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1. Bennett JM, Young MS, Liesveld JL, Paietta E, Miller KB, Lazarus HM, Marsh RD, Friedenberg WR, Saba HT, Hayes FA, Dewald GW, Hiddemann W, Rowe JM: Phase II study of combination human recombinant GM-CSF with intermediate-dose cytarabine and mitoxantrone chemotherapy in patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (RAEB, RAEBT, and CMML): an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study. Am J Hematol; 2001 Jan;66(1):23-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II study of combination human recombinant GM-CSF with intermediate-dose cytarabine and mitoxantrone chemotherapy in patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (RAEB, RAEBT, and CMML): an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study.
  • A Phase II study of GM-CSF with intermediate-dose cytarabine and mitoxantrone was conducted in patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • It was designed to evaluate if priming with growth factor could increase the efficiency of chemotherapy.
  • In this older population only two of 10 patients achieved a bone marrow CR, including one patient whose leukemic blasts had an "S" phase increase of 2.55x at 48 hr.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / mortality. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / pathology. Bone Marrow / pathology. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects. DNA Replication / drug effects. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / etiology. Female. Humans. Hyperbilirubinemia / chemically induced. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / mortality. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Mitoxantrone / adverse effects. Pancytopenia / chemically induced. Pancytopenia / drug therapy. Pilot Projects. Recombinant Proteins. Remission Induction. S Phase / drug effects. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 11426487.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA07190; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23318; etc
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 123774-72-1 / sargramostim; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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2. Scott BL, Storer B, Loken MR, Storb R, Appelbaum FR, Deeg HJ: Pretransplantation induction chemotherapy and posttransplantation relapse in patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndrome. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2005 Jan;11(1):65-73
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  • [Title] Pretransplantation induction chemotherapy and posttransplantation relapse in patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • Hematopoietic cell transplantation is the only curative therapy for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
  • However, treatment-related toxicity and, in patients with advanced MDS (refractory anemia with excess blasts [RAEB]; RAEB in transformation [RAEB-T]) or transformation to acute myeloid leukemia with multilineage dysplasia (tAML), posttransplantation relapse continue to be prevalent.
  • Induction chemotherapy (IC) has been used in an attempt to decrease the risk of posttransplantation relapse, but the benefit for posttransplantation long-term survival is uncertain.
  • Thirty-three patients (3 with RAEB, 6 with RAEB-T, and 24 with tAML) received IC before transplantation, and 92 patients (62 with RAEB, 22 with RAEB-T, and 8 with tAML) did not.
  • There was no evidence of a benefit in posttransplantation outcome associated with prior IC, either for patients with RAEB/RAEB-T or those with tAML, with either conditioning regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Remission Induction / methods. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15625546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-8791
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA15704; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA18029; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA87948; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL 36444
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Jang GD, Kim SW, Suh CW, Kim EK, Bahng HS, Jeong YH, Park IG, Kim WK, Kim SH, Suh EJ, Park CJ, Ji HS, Lee JS: A case of treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia following high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Korean Med Sci; 2002 Aug;17(4):555-9
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  • [Title] A case of treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia following high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (t-AML) are now well established as complications of cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • We experienced a 28-yr-old female patient who developed t-MDS/t-AML with characteristic chromosomal abnormalities including 11q23 chromosomal rearrangement following high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • After 2 cycles of systemic chemotherapy of the Vanderbilt regimen, the patient underwent ASCT with high dose chemotherapy of the BEAC regimen.
  • She also received radiation of 48 Gy for the residual periportal lymphadenopathy.
  • The patient was diagnosed as t-MDS (refractory anemia with an excess of blasts).
  • Cytogenetic analysis showed complex chromosomal abnormalities including 11q23 rearrangement, which is frequently found in topoisomerase II inhibitor-related hematologic malignancies.
  • The patient was treated with combination chemotherapy, but her leukemic cells were resistant to the therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Carmustine / adverse effects. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Cytarabine / adverse effects. Etoposide / adverse effects. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / etiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. B-Lymphocytes / cytology. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Female. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Pelvis. Pregnancy. Transplantation, Autologous


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4. Ten Oever J, Kuijper PH, Kuijpers AL, Dercksen MW, Vreugdenhil G: Complete remission of MDS RAEB following immunosuppressive treatment in a patient with Sweet's syndrome. Neth J Med; 2009 Sep;67(8):347-50
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  • [Title] Complete remission of MDS RAEB following immunosuppressive treatment in a patient with Sweet's syndrome.
  • We report on a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), classified as refractory anaemia with excess of blasts-2, and histiocytoid Sweet's syndrome.
  • Inhibition of T-cell mediated myelosuppression by corticosteroids or a proapoptotic effect of doxycycline may have attributed as well.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Doxycycline / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Sweet Syndrome / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Killer Cells, Natural. Male. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19767665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-9061
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; N12000U13O / Doxycycline
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5. Takizawa A, Miura T, Fujinami K, Osada Y, Tanaka M, Maruta I: [A case of therapy-related leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome following treatment of refractory testicular germ cell tumor]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 Nov;96(7):701-4
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  • [Title] [A case of therapy-related leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome following treatment of refractory testicular germ cell tumor].
  • We report a patient with a refractory testicular non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) who developed therapy-related leukemia (TRL) after undergoing salvage chemotherapy and multiple operations for repeat recurrences.
  • Fifty months after the initial therapy, pancytopenia and myeloblasts were observed in the patient's peripheral blood while the patient was undergoing salvage chemotherapy for a fifth recurrence.
  • A bone marrow examination showed evidence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation (RAEB in T) under French-America-British (FAB) classification.
  • The patient has received induction chemotherapy for TRL with Cytarabine, Daunorubicin and Fludarabine while a bone marrow transplantation has been scheduled.
  • Recently, TRL associated with chemotherapy are being reported with increasing frequency in the literature.
  • Since early detection and treatment are necessary for the management of TRL, peripheral blood examinations should be performed after a diagnosis of refractory germ cell tumor has been made.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / etiology. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / etiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / adverse effects. Male


6. Parikh SH, Mendizabal A, Martin PL, Prasad VK, Szabolcs P, Driscoll TA, Kurtzberg J: Unrelated donor umbilical cord blood transplantation in pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome: a single-center experience. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2009 Aug;15(8):948-55
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  • Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) respond poorly to chemotherapy.
  • The median age was 11.1 years (range: 1.1-19.7), median weight was 38.6 kg (range: 9.6-62.6), 61% of patients were male, and median time from diagnosis to transplant was 6.6 months (range: 2.0-61.4).
  • MDS stage was refractory anemia (RA) in 12, refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) in 8, and refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-T) in 3 patients; 18 (78%) patients had primary MDS.
  • Patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) were excluded.
  • Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was cyclosporine (CsA)/steroids (19 patients) or CsA/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF; 4 patients).
  • Grafts were HLA matched at Class I (A and B) at low resolution and Class II (DRB1) at the allelic level, resulting in 16 (70%) 4/6 and 7 (30%) 5/6 matched transplants.
  • Three patients developed acute GVHD (aGVHD) grades II-IV with a cumulative incidence at 100 days of 13% (95% CI 0.0%-27.1.0%).
  • Four patients relapsed with a cumulative incidence of relapse at 3 years of 13.0% (95% CI 0.0%-27.1%).
  • Ten patients died: 3 graft failure, 4 relapse, 2 infections (1 adenovirus, 1 toxoplasmosis), and 1 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lymphoproliferative disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts. Chemoprevention / methods. Child. Female. Graft vs Host Disease / drug therapy. Graft vs Host Disease / prevention & control. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Tissue Donors. Treatment Outcome. Whole-Body Irradiation. Young Adult


7. Germing U, Strupp C, Kuendgen A, Aivado M, Giagounidis A, Hildebrandt B, Aul C, Haas R, Gattermann N: Refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB): analysis of reclassification according to the WHO proposals. Br J Haematol; 2006 Jan;132(2):162-7

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  • [Title] Refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB): analysis of reclassification according to the WHO proposals.
  • The French-American-British (FAB) classification assigns patients with myelodysplastic syndromes to the category of refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB) if they have a medullary blast count of 5-20%, and/or a peripheral blast count of 2-5%.
  • The new World Health Organization (WHO) classification subdivides RAEB into RAEB I with a medullary blast count < or =10% and a peripheral blast count < or =5% and RAEB II with >10% medullary and/or >5% peripheral blasts.
  • RAEB II is also diagnosed if Auer rods are present.
  • In 558 patients, we analysed these subtypes of RAEB in terms of haematological characteristics, karyotype anomalies and prognosis.
  • RAEB I was diagnosed in 256 and RAEB II in 302 patients.
  • In the RAEB II group, 22% of patients had >5% peripheral blasts or the presence of Auer rods.
  • The median survival was 16 months for RAEB I as compared with 9 months for RAEB II.
  • Patients with Auer rods, regardless of their medullary and peripheral blast count, had no worse prognosis.
  • No significant differences were identified between the RAEB subtypes with respect to clinical, morphological, haematological and cytogenetic parameters.
  • The survival data support the WHO reclassification of RAEB based on peripheral and medullary blast counts and Auer rods.
  • The WHO classification is useful for diagnosis and provides risk stratification, supported by cytogenetic data for clinical decision making, identifying those RAEB patients with an unfavourable prognosis who should be offered chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / classification

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  • [ErratumIn] Br J Haematol. 2006 Jul;134(2):247
  • (PMID = 16398650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. Terpos E, Mougiou A, Kouraklis A, Chatzivassili A, Michalis E, Giannakoulas N, Manioudaki E, Lazaridou A, Bakaloudi V, Protopappa M, Liapi D, Grouzi E, Parharidou A, Symeonidis A, Kokkini G, Laoutaris NP, Vaipoulos G, Anagnostopoulos NI, Christakis JI, Meletis J, Bourantas KL, Zoumbos NC, Yataganas X, Viniou NA, Greek MDS Study Group: Prolonged administration of erythropoietin increases erythroid response rate in myelodysplastic syndromes: a phase II trial in 281 patients. Br J Haematol; 2002 Jul;118(1):174-80
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  • [Title] Prolonged administration of erythropoietin increases erythroid response rate in myelodysplastic syndromes: a phase II trial in 281 patients.
  • Treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) improves anaemia in approximately 20% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).
  • We investigated the potential advantage of a prolonged administration of rHuEpo to achieve higher erythroid response rates (RR) in 281 MDS patients: 118 with refractory anaemia (RA), 77 with refractory anaemia and ringed sideroblasts (RARS), 59 with refractory anaemia with excess of blasts and blast count < 10% (RAEB-I), and 27 with RAEB and blast count between 11-20% (RAEB-II).
  • Response to treatment was evaluated after 12 and 26 weeks of therapy.
  • The overall RR was 45.1%; the RR for RA, RARS, RAEB-I and RAEB-II were 48.3%, 58.4%, 33.8% and 13% respectively.
  • A significant increase in RR was observed at week 26 in RA, RARS and RAEB-I patients, as the response probability increased with treatment duration.
  • These results suggest that prolonged administration of rHuEpo produces high and long-lasting erythroid RR in MDS patients with low blast counts, particularly in those with pretreatment serum Epo levels of < 150 U/l and good cytogenetic prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Erythropoietin / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anemia, Refractory / drug therapy. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Anemia, Sideroblastic / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


9. Lu Y, Wu T, Cao XY, Wang JB, Yin YM, Lu DP: [Effects of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on 60 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Mar;49(3):200-3
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  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical outcome of all-ogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (all-HSCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
  • Cyclosporine A and short-course MTX were used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis.
  • DFS rates in RA/RAS/5q-, RCMD, RAEB-I/RAEB-II and acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) subgroups were 84.6%, 80.0%, 81.0%, 56.2%, respectively (P > 0.05).
  • DFS rates for percentages of blasts in bone marrow pre-transplant were 87.0%, 65.5%, 75.0% in < 5% blasts, 5% - 20% blasts, > 20% blasts subgroups, respectively (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Since favorable clinical outcomes have been seen in all kinds of MDS by allo-HSCT, HSCT should be the first-line therapy for MDS.
  • No significant differences are found based on different stem cell donors and the percentages of bone marrow blasts pre-HSCT, unrelated or haploidentical donors should be important alternatives if there is no identical sibling available.
  • Chemotherapy before transplantation is not necessary except overt acute leukemia.
  • A larger clinical study is needed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of allo-HSCT in MDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


10. Strupp C, Knipp S, Hartmann J, Gattermann N, Haas R, Germing U: A pilot study of bendamustine in elderly patients with high-risk MDS and AML. Leuk Lymphoma; 2007 Jun;48(6):1161-6
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  • We examined the efficacy of bendamustine in 15 pretreated patients (12 men, 3 women, median age 69 years) with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) 3 AML, 5 sAML, 5 CMML II, 1 RAEB II.
  • The patients received in median two cycles of bendamustine (range 1-5) with a dose of 100 mg/m(2) at Day 1 + 2 (repeated after 28 days).
  • Nine of 15 patients had no side effects of the treatment, six patients suffered from vomiting and epigastric pain as adverse effects of bendamustine.
  • Three patients showed no response, one patient with AML died due to progressive disease.
  • In 11 of 12 patients with initial leukocytosis (median 68,975 microl(-1), range 24,000-149,000 microl(-1)), a significant reduction of leukocytosis was achieved with bendamustine with a median duration of 4 weeks.
  • In summary, treatment with bendamustine in patients with high-risk MDS or sAML with leukocytosis can result in a significant reduction of leukocytes, but fails to achieve hematological responses or improvement of transfusions dependency.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Nitrogen Mustard Compounds / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bendamustine Hydrochloride. Drug Evaluation. Female. Humans. Male. Pilot Projects

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  • [CommentIn] Leuk Lymphoma. 2007 Jun;48(6):1064-6 [17577766.001]
  • (PMID = 17577779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitrogen Mustard Compounds; 981Y8SX18M / Bendamustine Hydrochloride
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11. Papenhausen PR, Griffin S, Tepperberg J: Oncogene amplification in transforming myelodysplasia. Exp Mol Pathol; 2005 Oct;79(2):168-75
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  • The MLL gene, located within band 11q23, has been shown to be involved in translocations with a large variety of reciprocal sites in both lymphoid and myeloid leukemia and has also been shown to undergo submicroscopic self-fusion/partial duplication.
  • In all MLL cases, the patients were clinically classified as having transforming myelodysplasia (RAEB/RAEBT) or AML.
  • Four patients had been previously diagnosed with cancer and had received topoisomerase II targeted drug therapy which is known to be associated with fusion transcripts involving the MLL and AML1 genes.
  • All of our patients rapidly developed refractory AML.
  • The frequency and clinical correlations of MLL gene amplification in leukemia will need careful follow-up, since the frequently cryptic amplification described in these cases may not generally provoke confirmatory FISH studies.
  • Both genes also show a high degree of diversity of pathogenic mechanisms of leukemia evolution, including numerous reciprocal fusion genes in transformation to either AML or ALL and gain of function amplification.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chromosome Aberrations. Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit. Female. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16026782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4800
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and molecular pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MLL protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RUNX1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
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12. Beran M: Intensive chemotherapy for patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Int J Hematol; 2000 Aug;72(2):139-50
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  • [Title] Intensive chemotherapy for patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • Standard antileukemic chemotherapy induces complete remission in approximately half of patients with high-risk (HR) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
  • Intensification of induction therapy by the use of intermediate- or high-dose cytosine arabinoside in combination with fludarabine, idarubicin, or topotecan seemingly improved complete response (CR) rates, particularly in patients with poor prognosis karyotypes.
  • Regardless of the intensity of chemotherapy, remissions are short, even with continuation of intensive postremission therapy.
  • Long-term disease-free survival remains dismal.
  • In a large population with HR MDS treated with high-dose chemotherapy, only 5% of patients were alive at 3 years, and a majority of survivors were the younger patients with diploid karyotype refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation.
  • Further intensification of either induction chemotherapy or postremission therapy is unlikely to improve results with current drug combinations.
  • With these results at hand, the role of intensive chemotherapy in the management of MDS remains controversial.
  • Because CR status is associated with clinical benefits and possibly better survival, induction of CR should remain an important aim for HR MDS.
  • The intensive combination chemotherapy may be integrated as an initial part of the management of HR MDS, as an alternative for patients not eligible for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT).
  • Postremission therapy remains a major challenge.
  • It should involve either allogeneic BMT or investigational approaches to eliminate or control the minimal residual disease with different mechanisms In elderly patients, allogeneic "minitransplant" is an investigational alternative seeking to exploit graft-versus-tumor reaction.
  • New agents, such as farnesyl transferase inhibitors (ras inhibitors), drug-antibody conjugates (Myelotarg), thalidomide, arsenic trioxide, maintenance chemotherapy with hypomethylating agents, or oral topoisomerase inhibitors along with agents modulating factors affecting growth and differentiation, should be explored to maintain remission with minimal compromise of quality of life.
  • Although prognostic scoring systems such as the new International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) do not predict for initial response, IPSS continues to predict survival in patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy.
  • Although activity of new agents could be rapidly assessed in single-arm pilot studies, the final merit of high-dose chemotherapy could be assessed only in well-designed randomized trials with patients assigned according to risk-based classification and evaluated for response by generally accepted and standardized criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome


