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 10781992.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-4886
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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10. Maqbool A, Lintner R, Bokhari A, Habib T, Rahman I, Rao BK: Anorectal melanoma--3 case reports and a review of the literature. Cutis; 2004 Jun;73(6):409-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anorectal melanoma--3 case reports and a review of the literature.
  • Anorectal melanoma is an uncommon disease.
  • We report 3 cases of anorectal melanoma: a 40-year-old woman with anorectal melanoma with local recurrence after an abdominoperineal resection (APR); a 30-year-old woman with anorectal melanoma and multiple liver metastases returning with multiple masses in the rectum and 2 nodules above and below the left clavicle after receiving chemotherapy; and a 62-year-old woman with inguinal node metastases.
  • The histologic findings in all 3 cases revealed malignant tumor composed of atypical melanocytes diagnosed as malignant melanoma of the rectum.
  • The patient was noncompliant with chemotherapy and died after several months.
  • In the second case, chemotherapeutic treatment was begun.
  • Seven months after receiving chemotherapy, the patient returned with multiple metastases.
  • Anorectal melanoma is highly aggressive and unresponsive to both radical surgery and local control.
  • Although supplemental therapy may improve quality of life and prolong survival, the 5-year survival rate is 10% with a mean survival time of 15 to 25 months.
  • In the 3 cases presented, metastatic disease was present at the time of diagnosis.
  • At this stage, APR with lymphadenectomy followed by some form of adjuvant therapy is our recommended treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15224786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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11. Ryan P, Nguyen VH, Gholoum S, Carpineta L, Abish S, Ahmed NN, Laberge JM, Riddell RH: Polypoid PEComa in the rectum of a 15-year-old girl: case report and review of PEComa in the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Mar;33(3):475-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Polypoid PEComa in the rectum of a 15-year-old girl: case report and review of PEComa in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • We report PEComa with lymph node involvement occurring in the rectum of a 15-year-old girl, treated by surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • We review the differential diagnosis of intestinal PEComa, which includes malignant melanoma, epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumors, clear cell sarcoma of soft parts, alveolar soft part sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma with HMB45 expression, and paraganglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19092636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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12. Kawano N, Tashiro M, Taguchi M, Kihara Y, Yoshikawa I, Syukuwa K, Yamasaki M, Kume K, Otsuki M: [Combined treatment with dacarbazine, nimustine, cisplatin, and tamoxifen plus interferon-beta in a patient with advanced anorectal malignant melanoma]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Nov;105(11):1627-33
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  • [Title] [Combined treatment with dacarbazine, nimustine, cisplatin, and tamoxifen plus interferon-beta in a patient with advanced anorectal malignant melanoma].
  • A 73-year-old man, who was diagnosed as having advanced anorectal malignant melanoma (Stage IV), was treated with combination chemotherapy using dacarbazine, nimustine, cisplatin, and tamoxifen plus interferon-beta.
  • After the first course of chemotherapy, rectal tumor was decreased in size with less anal pain and liver tumor was disappeared.
  • Twenty-four months after the first treatment, the patient is survived.
  • DAC-Tam IFN-beta therapy may improve the management of patients who have advanced MM of the anorectum.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Humans. Interferon-beta / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Nimustine / administration & dosage. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18987448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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13. Vietharsdóttir H, Moeller PH, Jóhannsson J, Jónasson JG: [Anal cancer in Iceland 1987-2003. A population based study]. Laeknabladid; 2006 May;92(5):365-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal cancer in Iceland 1987-2003. A population based study].
  • OBJECTIVE: Anal cancer is a rare disease.
  • The aim of this study was to describe anal cancer in Iceland in 1987-2003 with respect to incidence, histologic type, treatment, recurrence rate and survival.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study in which all malignant anal tumours diagnosed in Iceland in the period 1987-2003 were reviewed with respect to patient outcome.
  • This is a nationwide, population-based study of malignant tumours of the anal region.
  • RESULTS: From 1987-2003 thirty-eight patients were diagnosed with anal cancer, 28 females and 10 males.
