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1. Biswas J, Madhavan HN, George AE, Kumarasamy N, Solomon S: Ocular lesions associated with HIV infection in India: a series of 100 consecutive patients evaluated at a referral center. Am J Ophthalmol; 2000 Jan;129(1):9-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis (67%) and oropharyngeal candidiasis (66%) were the most commonly associated systemic infections.
  • The prevalence of CMV retinitis and HIV retinopathy is lower in India, and there have been no cases of ocular Kaposi sarcoma.
  • The nonavailability and cost of therapy influenced the visual prognosis in these patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / economics. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Adolescent. Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / economics. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. India / epidemiology. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Referral and Consultation. Risk Factors


2. Bryant AE, Genc M, Hurtado RM, Chen KT: Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma in pregnancy. Am J Perinatol; 2004 Aug;21(6):355-63
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  • [Title] Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma in pregnancy.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected women, often misdiagnosed, has an aggressive clinical course, with high rates of visceral involvement and decreased survival.
  • We describe the first case of isolated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma in pregnancy.
  • A nulliparous woman was diagnosed with AIDS after presenting at 25 weeks gestation with a cough and multiple pulmonary nodules.
  • Extensive pulmonary evaluation was nondiagnostic until thorascopic lung biopsy revealed Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Despite combination antiretroviral therapy, her malignancy progressed.
  • She received chemotherapy postpartum and remains in remission.
  • Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of HIV-infected obstetric patients with respiratory compromise.
  • Definitive diagnosis is necessary given the aggressive clinical course that is potentially responsive to therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Time Factors


3. Shahbazian H: Kaposi sarcoma in kidney transplanted patients. Urol J; 2004;1(2):111-4
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  • [Title] Kaposi sarcoma in kidney transplanted patients.
  • PURPOSE: Newly developed malignancies in kidney transplanted patients are one of the complications attributed to immunosuppression.
  • Kaposi sarcoma is an unusual malignancy in general population, but may develop in kidney transplanted patients with highly varying prevalence.
  • Our aim is to evaluate the prevalence, clinical manifestations, and outcome of Kaposi sarcoma in kidney transplanted patients.
  • RESULTS: Fourteen patients (2.2%) developed Kaposi sarcoma (biopsy documented which constituted 60% of all post-transplantation malignancies.
  • Sarcoma developed 8 to 31 months after transplantation with an average of 18 months.
  • Of these patients, 13 had skin involvement that one of them had pulmonary involvement too.
  • In patients with visceral involvement cyclosporine was discontinued and then chemotherapy was initiated.
  • All 3 patients with visceral involvement didn't respond to chemotherapy and expired after 6 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma in our patients is more than western countries.

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  • (PMID = 17874397.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-1308
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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4. Abderrahim E, Jbali H, Ounissi M, Hedri H, Bakir S, Ben Abdallah T, Ben Maïz H, Kheder A: [Association of disseminated nocardiosis and Kaposi's sarcoma after kidney transplantation]. Rev Med Interne; 2009 May;30(5):446-9
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  • [Title] [Association of disseminated nocardiosis and Kaposi's sarcoma after kidney transplantation].
  • [Transliterated title] Nocardiose disséminée associée à un sarcome de Kaposi après transplantation rénale.
  • We report a 40-year-old kidney recipient who developed disseminated nocardiosis associated with cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • The withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and prolonged antibiotic therapy, including imipenem and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, resulted in a favourable outcome of both disorders.
  • Three years later, graft function remains stable with a complete regression of skin and pulmonary abnormalities.
  • This case report illustrates the predisposing role of immunosuppressive treatment in the occurrence of infectious and neoplastic complications observed after solid-organ transplantation.

