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1. Wang J, Wang WJ, Wu H, Wang HF, Zhang Z: [Clinical analysis of primary thymic lymphoma: a report of 27 cases]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2009 May;29(5):1062-4
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of primary thymic lymphoma: a report of 27 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinicopathologic features and optimal treatment of primary thymic lymphoma.
  • METHODS: Clinical records of 27 primary thymic lymphoma patients treated from 1990 to 2007 were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Of the 27 patients, 8 received mastectomy and chemotherapy, 12 received excision of the thymic lesion and chemotherapy, 5 received chemotherapy alone, and 2 received lesion excision alone.
  • 24 achieved complete remission after scheduled treatment, 1 achieved partial remission, and 2 patients had progressive disease.
  • CONCLUSION: The main subtypes of primary thymic lymphoma are diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma. Thymus Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19460742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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2. Walter MA, Hildebrandt IJ, Hacke K, Kesner AL, Kelly O, Lawson GW, Phelps ME, Czernin J, Weber WA, Schiestl RH: Small-animal PET/CT for monitoring the development and response to chemotherapy of thymic lymphoma in Trp53-/- mice. J Nucl Med; 2010 Aug;51(8):1285-92
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  • [Title] Small-animal PET/CT for monitoring the development and response to chemotherapy of thymic lymphoma in Trp53-/- mice.
  • Transgenic mouse models of human cancers represent one of the most promising approaches to elucidate clinically relevant mechanisms of action and provide insights into the treatment efficacy of new antitumor drugs.
  • The use of Trp53 transgenic mice (Trp53 knockout [Trp53(-/-)] mice) for these kinds of studies is, so far, restricted by limitations in detecting developing tumors and the lack of noninvasive tools for monitoring tumor growth, progression, and treatment response.
  • METHODS: We hypothesized that quantitative small-animal PET with (18)F-FDG was able to detect the onset and location of tumor development, follow tumor progression, and monitor response to chemotherapy.
  • To test these hypotheses, C57BL/6J Trp53(-/-) mice underwent longitudinal small-animal PET during lymphoma development and gemcitabine treatment.
  • Trp53 wild-type (Trp53(+/+)) mice were used as controls, and histology after full necropsy served as the gold standard.
  • RESULTS: In Trp53(+/+) mice, the thymic standardized uptake value (SUV) did not exceed 1.0 g/mL, with decreasing (18)F-FDG uptake over time.
  • Conversely, all Trp53(-/-) mice that developed thymic lymphoma showed increasing thymic glucose metabolism, with a mean SUV doubling time of 9.0 wk (range, 6.0-17.5 wk).
  • Using an SUV of 3.0 g/mL as a criterion provided a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 100% for the detection of thymic lymphoma.
  • Treatment monitoring with (18)F-FDG PET correctly identified all histologic responses and relapses to gemcitabine.
  • CONCLUSION: (18)F-FDG small-animal PET can be used to visualize onset and progression of thymic lymphomas in Trp53(-/-) mice and monitor response to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / drug therapy. Lymphoma / radionuclide imaging. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aging / physiology. Animals. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Proliferation. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Mitotic Index. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed

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  • (PMID = 20660381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-5667
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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3. Runyon K, Lee K, Zuberek K, Collins M, Leonard JP, Dunussi-Joannopoulos K: The combination of chemotherapy and systemic immunotherapy with soluble B7-immunoglobulin G leads to cure of murine leukemia and lymphoma and demonstration of tumor-specific memory responses. Blood; 2001 Apr 15;97(8):2420-6
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  • [Title] The combination of chemotherapy and systemic immunotherapy with soluble B7-immunoglobulin G leads to cure of murine leukemia and lymphoma and demonstration of tumor-specific memory responses.
  • To address these issues, leukemia and lymphoma mice were treated with the combination of chemotherapy and systemic immunotherapy with recombinant soluble murine B7-immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules.
  • In this report, 3 murine models were used, a radiation-induced SJL acute myeloid leukemia, a transplantable spontaneous SJL lymphoma, and the C57BL/6 EL-4 thymic lymphoma.
  • Various treatment modalities were evaluated: single treatments with either B7-IgG or chemotherapy as well as combination therapies.
  • (1) in all tumor models, the combination of chemotherapy and soluble B7-IgGs is more potent than either therapy alone, leading to cure of tumor-bearing animals;.
  • (2) the therapeutic responses are T-cell-dependent, because combined therapy is not efficacious in severe combined immunodeficient mice;.
  • On the basis of these results, it is proposed that chemotherapy-mediated tumor reduction, together with consequent augmented tumor-antigen presentation to activated T cells, are primary mechanisms leading to curative responses.
  • The safety profile of the B7-IgG fusion proteins and their synergy with chemotherapy strongly suggest that the combination regimen is a promising strategy in cancer treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD80 / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Immunoglobulin G / therapeutic use. Immunotherapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Leukemia, Radiation-Induced / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Membrane Glycoproteins / therapeutic use. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Animals. Antigens, CD86. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Immunologic Memory. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Transplantation. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / administration & dosage. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / therapeutic use. T-Lymphocytes / immunology