13. Kobbe G, Germing U, Aivado M, Zohren F, Schubert D, Strupp C, Pape H, Tenderich G, Körfer R, Storb R, Haas R, Schneider P: Treatment of secondary myelodysplastic syndrome after heart transplantation with chemotherapy and nonmyeloablative stem-cell transplantation. Transplantation; 2002 Oct 27;74(8):1198-200
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  • [Title] Treatment of secondary myelodysplastic syndrome after heart transplantation with chemotherapy and nonmyeloablative stem-cell transplantation.
  • BACKGROUND: Treatment of secondary cancer after solid-organ transplantation is difficult because of coexisting medical conditions, reduced organ function, or advanced age in most patients.
  • METHODS: A 60-year-old man developed treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome (refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation) 10 years after orthotopic heart transplantation.
  • After remission induction with chemotherapy, the patient received peripheral blood stem cells from his HLA-identical ABO-mismatched (A-->O) sister after conditioning with fludarabine and low-dose total-body irradiation (200 cGy).
  • Five months after transplant, the patient developed pure red cell aplasia that resolved after treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Allogeneic blood stem-cell transplantation using minimal conditioning is a new, promising treatment option for patients with hematologic malignancies after solid-organ transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Heart Transplantation. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / etiology. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Humans. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Postoperative Complications / therapy


14. Beran M, Shen Y, Kantarjian H, O'Brien S, Koller CA, Giles FJ, Cortes J, Thomas DA, Faderl S, Despa S, Estey EH: High-dose chemotherapy in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: covariate-adjusted comparison of five regimens. Cancer; 2001 Oct 15;92(8):1999-2015
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  • [Title] High-dose chemotherapy in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: covariate-adjusted comparison of five regimens.
  • BACKGROUND: Antileukemic chemotherapy has been used for two decades to treat high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (refractory anemia with excess of blasts [RAEB] and RAEB in transformation into acute leukemia [RAEB-t]) patients.
  • In the absence of randomized trials, the relative merits of various treatment regimens are unknown.
  • METHODS: The authors analyzed the outcome for 394 newly diagnosed patients treated between 1991 and 1999 with five regimens consisting of intermediate- or high-dose cytosine arabinoside (A) in combination with idarubicin (I), and introduced cyclophosphamide (C) and the new agents fludarabine (F) and topotecan (T) into new combinations with A.
  • In addition to defining the role of high-intensity chemotherapy in the overall outcome for patients with RAEB-t and RAEB, the authors determined the relative merits of the five regimens (IA, FA, FAI, TA, and CAT), accounting for the nonrandom distribution of the prognostic covariates.
  • RESULTS: The overall complete response (CR) rate of 58% was significantly associated with karyotype, performance status (PS), treatment in the laminar air flow room, duration of antecedent hematologic disorder and age, but not French-American-British or International Prognostic Scoring System risk categories.
  • The trend for time to death was the same as for time to recurrence in all groups.
  • Multivariate analysis of time to death identified treatment regimen (FA, FAI, and CAT), cytogenetic status (-5/-7), increasing age, and PS greater than 2 as significant independent unfavorable prognostic factors.
  • After prognostic variables were accounted for, survival with IA treatment remained superior to that of FA and FAI but comparable to TA, and CR duration was only marginally shorter with FA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although the newer regimens did not improve outcome, TA and CAT produced results comparable to those of IA and may be considered treatment alternatives.
  • The TA regimen was particularly effective in RAEB patients and could be delivered safely, with low induction mortality.
  • Our results indicated that although CR seemed associated with survival advantage, innovative post-remission managements represent a challenge because improvement in outcome is not likely to come from intensified therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11596013.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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15. Ganser A, Heil G, Seipelt G, Hofmann W, Fischer JT, Langer W, Brockhaus W, Kolbe K, Ittel TH, Brack N, Fuhr HG, Knuth P, Höffken K, Bergmann L, Hoelzer D: Intensive chemotherapy with idarubicin, ara-C, etoposide, and m-AMSA followed by immunotherapy with interleukin-2 for myelodysplastic syndromes and high-risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Ann Hematol; 2000 Jan;79(1):30-5
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  • [Title] Intensive chemotherapy with idarubicin, ara-C, etoposide, and m-AMSA followed by immunotherapy with interleukin-2 for myelodysplastic syndromes and high-risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML).
  • Intensive chemotherapy followed by treatment with interleukin-2 (IL-2) was evaluated in a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial including 18 patients with refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation (RAEB-T), 86 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) evolving from myelodysplastic syndromes, and six patients with secondary AML after previous chemotherapy.
  • The median relapse-free survival was 12.5 months, with a probability of ongoing CR at 6.5 years of 19%.
  • Median duration of survival and relapse-free survival were not statistically different in the two IL-2 treatment arms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Immunotherapy. Interleukin-2 / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate


16. Bönig H, Körholz D, Lex C, Wölfel S, Göbel U: Monocyte deactivation and its reversal in a patient with chemotherapy-induced leukopenia and severe systemic infection. Med Pediatr Oncol; 2000 Jan;34(1):39-42
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  • [Title] Monocyte deactivation and its reversal in a patient with chemotherapy-induced leukopenia and severe systemic infection.
  • PROCEDURE: A 14-year-old patient with RAEB-T/hypoplastic M2 and chemothera py-induced neutropenia developed a severe infection and continued to deteriorate clinically despite maximum supportive measures, including broad antibacterial and antifungal coverage.
  • On the basis of monocyte de-activation this patient was considered to be in the immunoparalytic phase of sepsis and consequently treated with 60 microg/m(2) of interferon-gamma per day for 10 days.
  • RESULTS: The patient made a rapid clinical recovery, and biochemical markers of infection improved promptly.
  • At the same time, the fraction of activated monocytes normalized rapidly and stably.
  • We hypothesize that treatment with interferon-gamma effected this rapid restoral of monocyte activation and that monocyte reactivation might have contributed to the patient's prompt recovery from his severe infection.
  • Interferon-gamma treatment was well tolerated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunostimulation with interferon-gamma might prove to be a valuable adjuvant treatment for patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia during the rare scenario of infection with immunoparalysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Interferon-gamma / therapeutic use. Leukopenia / drug therapy. Monocytes / drug effects. Sepsis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. C-Reactive Protein / drug effects. C-Reactive Protein / metabolism. Humans. Leukocyte Count / drug effects. Male

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 10611583.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-1532
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical and pediatric oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pediatr. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein
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17. Chaplain G, Milan C, Sgro C, Carli PM, Bonithon-Kopp C: Increased risk of acute leukemia after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: a population-based study. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Aug;18(15):2836-42
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  • [Title] Increased risk of acute leukemia after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: a population-based study.
  • PURPOSE: To quantify the risk of acute leukemia after adjuvant therapy, especially chemotherapy with topoisomerase II inhibitors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a population-based study in a cohort of 3,093 women younger than 85 years who resided in the French administrative area of the Côte d'Or, who were given a first diagnosis of primary breast cancer between 1982 and 1996, and who received a curative treatment.
  • Information about therapy and follow-up events was obtained from records of cancer registries that covered this area.
  • RESULTS: Until December 1998, 10 cases of acute leukemia, including nonlymphoid acute leukemia and refractory anemia with excess of blasts, occurred in patients before any local or distant recurrence.
  • All cases developed in the first 4 years of follow-up.
  • Compared with the general female population, the incidence rate of leukemia was significantly increased in women who received radiotherapy and chemotherapy (standardized incidence ratio, 28.5; P <.0001).
  • A dose-dependent increase in the risk of leukemia was observed in women treated with mitoxantrone.
  • Cox regression analysis showed that the risk of leukemia was significantly lower in patients treated with anthracyclines than in those treated with mitoxantrone at cumulative doses >/= 13 mg/m(2).
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy with mitoxantrone induces a high risk of acute leukemia in patients with breast cancer.
  • A leukemogenic effect of chemotherapy with anthracyclines cannot be ruled out with certainty.
  • However, there are some suggestions that these topoisomerase II inhibitors might be less leukemogenic than mitoxantrone and could be preferred in an adjuvant setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Leukemia / etiology. Mitoxantrone / adverse effects. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2001 Feb 15;19(4):1231-3 [11181691.001]
  • (PMID = 10920131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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18. Nakai K, Kanda Y, Fukuhara S, Sakamaki H, Okamoto S, Kodera Y, Tanosaki R, Takahashi S, Matsushima T, Atsuta Y, Hamajima N, Kasai M, Kato S: Value of chemotherapy before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor for myelodysplastic syndrome. Leukemia; 2005 Mar;19(3):396-401
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  • [Title] Value of chemotherapy before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor for myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is a curative treatment for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
  • The object of this study was to evaluate the impact of chemotherapy before allo-SCT.
  • The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 33%.
  • Multivariate analyses identified karyotype, FAB classification, and the history of chemotherapy before allo-SCT as significant predictors for OS.
  • OS at 5 years was 57% for patients who underwent allo-SCT as a primary treatment for refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-t) or secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 54% for those who underwent allo-SCT in remission after induction chemotherapy (P=0.81).
  • The proportion of patients with a poor karyotype was equivalent between the two groups (P=0.44).
  • Although only a randomized controlled trial will be able to establish a definite conclusion, these results do not support the administration of induction chemotherapy for patients with RAEB-t or secondary AML before allo-SCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Histocompatibility Testing. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Graft vs Host Disease / mortality. Graft vs Host Disease / prevention & control. Graft vs Host Disease / therapy. Histocompatibility. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Siblings. Survival Analysis. Transplantation Conditioning. Transplantation, Homologous


19. Carpiuc I, Antoun S, Delabarthe A, Driss B, Vantelon JM, Griscelli F, Fenaux R, Ribrag V: Segmental coecal cytomegalovirus colitis during fludarabine, cytarabine and mitoxantrone induction chemotherapy for myelodysplastic syndrome. Leuk Lymphoma; 2002 Aug;43(8):1701-3
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  • [Title] Segmental coecal cytomegalovirus colitis during fludarabine, cytarabine and mitoxantrone induction chemotherapy for myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • We report the case of a 59-year-old woman treated for a refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) who developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis during induction therapy combining fludarabine, cytarabine and mitoxantrone.
  • CMV infection occurred rarely during cytarabine and anthracyclin based induction therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia or RAEB.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Cecal Diseases / etiology. Colitis / etiology. Cytarabine / adverse effects. Cytomegalovirus Infections / etiology. Vidarabine / adverse effects. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 12400617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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20. Tsiara SN, Kapsali HD, Panteli K, Christou L, Bourantas KL: Preliminary results of amifostine administration in combination with recombinant human erythropoietin in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2001 Mar;20(1):35-8
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  • Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent mainly used in cancer therapies, in order to ameliorate the toxic effects of anticancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Two patients had RAEB, four RA and one RARS.
  • The drug was administered in an outpatient basis in a dose of 300 mgr/m2, three times weekly for at least four weeks.
  • We administered at the same time erythropoietin 10.000 U subcutaneously.
  • Three patients, a woman with RA and two men, one with RA and another with RAEB improved the levels of Hb beyond 12,0 gr/dl and did not receive blood transfusions after the second week of treatment.
  • The drug was well tollerated without any side effects in all of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Amifostine / therapeutic use. Blood Transfusion. Cytoprotection. Erythropoietin / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anemia, Refractory / therapy. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / therapy. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Outpatients. Recombinant Proteins


21. Fulciniti F, Zeppa P, Marino G, Martinelli V, Ciancia R, Del Vecchio L, Rotoli B, Palombini L: Lymphnode localization of extramedullary myeloid cell tumor in myelodysplastic syndrome: report of one case diagnosed by fine-needle cytology. Diagn Cytopathol; 2003 Mar;28(3):136-9
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  • Trilineage extramedullary myeloid tumor (EMT) is an uncommon medical condition mostly diagnosed in patients affected by acute or chronic myeloid leukemia or, more rarely, by a myelodysplastic syndrome, among which the most frequent is refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation (RAEB-t).
  • A 70-year-old lady with previous history of intestinal resection for colonic adenocarcinoma in 1995 and subsequently treated with 5-fuorouracyl developed a refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) in 1998.
  • During the follow-up, a progression to RAEB-t was recorded.
  • During chemotherapy for this condition, slight enlargement of left supraclavicular and right submandibular nodes was noticed.
  • A diagnosis of trilineage extramedullary myeloid tumor was reached.
  • The patient was treated with low doses of chemotherapy with a good response lasting 12 months.
  • Furthermore, the extramedullary myeloid tumor in this case did not significantly affect the response to the chemotherapy of RAEB-t.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / pathology. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12619094.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Su YW, Chang MC, Chiang MF, Hsieh RK: Treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome after temozolomide for recurrent high-grade glioma. J Neurooncol; 2005 Feb;71(3):315-8
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  • [Title] Treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome after temozolomide for recurrent high-grade glioma.
  • In patients with recurrent malignant glioma, treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) and acute leukemia are rare adverse effects because the median survival after relapse is limited.
  • We report a 44-year-old woman with t-MDS (refractory anemia with excess blasts) following treatment of recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma with temozolomide (TMZ).
  • The disease rapidly evolved into acute leukemia within 1 month after the onset of MDS, and the patient died 1 month later during induction chemotherapy.
  • The prognosis of t-MDS is generally poor.
  • Considering the increasing use of TMZ, which is regarded as a drug with moderate toxicity, careful follow-up with routine blood testing is vital.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Leukemia / chemically induced. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / chemically induced. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Fatal Outcome. Female. Gene Deletion. Humans


23. Martino R, Valcárcel D, Brunet S, Sureda A, Sierra J: Comparable non-relapse mortality and survival after HLA-identical sibling blood stem cell transplantation with reduced or conventional-intensity preparative regimens for high-risk myelodysplasia or acute myeloid leukemia in first remission. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2008 Jan;41(1):33-8
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  • [Title] Comparable non-relapse mortality and survival after HLA-identical sibling blood stem cell transplantation with reduced or conventional-intensity preparative regimens for high-risk myelodysplasia or acute myeloid leukemia in first remission.
  • We prospectively compared two strategies of allogeneic PBSCT from HLA-identical siblings in adults with poor-risk AML or myelodysplastic syndrome with >5% marrow blasts in an early disease status (AML or refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB type 2) in first remission after chemotherapy or untreated RAEB type 1).
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / mortality. Histocompatibility Testing. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy. Transplantation Conditioning


24. Kuendgen A, Knipp S, Fox F, Strupp C, Hildebrandt B, Steidl C, Germing U, Haas R, Gattermann N: Results of a phase 2 study of valproic acid alone or in combination with all-trans retinoic acid in 75 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia. Ann Hematol; 2005 Dec;84 Suppl 1:61-6
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  • [Title] Results of a phase 2 study of valproic acid alone or in combination with all-trans retinoic acid in 75 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Valproic acid (VPA) inhibits histone deacetylase activity and induces differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts in vitro.
  • We observed clinical responses to VPA in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and AML.
  • Median treatment duration was 4 months for VPA and 2 months for ATRA.
  • Response rates were strongly dependent on disease type according to WHO classification.
  • We found a response rate of 52% in MDS patients with a normal blast count (refractory sideroblastic anemia, refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, and refractory sideroblastic cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia).
  • The response rate was 6% in refractory anemia with excess blasts (I + II), 16% in AML, and 0% in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.
  • Bone marrow blast count was the only variable that predicted responses.
  • For patients with high-risk MDS, VPA may be combined with chemotherapy or demethylating drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Valproic Acid / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Female. Histone Deacetylases / drug effects. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome. Tretinoin / administration & dosage


25. Konopleva M, Cheng SC, Cortes JE, Hayes KJ, Pierce SA, Andreeff M, Giles FJ, O'Brien S, Kantarjian HM, Estey EH: Independent prognostic significance of day 21 cytogenetic findings in newly-diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia or refractory anemia with excess blasts. Haematologica; 2003 Jul;88(7):733-6
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  • [Title] Independent prognostic significance of day 21 cytogenetic findings in newly-diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia or refractory anemia with excess blasts.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether cytogenetic findings (CG) on day 21 (D21) of the first course of chemotherapy predicted subsequent outcome in patients who presented with CG abnormalities.
  • INTERPRETATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS: Disease-free survival in CR was longest in patients who had > or =1 normal metaphase on D21, with this finding being independent of D21 marrow and initial CG results.
  • D21 CG can be used in therapeutic decision-making.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Cytogenetic Analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Metaphase. Middle Aged. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12857550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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26. Khalifa M, Laatiri MA, Chehata S, Rhaiem K, Gharbi O, Amama W, Ennabli S: [Adult primary myelodysplastic syndromes. Report of 36 cases]. Tunis Med; 2003 Apr;81(4):226-9
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  • [Transliterated title] Syndromes myelodysplasiques primitifs de l'adulte. A propos de 36 cas.
  • Eighty one per cent of patients were presented symptoms of anemia.
  • Hemogram showed anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia respectively in 97%, 44% and 55% of cases.
  • Refractory anemia with excess blasts (AREB) is the most frequent FAB subtypes of MDS (17 cases).
  • Seventeen patients have received a chemotherapy.
  • At the time, the only curative treatment is the bone marrow transplantation, which is proposed to young patients with HLA identical donor.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / etiology. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / diagnosis


