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1. Charfi S, Krichen-Makni S, Yaich S, Makni H, Khabir A, Amouri A, Charfeddine K, Hachicha J, Sellami-Boudawara T: Successful treatment of post-renal transplant gastric and pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma with conversion to rapamycin treatment. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl; 2007 Nov;18(4):617-20
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of post-renal transplant gastric and pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma with conversion to rapamycin treatment.
  • The incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is higher in organ transplant recipients.
  • Computed tomography of the chest revealed multiple bilateral lung micronodules.
  • This resulted in a regression of both stomach and pulmonary KS.
  • One-year later, the patient developed an episode of acute rejection, which was successfully treated with bolus steroids.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sirolimus / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17951954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1319-2442
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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2. Kobayashi M, Takaori-Kondo A, Shindo K, Mizutani C, Ishikawa T, Uchiyama T: Successful treatment with paclitaxel of advanced AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Intern Med; 2002 Dec;41(12):1209-12
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  • [Title] Successful treatment with paclitaxel of advanced AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most prevalent AIDS-associated tumor.
  • We report a 44-year-old Japanese man with advanced AIDS-associated KS, which was spread over bilateral pulmonary parenchyma.
  • He was initially treated with combination chemotherapy with a partial response.
  • Upon the recurrence of his KS two months after the completion of the combination chemotherapy, the patient received paclitaxel, which brought about a complete response.
  • Highly active antiretrovial therapy (HAART) was initiated three months before the combination chemotherapy, and the CD4+ T-cell count had risen before starting paclitaxel.
  • His dinical course suggests that paclitaxel was highly effective for KS disease control as previously reported, and that immune restoration with HAART is crucial in the treatment of KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome


3. Bagnato A, Spinella F, Rosanò L: The endothelin axis in cancer: the promise and the challenges of molecularly targeted therapy. Can J Physiol Pharmacol; 2008 Aug;86(8):473-84
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  • [Title] The endothelin axis in cancer: the promise and the challenges of molecularly targeted therapy.
  • The endothelin (ET) axis, which includes ET-1, ET-2, ET-3, and 2 G protein-coupled receptor subtypes, ET AR and ET BR, promotes growth and progression of a variety of tumors, such as prostatic, ovarian, renal, pulmonary, colorectal, cervical, breast, lung, bladder, endometrial carcinoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, brain tumors, and melanoma.
  • At the molecular level, endothelin receptor antagonists, besides providing ideal tools for dissecting the ET axis, have demonstrated their potential in developing novel therapeutic strategies.
  • Emerging experimental and clinical data demonstrate that interfering with endothelin receptors provides an opportunity for the development of rational combinatorial approaches using endothelin receptor antagonists in combination with chemotherapy or molecularly targeted therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Endothelins / genetics. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Animals. Endothelin-1 / biosynthesis. Humans. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Neovascularization, Pathologic / genetics. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Receptors, Endothelin / drug effects. Receptors, Endothelin / genetics. Receptors, Endothelin / physiology. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 18758494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-4212
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Endothelins; 0 / Receptors, Endothelin
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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4. Bryant AE, Genc M, Hurtado RM, Chen KT: Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma in pregnancy. Am J Perinatol; 2004 Aug;21(6):355-63
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  • [Title] Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma in pregnancy.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected women, often misdiagnosed, has an aggressive clinical course, with high rates of visceral involvement and decreased survival.
  • We describe the first case of isolated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma in pregnancy.
  • A nulliparous woman was diagnosed with AIDS after presenting at 25 weeks gestation with a cough and multiple pulmonary nodules.
  • Extensive pulmonary evaluation was nondiagnostic until thorascopic lung biopsy revealed Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Despite combination antiretroviral therapy, her malignancy progressed.
  • She received chemotherapy postpartum and remains in remission.
  • Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of HIV-infected obstetric patients with respiratory compromise.
  • Definitive diagnosis is necessary given the aggressive clinical course that is potentially responsive to therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Time Factors