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  • (PMID = 11290606.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD80; 0 / Antigens, CD86; 0 / Cd86 protein, mouse; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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4. Kuang X, Yan M, Liu N, Scofield VL, Qiang W, Cahill J, Lynn WS, Wong PK: Control of Atm-/- thymic lymphoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo by dexamethasone. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2005 Mar;55(3):203-12
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  • [Title] Control of Atm-/- thymic lymphoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo by dexamethasone.
  • We have reported previously that thymic lymphoma development in Atm knockout (Atm-/-) mice is associated with elevated spontaneous DNA synthesis in thymocytes, and that dexamethasone (Dex) attenuates the elevated DNA synthesis and prevents thymic lymphoma development.
  • The primary objectives of the present study were (1) to investigate possible mechanisms underlying the tumor-suppressing effect of Dex on Atm-/- thymic lymphoma cells, and (2) to determine whether Dex is an effective tumor-suppressing treatment in mice bearing transplanted Atm-/- thymic tumors.
  • METHODS: Establishment of a number of Atm-/- thymic lymphoma (ATL) cell lines from Atm-/- mice, cell proliferation assays, cell cycle analyses, Western blotting and Hoechst nuclear staining were used to analyze the effects of Dex on Atm-/- thymic lymphoma cells.
  • Atm-/- tumor cells were transplanted into the right flanks of Atm+/+ mice prior to the initiation of Dex treatment.
  • In Atm+/+ mice transplanted subcutaneously with ATL-1 cells, tumor growth was either prevented completely or significantly suppressed by Dex treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identify potential mechanisms by which Dex affects the proliferation and survival of ATL-1 cells in culture, and provide evidence that Dex can suppress the proliferation of Atm-/- thymic lymphoma cells growing in the body.
  • Together these results add to our earlier published data suggesting that the cellular pathways regulated by Dex may be promising therapeutic targets for prevention and treatment of thymic lymphomas in A-T individuals.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins. Cell Cycle Proteins. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Wall. DNA-Binding Proteins. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Neoplasm Transplantation. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 15570424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES07784
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; EC 2.7.11.1 / ATM protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / Atm protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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5. Kochel I, Rapak A, Ziolo E, Strzadala L: Nur77 nuclear import and its NBRE-binding activity in thymic lymphoma cells are regulated by different mechanisms sensitive to FK506 or HA1004. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2005 Sep 9;334(4):1102-6
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  • [Title] Nur77 nuclear import and its NBRE-binding activity in thymic lymphoma cells are regulated by different mechanisms sensitive to FK506 or HA1004.
  • Thymic lymphoma cells restore their sensitivity to ionomycin-induced apoptosis when treated with FK506 or HA1004.
  • In apoptosis-resistant cells, ionomycin-induced Nur77 strongly binds DNA during the first 2 h of response, in contrast to lymphoma cells treated with ionomycin together with FK506 or HA1004, which undergo massive apoptosis.
  • In the presence of HA1004, NBRE binding by Nur77 protein increases with time (6 h vs 2 h), whereas the final outcome of both inhibitors is apoptosis of thymic lymphoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Nucleus / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Isoquinolines / administration & dosage. Lymphoma / metabolism. Oligonucleotides / metabolism. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism. Receptors, Steroid / metabolism. Sulfonamides / administration & dosage. Tacrolimus / administration & dosage. Thymus Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Active Transport, Cell Nucleus / drug effects. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Mice. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1. Protein Binding

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  • (PMID = 16051191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / Nr4a1 protein, mouse; 0 / Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1; 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Transcription Factors; 91742-10-8 / N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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6. Liu SZ: Nonlinear dose-response relationship in the immune system following exposure to ionizing radiation: mechanisms and implications. Nonlinearity Biol Toxicol Med; 2003 Jan;1(1):71-92
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  • In view of the importance of immune surveillance in cancer control, the dose-response relationship of the changes in different cell types of the immune system after whole-body irradiation is analyzed on the basis of systemic data from the author's laboratory in combination with recent reports in the literature.
  • The intercellular reactions between the antigen presenting cell (APC) and T lymphocyte (TLC) in the immunologic synapse via expression of surface molecules and secretion of cytokines by the two cell types after different doses of radiation are illustrated.
  • The different pathways of signal transduction thus facilitated in the T lymphocyte by different doses of radiation are analyzed to explain the mechanism of the phenomenon of low-dose stimulation and high-dose suppression of immunity.
  • Experimental and clinical data are cited to show that LDR retards tumor growth, reduces metastasis, increases the efficacy of conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy as well as alleviates the suppression of immunity due to tumor burden.
  • The incidence of thymic lymphoma after high-dose radiation is lowered by preexposure to low-dose radiation, and its mechanism is supposed to be related to the stimulation of anticancer immunity induced by low-dose radiation.