27. Roboz GJ, Knovich MA, Bayer RL, Schuster MW, Seiter K, Powell BL, Woodruff RD, Silver RT, Frankel AE, Feldman EJ: Efficacy and safety of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in patients with poor-prognosis acute myeloid leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma; 2002 Oct;43(10):1951-5
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  • [Title] Efficacy and safety of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in patients with poor-prognosis acute myeloid leukemia.
  • The objective of this work was to determine the safety and efficacy of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in patients with poor prognosis acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • (2) AML refractory to chemotherapy at initial induction or at first relapse;.
  • (4) myeloid blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML);.
  • (5) untreated patients > or = 70 years or > or = 55 years with abnormal cytogenetics (excluding inv 16, t(15;17) and t(8;21)) and/or an antecedent hematologic disorder;.
  • (6) refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEBT).
  • Forty-three patients, ages 19-84 (mean 62), were treated, including 7 patients with untreated AML age > 70 years, 2 with untreated RAEBT, 14 with AML first salvage (first remission 0-6 months), 15 with AML > or = second salvage and 14 with myeloid blast phase of CML.
  • In conclusion, in patients with relapsed/refractory AML, gemtuzumab ozogamicin has a comparable response rate to single-agent chemotherapy and may offer a more favorable toxicity profile.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoglycosides. Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Risk Assessment. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12481890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / gemtuzumab
  •  go-up   go-down


28. Perez A, Kennedy C, Standen G, Oxley J: A case of monocytic leukaemia cutis in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome transforming to acute myeloid leukaemia. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2004 Sep;29(5):497-8
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  • [Title] A case of monocytic leukaemia cutis in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome transforming to acute myeloid leukaemia.
  • A 49-year-old woman presented with a 1-year-history of a widespread eruption which proved to be due to leukaemia cutis.
  • Subsequently, she developed pancytopaenia and a bone marrow biopsy revealed refractory anaemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-T) with a high monoblastic component.
  • This transformed into acute myeloid leukaemia.
  • Leukaemia cutis in this context is well described but in this patient it became manifest 1 year prior to referral to the dermatologist.
  • When occurring with a myelodysplastic syndrome, leukaemia cutis often heralds malignant transformation to acute myeloid leukaemia.
  • Prompt diagnosis in this situation may identify a group of high-risk patients with myelodysplastic syndrome for whom chemotherapy and allogenic bone marrow transplantation, rather than the more conventional approach of supportive treatment, could be a more appropriate management strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / pathology. Leukemia / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology


29. Fujimaki K, Taguchi J, Fujita H, Hattori M, Yamazaki E, Takahashi N, Fujisawa S, Kanamori H, Maruta A, Ishigatsubo Y: Thiotepa/cyclophosphamide/TBI as a conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2004 Apr;33(8):789-92
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  • Four patients had low-risk disease (refractory anemia or complete remission after chemotherapy) and 14 patients had high-risk disease (RAEB, RAEB-t, or AML).
  • Grade II-IV acute GVHD developed in six patients and chronic GVHD in 10.
  • With a median follow-up of 31 months, the 2-year survival probability is 75% for low-risk patients and 57% for high-risk patients.
  • One patient died of leukemia and six of treatment-related causes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Female. Graft vs Host Disease / etiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Transplantation Conditioning. Transplantation, Homologous. Whole-Body Irradiation


30. Sasaki H, Manabe A, Kojima S, Tsuchida M, Hayashi Y, Ikuta K, Okamura I, Koike K, Ohara A, Ishii E, Komada Y, Hibi S, Nakahata T, MDS Committee of the Japanese Society of Pediatric Hematology, Japan: Myelodysplastic syndrome in childhood: a retrospective study of 189 patients in Japan. Leukemia; 2001 Nov;15(11):1713-20
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  • In total, 189 patients were enrolled: 122 cases of primary MDS (26 RA, 18 RAEB, 25 RAEBt, 53 CMML/JMML), 24 cases with constitutional predisposition to MDS, and 43 cases of therapy-related MDS (t-MDS).
  • The frequency of pediatric MDS was estimated to be 7.7% of all leukemias.
  • Cytogenetic abnormalities were observed in 41% of primary MDS and 90% of t-MDS cases.
  • The 4-year survival rate, estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis, for primary RA was 78.9%, while other types of MDS and JMML had rates lower than 40%, and t-MDS showed an even more unfavorable prognosis.
  • There was no apparent advantage to chemotherapy for RA, and the survival rate in patients with primary RA, JMML, or t-MDS receiving stem cell transplantation was significantly higher.
  • More precise designs of our diagnostic and classification systems, as well as therapeutic trials in large-scale prospective studies, are necessary for further improvements in MDS outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Myelodysplastic Syndromes / diagnosis. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytogenetic Analysis. Female. Humans. Infant. Japan. Male. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


31. Woods WG, Barnard DR, Alonzo TA, Buckley JD, Kobrinsky N, Arthur DC, Sanders J, Neudorf S, Gold S, Lange BJ: Prospective study of 90 children requiring treatment for juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome: a report from the Children's Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol; 2002 Jan 15;20(2):434-40
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  • [Title] Prospective study of 90 children requiring treatment for juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome: a report from the Children's Cancer Group.
  • PURPOSE: We report the first large prospective study of children with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) treated in a uniform fashion on Children's Cancer Group protocol 2891.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety children with JMML, various forms of MDS, or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with antecedent MDS were treated with a five-drug induction regimen (standard or intensive timing).
  • All other patients were randomized between autologous BMT and aggressive nonmyeloablative chemotherapy.
  • Results were compared with patients with de novo AML.
  • RESULTS: Patients with JMML and refractory anemia (RA) or RA-excess blasts (RAEB) exhibited high induction failure rates and overall remission of 58% and 48%, respectively.
  • Remission rates for patients with RAEB in transformation (RAEB-T) (69%) or antecedent MDS (81%) were similar to de novo AML (77%).
  • Actuarial survival rates at 6 years were as follows: JMML, 31% +/- 26%; RA and RAEB, 29% +/- 16%; RAEB-T, 30% +/- 18%; antecedent MDS, 50% +/- 25%; and de novo AML, 45% +/- 3%.
  • For patients achieving remission, long-term survivors were found in those receiving either allogeneic BMT or chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Childhood subtypes of MDS and JMML represent distinct entities with distinct clinical outcomes.
  • Children with a history of MDS who present with AML do well with AML-type therapy.
  • Patients with RA or RAEB respond poorly to AML induction therapy.
  • The optimum treatment for JMML remains unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Transplantation, Homologous


32. Santini V, Fenaux P, Mufti GJ, Hellström-Lindberg E, Silverman LR, List A, Gore SD, Seymour JF, Backstrom J, Beach CL: Management and supportive care measures for adverse events in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated with azacitidine*. Eur J Haematol; 2010 Aug;85(2):130-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) treatment can initially worsen patients' clinical condition and they may discontinue therapy before achieving benefit.
  • METHODS: In the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9221 study, patients with any French-American-British (FAB) subtype of MDS were randomized to azacitidine or best supportive care (BSC).
  • After 56 d, patients randomized to BSC with disease progression could cross over to receive azacitidine.
  • In the AZA-001 study, patients with higher-risk MDS (FAB-defined refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB), RAEB in transformation, or chronic myelomonocitic leukaemia and IPSS int-2 or high) were randomized to azacitidine or to conventional care regimens (CCR), which included low-dose ara-C, BSC, or intensive chemotherapy.
  • Most AEs were transient and resolved during ongoing therapy (> 83%).
  • Hematologic AEs, most frequently observed during early treatment cycles, decreased during subsequent cycles and were usually managed with dosing delays (23-29%).
  • CONCLUSION: Hematologic and non-hematologic AEs with azacitidine decreased in frequency as treatment continued.
  • Awareness of the onset, duration and management of AEs can facilitate treatment, permitting patients to continue therapy for maximum benefit.

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  • (PMID = 20394651.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0609
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 31946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA031946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K24 CA111717; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA033601; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 33601
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS490297; NLM/ PMC4000014
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33. Lundberg LG, Hellström-Lindberg E, Kanter-Lewensohn L, Lerner R, Palmblad J: Angiogenesis in relation to clinical stage, apoptosis and prognostic score in myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Res; 2006 Mar;30(3):247-53
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  • [Title] Angiogenesis in relation to clinical stage, apoptosis and prognostic score in myelodysplastic syndromes.
  • The International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), based on the number of cytopenias, percentage of bone marrow blasts and cytogenetics, is an important prognostic tool for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
  • In addition, factors such as high bone marrow cellularity and lactate dehydrogenase levels have been associated with an adverse outcome, spontaneously and after chemotherapy.
  • To assess the prognostic role of MVD in MDS, a cohort of 56 patients, thoroughly investigated for various clinical and morphological parameters, were followed-up for survival > or =60 months after the diagnostic analysis.
  • The highest median MVD value was observed in the RAEB group, but there was no overall significant difference between the FAB groups.
  • No significant correlations were observed between MVD and peripheral blood counts, bone marrow cellularity, percentage of bone marrow blasts and CD34 positive cells, apoptotic index (TUNEL), proliferation index (MIB-1), erythroid index, FAB group and IPSS score.
  • In contrast, bone marrow blast count <5%, low or normal cellularity, as well as a high erythroid index, indicated a favorable survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Blast Crisis / pathology. Bone Marrow / pathology. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD34 / blood. Blood Cell Count. Cell Proliferation. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Erythrocyte Indices. Female. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16099505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
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34. Kaeferstein A, Krug U, Tiesmeier J, Aivado M, Faulhaber M, Stadler M, Krauter J, Germing U, Hofmann WK, Koeffler HP, Ganser A, Verbeek W: The emergence of a C/EBPalpha mutation in the clonal evolution of MDS towards secondary AML. Leukemia; 2003 Feb;17(2):343-9
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  • [Title] The emergence of a C/EBPalpha mutation in the clonal evolution of MDS towards secondary AML.
  • Recently, mutations in the transcription factor CCAAT/ enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) have been described in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • No mutations were found in patients with refractory anemia (0/27), refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (0/7), refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB 0/16) or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML 0/5).
  • One out of 13 patients with RAEB-T/AML secondary to MDS showed a mutation in the C/EBPalpha gene.
  • However, the dominant protein translated was the C/EBPalpha isoform p30, which was previously shown to inhibit the DNA-binding and transactivation properties of C/EBPalpha p42.
  • Interestingly this mutation could not be detected at diagnosis in the initial RAEB and RAEB-T stage.
  • The mutation appeared at relapse after chemotherapy for RAEB-T.
  • We conclude that the C/EBPalpha mutation was not essential for the initial blast accumulation.
  • The emergence of a bast clone carrying a C/EBPalpha mutation at relapse indicates that this mutation may confer a growth advantage in a myeloid cell with an established differentiation block.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha / metabolism. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Mutation. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / genetics. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / pathology. Base Sequence. DNA Primers. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational

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  • (PMID = 12592334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha; 0 / DNA Primers
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35. Pawson R, Potter MN, Theocharous P, Lawler M, Garg M, Yin JA, Rezvani K, Craddock C, Rassam S, Prentice HG: Treatment of relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning (FLAG +/- Ida) and second allogeneic stem cell transplant. Br J Haematol; 2001 Dec;115(3):622-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning (FLAG +/- Ida) and second allogeneic stem cell transplant.
  • Acute leukaemias in relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) respond poorly to donor leucocyte infusions (DLI) compared with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), at least in part because of faster disease kinetics.
  • Fludarabine-containing 'non-myeloablative' chemotherapy followed by further allo SCT may offer more rapid and effective disease control.
  • We report 14 patients with relapse after allo SCT for acute leukaemia [seven acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), five acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)] or refractory anaemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-t, n = 2) treated with fludarabine, high-dose cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) and granulocyte colony-simulating factor (G-CSF) with (n = 10) or without (n = 2) idarubicin (FLAG +/- Ida) or DaunoXome (FLAG-X) (n = 2) and second allo SCT from the original donor.
  • Donors were fully human leucocyte antigen (HLA) -matched in 13 cases with a single class A mismatch in one.
  • Actuarial overall survival was 60% and disease-free survival was 26% at 58 months.
  • Transplants were well tolerated with no treatment-related deaths.
  • The major complication was graft-versus-host disease (GvHD, acute >/= grade II-2 cases, chronic - eight cases, two limited, six extensive) although there have been no deaths attributable to this.
  • FLAG +/- Ida and second allo SCT is a safe and useful approach and may be more effective than DLI in the treatment of acute leukaemias relapsing after conventional allo SCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Leukemia / therapy. Transplantation Conditioning / methods. Vidarabine / administration & dosage. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Filgrastim. Graft vs Host Disease / immunology. Graft vs Host Disease / prevention & control. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Recombinant Proteins. Recurrence. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 11736947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; PVI5M0M1GW / Filgrastim; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin; Ida-FLAG protocol
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36. Fenaux P, Gattermann N, Seymour JF, Hellström-Lindberg E, Mufti GJ, Duehrsen U, Gore SD, Ramos F, Beyne-Rauzy O, List A, McKenzie D, Backstrom J, Beach CL: Prolonged survival with improved tolerability in higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: azacitidine compared with low dose ara-C. Br J Haematol; 2010 Apr;149(2):244-9
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  • In the phase III AZA-001 trial, low-dose cytarabine (LDara-C), the most widely used low-dose chemotherapy in patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who are ineligible for intensive treatment, was found to be associated with poorer survival compared with azacitidine.
  • This analysis further compared the efficacy and the toxicity of these two drug regimens.
  • Azacitidine prolonged overall survival versus LDara-C in patients with poor cytogenetic risk, presence of -7/del(7q), and French-American-British subtypes refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB) and RAEB in transformation.
  • When analyzed per patient year of drug exposure, azacitidine treatment was associated with fewer grade 3-4 cytopenias and shorter hospitalisation time than LDara-C in these higher-risk MDS patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Azacitidine / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Administration Schedule. Erythrocyte Transfusion. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20136825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K24 CA111717
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS490238; NLM/ PMC4000023
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37. Hiçsönmez G, Tunç B, Olcay L, Tuncer MA: Effect of short-course, high-dose steroid therapy in a child with myelodysplastic syndrome. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2001 Dec;18(8):525-9
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  • [Title] Effect of short-course, high-dose steroid therapy in a child with myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • High-dose methylprednisolone (HDMP) has been shown to induce differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells with a remarkable antileukemic effect in children with various subtypes of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML).
  • Here the beneficial effect of short-course HDMP therapy in a child with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is reported.
  • Oral methylprednisolone sodium succinate (Prednol-L) was administered at a single daily dose of 30 mg/kg for 5 days to a 4-year-old girl with refractory anemia with excess of blasts and hypocellular bone marrow before the initiation of chemotherapy.
  • In addition to dramatic clinical improvement, the patient's white blood cell count increased from 2.3 x 10(9)/L to 5.0 x 10(9)/L, and peripheral blood blast cells disappeared 4 days after HDMP treatment.
  • Repeated bone marrow aspirate 1 week after the initiation of HDMP disclosed increased cellularity with no blasts.
  • Furthermore, short-course HDMP treatment stimulated the increase in the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes and CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, CD34+, and NK cells.
  • Results obtained with HDMP from the previous studies and the present case suggest that high-dose methylprednisolone is a promising agent in the treatment of AIDS and it is recommended as an initial treatment especially for MDS children with hypocellular bone marrow at presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate / administration & dosage. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Steroids / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Blood Cell Count. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Bone Marrow / pathology. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome


38. Lee ST, Jang JH, Suh HC, Hahn JS, Ko YW, Min YH: Idarubicin, cytarabine, and topotecan in patients with refractory or relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Am J Hematol; 2001 Dec;68(4):237-45
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  • [Title] Idarubicin, cytarabine, and topotecan in patients with refractory or relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • In an effort to develop more effective therapy for patients with refractory or relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), we investigated the efficacy of a combination chemotherapy consisting of idarubicin, cytarabine, and topotecan.
  • Twenty-seven patients were treated: four with primary refractory AML, nine with AML in first relapse, four with AML in second relapse, and 10 with MDS-RAEB/RAEBT.
  • Patients received as salvage therapy a single course of idarubicin 12 mg/m(2) IV bolus on days 1-3, cytarabine 1 g/m(2) over two hours q 12 hr on days 1-5, and topotecan 1.25 mg/m(2) over 24 hr on days 1-5.
  • Thirteen AML patients (excluding four relapsed after autologous stem cell transplantation) were grouped into four categories to stratify the probability of achieving complete remission (CR): group 1, first CR duration > or = 2 years and receiving first salvage treatment (S1); group 2, first CR duration 1-2 years and receiving S1; group 3, first CR duration 0-1 years and receiving S1; and group 4, first CR duration 0-1 years and receiving S2, S3, or S4 after failing S1.
  • Median duration of survival in 10 MDS patients was 15 months, and all four MDS patients achieving a CR maintained continuous CR with a median follow-up of 11 months.
  • Median time to recovery of neutrophils > or =0.5 x 10(9)/l was 22 days (11-34) and for platelets > 20 x 10(9)/l 35 days (11-58).
  • We conclude that combination chemotherapy with intermediate dose cytarabine, idarubicin, and topotecan has significant antileukemic activity and acceptable toxicity in salvage AML and high-risk MDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / toxicity. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Idarubicin / toxicity. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Topotecan / administration & dosage. Topotecan / toxicity. Treatment Outcome