5. Aboulafia DM: The epidemiologic, pathologic, and clinical features of AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma. Chest; 2000 Apr;117(4):1128-45
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  • [Title] The epidemiologic, pathologic, and clinical features of AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) occurs principally in homosexual or bisexual men infected with the newly identified human herpes virus-8, also called KS-associated herpes virus.
  • KS may also occur in the lung, commonly in the setting of extensive mucocutaneous disease and very rarely as an isolated event.
  • Before the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), pulmonary KS had been reported in approximately 10% of patients with AIDS, 25% of patients with cutaneous KS, and in roughly 50% of postmortem examinations of patients with AIDS, KS, and respiratory infections.
  • Pulmonary KS may cause radiographic infiltrates and respiratory symptoms that mimic a variety of other infectious and neoplastic processes.
  • An aggressive diagnostic evaluation of patients who have this condition is essential because chemotherapy and radiation therapy may provide significant palliation, particularly if used in conjunction with HAART.
  • The pathology and pathogenesis of KS is also reviewed, along with the clinical and radiographic presentation, diagnosis, and management of pulmonary KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Lung Neoplasms. Sarcoma, Kaposi


6. van Oosterhout JJ, Brown L, Weigel R, Kumwenda JJ, Mzinganjira D, Saukila N, Mhango B, Hartung T, Phiri S, Hosseinipour MC: Diagnosis of antiretroviral therapy failure in Malawi: poor performance of clinical and immunological WHO criteria. Trop Med Int Health; 2009 Aug;14(8):856-61
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of antiretroviral therapy failure in Malawi: poor performance of clinical and immunological WHO criteria.
  • OBJECTIVES: In antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up programmes in sub-Saharan Africa viral load monitoring is not recommended.
  • We wanted to study the impact of only using clinical and immunological monitoring on the diagnosis of virological ART failure under routine circumstances.
  • Active tuberculosis and Kaposi's sarcoma were the most common conditions causing misclassification of virological ART failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Viral. HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Humans. Malawi. Male. Middle Aged. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Treatment Failure. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / diagnosis. Viral Load / methods. World Health Organization. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19552661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-3156
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop. Med. Int. Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
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7. Su CC, Lu JJ, Perng CL, Yu FT, Chiu CH: Evolution of human herpesvirus type 8-associated gastric Kaposi's sarcoma following corticosteroid treatment for asthma. J Formos Med Assoc; 2006 Feb;105(2):155-9
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  • [Title] Evolution of human herpesvirus type 8-associated gastric Kaposi's sarcoma following corticosteroid treatment for asthma.
  • The association of gastric Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) with human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) may be found in immunosuppressed patients such as those with AIDS or transplant recipients.
  • A 64-year-old man with a 2-year history of corticosteroid treatment was admitted due to the impression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with secondary infection.

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  • (PMID = 16477336.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Glucocorticoids
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8. Shahmanesh M, Brooks J, Shaw PJ, Miller RF: Inferior vena cava filters for HIV infected patients with pulmonary embolism and contraindications to anticoagulation. Sex Transm Infect; 2000 Oct;76(5):395-7
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  • [Title] Inferior vena cava filters for HIV infected patients with pulmonary embolism and contraindications to anticoagulation.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the mode of presentation, interventions, and outcome of HIV infected patients with pulmonary embolism and a contraindication to anticoagulation, who were treated with a bird's nest filter.
  • RESULTS: Three patients had pulmonary embolism and contraindications to anticoagulation.
  • Contraindications were concomitant intracerebral pathology in two patients (one also had bleeding from gastric Kaposi's sarcoma and the other was cognitively impaired with HIV associated dementia complex) and alcohol induced liver disease/binge drinking in the third patient.
  • During follow up (7, 8, and 21 months) no complications or recurrent pulmonary emboli occurred.
  • CONCLUSION: The bird's nest inferior vena cava filter has a role in preventing further pulmonary emboli in HIV infected patients with contraindications to anticoagulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticoagulants / contraindications. HIV Infections / complications. Pulmonary Embolism / therapy. Vena Cava Filters
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Interactions. Female. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