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  • (PMID = 19330113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1421
  • [Journal-full-title] Nonlinearity in biology, toxicology, medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nonlinearity Biol Toxicol Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2651616
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cancer risk / dose-response curves / immune surveillance / molecular and cellular mechanisms
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7. Petrella F, Leo F, Veronesi G, Solli P, Borri A, Galetta D, Gasparri R, Lembo R, Radice D, Scanagatta P, Spaggiari L: "Salvage" surgery for primary mediastinal malignancies: is it worthwhile? J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Jan;3(1):53-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] "Salvage" surgery for primary mediastinal malignancies: is it worthwhile?
  • METHODS: Mediastinal salvage surgery (MSS) was defined as surgical resection of persistent or recurrent primary mediastinal tumors after previous local treatments with curative intent or exclusive chemotherapy in case of bulky tumors.
  • Eleven patients suffered from thymic tumors (eight thymomas, three thymic carcinoma) whereas 10 patients suffered from nonthymic tumors (one lung adenocarcinoma + thymoma, two mediastinal monophasic sinovial sarcoma, one mediastinal neuroendocrine tumor, one mediastinal teratoblastoma, one mediastinal disgerminoma, one Hodgkin's lymphoma, one mediastinal atypic carcinoid, two medullary thyroid carcinoma).
  • Median operation time was 215 minutes (range 140-720).
  • Thymic neoplasms had a better prognosis (1-, 3-, and 5-year survival was 100, 87.5, 87.5%, respectively) when compared with others (1-, 3-, and 5-year survival was 77.8, 53.3, 26.7%, respectively--logrank p = 0.0128).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MSS can offer a chance of curative treatment in selected patients with an acceptable morbidity and mortality.
  • Thymic tumors obtain the best results in term of long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Dysgerminoma / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Hodgkin Disease / surgery. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Morbidity. Mortality. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy / methods. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / surgery. Survival Analysis. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery. Thymoma / pathology. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18166841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Hosoi Y: [Antitumor effects by low dose total body irradiation]. Yakugaku Zasshi; 2006 Oct;126(10):841-8
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  • Total-body irradiation (TBI) with 0.02-0.25 Gy has been reported to have antitumor effects.
  • In artificial metastasis, 0.20 Gy TBI suppressed lung metastasis when it was conducted between 3 h before and 3 h after tumor cell injection into a tail vein.
  • In spontaneous metastasis, 0.15-0.20 Gy TBI suppressed lung metastasis.
  • Irradiation with 0.15 Gy twice a week from 11 weeks of age for 40 weeks significantly suppressed the incidence of spontaneous thymic lymphoma in AKR/J mice, which caused prolonged life span.
  • Low-dose TBI has been used in the clinical treatment of lymphomatous malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • The usual practice was to give 0.1 Gy TBI three times a week or 0.15 Gy TBI two times a week to a total dose of 1.5 Gy.
  • Despite this low total dose, low-dose fractionated TBI could induce long-term remissions and was as effective as the chemotherapy to which it was compared.

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  • (PMID = 17016015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-6903
  • [Journal-full-title] Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yakugaku Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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9. Kobzdej M, Matuszyk J, Zioło E, Strzadała L: Changes in glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis and in expression of Bcl-2 protein during long-term culture of thymic lymphoma. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz); 2000;48(1):43-6
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  • [Title] Changes in glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis and in expression of Bcl-2 protein during long-term culture of thymic lymphoma.
  • Lymphomagenesis is a multistep process progressively freeing transformed thymocytes from external regulatory signals, i.e. thymic developmental program controlling growth, differentiation or apoptosis.
  • Here we report that cells of thymic lymphoma overexpressing Ras/Raf proteins, initially resistant to TCR-dependent apoptosis but sensitive to dexamethasone- and etoposide-induced cell death, became insensitive to dexamethasone after long-time culture.
  • Interestingly, lymphoma cells were still sensitive to p53-mediated apoptosis induced by etoposide.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / metabolism. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Thymus Neoplasms / metabolism. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Resistance / genetics. Genes, p53. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mutation. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 10722231.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-069X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. (Warsz.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] POLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
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10. Ríos A, Torres J, Roca MJ, Galindo PJ, Alonso JL, Parrilla P: [Primary thymic lymphomas]. Rev Clin Esp; 2006 Jul-Aug;206(7):326-31
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  • [Title] [Primary thymic lymphomas].
  • INTRODUCTION: Primary thymic lymphomas (PTLs) are uncommon, and their prognosis is linked with early treatment.
  • A review is carried out of this disease in our hospital in order to determine the best diagnostic-therapeutic management for these patients.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten LPTs--four Hodgkin's and six non-Hodgkin's (4 primary mediastinal B lymphomas [PMBLs] and 2 lymphoblastic T lymphomas [LTLs]--were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The initial diagnostic suspicion in the Hodgkin's lymphomas was thymoma in two cases and lymphoma in the other 2.
  • They were treated with radio and chemotherapy.
  • The response was partial in two cases, and treatment was completed with a bone marrow transplant (BMT) (one died and the other had active disease).
  • They were treated with chemotherapy, with associated radiotherapy in two.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In a patient with thymic tumour with a preoperative or intraoperative study suspected of having a lymphoma, it is necessary to do a biopsy and not resective surgery, to avoid unnecessary resections and morbidity.
  • The main treatment is radio and chemotherapy, with associated bone marrow transplantation in selected cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / radiography. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiography. Thymus Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Marrow Transplantation / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Thymectomy