39. Raj K, John A, Ho A, Chronis C, Khan S, Samuel J, Pomplun S, Thomas NS, Mufti GJ: CDKN2B methylation status and isolated chromosome 7 abnormalities predict responses to treatment with 5-azacytidine. Leukemia; 2007 Sep;21(9):1937-44
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  • [Title] CDKN2B methylation status and isolated chromosome 7 abnormalities predict responses to treatment with 5-azacytidine.
  • Of 34 patients with MDS or acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) treated with 5-Azacytidine, 7 achieved complete remissions (CR) (21%) and 6 achieved haematological improvement.
  • All six had less than 5% bone marrow (BM) blasts at the time of haematological improvements (HI) (2 had pre-existing refractory anaemia (RA), 4 had refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB)).
  • A further patient with RAEB had blast reduction to less than 5% without HI.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Azacitidine / administration & dosage. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15 / genetics. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Apoptosis / drug effects. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. DNA Methylation / drug effects. Female. Genetic Markers. Humans. Injections, Subcutaneous. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Promoter Regions, Genetic / physiology. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17611569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G84/6222
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / CDKN2B protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15; 0 / Genetic Markers; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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40. Fenaux P: Inhibitors of DNA methylation: beyond myelodysplastic syndromes. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2005 Dec;2 Suppl 1:S36-44
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  • DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors, azacitidine (Vidaza, Pharmion, Boulder, CO, USA) and decitabine (Dacogen; SuperGen Inc, Dublin, CA, USA, and MGI Pharma Inc, Bloomington, MN, USA), have had a significant impact on the treatment paradigm of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs), previously managed mainly by supportive care and hematopoietic-stem-cell transplantation.
  • The positive clinical experience seen in MDS to date coupled with the persistent challenges faced in the treatment of other hematologic malignancies has served as the impetus for further exploration of the therapeutic value of DNMT inhibitors beyond MDS.
  • In that respect, the majority of data for these agents are in the setting of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).
  • Experience with these agents in patients with refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (reclassified by the World Health Organization as AML) was also reported in the clinical trials submitted to the FDA for approval of azacitidine for MDS.
  • Some use has also been described in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia.
  • Further studies are needed to clarify the appropriate dose and the number and duration of cycles in the treatment of leukemias, and to identify ideal candidates for therapy, explore the role of DNMT inhibitors in combination with other agents, especially histone deacetylase inhibitors, delineate differences between the commercially available agents, and establish the long-term safety of these agents.
  • To this end, experience with DNMT inhibitors in hematologic malignancies other than MDS is reviewed in an effort to better understand the therapeutic potential of these agents and to define areas of future exploration in these settings.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Azacitidine / therapeutic use. DNA Modification Methylases / antagonists & inhibitors. Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Humans. Leukemia / drug therapy. Leukemia / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16341239.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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41. Yazji S, Giles FJ, Tsimberidou AM, Estey EH, Kantarjian HM, O'Brien SA, Kurzrock R: Antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-based therapy in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Leukemia; 2003 Nov;17(11):2101-6
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  • [Title] Antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-based therapy in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of and tolerance to antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-based therapy in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
  • Therapy consisted of ATG 40 mg/kg/day daily intravenously (i.v.) for 4 days; cyclosporine daily orally for 6 months with levels titrated between 200 and 400 mg/dl; and methylprednisone 1 mg/kg i.v. daily before each dose of ATG.
  • A total of 18 patients had refractory anemia (RA) or RA with ringed sideroblasts (RARS), 10 patients had RA with excess blasts (RAEB), two patients had RAEB in transformation, and one patient had chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.
  • ATG, cyclosporine, and methylprednisone induced complete (N=4) or partial (N=1) remission in five patients (16% of total; RA, two patients; RARS, two patients; and RAEB, one patient).
  • [MeSH-major] Antilymphocyte Serum / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blood Transfusion. Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. Female. Hematocrit. Humans. Karyotyping. Male. Methylprednisolone / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Platelet Count. Treatment Outcome


42. Raza A, Qawi H, Lisak L, Andric T, Dar S, Andrews C, Venugopal P, Gezer S, Gregory S, Loew J, Robin E, Rifkin S, Hsu WT, Huang RW: Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes benefit from palliative therapy with amifostine, pentoxifylline, and ciprofloxacin with or without dexamethasone. Blood; 2000 Mar 1;95(5):1580-7
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  • [Title] Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes benefit from palliative therapy with amifostine, pentoxifylline, and ciprofloxacin with or without dexamethasone.
  • Thirty-five patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were registered on protocol MDS 96-02 and were receiving continuous therapy with pentoxifylline 800 mg 3 times a day and ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice a day by mouth; dexamethasone was added to the regimen for the partial responders and the nonresponders after 12 weeks at a dose of 4 mg by mouth every morning for 4 weeks.
  • Amifostine was administered intravenously 3 times a week at 3 dose levels (200 mg/M(2), 300 mg/M(2), and 400 mg/M(2)) to cohorts of 10 patients each.
  • Therapy has been continued for 1 year in responders.
  • Twenty-nine have completed at least 12 weeks of therapy and are available for response evaluation.
  • Of the 21 men and 8 women (median age, 67 years), 20 had refractory anemia (RA), 3 had RA with ringed sideroblasts (RARS), 5 had RA with excess blasts (RAEB), and 1 had chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMMoL).
  • Interestingly, the responses were frequently slow to appear, and continued improvement in counts was seen up to 12 months of therapy and beyond.
  • This study supports the feasibility of treating patients with MDS with the unique approach of cytoprotection and anticytokine therapies as well as the principle that prolonged commitment to treatment is desirable when noncytotoxic agents are administered. (Blood.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Palliative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Amifostine / administration & dosage. Amifostine / adverse effects. Anorexia / chemically induced. Blood Cell Count / drug effects. Ciprofloxacin / administration & dosage. Ciprofloxacin / adverse effects. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / adverse effects. Female. Gastrointestinal Diseases / chemically induced. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Hypotension / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Pentoxifylline / administration & dosage. Pentoxifylline / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome


43. Hiçsönmez G, Cetin M, Yenicesu I, Olcay L, Koç A, Aktaş D, Tunçbilek E, Tuncer M: Evaluation of children with myelodysplastic syndrome: importance of extramedullary disease as a presenting symptom. Leuk Lymphoma; 2001 Aug;42(4):665-74
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  • [Title] Evaluation of children with myelodysplastic syndrome: importance of extramedullary disease as a presenting symptom.
  • Thirty-three children diagnosed with primary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in a single institution over an 8 year period were evaluated with special emphasis on children who presented with extramedullary disease (EMD).
  • EMD was present at diagnosis in 12 (36%) of the 33 children with MDS.
  • Three patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and 2 patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) presented with pleural effusion.
  • Lymphadenopathy (n=1), gingival hypertrophy (n=2), orbital granulocytic sarcoma (n=1) and spinal mass (n=1) were the presenting findings in 5 patients with refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation.
  • Since high-dose methylprednisolone (HDMP, 20-30 mg/kg/day) has been shown to induce differentiation and apoptosis of myeloid leukemic cells in children with different morphological subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia in vivo and in vitro, 25 children with de novo MDS were treated with combined HDMP and cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • Dramatic improvement of EMD and decrease in blast cells both in the peripheral blood and bone marrow were obtained following administration of short-course HDMP treatment alone as observed in children with AML.
  • In conclusion EMD can be a presenting finding in childhood MDS as observed in adults.
  • In addition, the beneficial effect of HDMP combined with more intensive chemotherapy should be explored as alternative therapy in children with MDS not suitable for bone marrow transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / drug therapy. Male. Methylprednisolone / administration & dosage. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Myeloid / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome


44. Horikoshi M, Machida U, Itikawa M, Seo S, Masuda S, Kurokawa M, Ogawa S, Sunaga S, Honda H, Aoki K, Chiba S, Mitani K, Hirai H, Yazaki Y: [Essential thrombocythemia in transformation from myelodysplastic syndrome to acute myeloid leukemia with inv(3) after treatment for gastric cancer]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2000 Jan;41(1):68-71
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  • [Title] [Essential thrombocythemia in transformation from myelodysplastic syndrome to acute myeloid leukemia with inv(3) after treatment for gastric cancer].
  • In March 1990, a 61-year-old man was given a diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia with a normal karyotype and subsequently treated with hydroxyurea.
  • Refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation and chromosomal abnormalities including -5, -7, 20q-developed in August 1998.
  • Combined chemotherapy with daunorubicin, cytarabine, mercaptopurine, and prednisolone, had only limited effectiveness.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia was finally diagnosed in October 1998, and chromosomal analysis disclosed inv(3) in addition to -5 and -7.
  • The appearance of inv(3) might be related to leukemic transformation of hematopoietic stem cell disease with an increase in the number of megakaryocytes and platelets.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Inversion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3 / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Stomach Neoplasms. Thrombocythemia, Essential / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Gastrectomy. Humans. Hydroxyurea / therapeutic use. Karyotyping. Male. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Uracil / administration & dosage


45. Yilmaz A, Kaufmann CC, Binder C, Wörmann B, Haase D: Effects of amifostine in a patient with an advanced-stage myelodysplastic syndrome. Ann Hematol; 2001 Jan;80(1):53-7
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  • We report on a 63-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome at the stage of a refractory anemia with an excess of blasts in transformation (MDS-RAEB-T), first diagnosed in December 1996.
  • After a period of stability, with no need for transfusions, the MDS progressed into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in August 1998 with the emergence of a cytogenetic abnormality (11q-).
  • Two courses of chemotherapy were given, resulting in prolonged pancytopenia; however, no clearance of bone marrow (BM) blasts was achieved.
  • At that time, severe infections and daily epistaxis occurred.
  • After 2 months of persisting severe pancytopenia, we started a therapy with amifostine: 4 x 250 mg intravenously (i.v.) weekly for 1 month, followed by a maintenance therapy with 500 mg once weekly.
  • After 2 weeks of amifostine therapy, hematopoiesis began to improve.
  • In the subsequent 2 months, the patient became completely independent of the platelet transfusions; the transfusion frequency of RBC was permanently reduced (2 RBC transfusions/month) and a significant decrease of BM blasts was achieved.
  • After 30 weeks of amifostine therapy, the morphology of the MDS switched to a chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML)-like appearance, with continuously increasing leukocytes, so that we discontinued amifostine therapy for 1 month to exclude a possible side effect of amifostine.
  • At that time, leukocytes further increased to 74,000/microl; thus, we decided to perform a cytoreductive chemotherapy (hydroxycarbamide) and continued weekly amifostine infusions.
  • During 1 year of amifostine therapy, the patient had a good quality of life, with no need for hospitalization and a complete cytogenetic remission.
  • We conclude that, in this case, amifostine had two effects: a significant improvement of impaired hematopoiesis and a slowing down of disease progression.
  • Thus, amifostine might be a therapeutic option in older patients with advanced MDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Amifostine / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Radiation-Protective Agents / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11233778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiation-Protective Agents; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine
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46. Chang KL, O'Donnell MR, Slovak ML, Dagis AC, Arber DA, Niland JC, Forman SJ: Primary myelodysplasia occurring in adults under 50 years old: a clinicopathologic study of 52 patients. Leukemia; 2002 Apr;16(4):623-31
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  • This is a report of the clinical, morphologic and cytogenetic features of 52 cases of primary MDS occurring in adults under the age of 50 years.
  • Cases secondary to chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded.
  • The interval between onset of symptoms and diagnosis was brief (median, 4 weeks; range, 1-32 weeks).
  • Forty-two (81%) of the patients were classified using FAB criteria for blood and bone marrow morphology: refractory anemia (RA), 11; refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS), four; refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB), 12; chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), three; refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-T), 12 patients.
  • Abnormalities involving chromosome 7 was the most frequent cytogenetic abnormality (31%).
  • For the 49 patients for whom information regarding AML transformation was available, 23 (47%) progressed to acute myeloid leukemia, with an overall median time to progression of 2 months (range 3 weeks to 3 years).
  • In each category except for RARS, approximately half of the patients progressed, with a slightly less median time to progression in RAEB-T than for the other subtypes of MDS.
  • Thirteen patients underwent bone marrow transplantation at the time of presentation of their disease.

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  • (PMID = 11960342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Sato N, Nakazato T, Kizaki M, Ikeda Y, Okamoto S: Transformation of myelodysplastic syndrome to acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Hematol; 2004 Feb;79(2):147-51
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  • [Title] Transformation of myelodysplastic syndrome to acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) often transforms into acute leukemia, usually of a myeloid phenotype.
  • However, the transformation of MDS into acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is extremely rare.
  • We present a case of refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) that transformed into ALL.
  • MDS (RAEB) was diagnosed in a 68-year-old Japanese woman in August 2001.
  • Two months later, MDS progressed to erythroleukemia (French-American-British [FAB]classification, acute myeloid leukemia [AML]-M6), and in December, 2001, she was treated with combined chemotherapy containing aclarubicin, cytarabine, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which improved her clinical symptoms.
  • However, 1 month after the chemotherapy, she developed ALL.
  • The blasts at that time had a markedly basophilic cytoplasm with multiple cytoplasmic vacuoles, and their morphology mimicked that of ALL-L3.
  • The blasts also expressed CD13, a myeloid marker, in addition to lymphoid markers.
  • Southern-blot analysis revealed rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain, but no additional chromosomal abnormality characteristic of ALL-L3 was detected.
  • The patient was treated with chemotherapy, but she developed tumor lysis syndrome and died of multiple organ failure.
  • Although the precise mechanism of lymphoid transformation is not yet fully understood, this case clinically supports the nature of MDS as a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology


48. Webb DK, Passmore SJ, Hann IM, Harrison G, Wheatley K, Chessells JM: Results of treatment of children with refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB) and RAEB in transformation (RAEBt) in Great Britain 1990-99. Br J Haematol; 2002 Apr;117(1):33-9
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  • [Title] Results of treatment of children with refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB) and RAEB in transformation (RAEBt) in Great Britain 1990-99.
  • Between 1990 and 1999, 36 children with refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB) and RAEB in transformation (RAEBt), not associated with Down's syndrome, were diagnosed in Britain.
  • A total of 31 children received intensive chemotherapy, six of whom proceeded to a bone marrow allograft in first remission, whereas two received an autograft.
  • Of the 23 given chemotherapy only, four died of toxicity, 10 relapsed and nine are alive in first remission.
  • Out of the 10 who relapsed, four are alive and disease-free following an allograft.
  • Out of the 6 children given an allograft in first remission, two died of disease and four are alive in first remission.
  • Both children given an autograft died of disease.
  • Two children received an allograft without prior chemotherapy but died of toxicity.
  • The overall survival was 51% at 5 years, and was superior in children with RAEBt (63%) compared with RAEB (28%, P = 0.03).
  • Monosomy 7 was the most common abnormality (33% of cases).
  • Allowing for cytogenetics, outcomes of therapy appear similar to those for de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and it is appropriate for children with RAEB/RAEBt to be registered in AML trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / therapy. Bone Marrow Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Female. Humans. Infant. Leukemia, Myeloid / mortality. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Male. Monosomy. Patient Selection. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11918530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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49. Huebner G, Karthaus M, Pethig K, Freund M, Ganser A: Myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia secondary to heart transplantation. Transplantation; 2000 Aug 27;70(4):688-90
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  • [Title] Myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia secondary to heart transplantation.
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia secondary to radiotherapy, radiation exposure, and chemotherapy is a well-documented malignant stem cell disorder.
  • The incidence and natural course of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia after organ transplantation remains less thoroughly investigated.
  • We report five patients (age, 22-63 years) with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (n=1) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) (n=4) occuring 4-8 years after transplantation.
  • Immunosuppression consisted uniformly of a combination of prednisone, cyclosporine, and azathioprine.
  • One patient with MDS, refractory anemia with excess of blasts according to the FAB criteria, is alive with transfusion dependency 32 months after diagnosis.
  • Treatment results are poor in this subgroup of patients with secondary leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiomyopathy, Dilated / surgery. Heart Failure / surgery. Heart Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / etiology. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / etiology. Postoperative Complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chromosome Aberrations. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged


50. Honda Y, Manabe A, Tsuchida M, Zaike Y, Masunaga A, Inoue M, Kobayashi R, Ohtsuka Y, Kikuchi A, Nakahata T, MDS Committee, the Japanese Society of Pediatric Hematology: Clinicopathological characteristics of erythroblast-rich RAEB and AML M6a in children. Int J Hematol; 2008 Dec;88(5):524-9
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological characteristics of erythroblast-rich RAEB and AML M6a in children.
  • The distinction between RAEB, RAEB-T and AML M6a is difficult when erythroblasts in the bone marrow (BM) exceed 50%.
  • We analyzed 19 children (2 RAEB, 13 RAEB-T and 4 AML M6a) enrolled in a prospective pathological central review in Japan and divided them into two groups according to the myeloblasts percentage among non-erythroid cells in BM: group A (n = 8), 5-19% myeloblasts; group B (n = 11), 20% or more myeloblasts.
  • Six with group A and seven with group B treated with AML type chemotherapy achieved complete remission.
  • Five with group A and seven with group B undergoing SCT are alive at a median of 3 years after diagnosis.
  • Erythroblast-rich RAEB and AML M6a in children have similar characteristics and may belong to a single disease entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / pathology. Erythroblasts / pathology. Granulocyte Precursor Cells / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Japan. Leukocyte Count. Male. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Stem Cell Transplantation. Time Factors. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 18951200.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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51. Ribrag V, Suzan F, Ravoet C, Feremans W, Guerci A, Dreyfus F, Damaj G, Vantelon JM, Bourhis JH, Fenaux P: Phase II trial of CPT-11 in myelodysplastic syndromes with excess of marrow blasts. Leukemia; 2003 Feb;17(2):319-22
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of CPT-11 in myelodysplastic syndromes with excess of marrow blasts.
  • We conducted a phase II trial of CPT-11 in 26 patients with high-risk MDS (RAEB 1: n = 4; RAEB 2: n = 9; MDS having progressed to AML: n = 10; CMML: n = 3) who could not receive anthracycline/cytarabine intensive chemotherapy.
  • Induction therapy consisted of four courses of CPT-11 given intravenously at 200 mg/m(2) every 2 weeks.
  • Patient characteristics were: median age, 71 (range 51-77); sex, (M/F), 21/5, median % marrow blasts cells, 13.5 (range 7-52).
  • Six patients stopped treatment after only one or two courses of CPT-11 due to severe infection (n = 2), progressive disease (n = 3), acute lysis syndrome with renal failure (n = 1).
  • Thus CPT-11 has an interesting activity in MDS with excess of blasts; toxicity is easily managed and most patients can be treated in the out-clinic setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow / pathology. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Camptothecin / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Blast Crisis. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12592329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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52. Tsimberidou AM, Colburn DE, Welch MA, Cortes JE, Verstovsek S, O'Brien SM, Albitar M, Kantarjian HM, Giles FJ: Anagrelide and imatinib mesylate combination therapy in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2003 Sep;52(3):229-34
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  • [Title] Anagrelide and imatinib mesylate combination therapy in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders.
  • PURPOSE: The tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate inhibits the function of the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein associated with Philadelphia-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).
  • The objectives of this study were to investigate the feasibility and safety of imatinib mesylate and anagrelide combination therapy in patients with Ph-positive CML or chronic myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) with persistent thrombocythemia.
  • RESULTS: Of 22 patients identified, 18 had Ph-positive CML (chronic phase, 16 patients; accelerated phase, 2 patients), 1 had agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM), 2 had essential thrombocythemia (ET) and 1 had MPD transformed into refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB).
  • Imatinib mesylate and anagrelide combination therapy was feasible and tolerable.
  • No responses were noted in patients with AMM, ET or MPD transformed into RAEB.
  • [MeSH-major] Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Fibrinolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Myeloproliferative Disorders / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Quinazolines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Benzamides. Chronic Disease. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Male. Medical Records Systems, Computerized. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 12783207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Fibrinolytic Agents; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / anagrelide; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
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53. Kasper C, Zahner J, Sayer HG: Recombinant human erythropoietin in combined treatment with granulocyte- or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2002 Sep;128(9):497-502
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  • [Title] Recombinant human erythropoietin in combined treatment with granulocyte- or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.
  • PURPOSE: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of hemopoietic progenitor cell disorders, and patients with MDS regularly develop anemia and frequently become transfusion-dependent.
  • Treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) has been tried to correct anemia with only limited success with response rates ranging from 16% to 25%.
  • The average response rate for improving anemia was 41% in 207 patients treated with EPO and G-CSF, and 26% in 154 patients treated with EPO and GM-CSF.
  • There were higher response rates for refractory anemia (RA) (45%), ringed sideroblasts (RARS) (47%), and excess of blasts (RAEB) (38%) compared with blasts in transformation (RAEBT) (17%) for the treatment with EPO plus G-CSF.
  • The corresponding response rates for treatment with EPO plus GM-CSF were 30% (RA), 29% (RARS), 16% (RAEB), and 0% (RAEBT), respectively.
  • There seems to be a positive correlation between the duration of cytokine treatment and response rates, and higher response rates in early MDS stages compared to advanced entities.
  • However, controlled studies are mandatory to evaluate the role of the combined cytokine treatment in patients with MDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Erythropoietin / administration & dosage. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia / drug therapy. Humans. Interleukin-3 / administration & dosage. Recombinant Proteins

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  • (PMID = 12242514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-3; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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54. Wallvik J, Stenke L, Bernell P, Nordahl G, Hippe E, Hast R: Serum erythropoietin (EPO) levels correlate with survival and independently predict response to EPO treatment in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Eur J Haematol; 2002 Mar;68(3):180-5
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  • [Title] Serum erythropoietin (EPO) levels correlate with survival and independently predict response to EPO treatment in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.
  • Treatment with recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) can alleviate anaemia in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).
  • The present study, based on a long-term follow-up of 68 MDS patients (26RA, 16 RAS, 26 RAEB) treated with EPO alone, pinpoints pre-treatment variables associated with response induction, response duration and overall survival.
  • Using univariate logistic regression models, responders displayed significantly lower baseline serum EPO levels (S-EPO), more often normal bone marrow blast cell content (RA/RAS vs. RAEB), normal cytogenetics and no need for erythrocyte transfusion.
  • In a multiple logistic regression model, S-EPO (P=0.009), marrow blast content (P=0.031) and erythrocyte transfusion need (P=0.024) remained associated with response induction.
  • The probability of response for a patient with S-EPO >50UL1, RA/RAS and no transfusion need was 0.79 (0.53-0.93, 95% CI).
  • The median overall survival time from start of EPO treatment was 26 months, significantly longer for responders than for non-responders (49 vs. 18 months, P=0.018).
  • Survival was also predicted by baseline S-EPO; patients with S-EPO >50UL1 (n=50) had a median survival of 17 months, as compared to 65 months for those with S-EPO >50UL1 (n=14, P=0.024).
  • The international prognostic scoring system (IPSS) for MDS predicted survival (P=0.003) and progression to acute leukemia (P<0.001) but not response to EPO treatment.
  • Furthermore, in a logistic regression model with S-EPO and IPSS, S-EPO (but not IPSS) was again a significant predictor for response (P=0.007).
  • Our data facilitate the optimal selection of MDS patients suitable for EPO treatment and pinpoint S-EPO as a powerful predictor of response and overall survival in MDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Erythropoietin / blood. Erythropoietin / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / blood. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anemia, Refractory / blood. Anemia, Refractory / drug therapy. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / blood. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Erythrocyte Transfusion. Female. Hemoglobins / analysis. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Recombinant Proteins. Survival Rate


55. Holm M, Hoyer M, Jensen I, Thomsen M, Hokland P: Dynamic cell cycle kinetics in vitro and in vivo in myelodysplastic syndromes with special reference to the influence of hematopoietic growth factors. Leuk Res; 2000 Dec;24(12):999-1008
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  • We have investigated the effect of HGF in vivo and in vitro in MDS using a recently developed FCM assay involving the simultaneous measurement of cell surface antigens, DNA content, and BrdUrd or IodUrd incorporation.
  • Importantly, we demonstrated that in vivo GM-CSF administration to patients with RAEB resulted in a shortening of T(pot) within the 2 first weeks of GM-CSF treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle / drug effects. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors / pharmacology. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / pathology. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy

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  • (PMID = 11077113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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56. Hofmann WK, Seipelt G, Ottmann OG, Kalina U, Koschmieder S, Brücher J, Frickhofen N, Klausmann M, Mitrou PS, Hoelzer D: Effect of treatment with amifostine used as a single agent in patients with refractory anemia on clinical outcome and serum tumor necrosis factor alpha levels. Ann Hematol; 2000 May;79(5):255-8
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  • [Title] Effect of treatment with amifostine used as a single agent in patients with refractory anemia on clinical outcome and serum tumor necrosis factor alpha levels.
  • Several small clinical studies give divergent informations about the potential of amifostine as single agent to improve hematopoiesis in MDS patients.
  • In these studies, patients with refractory anemia (RA), RA with excess of blasts (RAEB), and RAEB in transformation (RAEB-T) were analyzed together, resulting in response rates varying from 8% to 30%.
  • The present multi-center study evaluated whether treatment with amifostine is of clinical benefit in patients with RA who are transfusion dependent.
  • Four treatment cycles were planned, each consisting of intravenous amifostine at 200 mg/m2/day three times per week followed by a 2-week interval.
  • Since tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha is a main suppressive cytokine for hematopoiesis in RA patients, serum samples for analyzing endogenous levels of TNF alpha were collected prior to the study and after four treatment cycles.
  • In one patient, disease progression from RA to RAEB was observed.
  • Serum TNF alpha levels were increased in MDS patients compared with normal controls (18.8 pg/ml vs 9.1 pg/ml), and there was no change during the treatment with amifostine (17.5 pg/ml).
  • In conclusion, treatment with amifostine as a single agent was of limited benefit in patients with RA.
  • The serum TNF alpha levels were unchanged during treatment with amifostine in RA patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Amifostine / therapeutic use. Anemia, Refractory / blood. Anemia, Refractory / drug therapy. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Nausea / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome. Venous Thrombosis / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 10870480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine
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57. Saito K, Nakamura Y, Aoyagi M, Waga K, Yamamoto K, Aoyagi A, Inoue F, Nakamura Y, Arai Y, Tadokoro J, Handa T, Tsurumi S, Arai H, Kawagoe Y, Gunnji H, Kitsukawa Y, Takahashi W, Furusawa S: Low-dose cytarabine and aclarubicin in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (CAG regimen) for previously treated patients with relapsed or primary resistant acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and previously untreated elderly patients with AML, secondary AML, and refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation. Int J Hematol; 2000 Apr;71(3):238-44
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  • [Title] Low-dose cytarabine and aclarubicin in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (CAG regimen) for previously treated patients with relapsed or primary resistant acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and previously untreated elderly patients with AML, secondary AML, and refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation.
  • We used the CAG regimen (low-dose cytarabine [10 mg/m2 per 12 hours, days 1-14], aclarubicin [14 mg/m2 per day, days 1-4], and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [200 micrograms/m2 per day, days 1-14]) for the treatment of patients with primary resistant acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and previously untreated elderly patients with AML, secondary AML, and refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-T) in addition to relapsed AML.
  • Forty-three of 69 (62%) patients achieved complete remission (CR), including 29 of 35 (83%) patients with relapsed AML, 1 of 8 patients with primary resistant AML, 5 of 8 elderly patients with previously untreated AML, and 8 of 18 patients with previously untreated secondary AML or RAEB-T.
  • The patients who achieved CR received at least 1 course of modified CAG therapy as the first consolidation therapy, followed by various second consolidation and intensification therapies.
  • The median disease-free survival and overall survival were 8 and 15 months, respectively, for relapsed AML; 11 and 8 months for the elderly patients; and 8 and 17 months for secondary AML and RAEB-T.
  • CAG as the induction therapy seems promising for the treatment of various categories of poor-prognosis AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aclarubicin / administration & dosage. Aclarubicin / toxicity. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / toxicity. Humans. Lymphocyte Activation. Male. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10846828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 74KXF8I502 / Aclarubicin; CAG protocol
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58. Shi J, Shao Z, Liu H, Li K, Song L, Zhang Y, Zheng Y, Chen G, Chu Y, He H, Zhao M, He G, Feng B, Hao Y, Yang T, Yang C: [Study on the transformation from myelodysplastic syndromes into acute leukemias]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2001 Jul;22(7):351-4
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  • [Title] [Study on the transformation from myelodysplastic syndromes into acute leukemias].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the patterns of transformation from myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) into acute leukemias (AL).
  • METHODS: Leukemic transformation of MDS patients was dynamically followed up and the clinical manifestations, peripheral blood and bone marrow pictures, karyotypes, immunophenotypes, response to treatment and prognosis of post MDS acute leukemia (postMDS-AL) were observed.
  • RESULTS: During the past eight year and seven months, 21 (13.91%) of 151 MDS patients progressed to overt leukemia with a median interval of 5 (1 - 21) months.
  • There were no significant differences among the rates of leukemia from RA, RAEB and RAEB-t groups.
  • The transformation was developed either gradually or rapidly.
  • There were five parameters related to the leukemic transformation: under 40 years of age, pancytopenia, more than 0.15 blasts in bone marrow, at least two types of abnormal karyotype and combined chemotherapy.
  • All of the 21 post MDS-AL were acute myeloid leukemia (AML); and most of them were M(2), M(4) and M(5).
  • Two (9.52%) post MDS-AML developed extramedullary infiltration.
  • After evolving into AML, 8 (47.06%) patients developed abnormal karyotypes.
  • A low complete remission rate (31.25%) and short survival duration with median survival of 6 (1 - 28) months were found in patients with post MDS-AML treated by induction therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia / pathology. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Cocarcinogenesis. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Young Adult


59. Depil S, Deconinck E, Milpied N, Sutton L, Witz F, Jouet JP, Damaj G, Yakoub-Agha I, Société Française de Greffe de Moelle et Thérapie cellulaire: Donor lymphocyte infusion to treat relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2004 Mar;33(5):531-4
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  • Donor lymphocyte infusion has become established as a salvage therapy for patients with hematological disorders relapsing after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT).
  • Between July 1993 and October 2001, 14 patients with MDS relapsing after allogeneic BMT received DLI as salvage therapy.
  • At the time of BMT, one patient had RA, nine had RAEB, of whom three were in CR after induction-type chemotherapy, two had RAEB-T, one had CMML and one had AML.
  • At the time of relapse, the median marrow blast count was 9%.
  • With a median follow-up of 49 months, six patients were alive, of whom two were in CR after DLI alone and remained disease-free, two were in CR after a second BMT and two had active disease.
  • Eight patients died of disease progression.
  • Although DLI alone seems to be effective in a small number of patients with MDS, other treatment strategies, including prior debulking chemotherapy, deserve investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Lymphocyte Transfusion. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / immunology. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / therapy. Female. Graft vs Host Disease. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Tissue Donors. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome


60. Fukuda N, Shinohara K, Ota I, Muraki K, Shimohakamada Y: Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome in a case of cutaneous adult T-cell lymphoma. Int J Hematol; 2002 Jan;75(1):67-71
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  • [Title] Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome in a case of cutaneous adult T-cell lymphoma.
  • We report a case of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) in adult T-cell lymphoma.
  • A 69-year-old man suffered from cutaneous adult T-cell lymphoma, which was treated with radiation to the skin and combination chemotherapy of CHOP-V-MMV and VEPA-B.
  • After 14 months of these therapies, anemia and thrombocytopenia appeared, and bone marrow aspiration smears showed immature myeloblasts, dysplastic erythroblasts, and micromegakaryocytes.
  • Therapy-related MDS of refractory anemia with an excess of blasts was diagnosed.
  • The patient died of pneumonia 21 months after diagnosis of cutaneous adult T-cell lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / etiology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / complications. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Aged. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Chromosome Aberrations. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Disease Progression. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Fatal Outcome. HTLV-I Infections / complications. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 / isolation & purification. Humans. Japan. Leukemia, Myeloid / complications. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / complications. Male. Nitrosourea Compounds / administration & dosage. Nitrosourea Compounds / adverse effects. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prednisolone / adverse effects. Proviruses / isolation & purification. Remission Induction. Translocation, Genetic. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects


61. Shoji N, Ito Y, Kimura Y, Nishimaki J, Kuriyama Y, Tauchi T, Yaguchi M, Payzulla D, Ebihara Y, Ohyashiki K: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis as a terminal complication in myelodysplastic syndromes: a report of four cases detected on autopsy. Leuk Res; 2002 Jun;26(6):591-5
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  • They consisted of two refractory anemia (RA) and two patients with refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEBt) at the time of MDS diagnosis, but all of them developed leukemic phase and were resistant to chemotherapy at the time of pulmonary episodes.