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  • (PMID = 18926605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 71OTZ9ZE0A / Imipenem; AN164J8Y0X / Trimethoprim
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5. Kobayashi M, Takaori-Kondo A, Shindo K, Mizutani C, Ishikawa T, Uchiyama T: Successful treatment with paclitaxel of advanced AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Intern Med; 2002 Dec;41(12):1209-12
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  • [Title] Successful treatment with paclitaxel of advanced AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most prevalent AIDS-associated tumor.
  • We report a 44-year-old Japanese man with advanced AIDS-associated KS, which was spread over bilateral pulmonary parenchyma.
  • He was initially treated with combination chemotherapy with a partial response.
  • Upon the recurrence of his KS two months after the completion of the combination chemotherapy, the patient received paclitaxel, which brought about a complete response.
  • Highly active antiretrovial therapy (HAART) was initiated three months before the combination chemotherapy, and the CD4+ T-cell count had risen before starting paclitaxel.
  • His dinical course suggests that paclitaxel was highly effective for KS disease control as previously reported, and that immune restoration with HAART is crucial in the treatment of KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome


6. Godoy MC, Rouse H, Brown JA, Phillips P, Forrest DM, Müller NL: Imaging features of pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma-associated immune reconstitution syndrome. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2007 Oct;189(4):956-65
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  • [Title] Imaging features of pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma-associated immune reconstitution syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the radiologic features of pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma-associated immune reconstitution syndrome.
  • The syndrome is a phenomenon characterized by clinical deterioration of the condition of HIV-positive patients after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included four patients at our institution who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma-associated immune reconstitution syndrome from 2001 to 2006.
  • Images reviewed included chest radiographs obtained before highly active antiretroviral therapy, radiographs and chest CT scans obtained at appearance of the symptoms of Kaposi sarcoma-associated immune reconstitution syndrome, and follow-up radiographs and chest CT scans during immune reconstitution syndrome.
  • RESULTS: The radiographic findings of Kaposi sarcoma-associated immune reconstitution syndrome included reticular and reticulonodular opacities (n = 4), areas of consolidation (n = 3), septal lines (n = 3), and pleural effusion (n = 3).
  • The CT findings in all four patients were ill-defined pulmonary nodules and interlobular septal thickening.
  • The areas of consolidation in three subjects who did not receive chemotherapy increased markedly after 14-20 days.
  • CONCLUSION: The radiologic findings of pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma-associated immune reconstitution syndrome are similar to the findings described in patients with Kaposi sarcoma without the syndrome, but the extent of abnormalities tends to increase with the development of the syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Immune System Diseases / etiology. Immune System Diseases / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Syndrome. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


7. van Oosterhout JJ, Brown L, Weigel R, Kumwenda JJ, Mzinganjira D, Saukila N, Mhango B, Hartung T, Phiri S, Hosseinipour MC: Diagnosis of antiretroviral therapy failure in Malawi: poor performance of clinical and immunological WHO criteria. Trop Med Int Health; 2009 Aug;14(8):856-61
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of antiretroviral therapy failure in Malawi: poor performance of clinical and immunological WHO criteria.
  • OBJECTIVES: In antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up programmes in sub-Saharan Africa viral load monitoring is not recommended.
  • We wanted to study the impact of only using clinical and immunological monitoring on the diagnosis of virological ART failure under routine circumstances.
  • Active tuberculosis and Kaposi's sarcoma were the most common conditions causing misclassification of virological ART failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Viral. HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Humans. Malawi. Male. Middle Aged. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Treatment Failure. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / diagnosis. Viral Load / methods. World Health Organization. Young Adult


8. Leidner RS, Aboulafia DM: Recrudescent Kaposi's sarcoma after initiation of HAART: a manifestation of immune reconstitution syndrome. AIDS Patient Care STDS; 2005 Oct;19(10):635-44
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  • [Title] Recrudescent Kaposi's sarcoma after initiation of HAART: a manifestation of immune reconstitution syndrome.
  • The objective of this case series and literature review is to characterize the clinical course and prognosis of HIV-infected patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) flare during immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), a heterogeneous and sometimes fatal disorder of immune perturbation after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • In our single institution series, mean time to onset of KS flare was 5 weeks.
  • Six fatalities are reported, 4 from pulmonary KS and 2 from unrelated causes.
  • Systemic chemotherapy universally led to tumor regression, but was administered in only 10 of 19 cases.
  • Even for those patients with rapidly symptomatic KS, early systemic chemotherapy is effective in suppressing IRIS-associated flare.
  • Particular vigilance is recommended for pulmonary involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Inflammation. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Progression. HIV-1 / drug effects. Humans. Male. Syndrome