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  • (PMID = 16831379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2565
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista clínica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Clin Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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11. Martelli M, Ferreri AJ, Johnson P: Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2008 Dec;68(3):256-63
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  • [Title] Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBCL) is a unique type of B-cell lymphoma probably arising from a putative thymic medulla B-cell.
  • The gene expression signature of PMLBCL seems to be much closer to classic Hodgkin lymphoma than to DLBCL.
  • Treatment with CHOP regimen followed by radiation therapy was associated with a 5-year survival of 65%.
  • Apparently better results have been reported with third-generation weekly alternating regimens followed by radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell. Mediastinal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pericardial Effusion / genetics. Pericardial Effusion / metabolism. Pericardial Effusion / mortality. Pericardial Effusion / therapy. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Survival Rate. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18774728.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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12. Oguz A, Karadeniz C, Citak EC, Conly NA, Ileri F, Boyunaga O, Okur V, Uluoglu O: Thymic and adenotonsillar enlargement after successful treatment of malignancies. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Jul-Aug;22(5):423-35
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  • [Title] Thymic and adenotonsillar enlargement after successful treatment of malignancies.
  • Anterior mediastinal and adenoid masses in children after cessation of chemotherapy for malignant disease often cause a diagnostic problem.
  • Differential diagnosis of thymic enlargement and adenoid hyperplasia from recurrence frequently poses a challenge both for the radiologist and the physician.
  • In this study the authors evaluated 491 patients with different malignant tumors for thymic and adenoid hyperplasia.
  • Thymic hyperplasia was seen in 18 patients (5 Hodgkin disease (HD), 5 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), 4 Wilms tumor, 2 germ cell tumor, 1 Ewing sarcoma, and 1 neuroblastoma), only adenotonsillar hyperplasia was seen in 6 patients, all with NHL, and both thymic and adenotonsillar hyperplasia were seen in 3 patients (1 HD, 2 NHL).
  • The authors recommend that patients with thymic and/or adenotonsillar enlargement after successful treatment of their primary malignancy should be evaluated cautiously before an invasive procedure is planned.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoids / pathology. Neoplasms / therapy. Thymus Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16020133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Estrada-Sánchez G, Ochoa-Carrillo FJ, Altamirano-Ley J: [(18)FDG PET/CT imaging in primary breast lymphoma and breast cancer]. Cir Cir; 2008 Jul-Aug;76(4):279-86
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  • [Title] [(18)FDG PET/CT imaging in primary breast lymphoma and breast cancer].
  • METHODS: We studied 1728 oncological patients and 295 patients were included, 293 with breast cancer (17%) and two patients with primary breast lymphoma (0.1%).
  • SUVmax for the primary tumor was 4.2 +/- 2.6 SD.
  • Mean SUVmax for patients with primary breast lymphoma were 3.2 and 1.4.
  • One patient presented thymic hyperplasia after chemotherapy.
  • The incidence of a second primary was 4.7%, 2.1% ovarian, 1.4% lung, 0.3% lymphoma, 0.3% endometrium, 0.3% pancreas and 0.3% thyroid.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mean SUVmax for the primary tumor was similar to that reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Neoplasms / radiography. Bone Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radionuclide imaging. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Female. Fluorine Radioisotopes. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Hyperplasia. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiography. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiography. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radionuclide imaging. Male. Mammography. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radiography. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thymus Gland / pathology. Thymus Gland / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 18778536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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14. Deshpande A, Bierman P, Vose J, Bast M, Bociek G, Lynch J, Armitage J: Diffuse large B cell lymphoma with mediastinal mass at presentation. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):6585

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diffuse large B cell lymphoma with mediastinal mass at presentation.
  • : 6585 Background: Primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL) has been recognized as a subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with distinct characteristics (e.g.: seen most often in young females) and is thought to be of thymic origin.
  • We conducted this retrospective analysis to study clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in patients with DLBCL and a mediastinal mass at presentation.
  • METHODS: This is an analysis of 61 patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting with a mediastinal mass> 5 cms who received their initial treatment between June 1984 and October 2000.
  • 27% received adjuvant radiation therapy.
  • All patients received anthracycline-containing chemotherapy.
  • Patients who received adjuvant radiation therapy compared to those who did not had better EFS (65% vs. 32%, p< 0.01), and OS (72% vs. 45%, p = 0.081).
  • The use of radiation therapy improved outcome in patients with stages I and II and not in III and IV.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DLBCL with mediastinal mass who present with limited stage disease benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy.

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  • (PMID = 28016183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Ayadi-Kaddour A, Mlika M, Kilani T, El Mezni F: A primary mediastinal Hodgkin's lymphoma with asymptomatic myasthenia gravis: a rare association. Pathologica; 2008 Jun;100(3):170-2
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  • [Title] A primary mediastinal Hodgkin's lymphoma with asymptomatic myasthenia gravis: a rare association.
  • It has been only rarely reported in association with thymic Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Thoracic computed tomography revealed an antero-superior mediastinal mass measuring 6 cm and invading the upper lobe of the left lung with parenchymal micronodules of the left lung and an involvement of mediastinal nodes.
  • After stabilising the MG with symptomatic therapies, surgical intervention was performed.
  • Histological and immunohistochemical findings led to the diagnosis of thymic Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • The patient is currently receiving complementary chemotherapy.
  • An association between asymptomatic MG and thymic Hodgkin's lymphoma has not been documented in the literature, and the present case appears to be the first reported.
  • The treatment of thymic Hodgkin's lymphoma is based on Cotswold staging system.
  • Nonetheless, MG generally regresses after surgical removal of the thymic lesion.