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Med. 2003 Dec 1;115(8):674 [14656624.001]
  • (PMID = 12007507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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62. Ferrero D, Darbesio A, Giai V, Genuardi M, Dellacasa CM, Sorasio R, Bertini M, Boccadoro M: Efficacy of a combination of human recombinant erythropoietin + 13-cis-retinoic acid and dihydroxylated vitamin D3 to improve moderate to severe anaemia in low/intermediate risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol; 2009 Feb;144(3):342-9
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  • [Title] Efficacy of a combination of human recombinant erythropoietin + 13-cis-retinoic acid and dihydroxylated vitamin D3 to improve moderate to severe anaemia in low/intermediate risk myelodysplastic syndromes.
  • The efficacy of human recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has generally been best in untransfused patients with 'refractory anaemia' according to the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • We treated 63 MDS patients [excluding refractory anaemia with excess blasts, type 2 (RAEB2)] with a previously tested combination of 13-cis-retinoic acid and dihydroxylated vitamin D3 +/- 6-thioguanine in addition to rEPO.
  • Most patients were categorized as refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and RAEB1, with intermediate 1 International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score; all had Hb <95 g/l, and 70% required regular erythrocyte transfusions.
  • Treatment was well tolerated, and erythroid response rate according to new International Working Group criteria was 60%: 50% in RAEB1 and 64% in non-RAEB patients (P = 0.383).
  • Median survival reached 14 months for RAEB1 and 55 months for non-RAEB patients, with a significant difference in the latter between responders and non-responders (median 82 months vs. 44 months; P = 0.036).
  • Our combined therapy, independent of rEPO dosage, achieved in patients with unfavourable response predictors, a rate of anaemia improvement comparable to the best obtained in lower risk patients by high-dose rEPO.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia / drug therapy. Calcitriol / therapeutic use. Erythropoietin / therapeutic use. Isotretinoin / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Vitamins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Recombinant Proteins. Risk. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


63. Chen H, Lu DP, Huang XJ, Liu KY, Xu LP, Han W, Ren HY, Chen YH, Liu DH, Lu J, Jiang Q: [Reduced intensity of BuCy conditioning regimen for transplantation in the treatment of malignant hematologic diseases]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2005 May;26(5):273-6
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  • [Title] [Reduced intensity of BuCy conditioning regimen for transplantation in the treatment of malignant hematologic diseases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of a new reduced intensity of BuCy conditioning regimen for the treatment of malignant hematologic diseases in aged or intolerable patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) from the siblings.
  • METHODS: Twelve patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, n = 4), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML-M(2), n = 2), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML, n = 4), and myelodysplastic syndromes-refractory anemia with excess blasts (MDS-RAEB, n = 2) were intolerant of conventional myeloablative therapy because of age (older than 50 years) or having severe concurrent diseases.
  • The low dosage conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan (2 mg.kg(-1).d(-1) for 3 days), Ara-C (2 g.m(-2).d(-1) for 1 or 2 times), cyclophosphamide (1.0 g.m(-2).d(-1) for 2 days) and anti-T-lymphocyte globulin (ATG 2.5 mg.kg(-1).d(-1) for 4 days, -5 - -2 day).
  • All patients received cyclosporin A, short-term MTX and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for prophylaxis of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD).
  • With a median follow-up of 14.5 (4.0-24.0) months, 7 of the 12 patients (58.0%) were alive and 5 (42.0%) of the 7 were disease-free.
  • Five patients (41.6%) had aGVHD and four had local chronic GVHD with a cumulative probability of chronic GVHD of 41.5%.
  • CONCLUSION: This reduced intensity conditioning regimen is well tolerated and safe for HSCT in the older patients or patients with severe concurrent medical conditions and can achieve full chimerism and long-term disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Transplantation Conditioning / methods

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  • (PMID = 15949287.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-2727
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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64. Maciejewski JP, Risitano AM, Sloand EM, Wisch L, Geller N, Barrett JA, Young NS: A pilot study of the recombinant soluble human tumour necrosis factor receptor (p75)-Fc fusion protein in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Br J Haematol; 2002 Apr;117(1):119-26
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  • We determined spontaneous TNF-alpha production by marrow cells in MDS; TNF-alpha production was elevated (> mean + 2 x SD of controls) in > 1/3 of patients, but did not correlate with clinical parameters.
  • The drug was well tolerated and 15 patients were evaluable.
  • Progression to refractory anaemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEBt) or leukaemia was observed in three patients.
  • Although anti-TNF therapy with Enbrel was well tolerated at the dosages used in MDS, its efficacy as a single agent appears low.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunoglobulin G / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / therapeutic use. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anemia, Refractory / drug therapy. Anemia, Refractory / therapy. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / therapy. Blood Transfusion. Bone Marrow Cells / immunology. Colony-Forming Units Assay. Etanercept. Humans. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Treatment Failure

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  • [ErratumIn] Br J Haematol 2002 Jun;117(4):1002. Ristiano Antonio M [corrected to Risitano Antonio M]
  • (PMID = 11918541.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; OP401G7OJC / Etanercept
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65. Estey EH, Thall PF, Cortes JE, Giles FJ, O'Brien S, Pierce SA, Wang X, Kantarjian HM, Beran M: Comparison of idarubicin + ara-C-, fludarabine + ara-C-, and topotecan + ara-C-based regimens in treatment of newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia, refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation, or refractory anemia with excess blasts. Blood; 2001 Dec 15;98(13):3575-83
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  • [Title] Comparison of idarubicin + ara-C-, fludarabine + ara-C-, and topotecan + ara-C-based regimens in treatment of newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia, refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation, or refractory anemia with excess blasts.
  • It has been unclear whether regimens containing topotecan + ara-C (TA) or fludarabine + ara-C (FA) +/- idarubicin are superior to regimens containing idarubicin + ara-C (IA) without either fludarabine or topotecan for treatment of newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML), refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-t), or RAEB.
  • It is unlikely that, as given here, either FA or TA is, in general, superior to IA, highlighting the need for new treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Topotecan / administration & dosage. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 11739159.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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66. Voulgari PV, Hatzimichael EC, Tsiara S, Tzallas C, Drosos AA, Bourantas KL: Investigation for the presence of anti-erythropoietin antibodies in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Eur J Haematol; 2001 Jan;66(1):31-6
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  • OBJECTIVES: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) improves anemia in 25% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).
  • The variable and sometimes low response rate to rHuEpo treatment raises the question whether the existence of autoantibodies against erythropoietin (epo) is partially responsible.
  • Sixteen patients had refractory anemia (RA), 13 had RA with ringed sideroblasts, 3 had RA with excess of blasts (RAEB), 9 had RAEB in transformation and 2 patients had chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.
  • They were divided in 3 groups according to rHuEpo treatment.
  • Group A consisted of 10 patients who did not receive rHuEpo treatment.
  • Group B included 13 patients who were on rHuEpo treatment (150 IU/kg subcutaneously, 3 times weekly) showing an increase of hemoglobin (Hb) values or reduction of transfusion requirements and Group C consisted of 20 patients who did not respond or stopped responding to rHuEpo treatment.
  • Laboratory studies consisted of a complete blood cell count, measurement of serum epo and determination of anti-epo antibodies using ELISA.
  • CONCLUSION: We suggest that anti-epo autoantibodies do not contribute to the development of MDS-related anemia and are not responsible for the modest response to rHuEpo treatment.
  • Further investigation is needed to identify possible reasons for the low response rate to rHuEpo treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anemia, Refractory / blood. Anemia, Refractory / drug therapy. Anemia, Refractory / immunology. Anemia, Refractory / therapy. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / blood. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / immunology. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / therapy. Antibody Specificity. Blood Cell Count. Blood Transfusion. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Hemoglobins / analysis. Humans. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / blood. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / immunology. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Recombinant Proteins / immunology. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Treatment Failure

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  • [CommentIn] Eur J Haematol. 2002 Sep;69(3):189-90 [12406016.001]
  • (PMID = 11168505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0902-4441
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Hemoglobins; 0 / Isoantibodies; 0 / Isoantigens; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin
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67. Yamada T, Tsurumi H, Hara T, Fukuno K, Goto H, Oyama M, Moriwaki H: [An elderly patient with myelodysplastic syndrome successfully treated with combination of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and continuous-drip infusion of low-dose cytarabine and etoposide]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2000 Mar;41(3):218-21
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  • A 73-year-old man was given a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome in October 1997.
  • Bone marrow aspiration revealed refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation.
  • The patient was treated with continuous-drip infusion of low-dose cytarabine and etoposide with G-CSF (AVG therapy).
  • Complete remission (CR) was obtained after 2 courses of AVG therapy.
  • CR has been maintained for 16 months with 1 course of consolidation therapy and 3 courses of intensification therapy using the AVG regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 10774251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
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68. Venditti A, Tamburini A, Buccisano F, Scimò MT, Del Poeta G, Maurillo L, Cox MC, Abruzzese E, Tribalto M, Masi M, Amadori S: A phase-II trial of all trans retinoic acid and low-dose cytosine arabinoside for the treatment of high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Ann Hematol; 2000 Mar;79(3):138-42
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  • [Title] A phase-II trial of all trans retinoic acid and low-dose cytosine arabinoside for the treatment of high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.
  • Twenty-two patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (HRMDS) were treated with a 10-day course of oral all trans retinoic acid (45 mg/m2) and s.c. low-dose cytosine arabinoside (LDARAc) given at the dose of 20 mg twice per day.
  • The courses were repeated monthly until response or progression, in the case of response, the therapy was administered until relapse.
  • Morphologic diagnoses were refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) in nine, RAEB in transformation (RAEB-t) in nine, and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMMoL) in four patients; in all cases, bone-marrow blast infiltration was greater than 10% (median 20%, range 12-30%).
  • Nineteen patients were males and three were females; the median age was 69 years (range 25-90 years); three patients had previously been treated with conventional chemotherapy, and one of them had also undergone autologous bone-marrow transplantation.
  • (1) complete response: normalization of blood counts and bone-marrow blasts (<5%), and (2) partial response: decrease in bone-marrow blast infiltration by 50%, and two of the following parameters - improvement in hemoglobin level by 1.5 g/dl or decrease by 50% in transfusional requirement, increase by 50% in absolute neutrophil count, and increase by 50% in platelet count.
  • Fifteen (68%) patients did not achieve any response, and 14 died of progressive disease or infectious disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Tretinoin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anemia / chemically induced. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Hypertriglyceridemia / chemically induced. Infection / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 10803936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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69. Cesaro S, Strugo L, Alaggio R, Cecchetto G, Rigobello L, Pillon M, Cusinato R, Zanesco L: Voriconazole for invasive aspergillosis in oncohematological patients: a single-center pediatric experience. Support Care Cancer; 2003 Nov;11(11):722-7
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  • Voriconazole is a new triazole active orally and parenterally that recently proved effective in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and in empirical antifungal therapy for persistently febrile neutropenic patients.
  • We report our experience with voriconazole in seven children with invasive aspergillosis, i.e., four girls and three boys with a median age of 5 (range 2-13) years affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (3), acute myeloid leukemia (2), refractory anemia with excess of blasts (1), and severe aplastic anemia (1).
  • First-line therapy in all patients was liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) administered at a dosage of 3-5 mg/kg day.
  • The voriconazole treatment was well tolerated.
  • Three patients are alive and well 6, 5, and 4 months after the diagnosis of aspergillosis.
  • Voriconazole appears to be an effective salvage treatment for invasive aspergillosis in pediatric patients, with good responses in patients who recover from neutropenia or are not relapsing.
  • [MeSH-major] Antifungal Agents / administration & dosage. Aspergillosis / drug therapy. Aspergillosis / etiology. Hematologic Neoplasms / therapy. Pyrimidines / administration & dosage. Triazoles / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Amphotericin B / administration & dosage. Anemia, Aplastic / drug therapy. Anemia, Refractory / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Bone Marrow Transplantation / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Male. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Neutropenia / complications. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Voriconazole

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  • (PMID = 13680324.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-4355
  • [Journal-full-title] Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Support Care Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Triazoles; 7XU7A7DROE / Amphotericin B; JFU09I87TR / Voriconazole
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70. Meng HT, Mai WY, Chen ZM, Lou JY, Jin J: [Cytogenetic and clinical analysis of -7/7q- abnormalities in acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2004 Aug;12(4):460-3
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  • [Title] [Cytogenetic and clinical analysis of -7/7q- abnormalities in acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome].
  • The objective was to study the incidence and prognosis significance of -7/7q- abnormalities in acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • Conventional cytogenetic analysis of R-band was used to test -7/7q- chromosome abnormalities in 410 patients with acute leukemia (AL), in 71 cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and in 36 cases of chronic myelogenous leukemia in accelerated phase (CML-AP).
  • The -7/7q- abnormalities could be found in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), incidences of which were 4.70% and 6.25% (P > 0.05) respectively.
  • Monosomy -7 and 7q- abnormality clone was found in one patient with MDS-RAEB, and the number of cells with -7 abnormality was greater than that of 7q- abnormality cells.
  • Four patients acquired CR among 7 patients with ALL after chemotherapy, but 2 out of 13 patients with AML achieved CR while 6 out of 7 patients with MDS transformed into AL.


71. Raj K, Ho A, Creamer JD, du Vivier AW, Salisbury JR, Mufti GJ: Complete response of deep neutrophilic dermatosis associated with myelodysplastic syndrome to 5-azacytidine. Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156(5):1039-41
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  • Cutaneous manifestations of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) may predict disease progression and a poorer prognosis.
  • We describe a patient in whom a deep neutrophilic dermatosis preceded evolution of disease from refractory anaemia to RAEB (refractory anaemia with excess blasts) and resolved completely on treating the disease with 5-azacytidine.
  • We suggest that 5-azacytidine should be considered in the treatment of immune mediated cutaneous manifestations of MDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Azacitidine / therapeutic use. Skin Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / complications. Head. Humans. Male. Neck. Remission Induction. Shoulder

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  • (PMID = 17408390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G84/6222
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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72. Ogata K, Tamura H: Thrombopoietin and myelodysplastic syndromes. Int J Hematol; 2000 Aug;72(2):173-7
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  • Thrombopoietin (TPO), a major cytokine involved in megakaryocystopoiesis/thrombopoiesis, may be effective for the treatment of thrombocytopenia associated with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).
  • We reviewed the available data relating to the therapeutic potential of TPO for MDS and found the following.
  • The endogenous TPO level is elevated in MDS patients, especially in those with refractory anemia (RA).
  • In RA patients, but not in patients with RA with excess blasts (RAEB) or RAEB in transformation (RAEB-t), both the platelet and megakaryocyte counts correlate inversely with the endogenous TPO level.
  • This is consistent with the finding that TPO-induced in vitro megakaryocytopoiesis is not uniformly observed in MDS.
  • Meanwhile, in some patients with RAEB, RAEB-t, or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, blasts have the TPO-R mRNA and probably TPO-R protein.
  • This fact may explain the lack of correlation between the endogenous TPO level and the platelet and megakaryocyte counts in RAEB and RAEB-t and suggests that TPO may induce blast proliferation in some cases.
  • These findings may be of use when designing a clinical trial of TPO for MDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Thrombopoietin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia, Refractory / drug therapy. Animals. Hematopoiesis / drug effects. Humans. Megakaryocytes / cytology. Megakaryocytes / drug effects. Thrombocytopenia / drug therapy. Thrombocytopenia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 11039665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9014-42-0 / Thrombopoietin
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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73. Lü X, Qiu HX, Qiu HR, Zhang SJ, Xu J, Xu W, Wu HX, Li JY, Shao JZ: [A case of myelodysplastic syndrome with aberrant evolution of chromosome 1 and 11 in 6 years of follow-up]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Apr;18(2):469-72
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  • This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between cytogenetic evolution and disease progression in patient with MDS-RAEB.
  • By a long term (6 years) follow-up of a patient with MDS-RAEB, peripheral blood cell count, bone marrow cell morphology and conventional cytogenetics were monitored regularly.
  • The results indicated that this patient was failed with conventional chemotherapy of AML, but had response to ATRA and 6-MP in the 72 months follow-up.
  • At initial diagnosis, the cytogenetics analysis showed normal karyotype, whereas 46, XY, 2q+[1]/46, XY[19] was found at 48 months, 46, XY, dup(1q)[3]/46, XY[7] at 56 months, and dup (1) as well as der (11) with complex karyotype at 68 months, which was accompanied by progressive decrease of platelet count.


74. Stavroyianni N, Yataganas X, Abazis D, Pangalos C, Meletis J: Acute promyelocytic leukemia relapsing into FAB-M2 acute myeloid leukemia with trisomy 8. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2000 Feb;117(1):82-3
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  • [Title] Acute promyelocytic leukemia relapsing into FAB-M2 acute myeloid leukemia with trisomy 8.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia was diagnosed in a 48-year-old man; the karyotype was normal, whereas reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis identified PML/RAR alpha chimeric transcripts of the bcr3 type.
  • Rather unexpectedly, the patient did not respond to alltrans retinoic acid administration; he attained complete remission with conventional chemotherapy and became PML/RAR alpha negative.
  • Bone marrow examination was compatible with myelodysplasia of the RAEB type; the karyotype was normal.
  • Then, after 10 months, he developed overt acute myeloid leukemia with PML/RAR alpha negative, French-American-British M2 blasts; karyotypic analysis revealed mosaicism for trisomy 8.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / pathology. Trisomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 10700873.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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75. Kokhno AV, Parovichnikova EN, Mikhaĭlova EA, Ustinova EN, Kaplanskaia IB, Dvirnyk VN, Ol'shanskaia IuV, Domracheva EV, Savchenko VG: [Efficiency of cyclosporin A therapy in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome]. Ter Arkh; 2010;82(8):48-53
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  • [Title] [Efficiency of cyclosporin A therapy in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome].
  • AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of cyclosporin A (CsA) in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and to identify determinants of a response to this therapy.
  • Thirty-two patients were given CsA as first-line therapy; 20 patients took the agent after prior therapy.
  • RESULTS: The efficacy of CsA used as first- and second-line therapy was 56 and 55%, respectively; complete remissions were achieved in 19 and 20% of cases.
  • Baseline refractory anemia (RA) transformed to RA with excess blasts (RAEB) in 31% of cases; baseline RAEB did to acute myeloid leukemia in 34%.
  • Overall survival was significantly associated with bone marrow (BM) blast cell percentage (< 5% or > 5%; p = 0.0009), BM cellularity (hypoplasia and focal hypoplasia of hematopoiesis or BM hyperplasia; p = 0.03), focal polyclonal lymphoid infiltration in the BM (p = 0.01) and karyotype anomalies (low, moderate, and high risks; p = 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: CsA is the drug of choice in treating patients with MDS, including RA, RA with ringed sideroblasts, refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, with hypoplasia of hematopoiesis, with nodular polyclonal lymphoid infiltration in the BM, a normal karyotype or changes corresponding to a low or moderate IPSS risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Marrow / pathology. Chromosome Aberrations. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20873246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-3660
  • [Journal-full-title] Terapevticheskiĭ arkhiv
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ter. Arkh.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine
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76. Voso MT, Santini V, Finelli C, Musto P, Pogliani E, Angelucci E, Fioritoni G, Alimena G, Maurillo L, Cortelezzi A, Buccisano F, Gobbi M, Borin L, Di Tucci A, Zini G, Petti MC, Martinelli G, Fabiani E, Fazi P, Vignetti M, Piciocchi A, Liso V, Amadori S, Leone G: Valproic acid at therapeutic plasma levels may increase 5-azacytidine efficacy in higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Aug 1;15(15):5002-7
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  • [Title] Valproic acid at therapeutic plasma levels may increase 5-azacytidine efficacy in higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes.
  • We conducted a phase II multicenter study on the combination of the DNA-methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) in patients with higher risk MDS.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We enrolled 62 patients with MDS (refractory anemia with excess blasts, 39 patients; refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation, 19 patients; and chronic myelomanocytic leukemia (CMML), 4 patients) and an International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) rating of Intermediate-2 (42 patients) or high (20 patients).
  • At a median follow-up of 12 months (range, 0.7-21.0), the disease progressed in 20 patients, with 21% cumulative incidence of progression.
  • Of 26 patients who completed eight cycles, 30.7% obtained complete or partial remission, 15.4% had a major hematologic improvement, whereas 38.5% showed stable disease.
  • Drug-related toxicity was mild.
  • Analysis of polymorphisms important for the metabolism of the drugs used in the trial showed that carriers of the CYP2C19*2 variant of cytochrome P450 required higher VPA doses to achieve the target VPA plasma concentration of 50 microg/mL on day 1 of 5-AZA treatment (P = 0.0021).
  • CONCLUSION: Our data show that the 5-AZA/VPA combination is active and safe in patients with MDS with a poor prognosis.
  • Achievement of VPA therapeutic levels may indeed increase 5-AZA efficacy.
  • [MeSH-major] Azacitidine / therapeutic use. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Methyltransferases / antagonists & inhibitors. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Valproic Acid / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases / genetics. Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19. DNA Methylation / genetics. DNA Methylation / physiology. Drug Therapy, Combination. Epigenesis, Genetic / genetics. Epigenesis, Genetic / physiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Prognosis