9. Holkova B, Takeshita K, Cheng DM, Volm M, Wasserheit C, Demopoulos R, Chanan-Khan A: Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on survival in patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma treated with chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol; 2001 Sep 15;19(18):3848-51
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  • [Title] Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on survival in patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma treated with chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common AIDS-related malignancy.
  • Pulmonary involvement by KS (PKS) has carried a poor prognosis with median reported survival ranging from 3 to 10 months.
  • We studied whether the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART; triple antiretroviral therapy including a protease inhibitor and two reverse transcriptase inhibitors) has been associated with improved survival for AIDS patients with PKS.
  • The primary end point was survival, which was defined as time from start of chemotherapy until death from any cause.
  • RESULTS: Patients were analyzed by the date of diagnosis (pre- v post-HAART period) and whether or not they received HAART.
  • Cox multivariate analyses showed that HAART therapy was associated with a reduced risk of death (hazard ratio = 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.69).
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with AIDS-associated PKS and undergoing chemotherapy, administration of HAART was associated with increased survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Ethnic Groups. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


10. Krayem AB, Abdullah LS, Raweily EA, Wali SO, Rawas MM, Samman YS, Batouk AA: The diagnostic challenge of pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma with pulmonary tuberculosis in a renal transplant recipient: a case report. Transplantation; 2001 May 27;71(10):1488-91
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  • [Title] The diagnostic challenge of pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma with pulmonary tuberculosis in a renal transplant recipient: a case report.
  • We report a case of a 39-year-old, HIV-negative, post renal transplant patient who developed mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma with lung parenchymal involvement and concurrently culture proven pulmonary tuberculosis.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of this combination, which presented with cavitating lung nodules and responded well to withdrawal of immunosuppressive drugs beside antituberculous treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Transplantation. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / complications. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Male. Radiography, Thoracic. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11391242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1337
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplantation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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11. Dufour V, Cadranel J, Wislez M, Lavole A, Bergot E, Parrot A, Rufat P, Mayaud C: Changes in the pattern of respiratory diseases necessitating hospitalization of HIV-infected patients since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Lung; 2004;182(6):331-41
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  • [Title] Changes in the pattern of respiratory diseases necessitating hospitalization of HIV-infected patients since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • The incidence rates of opportunistic diseases, hospital admission and death have fallen markedly since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • Pulmonary opportunistic infections other than Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) (p = 0.0008) and exacerbations of chronic bronchial disease due to gram-negative bacilli (p = 0.04) virtually disappeared in era 2.
  • In contrast, PCP, bacterial pneumonia, tuberculosis, pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma and pulmonary non-Hodgkin lymphoma showed only a twofold decrease in era 2, while lung cancer was more frequent (p = 0.004).
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Respiratory Tract Diseases / epidemiology. Respiratory Tract Infections / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Data Collection. Female. Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Incidence. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Male. Paris / epidemiology. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15765925.001).
  • [ISSN] 0341-2040
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Colebunders R, Bastian I: A review of the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis; 2000 Feb;4(2):97-107
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  • [Title] A review of the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis.
  • Recommendations on the management of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are still based on the behaviour of this disease in populations unaffected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Studies prior to the HIV epidemic estimated that there were 1.22 cases of smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB for each smear-positive case.
  • Patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB were found to be less infectious and to have a lower mortality, but a significant proportion (50%-71%) progressed to active disease justifying treatment.
  • Moreover, a wide variety of regimens also proved effective in the treatment of smear-negative disease in HIV-negative patients.
  • While apparently remaining less infectious than smear-positive cases, HIV-positive patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB are generally more immunocompromised, have more adverse drug reactions, and suffer higher mortality rates on treatment.
  • Clinical decision-making has also been complicated because HIV co-infection broadens the differential diagnoses of smear-negative pulmonary TB to include diseases such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma, and Gram-negative bacteraemia.
  • Our approach to smear-negative pulmonary TB must therefore adapt to these changed parameters.
  • Management algorithms based on several features (clinical symptoms, response to antibiotic trials, smear investigations, and chest radiography) have been developed to improve case detection.
  • National tuberculosis programmes should also consider extending the use of rifampicin-based short-course chemotherapy (SCC) to new patients with smear-negative disease.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Sputum / microbiology. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antitubercular Agents / administration & dosage. Belgium / epidemiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Outbreaks / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Risk Factors. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 10694086.001).
  • [ISSN] 1027-3719
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] FRANCE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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13. Davis JL, Shum AK, Huang L: A 36-year-old man with AIDS and relapsing, nonproductive cough. Chest; 2007 Jun;131(6):1929-31
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  • A rapidly progressive, fatal recrudescence of pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma developed in an HIV-infected man who was receiving corticosteroids for treatment of an immune reconstitution syndrome secondary to Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary infection.
  • We discuss the implications for current diagnosis and management of HIV-associated pulmonary diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection / complications. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Anti-Retroviral Agents / adverse effects. Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Cough / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lung / microbiology. Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Male. Mycobacterium avium Complex / pathogenicity. Recurrence. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy