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  • (PMID = 18841821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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16. Seidemann K, Tiemann M, Lauterbach I, Mann G, Simonitsch I, Stankewitz K, Schrappe M, Zimmermann M, Niemeyer C, Parwaresch R, Riehm H, Reiter A, NHL Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Group: Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma with sclerosis in pediatric and adolescent patients: treatment and results from three therapeutic studies of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Group. J Clin Oncol; 2003 May 1;21(9):1782-9
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  • [Title] Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma with sclerosis in pediatric and adolescent patients: treatment and results from three therapeutic studies of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Group.
  • PURPOSE: Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma with sclerosis (PMLBL) is a rare entity of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) arising from thymic mature B cells.
  • Optimal treatment strategies remain to be established, especially in pediatric patients.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study analyzes clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of 30 pediatric patients with PMLBL, diagnosed in multicenter therapy NHL-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Group (BFM) trials.
  • Treatment was stratified by stage and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and consisted of four to six 5-day courses of chemotherapy using steroids, oxazaphosphorine alkylating agents, methotrexate, cytarabine, etoposide, and doxorubicin.
  • With a median observation time of 5 years (range, 1 to 12 years), probability of event-free survival (pEFS) at 5 years was 0.70 (SE, 0.08).
  • Two patients erroneously diagnosed as T-cell NHL received non-B-cell therapy and died from progress of disease.
  • Events in 28 patients receiving B-cell therapy included early progress during therapy (n = 1) and relapse (n = 6).
  • Residual mediastinal masses were present in 23 patients after two courses of therapy and in 15 patients after the end of therapy.
  • Dose-intense chemotherapy including high-dose methotrexate yields a pEFS at 5 years of 0.70 (SE, 0.08).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / analysis. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Sclerosis / etiology. Sclerosis / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12721255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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17. Nizze H, Prall F, Wigger M, Eggers G, Knieling K, Parwaresch R: [Primary renal manifestation in malignant lymphomas and leukemia]. Pathologe; 2003 Oct;24(6):460-5
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  • [Title] [Primary renal manifestation in malignant lymphomas and leukemia].
  • Primary manifestation of malignant lymphoma and/or leukaemia rarely occurs in the kidney.
  • At nephrectomy, a conventional (clear cell) renal cell carcinoma was found simultaneously with an occult mantle cell lymphoma infiltrating the adjacent renal and extrarenal tissue.
  • Clinical follow-up uncovered nodal and bone marrow involvement, so that a primary renal manifestation of mantle cell lymphoma was apparent.2.A 69-year-old man with suspected vertebral metastasis underwent partial renal resection because of a mass in his left kidney.
  • Histologically and immunohistochemically, the renal infiltration was diagnosed as a precursor B-lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • After chemotherapy and irradiation, leukaemic blood cell counts with 50% lymphoblasts proved a primary renal manifestation of precursor B-lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma.3.A 13-year-old boy presented clinically with renal failure, enlarged kidneys, and normal urinalysis.
  • Renal biopsy showed a diffuse interstitial infiltration with atypical T-lymphoblasts compressing tubules and surrounding preserved glomeruli.
  • Subsequent clinical bone marrow smears presented 60% T-lymphoblasts, so that the final diagnosis of a primary renal manifestation of acute T-lymphoblastic leukaemia of mature thymic cortex type was made.
  • Immediate chemotherapy resulted in total recovery of renal function and bone marrow findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Leukemia / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aged. Burkitt Lymphoma / pathology. Humans. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / surgery. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Am J Clin Pathol. 1991 Dec;96(6):738-45 [1746490.001]
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  • (PMID = 14605852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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18. Watanabe T, Watanabe M, Watanabe Y, Hotta C: Effects of oral administration of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) on incidence of spontaneous leukemia in AKR/J mice. Cancer Detect Prev; 2000;24(2):173-8
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  • Four-week-old female AKR/J mice were given oral doses of powdered roots from P. paniculata three times weekly for 8 weeks; controls received phosphate-buffered saline.
  • Enlargement of thymic lymphoma in the mice treated with P. paniculata was significantly suppressed, as compared with controls (128 +/- 67.3 mg versus 219.9 +/- 84.2 mg, respectively; P < .01); proliferation of endogenous recombinant murine leukemia viruses (MuLV) in the thymus was markedly inhibited after the first oral treatment as compared with untreated controls (final age, 28 weeks; P < .05).
  • In normal 3-week-old female AKR/J mice, mortality from thymic lymphoma was delayed markedly after injection into the thymus of cell-free extract of thymus from the experimental female 28-week-old AKR/J mice that received the oral P. paniculata preparation.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia / drug therapy. Mice, Inbred AKR. Panax / therapeutic use. Phytotherapy. Plants, Medicinal. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 10917139.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-090X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer detection and prevention
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Detect. Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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19. Hayashi I, Ohotsuki M, Suzuki I, Watanabe T: Effects of oral administration of Echinacea purpurea (American herb) on incidence of spontaneous leukemia caused by recombinant leukemia viruses in AKR/J mice. Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi; 2001 Feb;24(1):10-20
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  • Four-week-old female AKR/J mice were given oral doses of powdered leaves from Echinacea purpurea three times weekly for 8 weeks (7.5 mg/mouse/week): controls received phosphate-buffered saline.
  • Mean survival age of experimental AKR/J mice treated with the E. purpurea preparation was significantly prolonged and enlargement of thymic lymphoma in experimental mice was significantly suppressed compared with controls.
  • In normal 3-week-old female AKR/J mice, mortality from thymic lymphoma was delayed markedly after injection into the thymus of cell-free extract of thymus from the experimental 28-week-old female AKR/J mice that received the oral E. purpurea preparation was injected directly into the thymus.
  • Proliferation of endogenous recombinant murine leukemia viruses (MuLV) in the thymus was markedly inhibited after the first oral administration of the E. purpurea preparation as compared with untreated controls (final age, 28 weeks).
  • Production of endogenous interferon (IFN)-gamma in AKR/J mice was also effectively augmented by the oral treatment with the E. purpurea preparation, however, the production of other cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-12 was minimal.
  • [MeSH-major] Echinacea. Leukemia, Experimental / drug therapy. Plants, Medicinal