9. Engel ME, Matchaba PT, Volmink J: Corticosteroids for tuberculous pleurisy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD001876
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  • BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids used in addition to antituberculous therapy have been reported to benefit people with tuberculous pleurisy.
  • However, research findings are inconsistent, raising doubt as to whether such treatment is worthwhile.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of adding corticosteroids to drug regimens for tuberculous pleural effusion.
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing any corticosteroid with no treatment, placebo, or other active treatment (both groups should receive the same antituberculous drug regimen) in people diagnosed with tuberculous pleurisy.
  • Although discontinuation of treatment due to adverse events was more frequent in participants receiving corticosteroids than placebo (RR 2.80, 95% CI 1.12 to 6.98; 586 participants, 6 trials), the effects were generally mild.
  • The risk of Kaposi sarcoma may be increased in HIV-positive people receiving corticosteroids (RR 13.00, 95% CI 0.74 to 227.63; 194 participants, 1 trial).
  • The effects of corticosteroids on HIV-related complications, such as Kaposi sarcoma, should be assessed in people co-infected with HIV.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Tuberculosis, Pleural / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / drug therapy

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  • [UpdateOf] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001876 [10796669.001]
  • [UpdateIn] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Mar 14;3:CD001876 [28290161.001]
  • (PMID = 17943759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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10. Flanigan TP, Campbell T, Harwell J, Kumarasamy N: The extraordinary hope of antiretroviral therapy in South Africa (even for patients with tuberculosis or kaposi sarcoma!). J Infect Dis; 2005 Feb 1;191(3):321-3
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  • [Title] The extraordinary hope of antiretroviral therapy in South Africa (even for patients with tuberculosis or kaposi sarcoma!).
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. HIV-1 / drug effects. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Humans. Mycobacterium tuberculosis. South Africa. Treatment Outcome


11. Chandan K, Madnani N, Desai D, Deshpande R: AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in a heterosexual male--a case report. Dermatol Online J; 2002 Oct;8(2):19
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  • [Title] AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in a heterosexual male--a case report.
  • Biopsies from multiple lesions confirmed the diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • He subsequently developed pulmonary and peritoneal effusions and died 3 months later of cardiopulmonary arrest.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Heterosexuality. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Adult. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male


12. Aboulafia DM: The epidemiologic, pathologic, and clinical features of AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma. Chest; 2000 Apr;117(4):1128-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The epidemiologic, pathologic, and clinical features of AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) occurs principally in homosexual or bisexual men infected with the newly identified human herpes virus-8, also called KS-associated herpes virus.
  • KS may also occur in the lung, commonly in the setting of extensive mucocutaneous disease and very rarely as an isolated event.
  • Before the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), pulmonary KS had been reported in approximately 10% of patients with AIDS, 25% of patients with cutaneous KS, and in roughly 50% of postmortem examinations of patients with AIDS, KS, and respiratory infections.
  • Pulmonary KS may cause radiographic infiltrates and respiratory symptoms that mimic a variety of other infectious and neoplastic processes.
  • An aggressive diagnostic evaluation of patients who have this condition is essential because chemotherapy and radiation therapy may provide significant palliation, particularly if used in conjunction with HAART.
  • The pathology and pathogenesis of KS is also reviewed, along with the clinical and radiographic presentation, diagnosis, and management of pulmonary KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Lung Neoplasms. Sarcoma, Kaposi