77. Mori T, Aisa Y, Yokoyama A, Nakazato T, Yamazaki R, Shimizu T, Mihara A, Kato J, Watanabe R, Takayama N, Ikeda Y, Okamoto S: Total body irradiation and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-combined high-dose cytarabine as a conditioning regimen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for advanced myelodysplastic syndrome: a single-institute experience. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2007 Feb;39(4):217-21
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  • We evaluated 22 patients with advanced MDS, including refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB; n=10), RAEB in transformation (n=2), acute myelogenous leukemia transformed from MDS (n=6) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (n=4).
  • The conditioning regimen consisted of 12 Gy of TBI and high-dose cytarabine (3 g/m(2)) every 12 h for 4 days, and the cytarabine was combined with continuous administration of G-CSF.
  • Three patients experienced disease relapse, two of whom died of disease progression.
  • Of 22 patients, 16 are currently alive and disease-free.
  • The 5-year estimated overall survival, disease-free survival, relapse and non-relapse mortality rates are 76.7, 72.2, 16.6 and 14.1%, respectively.
  • These results suggest that G-CSF-combined high-dose cytarabine could be a promising component of the conditioning regimen of allogeneic HSCT for advanced MDS, providing a low incidence of both relapse and treatment-related mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Myeloablative Agonists / adverse effects. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Transplantation Conditioning / methods. Whole-Body Irradiation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Transplantation, Homologous / methods


78. Liu L, Shu X, Hu NP: [Effect of TCM syndrome-typing based therapy combined with cyclosporin in treating myelodysplastic syndrome]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;26(10):933-5
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  • [Title] [Effect of TCM syndrome-typing based therapy combined with cyclosporin in treating myelodysplastic syndrome].
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the therapeutic effect of TCM syndrome-typing based therapy (TCM-STBT) combined with cyclosporin on myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and investigate the correlation of efficacy with TCM syndrome type and MDS type.
  • METHODS: Fifty-eight MDS patients were classified into refractory anemia (RA) and RA with excess blast (RAEB) by FAB standard and randomly divided into the cyclosporin group (the treated group) and the alltransretinoic acid group (the control group), and both were subjected to STBT additionally.
  • The therapeutic effect and changes of peripheral hemogram were observed and compared.
  • Hemoglobin level, white blood cell and blood platelet count increased significantly in the treated group after treatment (P < 0.05), while only hemoglobin level rose obviously in the control group (P < 0.05).
  • The total effective rate and markedly effective rate in patients with qi-blood deficiency syndrome type were higher than those with other syndrome types.
  • CONCLUSION: TCM-STBT combined with cyclosporin has good efficacy in treating MDS and there is well correlation between the therapeutic efficacy and type of TCM syndrome or of MDS, indicating the STBT is necessory for TCM therapy.

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  • (PMID = 17121049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1003-5370
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi = Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine
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79. Weihrauch MR, Staib P, Seiberlich B, Hoffmann M, Diehl V, Tesch H: Phase I/II clinical study of topotecan and cytarabine in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma; 2004 Apr;45(4):699-704
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  • [Title] Phase I/II clinical study of topotecan and cytarabine in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Topotecan, a topoisomerase-I inhibitor is an active drug in the treatment of AML and MDS.
  • To evaluate its toxicity and efficacy in a combination regimen with cytarabine, we conducted a clinical phase I/II trial in patients with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or relapsed or newly diagnosed MDS RAEB, RAEB-t or CMML.
  • The median observation time was 131 weeks (range: 36-196 weeks).
  • In 1 patient, the dose of TA had to be reduced and in 1 patient, there was a treatment delay for the second cycle, both because of hematologic toxicity.
  • None of the patients died due to any treatment-related toxicities, but 2 patients (10%) died within 1 month due to disease progression.
  • A partial remission was reported in 8 patients (38%), no change of disease in 2 patients (10%) and progressive disease in 4 patients (19%).
  • The time to progression for patients of 60 years and older (n = 10) was 16 weeks (range 2-49 weeks) and the survival was 32 weeks (range 2-119 weeks).
  • TA is a feasible and efficacious chemotherapeutic combination for the treatment of MDS RAEB, RAEB-t, CMML and AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Topotecan / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / toxicity. Blood Cell Count. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Hemoglobinometry. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction / methods. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


80. Invernizzi R, Pecci A, Travaglino E, Gobbi PG, Malabarba L, Ramajoli I, Ascari E: Clinical and biological effects of treatment with amifostine in myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol; 2002 Jul;118(1):246-50
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  • [Title] Clinical and biological effects of treatment with amifostine in myelodysplastic syndromes.
  • /three times a week for three consecutive weeks).
  • Significant reduction of the marrow blasts was observed in one case of refractory anaemia with excess of blasts.
  • Our findings show fairly good clinical and biological response to amifostine in MDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Amifostine / therapeutic use. Antioxidants / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apoptosis / drug effects. Bone Marrow Cells / drug effects. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neutrophils / pathology. Platelet Count. Reticulocytes / pathology. Treatment Outcome


81. Thompson JA, Gilliland DG, Prchal JT, Bennett JM, Larholt K, Nelson RA, Rose EH, Dugan MH: Effect of recombinant human erythropoietin combined with granulocyte/ macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. GM/EPO MDS Study Group. Blood; 2000 Feb 15;95(4):1175-9
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  • [Title] Effect of recombinant human erythropoietin combined with granulocyte/ macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. GM/EPO MDS Study Group.
  • This randomized, placebo-controlled trial was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of therapy with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and erythropoietin (epoetin alfa) in anemic, neutropenic patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • Sixty-six patients were enrolled according to the following French-American-British classification: refractory anemia (20), refractory anemia with excess blasts (35), refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (9), and refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (2).
  • Patients were stratified by their serum erythropoietin levels (less than or equal to 500 mU/mL, n = 37; greater than 500 mU/mL, n = 29) and randomized, in a 2:1 ratio, to either GM-CSF (0.3-5.0 microg/kg.d) + epoetin alfa (150 IU/kg 3 times/wk) or GM-CSF (0.3-5.0 microg/kg.d) + placebo (3 times/wk).
  • The mean neutrophil count rose from 948 to 3831 during treatment with GM-CSF +/- epoetin alfa.
  • Treatment was well tolerated in most patients, though 10 withdrew from the study for reasons related predominantly to GM-CSF toxicity. (Blood.
  • [MeSH-major] Erythropoietin / therapeutic use. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia. Blood Transfusion. Double-Blind Method. Drug Therapy, Combination. Epoetin Alfa. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neutropenia. Placebos. Recombinant Proteins


82. Hamaki T, Kami M, Kim SW, Onishi Y, Kishi Y, Murashige N, Hori A, Kojima R, Sakiyama M, Imataki O, Heike Y, Tanosaki R, Masuo S, Miyakoshi S, Taniguchi S, Tobinai K, Takaue Y: Reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor in patients with myeloid malignancies. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2004 May;33(9):891-900
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  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with a reduced-intensity regimen (RIST) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
  • The diagnoses included AML (n=14), leukemia evolving from MDS (n=10), and MDS (refractory anemia with excess blasts n=6, refractory anemia n=6).
  • A total of 17 patients developed grade II-IV acute GVHD, and 27 developed chronic GVHD.
  • A total of 12 patients died (four disease progression, six transplantation-related complications, and two others).
  • Estimated 1-year disease-free survival (DFS) in low- and high-risk groups was 85 and 64%, respectively.
  • We conclude that RIST can be performed safely in elderly patients with myeloid malignancies, and has therapeutic potential for those who fail conventional chemotherapy.
  • In view of the significant association between GVHD or ATG and DFS, defined management of GVHD following RIST should become a major target of clinical research.
  • [MeSH-major] HLA Antigens / chemistry. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy. Transplantation, Homologous / methods. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD3 / chemistry. Antilymphocyte Serum / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / pharmacology. Busulfan / pharmacology. Cladribine / pharmacology. Disease-Free Survival. Feasibility Studies. Female. Graft vs Host Disease / prevention & control. Graft vs Leukemia Effect. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism. Histocompatibility Testing. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Time Factors. Transplantation Chimera. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15048142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antilymphocyte Serum; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / HLA Antigens; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 47M74X9YT5 / Cladribine; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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83. Abe Y, Muta K, Hirase N, Choi I, Matsushima T, Hara K, Taguchi F, Suematsu E, Shibata K, Uike N, Nishimura J, Nawata H: [Vitamin K2 therapy for myelodysplastic syndrome]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2002 Feb;43(2):117-21
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  • [Title] [Vitamin K2 therapy for myelodysplastic syndrome].
  • We administered a vitamin K2 analog, menatetrenone, at 45 mg daily to 23 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): 13 patients with RA, 2 with RARS, 6 with RAEB and 2 with RAEB-T.
  • Six of the RA patients showed improvement of anemia (GR, 3 patients; PR, 3 patients).
  • RA patients who did not have a hypocellular bone marrow and were transfusion-independent tended to be responsive to vitamin K2 therapy in combination with vitamin D3 or anabolic steroids.
  • No adverse effect of vitamin K2 was observed, and the time required to obtain the hematological response was short, being 3 months on average.
  • We believe that vitamin K2 therapy has potential as a treatment for patients with MDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Vitamin K 2 / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11925874.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11032-49-8 / Vitamin K 2
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84. Kakihana K, Mizuchi D, Yamaguchi M, Sakashita C, Fukuda T, Yamamoto K, Miki T, Murakami N, Miura O: [Late appearance of Philadelphia chromosome with the p190 BCR/ABL chimeric transcript in acute myelogenous leukemia progressing from myelodysplastic syndrome]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2003 Apr;44(4):242-8
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  • [Title] [Late appearance of Philadelphia chromosome with the p190 BCR/ABL chimeric transcript in acute myelogenous leukemia progressing from myelodysplastic syndrome].
  • We report a late appearance of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) with the p190 BCR/ABL chimeric transcript in a 69-year-old patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) that had evolved from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
  • In July 1997, the patient was found to have pancytopenia caused by refractory anemia with excess of blasts, which evolved into AML in 4 months.
  • The patient achieved a complete remission after combination chemotherapy.
  • However, his leukemia relapsed in November 1999, with the appearance of leukemic cells positive for CD7, CD13, CD34, and HLA-DR with a 46, XY, add (18) (p11) karyotype.
  • The patient failed to achieve the second remission after several courses of intensive chemotherapy.
  • The appearance of the Ph chromosome in the course of MDS transforming to AML is very rare and may be correlated to the disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / complications. Philadelphia Chromosome. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics. Transcription, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Disease Progression. Humans. Male


85. Ebihara Y, Manabe A, Tsuruta T, Ishikawa K, Hasegawa D, Ohtsuka Y, Kawasaki H, Ogami K, Wada Y, Kanda T, Tsuji K: The effect of donor leukocyte infusion on refractory pure red blood cell aplasia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome developing from Kostmann syndrome. Int J Hematol; 2007 Dec;86(5):446-50
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  • [Title] The effect of donor leukocyte infusion on refractory pure red blood cell aplasia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome developing from Kostmann syndrome.
  • We describe the clinical course of a patient who experienced refractory pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) after undergoing HLA-matched allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (allo-PBSCT) for refractory anemia with an excess of blasts in transformation that had evolved from Kostmann syndrome.
  • The treatment for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) developing from Kostmann syndrome has not been standardized.
  • We treated this patient with allo-PBSCT using a regimen combining high-dose cytosine arabinoside with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, in addition to total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide without preceding intensive chemotherapy.
  • Erythroid engraftment was not evident, however, and the patient was given a diagnosis of PRCA.
  • Regimen-related toxicity and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were limited.
  • The PRCA did not respond to various therapies, including the discontinuation of immunosuppressants for the induction of chronic GVHD, human recombinant erythropoietin, immunosuppressive treatment with steroids, cyclosporin A, and human anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab).
  • The patient received transfusions 48 times until the resolution of his anemia by donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) at 25 months after PBSCT.
  • The results indicate that the conditioning regimen we describe seems safe and effective for those who have MDS/AML and that DLI might be a valuable approach for refractory PRCA after ABO-incompatible SCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukocyte Transfusion. Living Donors. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy. Myelopoiesis. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure / therapy


86. Xu LP, Huang XJ, Liu KY, Chen H, Liu DH, Han W, Chen YH, Gao ZY, Lu J, Wang JZ, Lu DP: [Allogenic stem cell transplantation from genotypically HLA-identical siblings for 30 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Aug;27(8):518-21
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  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the indication and optimum time for treating myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with HLA identical sibling grafts.
  • On HSCT, 4 patients had refractory anemia (RA) , 2 RA with ringed sideroblasts (RARS) , 7 RA with excess blasts(RAEB) , 14 RAEB in transformation (RAEB-t) , 3 already progressed to secondary AML.
  • RESULTS: The 3-year expected overall survival (OS) was 63.61%, 3-year expected disease-free survival ( DFS) 61.41%, and relapse rate 5.26%; OS for RA/ RAS, RAEB and RAEB-t/AML subgroup was 83.33%, 34.29% and 66.67% , respectively, and all had no statistic difference among them.
  • 3-year expected OS in no aGVHD,grade I - II aGVHD and grade III - IV aGVHD group was 57.75% , 100% and 0% , respectively (P = 0.009).
  • Pre-HSCT chemotherapy, disease subtype and cGVHD all had no correlation with LFS or OS (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: For young MDS patients having HLA-identical sibling donors, HSCT should be the first line therapy and performed as soon as possible.


87. Yang SS, Chau T, Dai MS, Lin SH: Steroid-induced tumor lysis syndrome in a patient with preleukemia. Clin Nephrol; 2003 Mar;59(3):201-5
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  • Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a well recognized complication of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for leukemia, lymphoma as well as rapidly growing malignancies.
  • Less described is the occurrence of TLS following steroid therapy alone.
  • Herein, we report on a 32-year-old male with myelodysplastic syndrome, characterized by refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation, who developed acute oliguric renal failure 12 hours after methylprednisolone 1.0 g for presumed autoimmune thrombocytopenia.
  • Prophylactic management prior to the use of steroid therapy for a variety of purposes is absolutely required in high-risk patients.