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  • (PMID = 11280896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0911-4300
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai kaishi = Japanese journal of clinical immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Plant Extracts
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20. Beaver LM, Strottner G, Klein MK: Response rate after administration of a single dose of doxorubicin in dogs with B-cell or T-cell lymphoma: 41 cases (2006-2008). J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2010 Nov 1;237(9):1052-5
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  • [Title] Response rate after administration of a single dose of doxorubicin in dogs with B-cell or T-cell lymphoma: 41 cases (2006-2008).
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the response rate after administration of a single dose of doxorubicin in dogs with B-cell or T-cell multicentric or thymic lymphoma.
  • ANIMALS: 41 client-owned dogs with lymphoma.
  • PROCEDURES: Medical records of dogs in which lymphoma was diagnosed between February 2006 and October 2008 were reviewed.
  • Entry criteria included that dogs had a confirmed lymphoma that was immunophenotyped to be of B-cell or T-cell origin.
  • Only dogs that received doxorubicin alone as their first chemotherapy treatment and were evaluated 1 week later were included in the study.
  • Dogs were excluded when they had received prior treatment with corticosteroids.
  • Medical records were reviewed to obtain signalment, stage and substage of lymphoma, and immunophenotype and to determine whether the dog had hypercalcemia at the time of diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Dogs with T-cell lymphoma had a significantly lower response rate to doxorubicin than did dogs with B-cell lymphoma.
  • Twenty-five of 29 (86.2%) dogs with B-cell lymphoma had a complete response, compared with 2 of 12 dogs in the T-cell group that had a complete response.
  • The overall response rate of dogs with B-cell lymphoma was 100%, compared with a response rate of 50% in dogs with T-cell lymphoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Standard-of-care chemotherapy protocols for the treatment of dogs with lymphoma include doxorubicin.
  • Many dogs with T-cell lymphoma did not respond to doxorubicin; therefore, multiagent protocols containing doxorubicin may not be optimal.
  • Alternative protocols should be considered for dogs with T-cell lymphoma that do not respond to doxorubicin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Dog Diseases / drug therapy. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, B-Cell / veterinary. Lymphoma, T-Cell / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 21034344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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21. Sacco O, Gambini C, Aicardi M, Silvestri M, Rossi UG, Tomà P, Mattioli G, Jasonni V, Rossi GA: Thymus tuberculosis poorly responding to anti-mycobacterial therapy in a young girl with primary infection. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis; 2004 Oct;21(3):232-6
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  • [Title] Thymus tuberculosis poorly responding to anti-mycobacterial therapy in a young girl with primary infection.
  • Tuberculous infection of the thymus is a rare condition, previously described only in young adults.
  • A case of a young girl with primary pulmonary tuberculosis, hilar and mediastinal lymph node enlargement and a partially necrotic mass in antero-superior mediastinum is described.
  • Treatment with three anti-mycobacterial drugs was started, effective in markedly reducing all the intrathoracic abnormalities with the exception of the antero-superior mediastinal mass.
  • Since the radiographic and ultrasonographic appearance of the thymus tuberculous infection may be indistinguishable from other serious conditions, including lymphoma and thymoma, a diagnostic procedure was performed.
  • Evaluation of the resected specimen showed foci of caseation and multiple granulomas with extensive central necrosis within the thymic tissue.

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  • (PMID = 15554081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-0490
  • [Journal-full-title] Sarcoidosis, vasculitis, and diffuse lung diseases : official journal of WASOG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents
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22. Priola AM, Priola SM, Cardinale L, Cataldi A, Fava C: The anterior mediastinum: diseases. Radiol Med; 2006 Apr;111(3):312-42
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  • In most cases, evaluation should proceed to spiral computed tomography (sCT) of the chest with iodinated contrast material.
  • The specific location and appearance of tumours on sCT is instrumental in planning further diagnostic and treatment strategies.
  • Primary tumours in the anterior mediastinum account for half of all mediastinal masses.
  • The most common primary anterior mediastinal tumours are thymoma, teratoma and lymphoma; all other lesions are rare.
  • Nonneoplastic conditions include thymic cysts, lymphangioma and intrathoracic goitre.
  • Understanding the pathology, clinical presentation, imaging and diagnosis of the major tumour types is instrumental in the safe and efficient work-up of a mediastinal mass.
  • Patients with primary mediastinal masses and cysts will usually undergo surgical resection; radiological and clinical features should prompt limited biopsy specimens followed by oncologic consultation, and chemotherapy or radiotherapy when appropriate.
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Diseases / diagnosis. Mediastinal Cyst / diagnosis. Mediastinitis / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Thymus Gland / pathology. Tomography, Spiral Computed