  • The average age at diagnosis was 63.4 years.
  • Age standardized incidence rates for anal cancer in Iceland were 0.3 (+/-0.2) of 100.000 males and 0.9 (+/-0.4) of 100.000 females.
  • The remaining histologic types were malignant melanoma (n=3), adenosquamous carcinoma (n=1), adenocarcinoma (n=1), GIST (n=1) and undifferentiated carcinoma (n=2).
  • The most common symptoms were rectal bleeding (n=27), mass lesion (n=28), pain (n=19) and pruritus (n=4).
  • The duration of symptoms before diagnosis ranged from 2 weeks to 96 months (mean value 3.5 months).
  • Treatment modalities used were chemotherapy (n=12), radiotherapy (n=25) and local excision (n=18) and/or APR (n=5).
  • One patient received no treatment.
  • Many patients were treated with more than one treatment modality (n=18).
  • Twelve patients had recurrent cancer.
  • The mean value of the time from diagnosis of the primary to the recurrent cancer was 15.6 months (range, 5.9-117).
  • Sixteen patients remain with disease and ten have died of anal cancer.
  • The five year survival rate for patients diagnosed in the years 1987 to 1998 is 75% but cancer-specific survival is 82%.
  • CONCLUSION: Age-standardized incidence for anal cancer in Iceland is similar to other regions.
  • Average age at diagnosis, male-female ratio and prognosis is similar to reports in other studies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Aged. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Defecation. Female. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Iceland / epidemiology. Incidence. Male. Melanoma / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Pain / etiology. Pruritus / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16741319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-7213
  • [Journal-full-title] Læknablađiđ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laeknabladid
  • [Language] ice
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iceland
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14. Hegewisch-Becker S, Hossfeld DK: [Addition of hyperthermia. Heat potentiates cancer therapy]. MMW Fortschr Med; 2001 Jun 21;143(25):28-32
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  • [Title] [Addition of hyperthermia. Heat potentiates cancer therapy].
  • It has been unequivocally demonstrated that hyperthermia (40-44 degrees C) has an potentiating effect on radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • Technical improvements have facilitated the application of both local and whole-body hyperthermia, and have thus made this form of treatment available to large numbers of patients.
  • Randomized phase III studies performed in patients with breast cancer, malignant melanoma and cervical cancer have convincingly confirmed the increased efficacy of the combination of radiotherapy with local or regional hyperthermia in comparison with radiotherapy alone.
  • The effectiveness of other procedures such as the combination of radio- and chemotherapy with regional hyperthermia, regional thermochemotherapy and whole-body hyperthermia has so far been investigated mainly in phase II studies focusing on head and neck cancer, cervical and ovarian cancer, sarcoma, malignant germ cell tumors, and rectal carcinoma.
  • However, the actual place of hyperthermia as a permanent element in a multimodal therapeutic concept has yet to be shown in prospective phase III studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperthermia, Induced / instrumentation. Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Equipment Design. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11468993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-3276
  • [Journal-full-title] MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MMW Fortschr Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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15. Pirenne Y, Bouckaert W, Vangertruyden G: Rectal melanoma--a rare tumour. Acta Chir Belg; 2008 Nov-Dec;108(6):756-8
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  • [Title] Rectal melanoma--a rare tumour.
  • Malignant rectal melanoma is a rare tumour.
  • We report a case of a 66-year-old man who presented with a two-month history of rectal bleeding, pain, and tenesmus.
  • A semicircular rectal tumour was seen, just above the dentate line.
  • Biopsies proved it to be an amelanotic malignant melanoma, as protein S100, melanoma antigen HMB45 and Melan-A expression were found.
  • CT scan and rectal ultrasound showed invasion into the internal sphincter and several enlarged perirectal nodes.
  • Histology confirmed an amelanotic malignant melanoma.
  • The patient recovered well from the operation, and received no adjuvant therapy.