14. Leidner RS, Aboulafia DM: Recrudescent Kaposi's sarcoma after initiation of HAART: a manifestation of immune reconstitution syndrome. AIDS Patient Care STDS; 2005 Oct;19(10):635-44
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  • [Title] Recrudescent Kaposi's sarcoma after initiation of HAART: a manifestation of immune reconstitution syndrome.
  • The objective of this case series and literature review is to characterize the clinical course and prognosis of HIV-infected patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) flare during immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), a heterogeneous and sometimes fatal disorder of immune perturbation after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • In our single institution series, mean time to onset of KS flare was 5 weeks.
  • Six fatalities are reported, 4 from pulmonary KS and 2 from unrelated causes.
  • Systemic chemotherapy universally led to tumor regression, but was administered in only 10 of 19 cases.
  • Even for those patients with rapidly symptomatic KS, early systemic chemotherapy is effective in suppressing IRIS-associated flare.
  • Particular vigilance is recommended for pulmonary involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Inflammation. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Progression. HIV-1 / drug effects. Humans. Male. Syndrome


15. Rubio ER, Chang EE, Kovitz KL: Thoracoscopic management of pleural effusions in Kaposi's sarcoma: a rapid and effective alternative for diagnosis and treatment. South Med J; 2002 Aug;95(8):919-21
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Kaposi's Sarcoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thoracoscopic management of pleural effusions in Kaposi's sarcoma: a rapid and effective alternative for diagnosis and treatment.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is one of the most common causes of pleural effusion in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • Their treatment is difficult, and they respond poorly to chemical pleurodesis.
  • Even systemic chemotherapy against KS has little effect on the pleural effusions.
  • Commonly, repeated therapeutic thoracentesis or chest tube drainage is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / surgery. Pleurodesis / methods. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / surgery. Thoracoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12190232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-4348
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Abderrahim E, Jbali H, Ounissi M, Hedri H, Bakir S, Ben Abdallah T, Ben Maïz H, Kheder A: [Association of disseminated nocardiosis and Kaposi's sarcoma after kidney transplantation]. Rev Med Interne; 2009 May;30(5):446-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TRIMETHOPRIM .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Association of disseminated nocardiosis and Kaposi's sarcoma after kidney transplantation].
  • [Transliterated title] Nocardiose disséminée associée à un sarcome de Kaposi après transplantation rénale.
  • We report a 40-year-old kidney recipient who developed disseminated nocardiosis associated with cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • The withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and prolonged antibiotic therapy, including imipenem and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, resulted in a favourable outcome of both disorders.
  • Three years later, graft function remains stable with a complete regression of skin and pulmonary abnormalities.
  • This case report illustrates the predisposing role of immunosuppressive treatment in the occurrence of infectious and neoplastic complications observed after solid-organ transplantation.