13. Kanmogne GD: Noninfectious pulmonary complications of HIV/AIDS. Curr Opin Pulm Med; 2005 May;11(3):208-12
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  • [Title] Noninfectious pulmonary complications of HIV/AIDS.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on noninfectious pulmonary complications of HIV/AIDS, with a focus on HIV/AIDS-related lung malignancies and pulmonary hypertension, and discusses their incidence in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Noninfectious pulmonary complications of HIV/AIDS are now recognized as important contributors to morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients.
  • This is especially the case for HIV-related lung cancer and other non-AIDS-defining malignancies, which are now being diagnosed with increased frequency in HIV-infected patients.
  • The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and AIDS-related lymphoma has decreased in the HAART era, but compared with the general population, the risk of these malignancies and pulmonary hypertension is still very high in HIV-infected patients.
  • Concurrent use of HAART and chemotherapy improves prognosis and survival of patients with AIDS-related lymphoma.
  • For patients with HIV-related pulmonary hypertension, some studies show no beneficial effect of HAART whereas other reports show that HAART improves patient survival and response to antihypertensive treatment.
  • SUMMARY: The beneficial effect of HAART and improved immune response on the treatment of Kaposi sarcoma and AIDS-related lymphoma suggests that HIV or viral-induced immunosuppression plays an important role in the development of these malignancies.
  • Evidence from current studies suggests that HAART does not protect against HIV-related lung cancer.
  • The full impact of HAART on HIV pulmonary hypertension remains to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Hypertension, Pulmonary / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Comorbidity. Female. HIV Infections / diagnosis. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Prognosis. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Analysis


14. Saif MW: Thromboembolism associated with HIV infection: a case report and review of the literature. AIDS Read; 2000 Aug;10(8):492-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The coexistence of HIV/AIDS-related illnesses, such as malignancies, opportunistic infections, or autoimmune diseases, as well as drug therapy, may also predispose HIV-infected patients to thromboembolic disease.
  • A case report of a 39-year-old man with Kaposi sarcoma who developed pulmonary embolism is presented, along with a review of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Pulmonary Embolism / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / complications. Humans. Male. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications


15. González-Castillo J, Blanco F, Soriano V, Barreiro P, Concepción Bravo M, Jiménez-Nácher I, González-Lahoz J: [Opportunistic episodes in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus during the first 6 months of HAART]. Med Clin (Barc); 2001 Jun 23;117(3):81-4
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  • [Transliterated title] Episodios oportunistas en pacientes infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana durante los primeros 6 meses de la terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad.
  • BACKGROUND: We aimed at analysing the incidence and characteristics of opportunistic events (OE) within a few months after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV infected patients.
  • We recorded the incidence of OE within 6 months after beginning HAART and analysed virological and immunological parameters, sociodemographic variables and types of antiretroviral treatment.
  • At the time of OE diagnosis, these parameters were 218 (114) x 10(6)/l (p = 0.012) and < 500 cop/ml, respectively.
  • OE were distributed as follows: herpes zoster, 9 cases (43%), Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, 5 cases (24%), Kaposi sarcoma,3 cases (14%) and tuberculosis, cerebral toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus retinitis, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 1 case each.
  • In addition, an OE was developed by 8% patients treated with NRTI and PI, 2% treated with NRTI and NNRTI, and 10% treated with NRTI,NNRTI and PI (p = 0.44).
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / immunology. Humans. Lymphocyte Count. Male. Retrospective Studies. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / epidemiology


16. Holkova B, Takeshita K, Cheng DM, Volm M, Wasserheit C, Demopoulos R, Chanan-Khan A: Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on survival in patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma treated with chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol; 2001 Sep 15;19(18):3848-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on survival in patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma treated with chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common AIDS-related malignancy.
  • Pulmonary involvement by KS (PKS) has carried a poor prognosis with median reported survival ranging from 3 to 10 months.
  • We studied whether the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART; triple antiretroviral therapy including a protease inhibitor and two reverse transcriptase inhibitors) has been associated with improved survival for AIDS patients with PKS.
  • The primary end point was survival, which was defined as time from start of chemotherapy until death from any cause.
  • RESULTS: Patients were analyzed by the date of diagnosis (pre- v post-HAART period) and whether or not they received HAART.
  • Cox multivariate analyses showed that HAART therapy was associated with a reduced risk of death (hazard ratio = 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.69).
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with AIDS-associated PKS and undergoing chemotherapy, administration of HAART was associated with increased survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Ethnic Groups. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