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  • (PMID = 16683081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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23. Finette BA, Homans AC, Rivers J, Messier T, Albertini RJ: Accumulation of somatic mutations in proliferating T cell clones from children treated for leukemia. Leukemia; 2001 Dec;15(12):1898-905
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  • We observed several instances of multiple, independent HPRT mutations accumulating in vivo in T cell receptor (TCR) gene defined clones that had undergone extensive pre- and/or post-thymic expansion following chemotherapy.
  • In addition, we also detected the accumulation of multiple unique single mutations within distinct expanding post-thymic T cell clones.
  • These observations provide a paradigm for a continuum of cellular events that eventually results in the clonal accumulation of mutations in selected populations of cells in vivo and may provide insight into the primary genetic events associated with leukemogenesis, as well as the development of second malignancies and drug resistance following chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Amino Acid Sequence. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cell Division / physiology. Cell Lineage. Child. Child, Preschool. Clone Cells / enzymology. Clone Cells / metabolism. Clone Cells / pathology. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Genes, T-Cell Receptor beta / genetics. Humans. Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase / genetics. Lymphocyte Activation / genetics. Male. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / enzymology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / etiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 11753611.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1K01CA77737NCI; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / 1R29HD35309; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA22435
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.4.2.8 / Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase
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24. Tansel T, Onursal E, Dayloğlu E, Başaran M, Sungur Z, Qamci E, Yilmazbayhan D, Eker R, Ertuğrul T: Childhood mediastinal masses in infants and children. Turk J Pediatr; 2006 Jan-Mar;48(1):8-12

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  • We reviewed all cases of primary pediatric mediastinal masses diagnosed and treated over a 24-year period.
  • In this study, out of 187 primary mediastinal mass cases diagnosed between 1980 and 2004 in Istanbul University Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Cardiovascular Surgery Department, 37 pediatric primary mediastinal mass cases were retrospectively evaluated according to age, sex, symptoms, diagnostic procedure, anatomical location, surgical treatment, histopathological evaluation and postoperative adjuvant therapy.
  • The patients ranged in age from 2 months to 15 years at the time of diagnosis, with a mean age of 8 years.
  • The cases were lymphoma (27%), neurogenic tumors (21.6%), cystic lesions (18.9%), germ cell tumors (13.5%), thymic lesions (10.8%) and cardiac tumors (8.1%).
  • The three patients with a malignant tumor, in whom the entire mass could not be removed, received chemotherapy and radiation after surgery.
  • In 10 patients with lymphoma, surgery was not a part of treatment and they received medical and radiation therapy after the establishment of the definitive diagnosis.
  • Primary pediatric mediastinal malignancies are relatively common in infants and children.
  • Lymphoma, neurogenic tumors and cystic lesions predominated.

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  • (PMID = 16562779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4301
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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25. Scupoli MT, Donadelli M, Cioffi F, Rossi M, Perbellini O, Malpeli G, Corbioli S, Vinante F, Krampera M, Palmieri M, Scarpa A, Ariola C, Foà R, Pizzolo G: Bone marrow stromal cells and the upregulation of interleukin-8 production in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia through the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis and the NF-kappaB and JNK/AP-1 pathways. Haematologica; 2008 Apr;93(4):524-32
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  • BACKGROUND: Cytokines released in the bone marrow and thymic microenvironments play a key role in the growth of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Among such cytokines, interleukin-8 is highly expressed in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells refractory to chemotherapy.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed the expression of interleukin-8 in primary cells from ten adult patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia when these cells were cultured with bone marrow stromal cells or stimulated with exogenous CXCL12.
  • We propose that, by upregulating interleukin-8, the bone marrow microenvironment and the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis may play a role in the pathogenesis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism. Chemokine CXCL12 / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic / physiology. Interleukin-8 / biosynthesis. JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / physiology. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / metabolism. NF-kappa B / physiology. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Receptors, CXCR4 / physiology. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Transcription Factor AP-1 / physiology. Up-Regulation / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Clinical Trials as Topic / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Jurkat Cells / drug effects. Jurkat Cells / metabolism. Multicenter Studies as Topic / statistics & numerical data. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / physiology. Transfection

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  • [CommentIn] Haematologica. 2008 Apr;93(4):493-7 [18379008.001]
  • (PMID = 18322253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factor AP-1; EC 2.7.11.24 / JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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26. Bapat K, Chintalwar GJ, Pandey U, Thakur VS, Sarma HD, Samuel G, Pillai MR, Chattopadhyay S, Venkatesh M: Preparation and in vitro evaluation of radioiodinated bakuchiol as an anti tumor agent. Appl Radiat Isot; 2005 Mar;62(3):389-93