  • With this case we want to illustrate that malignant rectal melanoma can be difficult to diagnose, as patients have non-specific symptoms, and histology may be misleading.
  • One should always check for protein S-100, melanoma antigen HMN-45 and Melan-A expression, as they are strongly suggestive of melanoma.
  • Wide local excision is the preferred procedure when technically feasible, but abdominoperineal resection has to be done if the tumour invades a substantial portion of the anal sphincter or is circumferential.
  • Rectal melanoma has a poor outcome with a 5-year survival rate of between 10-20%.
  • The role of radiotherapy, chemotherapy or immunotherapy looks promising, but further investigations are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Amelanotic / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19241934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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16. Sucker C, Dölken G, Stockschläder M: [Malignant melanoma of the anorectal mucosa]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2004 Jul 2;129(27):1504-6
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  • [Title] [Malignant melanoma of the anorectal mucosa].
  • HISTORY: A 62-year-old man was admitted to hospital because of rectal bleeding of unknown cause.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Coloscopy showed a rectal tumour as cause of the bleeding and concomitant hypochromic microcytic anaemia.
  • Histological examination established the diagnosis of anorectal malignant melanoma.
  • TREATMENT AND COURSE: An radical abdominoperineal rectal resection amputation was performed.
  • CONCLUSION: Anorectal malignant melanoma is a rare cause in the differential diagnosis of anorectal tumours.
  • Surgery remains the therapy of choice.
  • Chemotherapy and immunotherapy are principally used in a palliative setting.
  • Despite advances in therapy, the prognosis of this tumour entity remains unfavourable.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia, Hypochromic / etiology. Colonoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15227591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-0472
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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17. Kim KO, Jang BI, Kim JH, Bae YK: [Primary rectal malignant melanoma with rapid progression after complete resection]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2010 Mar;55(3):151-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary rectal malignant melanoma with rapid progression after complete resection].
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Disease Progression. Humans. Interferons / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Positron-Emission Tomography. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20357524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 9008-11-1 / Interferons
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18. Ishizone S, Koide N, Karasawa F, Akita N, Muranaka F, Uhara H, Miyagawa S: Surgical treatment for anorectal malignant melanoma: report of five cases and review of 79 Japanese cases. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2008 Dec;23(12):1257-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical treatment for anorectal malignant melanoma: report of five cases and review of 79 Japanese cases.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anorectal malignant melanoma (AMM) is a relatively rare disease.
  • Because of its poor prognosis, the optimal surgical treatment for AMM is still controversial and difficult to determine.
  • We also review the present five cases along with 74 other Japanese cases reported between 1997 and 2006 and discuss the role of surgery in the treatment of AMM.
  • There was no significant difference in survival between AMM patients with and without adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: In conclusion, AMM patients treated by curative surgery can expect long-term survival, although the usefulness of adjuvant chemotherapy for AMM patients is controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Rectum / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18633625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Köksal N, Müftüoglu T, Günerhan Y, Uskent N: Complete remission of the liver metastases of anorectal malignant melanoma with regional chemotherapy: a case report. Hepatogastroenterology; 2000 May-Jun;47(33):612-4
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  • [Title] Complete remission of the liver metastases of anorectal malignant melanoma with regional chemotherapy: a case report.
  • The prognosis of anorectal malignant melanoma is very poor.
  • We present a 48-year-old male patient with anorectal malignant melanoma and multiple liver metastases who underwent abdominoperineal resection.
  • A port system was implanted to the gastroduodenal artery for regional chemotherapy for liver metastases.
  • Both regional chemotherapy and immunotherapy were initiated 4 weeks postoperatively.
  • Computed tomography scan was taken after the 2nd and 4th cycles of chemotherapy and the tumor had not responded to chemotherapy.
  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans were taken on the 10th and 12th months after operation, respectively, no evidence of metastases in the liver was noted.
  • No case of complete remission of liver metastases of anorectal malignant melanoma with regional intraarterial chemotherapy and systemic immunochemotherapy has been previously reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 10918997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GREECE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Interleukin-2; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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