17. Lim TW, Lee MH, Park JG, Cho BK: Classic Kaposi sarcoma presenting as rapidly growing nodules. Cutis; 2001 Jul;68(1):50-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Classic Kaposi sarcoma presenting as rapidly growing nodules.
  • Classic Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a sporadic disease that usually affects persons older than 50 years, with a distinct male predominance.
  • Although classic KS has a protracted, indolent course, there appears to be a rare disseminated fulminant type.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Fatal Outcome. Hand. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / complications. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / drug therapy. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11480148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine
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18. Colebunders R, Bastian I: A review of the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis; 2000 Feb;4(2):97-107
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A review of the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis.
  • Recommendations on the management of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are still based on the behaviour of this disease in populations unaffected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Studies prior to the HIV epidemic estimated that there were 1.22 cases of smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB for each smear-positive case.
  • Patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB were found to be less infectious and to have a lower mortality, but a significant proportion (50%-71%) progressed to active disease justifying treatment.
  • Moreover, a wide variety of regimens also proved effective in the treatment of smear-negative disease in HIV-negative patients.
  • While apparently remaining less infectious than smear-positive cases, HIV-positive patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB are generally more immunocompromised, have more adverse drug reactions, and suffer higher mortality rates on treatment.
  • Clinical decision-making has also been complicated because HIV co-infection broadens the differential diagnoses of smear-negative pulmonary TB to include diseases such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma, and Gram-negative bacteraemia.
  • Our approach to smear-negative pulmonary TB must therefore adapt to these changed parameters.
  • Management algorithms based on several features (clinical symptoms, response to antibiotic trials, smear investigations, and chest radiography) have been developed to improve case detection.
  • National tuberculosis programmes should also consider extending the use of rifampicin-based short-course chemotherapy (SCC) to new patients with smear-negative disease.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Sputum / microbiology. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antitubercular Agents / administration & dosage. Belgium / epidemiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Outbreaks / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Risk Factors. Survival Rate


19. Rubio ER, Chang EE, Kovitz KL: Thoracoscopic management of pleural effusions in Kaposi's sarcoma: a rapid and effective alternative for diagnosis and treatment. South Med J; 2002 Aug;95(8):919-21
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  • [Title] Thoracoscopic management of pleural effusions in Kaposi's sarcoma: a rapid and effective alternative for diagnosis and treatment.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is one of the most common causes of pleural effusion in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • Their treatment is difficult, and they respond poorly to chemical pleurodesis.
  • Even systemic chemotherapy against KS has little effect on the pleural effusions.
  • Commonly, repeated therapeutic thoracentesis or chest tube drainage is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / surgery. Pleurodesis / methods. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / surgery. Thoracoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12190232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-4348
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Guler ZM, Kanbay A, Ciftci B, Kanbay M, Yilmaz A, Agackiran Y, Erdogan Y: Kaposi sarcoma secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis: a rare case. South Med J; 2005 Sep;98(9):933-4
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  • [Title] Kaposi sarcoma secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis: a rare case.
  • Kaposi sarcoma commonly occurs in HIV-positive and immunocompromised patients.
  • We describe a case of Kaposi sarcoma that developed in an HIV-negative patient with tuberculosis.
  • The Kaposi sarcoma completely regressed with antituberculous therapy without the institution of chemotherapy.
  • Patients with Kaposi sarcoma should be monitored for coexisting diseases such as tuberculosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16217989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-4348
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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21. Tulpule A, Groopman J, Saville MW, Harrington W Jr, Friedman-Kien A, Espina BM, Garces C, Mantelle L, Mettinger K, Scadden DT, Gill PS: Multicenter trial of low-dose paclitaxel in patients with advanced AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. Cancer; 2002 Jul 1;95(1):147-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multicenter trial of low-dose paclitaxel in patients with advanced AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Treatment options are limited for patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi sarcoma (AIDS-KS) whose disease has progressed after receiving therapy with liposomal anthracyclines or combination chemotherapy with doxorubicin (Adriamycin), bleomycin, and vincristine (ABV).
  • This study was performed to assess the safety and efficacy of a novel dose and schedule of paclitaxel in patients with AIDS-KS who failed to respond to previous systemic chemotherapy.
  • Eligible patients had advanced AIDS-KS consisting of at least 25 mucocutaneous lesions, visceral disease, or lymphedema, and had failed to respond to at least one previous systemic chemotherapy regimen.
  • Primary efficacy end points were tumor response, time to progression, time to treatment failure, and survival.
  • Previous treatment regimens included ABV in 52, liposomal daunorubicin in 49, and liposomal doxorubicin in 40 patients.
  • Forty-one patients (38%) received two or more previous chemotherapy regimens.
  • Major response rate was similar when comparing patients not on a protease inhibitor at the time of response (59%) with patients on a protease inhibitor at time of response (54%).
  • Significant improvements were seen in the total quality of life scores measured by the SDS, including significant improvement in KS-related symptoms such as facial disease, tumor-associated edema, and pulmonary involvement.
  • CONCLUSION: Paclitaxel given every 2 weeks induces major tumor regression in the majority of patients with advanced KS who failed to respond to previous systemic chemotherapy.
  • Paclitaxel is associated with significant improvement in quality of life with acceptable toxicity and should be considered as an effective treatment option for patients with advanced KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Protease Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Quality of Life. Survival Rate