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  • (PMID = 18926605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 71OTZ9ZE0A / Imipenem; AN164J8Y0X / Trimethoprim
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17. Chandan K, Madnani N, Desai D, Deshpande R: AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in a heterosexual male--a case report. Dermatol Online J; 2002 Oct;8(2):19
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in a heterosexual male--a case report.
  • Biopsies from multiple lesions confirmed the diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • He subsequently developed pulmonary and peritoneal effusions and died 3 months later of cardiopulmonary arrest.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Heterosexuality. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Adult. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male


18. Uneda S, Murata S, Sonoki T, Matsuoka H, Nakakuma H: Successful treatment with liposomal doxorubicin for widespread Kaposi's sarcoma and human herpesvirus-8 related severe hemophagocytic syndrome in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Int J Hematol; 2009 Mar;89(2):195-200
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DOXORUBICIN .

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  • [Title] Successful treatment with liposomal doxorubicin for widespread Kaposi's sarcoma and human herpesvirus-8 related severe hemophagocytic syndrome in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
  • Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)/Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus has so far been recognized as a trigger of HPS in immunosuppressed subject.
  • We describe a 39-year-old man with AIDS who had widespread mucocutaneous and pulmonary KS and severe HPS.
  • Clinical symptoms and cytopenia originating from HPS were reduced by pulse therapy of corticosteroid, antibiotics, and virucides, but recurred with dose reduction of the steroid.
  • Mucocutaneous tumors, edema, and dyspnea had progressed rapidly at this time.
  • HPS also subsided and the serum HHV-8 DNA level markedly decreased after initial treatment with liposomal doxorubicin.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19130173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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19. Kenyon C, Pillay K, Jacobs P: Castleman's disease and retroviral therapy. Transfus Apher Sci; 2007 Aug;37(1):81-4
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Castleman's disease and retroviral therapy.
  • The escalating pandemic of the acquired immunodeficiency disease in sub-Saharan Africa is associated with an increasing incidence of the lymphoproliferative disorders where evidence shows that highly active retroviral therapy can reconstitute immunologic competence and, at least in some groups exemplified by Kaposi's sarcoma, result in an outcome comparable to uninfected controls.
  • Paradoxically other subtypes are less responsive exemplified by Burkitt lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease, where they are localised and may present after starting treatment.
  • This association provides a model to test the concept that pathogenesis may reflect an aberrant response to antigens including human herpesvirus-8 thereby renewing focus on proactive inclusion of anti-herpes drugs with conventional treatment for retrovirus particularly prior to initiating chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Africa South of the Sahara. Burkitt Lymphoma / epidemiology. Burkitt Lymphoma / etiology. Burkitt Lymphoma / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Humans. Models, Biological. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / complications. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / drug therapy. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / epidemiology. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17931977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-0502
  • [Journal-full-title] Transfusion and apheresis science : official journal of the World Apheresis Association : official journal of the European Society for Haemapheresis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transfus. Apher. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
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20. Bagnato A, Rosanò L: The endothelin axis in cancer. Int J Biochem Cell Biol; 2008;40(8):1443-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Endothelin-1 participates in the growth and progression of a variety of tumors such as prostatic, ovarian, renal, pulmonary, colorectal, cervical, breast, bladder, endometrial carcinomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, brain tumors, melanoma, and bone metastases.
  • This review highlights key signaling pathways activated by endothelin-1 axis in cancer, since the understanding the full spectrum activated by endothelin-1 is critical for the optimal design of targeted therapies.
  • Preliminary experimental and clinical data demonstrate that interfering with endothelin receptor by using endothelin-1 receptor antagonists alone and in combination with cytotoxic drugs or molecular inhibitors could represent a new mechanism-based antitumor strategy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cell Survival / physiology. Endothelin Receptor Antagonists. Female. GTP-Binding Proteins / physiology. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / physiopathology. Osteogenesis / physiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptor, Endothelin A / physiology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / physiology. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 18325824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-2725