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  • In-vitro uptake studies of 125I-bakuchiol were carried out using LS-A (lymphosarcoma) and barcl-95 (radiation-induced thymic lymphoma) ascitic and solid tumor cells of murine origin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cell Survival / radiation effects. Isotope Labeling. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / radiotherapy. Mice. Plant Extracts / metabolism. Psoralea / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 15607914.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-8043
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl Radiat Isot
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; OT12HJU3AR / bakuchiol
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27. Kanwar JR, Shen WP, Kanwar RK, Berg RW, Krissansen GW: Effects of survivin antagonists on growth of established tumors and B7-1 immunogene therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2001 Oct 17;93(20):1541-52
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  • [Title] Effects of survivin antagonists on growth of established tumors and B7-1 immunogene therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family, is detectable in most types of cancer, and its presence is associated with a poor prognosis.
  • We determined the effects of gene-based therapies that inhibit survivin function in a mouse tumor model.
  • METHODS: Using five to six mice per treatment group, we injected tumors derived from mouse EL-4 thymic lymphoma cells with plasmids encoding antisense survivin, a dominant-negative mutant survivin, and the T-cell costimulator B7-1.
  • CONCLUSION: Intratumoral injection of plasmids that block survivin expression and stimulate the generation of tumor-specific CTLs may be beneficial for the treatment of large lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD80 / therapeutic use. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / physiology. DNA, Antisense / therapeutic use. Genetic Therapy. Immunotherapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Microtubule-Associated Proteins. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Apoptosis. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Dosage. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Targeting. Genes, Dominant. Genetic Vectors / administration & dosage. Genetic Vectors / therapeutic use. Graft Rejection / immunology. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Injections, Intralesional. Lymphocyte Depletion. Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology. Lymphocyte Subsets / pathology. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Neoplasm Transplantation. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology

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  • (PMID = 11604477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD80; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA, Antisense; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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28. Fukuyama T, Tajima Y, Ueda H, Hayashi K, Shutoh Y, Harada T, Kosaka T: Apoptosis in immunocytes induced by several types of pesticides. J Immunotoxicol; 2010 Mar;7(1):39-56
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  • [Title] Apoptosis in immunocytes induced by several types of pesticides.
  • Several types of pesticides, such as organophosphates and organochlorines, can induce thymocyte apoptosis, resulting in thymic atrophy and predisposing the highly sensitive fetal immune system to loss of tolerance to self-antigens and subsequent increased risk for autoimmune disease and allergies.
  • In the studies here, mouse primary thymocytes and a human acute T-cell leukemia cell line (J45.01) were employed to examine potential thymocyte apoptosis induced by several types of chemicals, including several commonly-used pesticides.
  • The results here show that with both cell types, there was an increase in the proportion of annexin-V+ cells and levels of DNA fragmentation following exposure to parathion, PNMC, methoxychlor, or dexamethasone (positive control); however, the levels of sensitivity appeared to differ between the cell types.
  • These specific types of follow-on mechanistic experiments are currently underway in our laboratories.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Pesticides / toxicity. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. T-Lymphocytes / drug effects. Thymus Gland / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. DNA Fragmentation. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C

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  • (PMID = 19911945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-6901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunotoxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Immunotoxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Pesticides
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29. Kosobe T, Moriyama E, Tokuoka Y, Kawashima N: Size and surface charge effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid-containing liposomes on photodynamic therapy for cultivated cancer cells. Drug Dev Ind Pharm; 2005 Aug;31(7):623-9
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  • [Title] Size and surface charge effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid-containing liposomes on photodynamic therapy for cultivated cancer cells.
  • 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-containing liposomes having various average diameters and/or positive surface charges were prepared, and their photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy for murine thymic lymphoma cells, EL-4 cells, cultivated in vitro was investigated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Liposomes. Mice. Particle Size. Protoporphyrins / metabolism. Surface Properties

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  • (PMID = 16207609.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9045
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug development and industrial pharmacy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Dev Ind Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Protoporphyrins; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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30. Sandhya T, Lathika KM, Pandey BN, Mishra KP: Potential of traditional ayurvedic formulation, Triphala, as a novel anticancer drug. Cancer Lett; 2006 Jan 18;231(2):206-14
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  • [Title] Potential of traditional ayurvedic formulation, Triphala, as a novel anticancer drug.
  • The cytotoxic effects of aqueous extract of Triphala, an ayurvedic formulation, were investigated on human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and a transplantable mouse thymic lymphoma (barcl-95).
  • On the other hand, treatment of normal breast epithelial cells, MCF-10 F, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mouse liver and spleen cells, with similar concentrations of Triphala did not affect their cytotoxicity significantly.
  • The drug treatment was found to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and barcl-95 cells in vitro as determined by annexin-V fluorescence and proportion of apoptotic cells was found dependent on Triphala concentration.
  • It was also found that apoptosis was significantly higher in the excised tumor tissue of Triphala fed mice as compared to the control, suggesting the involvement of apoptosis in tumor growth reduction.
  • The differential response of normal and tumor cells to Triphala in vitro and the substantial regression of transplanted tumor in mice fed with Triphala points to its potential use as an anticancer drug for clinical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Medicine, Ayurvedic. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Phyllanthus emblica. Phytotherapy. Plant Preparations / therapeutic use. Terminalia
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Annexin A5 / metabolism. Apoptosis / drug effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. DNA Damage. Female. Fluorescence. Humans. Liver / drug effects. Liver / metabolism. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Lymphoma / pathology. Mice. Mice, Nude. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Spleen / drug effects. Spleen / metabolism. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Transplantation, Heterologous. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15899544.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A5; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Plant Preparations; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species
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