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  • (PMID = 12653264.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0430
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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88. Suzuki S, Hashino S, Yoshida S, Chiba K, Izumiyama K, Kurosawa M, Musashi M, Asaka M: del11(p11-13) with overexpression of Wilms' tumor gene during leukemic transformation of myelodysplastic syndrome. Ann Hematol; 2002 Oct;81(10):605-8
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  • We report a case of leukemic transformation from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with a sole chromosome abnormality of del11(p11-13).
  • The patient had been diagnosed as having MDS (refractory anemia with excess of blast cells, RAEB) in May 1998.
  • At that time, cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow cells showed a normal karyotype.
  • The patient received sequential chemotherapy with low-dose cytosine arabinoside (AraC) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF).
  • Complete remission was obtained with this treatment, but the disease gradually progressed after June 1999.
  • Cytogenetical analysis showed del11(p11-13) in 6 of 40 cells analyzed at that time, and the disease had evoluted to overt leukemia in December 1999 with a gradual increase in the abnormal clone.
  • Furthermore, mRNA of the WT1 gene located at chromosome 11p13 was overexpressed during leukemic transformation, whereas it was not detected at the time of the initial diagnosis of MDS (RAEB) in May 1998.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Genes, Wilms Tumor. Leukemia / genetics. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Blast Crisis / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism


89. Millard TP, Aitchison R, Wilkinson JD: Aleukaemic leukaemia cutis presenting as a benign-appearing eruption. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2003 Mar;28(2):148-50
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  • [Title] Aleukaemic leukaemia cutis presenting as a benign-appearing eruption.
  • A 68-year-old Caucasian male presented with a 5-week history of a widespread pruritic papular eruption.
  • Histology from a papule on the left shoulder showed a dense dermal infiltrate of large mononuclear cells which were positive for leucocyte common antigen, KP1 and PGM1, with an MIB-1 proliferating fraction of 40%, diagnostic of acute monocytic (M5) leukaemia cutis.
  • Full blood count revealed pancytopaenia but no blasts.
  • Bone marrow aspirate showed reduced red cell precursors and 10% blasts, consistent with myelodysplastic syndrome (refractory anaemia with excess blasts).
  • The patient was managed with a 3 unit transfusion of packed red cells, after which his skin eruption resolved within 6 weeks and his peripheral blood counts returned to normal.
  • No chemotherapy was administered.
  • In conclusion, leukaemia can present in the skin, the eruption may be nonspecific and it may precede systemic involvement by either myelodysplastic syndrome or acute leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12653700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0307-6938
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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90. Oertel J, Oertel B, Dörken B: Detection of small numbers of cells characteristic for haematological disorders in peripheral blood (the deep diff). Clin Lab Haematol; 2002 Apr;24(2):73-80
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  • [Title] Detection of small numbers of cells characteristic for haematological disorders in peripheral blood (the deep diff).
  • This approach (the 'deep diff') enabled the detection of small numbers of diagnostically significant cells in a majority of patients.
  • We found ringed sideroblasts in 5/7 patients with sideroblastic anaemia and megaloblasts in 9/10 patients with megaloblastic anaemia.
  • The deep diff was nondiagnostic in 5/6 patients with hairy cell leukaemia and in 9/10 patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma.
  • Increased counts of leukaemic cells were found in 12/13 patients with acute leukaemia with < 3% blasts in the conventional white cell differential.
  • Increased blasts were also observed in six patients with refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB).
  • Decreased blasts were found in five patients with aplastic anaemia and in nine patients with bone marrow aplasia after intensive chemotherapy.
  • We conclude that the 'deep diff', augmented by immunocytochemistry, may be useful in the diagnosis of haematological disorders.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia / blood. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / blood. Centrifugation. Coloring Agents. Eosine Yellowish-(YS). Humans. Leukemia / blood. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / blood. Methylene Blue. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Retrospective Studies. Staining and Labeling / methods. Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia / blood

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  • (PMID = 11985551.001).
  • [ISSN] 0141-9854
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and laboratory haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lab Haematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / May-Grunwald Giemsa; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
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91. Bibawi S, Abi-Said D, Fayad L, Anderlini P, Ueno NT, Mehra R, Khouri I, Giralt S, Gajewski J, Donato M, Claxton D, Braunschweig I, van Besien K, Andreeff M, Andersson BS, Estey EH, Champlin R, Przepiorka D: Thiotepa, busulfan, and cyclophosphamide as a preparative regimen for allogeneic transplantation for advanced myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia. Am J Hematol; 2001 Aug;67(4):227-33
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  • [Title] Thiotepa, busulfan, and cyclophosphamide as a preparative regimen for allogeneic transplantation for advanced myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • Sixty-two adults underwent marrow or blood stem cell transplantation from an HLA-matched related donor using high-dose thiotepa, busulfan, and cyclophosphamide (TBC) as the preparative regimen for treatment of advanced myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (refractory anemia with excess blasts with or without transformation) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) past first remission.
  • A grade 3-4 regimen-related toxicity occurred in eight (13%) patients, and a diagnosis of MDS was the only independent risk factor for grade 3-4 regimen-related toxicity (hazard ratio 9.25, P = 0.01).
  • Day-100 treatment-related mortality (TRM) was 19%.
  • Poor-prognosis cytogenetics increased the risk of day-100 TRM (hazard ratio 11.4, P = 0.003), and use of tacrolimus for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis reduced the risk of day-100 TRM (hazard ratio 0.13, P = 0.027).
  • Refractoriness to conventional induction chemotherapy prior to transplantation was an independent risk factor for relapse (hazard ratio 10.8, P = 0.02).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy. Transplantation Conditioning. Transplantation, Homologous / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / therapy. Bone Marrow Transplantation / adverse effects. Bone Marrow Transplantation / mortality. Bone Marrow Transplantation / standards. Busulfan / administration & dosage. Busulfan / toxicity. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / toxicity. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / mortality. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / standards. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Immunosuppressive Agents / toxicity. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Thiotepa / toxicity. Treatment Outcome


92. Honda M, Yamada Y, Tomonaga M, Ichinose H, Kamihira S: Correlation of urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, and clinical features of hematological disorders: a pilot study. Leuk Res; 2000 Jun;24(6):461-8
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  • [Title] Correlation of urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, and clinical features of hematological disorders: a pilot study.
  • In the present study, urinary 8-OHdG was examined in 44 patients with hematological disorders (13 malignant lymphoma, 11 adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), 10 acute leukemia, and 10 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
  • The pre-therapy level of urinary 8-OHdG in ATL patients was significantly elevated compared with normal controls (25.3+/-12.9 vs. 11.9+/-7.3 ng/mg, P<0.05).
  • Although patients with lymphoma, acute leukemia and MDS also showed higher urinary 8-OHdG levels than normal controls, the differences were not significant.
  • However, two patients with refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-t) having extreme monocytosis and neutrophilia showed exceptionally high urinary 8-OHdG levels (161.0 and 218.9 ng/mg).
  • Urinary 8-OHdG excretion increased transiently with chemotherapy, and this fluctuation was significant irrespective of the disorder (P<0.05).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oxidative Stress. Pilot Projects

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  • (PMID = 10781678.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 88847-89-6 / 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine; G9481N71RO / Deoxyguanosine
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93. Novitzky N: Myelodysplastic syndromes in children. A critical review of the clinical manifestations and management. Am J Hematol; 2000 Apr;63(4):212-22
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  • [Title] Myelodysplastic syndromes in children. A critical review of the clinical manifestations and management.
  • Consequently, to outline the natural history of the disease better we have retrospectively analysed case reports and series published in English between 1982 and 1996.
  • This study also included children with juvenile chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (JCML) and monosomy 7 (Mo7).
  • Constitutional alterations were described in 68 (20%) where refractory anemia (RA) and RA with excess of blasts (RAEB) predominated and were associated with a significantly longer survival.
  • Amid those with Mo7, the clinical and laboratory characteristics as well as survival, closely followed their FAB type.
  • Of the treatment options described, survival was significantly higher in those who underwent bone marrow transplant (BMT) (46.9%; P = 0.00021).
  • Among children with JMML (CMML/JCML) not receiving a BMT, time to death was shortest in those best described as JCML (absence of constitutional and karyotypic derangement, thrombocytopenia and elevated Hb F).
  • Finally, BMT remains the treatment of choice for those with primary MDS, as intensive chemotherapy is no better than supportive measures.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 10706766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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94. Dixit A, Chatterjee T, Mishra P, Choudhary DR, Mahapatra M, Saxena R, Choudhry VP: Cyclosporin A in myelodysplastic syndrome: a preliminary report. Ann Hematol; 2005 Sep;84(9):565-8
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  • Therapeutic approaches are not well established in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
  • We evaluated response to cyclosporin A (CyA) in 19 cases with MDS who were enrolled for the study [13 refractory anemia (RA), 5 refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB), and 1 refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS)].
  • Fifteen patients were transfusion dependent and the rest were not transfusion dependent but with a hemoglobin range of 6.4-8.8 g% with a mean of 7.4 g%.
  • Four cases of RA showed minor response and two cases of RA did not respond to CyA therapy.
  • A minor response was also seen in one RAEB and one RARS case, while one RAEB case that initially showed a major response relapsed on therapy.
  • The first effect of therapy was evident after a mean period of 2.5 months.
  • One case developed renal failure on therapy and later died of septicemia.
  • CyA could be an effective mode of therapy in patients with MDS especially those having RA.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclosporine / administration & dosage. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anemia, Refractory / drug therapy. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Anemia, Sideroblastic / drug therapy. Bone Marrow / pathology. Female. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Male. Middle Aged. Platelet Count. Renal Insufficiency / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome


95. Jackson G, Taylor P, Smith GM, Marcus R, Smith A, Chu P, Littlewood TJ, Duncombe A, Hutchinson M, Mehta AB, Johnson SA, Carey P, MacKie MJ, Ganly PS, Turner GE, Deane M, Schey S, Brookes J, Tollerfield SM, Wilson MP: A multicentre, open, non-comparative phase II study of a combination of fludarabine phosphate, cytarabine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukaemia and de novo refractory anaemia with excess of blasts in transformation. Br J Haematol; 2001 Jan;112(1):127-37
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  • [Title] A multicentre, open, non-comparative phase II study of a combination of fludarabine phosphate, cytarabine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukaemia and de novo refractory anaemia with excess of blasts in transformation.
  • The primary objective of this study was to determine the complete remission (CR) rate achieved with the FLAG (fludarabine phosphate, cytarabine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) regimen in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or de novo refractory anaemia with excess of blasts in transformation (RAEB-t).
  • Induction treatment consisted of between one and two courses of FLAG.
  • Patients achieving CR received between one and two courses of consolidation treatment.
  • CR rates were: 17 out of 21 (81%) in late relapse AML (Group 1), 13 out of 44 (30%) in early relapse/refractory AML (Group 2), and 10 out of 18 (56%) in de novo RAEB-t (Group 3).
  • Median survival times were 1.4 years, 3 months and 1.6 years in Groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively.
  • The FLAG regimen offers a very effective alternative treatment for CR induction in poor prognosis adult patients with either relapsed or refractory AML or de novo RAEB-t.
  • FLAG delivers high-dose treatment without increasing overall toxicity, an approach which is of particular value in older patients, who constitute the majority in these diseases.
  • It is therefore an important advance in developing new treatment options for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects. Female. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / adverse effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Recurrence. Vidarabine / administration & dosage. Vidarabine / adverse effects. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 11167793.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; FLAG protocol
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96. Zhou FL, Zhang WG, Cao XM, Chen YX, He AL, Liu J, Zhao WH, Ma XR, Chen G: [Retrospective observation of curative effects on MDS refractory anemia with combination of all-trans retinoic acid, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and androgen]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Oct;13(5):861-6
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  • [Title] [Retrospective observation of curative effects on MDS refractory anemia with combination of all-trans retinoic acid, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and androgen].
  • This study was aimed to examine whether a combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and androgen possesses the therapeutic value for the MDS-refractory anemia (MDS-RA), and to analyze the mechanisms in detail.
  • The remaining 33 cases (group B) were provided with vitamin supplementation, chalybeate drugs, and one or two of the combination.
  • The further treatment for 16 out of 62 patients (25.81%), 13 failures (10 deaths, 2 RAEB and 1 RAEB-T) and 3 transformations (M(2), M(3), M(5)) with a median survival interval of 26.25 months, were observed and interrupted for some reasons.
  • Furthermore, the disease progression was observed in 12 out of 33 patients (36.36%) with a median survival interval of 16 months, 9 failures (including 6 deaths, 2 RAEB and 1 RAEB-T) and 3 transformations (M(2), M(3), M(4)).
  • The following requirements, if were met, would be significant for prognosis: the combination regiment, no transformation, children, no complication, female, 90-120 g/L of hemoglobin concentration, normal cellular bone marrow and uni-cytopenias (P < 0.05).
  • Moreover, Cox regression showed that therapy, transformation and age are all the independent factors (P < 0.05).
  • It is concluded that the combination of above mentioned 3 drugs may be effective and safe treatment for the patients with MDS-RA.
  • Its relevant mechanisms can be involved in the combination, that elicits a wide range of pharmacological effects, such as differentiation, anti-tumor-promotion, anti-apoptosis, anti-angiogenesis, anti-cachexia and immunoregulation.


97. Reibel F, Debord C, Bouhadiba S, Chaïbi P, Bilhou-Nabera C, Le Garff M, Gouin-Thibault I, Siguret V: [Elderly patients with myelodysplastic syndrome with del 5q receiving lenalidomide: two case reports with poor prognosis]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris); 2010 Mar-Apr;68(2):248-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Patients âgés atteints de syndrome myélodysplasique avec anomalie 5q- traités par lénalidomide : à propos de deux observations avec évolution défavorable.
  • We report two cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with del(5q) isolated cytogenetic abnormality in elderly patients: AREB-1 in Patient 1, "5q syndrome" in Patient 2.
  • A first line of treatment including hematopoietic growth factors (darbepoetin alone or associated with G-CSF) failed after several months and a treatment with lenalidomide was initiated in both cases.
  • The treatment was poorly tolerated (myelosuppression) in Patient 1 without an improvement of the quality of life; a progression of the disease was observed with an increase of the bone marrow blastosis and a new acquired karyotypic abnormality (t13;17), leading to the prescription of 5-azacytidine.
  • The patient's prognosis suddenly worsened with the occurrence of a blood blastosis (10%): 5-azacytidine was thus initiated.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Sequence Deletion. Thalidomide / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Fatal Outcome. Female. Hemoglobins / metabolism. Humans. Karyotyping. Treatment Failure


98. Zwierzina H, Suciu S, Loeffler-Ragg J, Neuwirtova R, Fenaux P, Beksac M, Harousseau J, Nuessler V, Cermak J, Solbu G, Willemze R, de Witte T, Amadori S, EORTC Leukemia Cooperative Group: Low-dose cytosine arabinoside (LD-AraC) vs LD-AraC plus granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor vs LD-AraC plus Interleukin-3 for myelodysplastic syndrome patients with a high risk of developing acute leukemia: final results of a randomized phase III study (06903) of the EORTC Leukemia Cooperative Group. Leukemia; 2005 Nov;19(11):1929-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Low-dose cytosine arabinoside (LD-AraC) vs LD-AraC plus granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor vs LD-AraC plus Interleukin-3 for myelodysplastic syndrome patients with a high risk of developing acute leukemia: final results of a randomized phase III study (06903) of the EORTC Leukemia Cooperative Group.
  • In this randomized phase III study of the EORTC Leukemia Cooperative Group, patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with 10-30% bone marrow blasts and hematopoietic failure were treated with low-dose cytosine arabinoside (LD-AraC) (2 x 10 mg/m2/day subcutaneously (s.c.) days 1-14) either alone or in combination with rhGM-CSF or interleukin-3 (IL-3) both given s.c. at a dose of 150 microg/day from day 8 to 21.
  • A total of 180 evaluable patients with a median age of 65 years and refractory anemia with an excess of blasts (RAEB, n = 107) or RAEB in transformation (RAEBt, n = 73) were randomized.
  • There were no differences among the three treatment regimens with respect to numbers of courses applied or treatment delays.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia / prevention & control. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects. Female. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / adverse effects. Humans. Injections, Subcutaneous. Interleukin-3 / administration & dosage. Interleukin-3 / adverse effects. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16151466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10-CA11488-20; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10-CA11488-35
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-3; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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99. Chybicka A, Wójcik D, Pietras W, Bogusławska-Jaworska J, Kolecki P, Balcerska A, Balwierz W, Bubała H, Eliasinska A, Kowalczyk J, Jackowska T, Klus K, Krenke K, Kurylak A, Malinowska I, Matysiak M, Stefańska K, Stefaniak MJ, Rokicka-Milewska R, Wiśniewska-Slusarz H, Sońta-Jakimczyk D, Wysocki M, Polish Paediatric Leukaemia /Lymphoma Study Group: [Results of the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)obtained by the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia /Lymphoma Study Group]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2000;4(1 Suppl 2):85-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Results of the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)obtained by the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia /Lymphoma Study Group].
  • Sixty children with MDS treated in six centres of the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group in the period 1975-1999 were included in the study.
  • In 20 children RAEB-T, in 13 RA, in 21 RAEB and in 6 CMML were diagnosed.
  • Our own and literature data showed that BMT is the best therapy for children with MDS.
  • We need a new comprehensive protocol for the diagnosis and treatment of children with MDS in Poland.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Poland. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


100. Hofmann WK, Kell WJ, Fenaux P, Castaigne S, Ganser A, Chomienne C, Burnett R, Kowal C, Hoelzer D, Burnett AK: Oral 9-cis retinoic acid (Alitretinoin) in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes: results from a pilot study. Leukemia; 2000 Sep;14(9):1583-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oral 9-cis retinoic acid (Alitretinoin) in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes: results from a pilot study.
  • A multicenter phase II study was initiated to investigate the efficacy, toxicity and tolerability of an oral regimen of 9-cis retinoic acid (9CRA) as a differentiation-inducing agent stimulating both retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoic X receptor (RXR).
  • The MDS subtypes were distributed as follows: 14 refractory anaemia (RA), four refractory anaemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS), and 12 refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB).
  • None of these had previously received treatment for MDS other than supportive therapy.
  • 9CRA (Alitretinoin capsules, kindly provided by Allergan-Ligand Retinoid Therapeutics) was given daily at 60 mg/m2 p.o. for 1 week, followed by an intra-patient escalation to 100 mg/m2 during the second week, up to a maximum of 140 mg/m2.
  • The planned treatment duration was 48 weeks.
  • Four (16%), two with RA, two with RAEB, had minor responses resulting in decreased transfusion requirements or increased neutrophils.
  • In conclusion, although modest responses were noted in this study, the treatment tolerability was suboptimal.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Transfusion. Female. Hematopoiesis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Treatment Outcome






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