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Endothelins; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin A; 0 / Receptors, Endothelin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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21. Sekiya N, Imamura A: [Doxil--pegylated liposomal doxorubicin]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Aug;35(8):1439-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil: PLD) is a liposome-encapsulated form of doxorubicin modified with polyethylene glycol that has been approved for the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • The characteristics of PLD are reduction of the severe side effects of cardiac toxicity and myelosuppression seen with doxorubicin, and a higher anti-tumor effect from the selective high maintenance of the drug concentration in the tumor tissue.
  • This does not mean, however, that PLD should be used in the treatment of all patients with Kaposi's sarcoma; in some cases with skin lesions only and local distribution highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) alone is effective.
  • While precise criteria for the use of PLD have not been determined, it is used in combination with HAART in patients with rapid progression, edema or strong pain, pulmonary complications, or extensive organ complications, or in cases when tumor progression is not slowed with HAART alone.
  • Common side effects are myelosuppression and digestive symptoms, but when combined with HAART these complications do not become serious enough to lead to a discontinuation of treatment.
  • The advantages of using PLD are less myelosuppression, less drug interaction, and the possibility of switching to outpatient administration.
  • The level of treatment safety, tolerability, and treatment effectiveness makes it possible to investigate vigorous concomitant use with HAART, and expanded indications to other solid tumors may be expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Polyethylene Glycols / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18701868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / liposomal doxorubicin; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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22. Williams G, Pazdur R, Temple R: Assessing tumor-related signs and symptoms to support cancer drug approval. J Biopharm Stat; 2004 Feb;14(1):5-21
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cancer Chemotherapy.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessing tumor-related signs and symptoms to support cancer drug approval.
  • While prolongation of survival is an obvious end point for new cancer drug approval, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also utilized end points that evaluate patient symptoms.
  • In this article we discuss the end points, evidence, and analyses supporting cancer drug approvals based on evaluations of tumor-related signs and symptoms.
  • With advice from the Oncologic Drug Advisory Committee (ODAC) in the late 1970s and early 1980s, FDA determined that acceptable end points for cancer drug approval were survival or an improvement in the quality of a patient's life, e.g., an improvement in tumor-related symptoms.
  • This article summarizes 15 FDA cancer drug approvals based on patient symptom assessments and/or physical signs (thought to represent symptomatic improvement) as the primary evidence of effectiveness.
  • These include painful bone events (three cases), cosmetic improvement in Kaposi's sarcoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (six cases), the consequences (decreased transfusions, etc.) of long-duration responses in leukemias and lymphomas (two cases), relief of pulmonary or esophageal obstruction (two cases), and one case each of symptom benefit in pancreatic cancer (also associated with survival benefit) and pulmonary symptom benefit in lung cancer.
  • An instructive example of an individual patient benefit end point is discussed, though it did not lead to a drug approval (the cisplatin-epinephrine gel application).
  • Improved trial designs and analysis plans may allow greater reliance on morbidity assessments to support future cancer drug approvals.
  • Drug sponsors are encouraged to include symptom assessments in cancer clinical trials and to perform further research to improve symptom-assessment methods.
  • The FDA routinely meets with sponsors at End of Phase 2 Meetings to discuss drug development plans and the design of phase 3 trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Approval / statistics & numerical data. Neoplasms / drug therapy. United States Food and Drug Administration / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 15027497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1054-3406
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biopharmaceutical statistics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biopharm Stat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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23. Levine AM, Tulpule A, Quinn DI, Gorospe G 3rd, Smith DL, Hornor L, Boswell WD, Espina BM, Groshen SG, Masood R, Gill PS: Phase I study of antisense oligonucleotide against vascular endothelial growth factor: decrease in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor with potential clinical efficacy. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Apr 10;24(11):1712-9
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • Dose-limiting toxicities included grade 4 fever, and pulmonary embolism in one patient each at 250 mg/m2.
  • VEGF-AS t(1/2beta) (beta-phase terminal half-life of drug concentration) was 2.25 hours (range, 1.97 to 2.95 hours).
  • Clinical responses included complete remission in one patient with AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma, a mixed but dramatic response in one patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and prolongation of progression-free survival compared with that obtained on the immediate prior regimen in six patients (12%) with renal cell, bronchoalveolar, small cell lung, thyroid, and ovarian carcinomas, and chondrosarcoma, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 16520466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01 CA 79218
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
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