22. Cassol E, Page T, Mosam A, Friedland G, Jack C, Lalloo U, Kopetka J, Patterson B, Esterhuizen T, Coovadia HM: Therapeutic response of HIV-1 subtype C in African patients coinfected with either Mycobacterium tuberculosis or human herpesvirus-8. J Infect Dis; 2005 Feb 1;191(3):324-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Therapeutic response of HIV-1 subtype C in African patients coinfected with either Mycobacterium tuberculosis or human herpesvirus-8.
  • BACKGROUND: A potential confounding factor in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Africa is the frequent occurrence of opportunistic infections (OIs).
  • STUDY DESIGN: Treatment outcomes for patients dually infected with HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis or HIV-1 and human herpesvirus (HHV)-8 were assessed by measuring changes in viral load and CD4(+) cell counts and by determining the time taken to reach undetectable HIV-1 RNA levels, assessed by means of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.
  • Patients with HIV-1 and Kaposi sarcoma (KS) received generic nevirapine, stavudine, and lamivudine (3TC); patients with HIV-1 and tuberculosis (TB) received standard commercial didanosine, 3TC, and efavirenz.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor/nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based treatment regimens are highly effective in clearing rapidly replicating (phase I) virus in African patients dually infected with HIV-1 and either TB or KS.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV-1 / classification. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mycobacterium tuberculosis. RNA, Viral / blood. Treatment Outcome. Viral Load


23. Krayem AB, Abdullah LS, Raweily EA, Wali SO, Rawas MM, Samman YS, Batouk AA: The diagnostic challenge of pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma with pulmonary tuberculosis in a renal transplant recipient: a case report. Transplantation; 2001 May 27;71(10):1488-91
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  • [Title] The diagnostic challenge of pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma with pulmonary tuberculosis in a renal transplant recipient: a case report.
  • We report a case of a 39-year-old, HIV-negative, post renal transplant patient who developed mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma with lung parenchymal involvement and concurrently culture proven pulmonary tuberculosis.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of this combination, which presented with cavitating lung nodules and responded well to withdrawal of immunosuppressive drugs beside antituberculous treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Transplantation. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / complications. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Male. Radiography, Thoracic. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


24. Sharif-Kashani B, Ahmadi ZH, Bikdeli B, Tabarsi P, Dorudinia A, Shahabi P, Raeissi S, Shadafza B, Estahbanati G, Naji A, Saliminejad L, Bakhshayesh-Karam M, Karimi S, Khodadad K, Masjedi MR, Gavazzi A: Bilateral diffuse pulmonary infiltration in a heart transplant recipient. Transpl Infect Dis; 2010 Jun;12(3):258-60
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  • [Title] Bilateral diffuse pulmonary infiltration in a heart transplant recipient.
  • Pulmonary complications are not infrequent after heart transplantation.
  • Kaposi sarcoma is a vascular tumor that can involve the skin as well as visceral organs.
  • We describe a case of visceral and cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma that presented with diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltration and breathlessness 6 month after heart transplantation.
  • Following modulation of the immunosuppressive regimen and addition of chemotherapy, the patient had an excellent response and has had an uneventful 1-year follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Transplantation / adverse effects. Lung Neoplasms / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Herpesvirus 8, Human / classification. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Humans. Lung / pathology. Male. Middle Aged


25. Kenyon C, Pillay K, Jacobs P: Castleman's disease and retroviral therapy. Transfus Apher Sci; 2007 Aug;37(1):81-4
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  • [Title] Castleman's disease and retroviral therapy.
  • The escalating pandemic of the acquired immunodeficiency disease in sub-Saharan Africa is associated with an increasing incidence of the lymphoproliferative disorders where evidence shows that highly active retroviral therapy can reconstitute immunologic competence and, at least in some groups exemplified by Kaposi's sarcoma, result in an outcome comparable to uninfected controls.
  • Paradoxically other subtypes are less responsive exemplified by Burkitt lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease, where they are localised and may present after starting treatment.
  • This association provides a model to test the concept that pathogenesis may reflect an aberrant response to antigens including human herpesvirus-8 thereby renewing focus on proactive inclusion of anti-herpes drugs with conventional treatment for retrovirus particularly prior to initiating chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Africa South of the Sahara. Burkitt Lymphoma / epidemiology. Burkitt Lymphoma / etiology. Burkitt Lymphoma / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Humans. Models, Biological. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / complications. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / drug therapy. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / epidemiology. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17931977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-0502
  • [Journal-full-title] Transfusion and apheresis science : official journal of the World Apheresis Association : official journal of the European Society for Haemapheresis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transfus. Apher. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
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26. Davis JL, Shum AK, Huang L: A 36-year-old man with AIDS and relapsing, nonproductive cough. Chest; 2007 Jun;131(6):1929-31
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  • A rapidly progressive, fatal recrudescence of pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma developed in an HIV-infected man who was receiving corticosteroids for treatment of an immune reconstitution syndrome secondary to Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary infection.
  • We discuss the implications for current diagnosis and management of HIV-associated pulmonary diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection / complications. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Anti-Retroviral Agents / adverse effects. Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Cough / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lung / microbiology. Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Male. Mycobacterium avium Complex / pathogenicity. Recurrence. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy


27. Sekiya N, Imamura A: [Doxil--pegylated liposomal doxorubicin]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Aug;35(8):1439-43
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  • Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil: PLD) is a liposome-encapsulated form of doxorubicin modified with polyethylene glycol that has been approved for the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • The characteristics of PLD are reduction of the severe side effects of cardiac toxicity and myelosuppression seen with doxorubicin, and a higher anti-tumor effect from the selective high maintenance of the drug concentration in the tumor tissue.
  • This does not mean, however, that PLD should be used in the treatment of all patients with Kaposi's sarcoma; in some cases with skin lesions only and local distribution highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) alone is effective.
  • While precise criteria for the use of PLD have not been determined, it is used in combination with HAART in patients with rapid progression, edema or strong pain, pulmonary complications, or extensive organ complications, or in cases when tumor progression is not slowed with HAART alone.
  • Common side effects are myelosuppression and digestive symptoms, but when combined with HAART these complications do not become serious enough to lead to a discontinuation of treatment.
  • The advantages of using PLD are less myelosuppression, less drug interaction, and the possibility of switching to outpatient administration.
  • The level of treatment safety, tolerability, and treatment effectiveness makes it possible to investigate vigorous concomitant use with HAART, and expanded indications to other solid tumors may be expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Polyethylene Glycols / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18701868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / liposomal doxorubicin; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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