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Items 1 to 37 of about 37
1. Lee YK, Choi CG, Lee JH: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the cerebellum: report of two infantile cases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2004 Mar;25(3):481-3
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the cerebellum: report of two infantile cases.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the CNS is an aggressive infantile neoplasm of uncertain origin.
  • In our two infantile cases, this tumor presented as a bulky cerebellar hemispheric mass with significant mass effect to the fourth ventricle and brain stem.
  • Although the attenuation on CT and signal intensity characteristics at MR imaging of this tumor were similar to those of vermian medulloblastoma, cerebellar hemispheric location and aggressive growth pattern could be considered as different gross morphologic characteristics of this tumor.
  • Despite intensive chemotherapy and radiation therapy, both of our two patients died within 8 months of pathologic diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / congenital. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Rhabdoid Tumor / congenital. Teratoma / congenital. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cerebellum / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Dominance, Cerebral / physiology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Humans. Infant. Kidney Neoplasms / congenital. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Medulla Oblongata / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / congenital. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15037476.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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2. Rodini CO, Suzuki DE, Nakahata AM, Pereira MC, Janjoppi L, Toledo SR, Okamoto OK: Aberrant signaling pathways in medulloblastomas: a stem cell connection. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2010 Dec;68(6):947-52

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  • Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant primary tumor of the central nervous system.
  • It represents the most frequent type of solid tumor and the leading cause of death related to cancer in early childhood.
  • Current treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy which may lead to severe cognitive impairment and secondary brain tumors.
  • New perspectives for therapeutic development have emerged with the identification of stem-like cells displaying high tumorigenic potential and increased radio- and chemo-resistance in gliomas.
  • Under the cancer stem cell hypothesis, transformation of neural stem cells and/or granular neuron progenitors of the cerebellum are though to be involved in medulloblastoma development.
  • From the clinical viewpoint, modulation of signaling pathways such as TGFβ, regulating neural stem cell proliferation and tumor development, might be attempted as an alternative strategy for future drug development aiming at more efficient therapies and improved clinical outcome of patients with pediatric brain cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Neural Stem Cells / pathology. Signal Transduction. Transforming Growth Factor beta

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  • (PMID = 21243257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4227
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta
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3. Otero-Rodríguez A, Hinojosa J, Esparza J, Muñoz MJ, Iglesias S, Rodríguez-Gil Y, Ricoy JR: Purely intramedullary spinal cord primitive neuroectodermal tumor: case report and review of the literature. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2009 Aug;20(4):381-6; discussion 386-7
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  • INTRODUCTION: Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are malign neoplasms of the central nervous system which mainly locate in cerebellum (medulloblastoma).
  • Primary intraspinal PNETs are rare.
  • Subsequent chemotherapy was recommended.
  • Outcome is dismal: most patients die within two years in spite of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Thoracic Vertebrae
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Paraparesis / etiology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19688140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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4. Yoshino T, Nakamura S, Matsuno Y, Ochiai A, Yokoi T, Kitadai Y, Suzumiya J, Tobinai K, Kobayashi Y, Oda I, Mera K, Ohtsu A, Ishikura S: Epstein-Barr virus involvement is a predictive factor for the resistance to chemoradiotherapy of gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Cancer Sci; 2006 Feb;97(2):163-6
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  • Primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphomas are generally well controlled by non-surgical treatment with combination chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy.
  • We have previously reported that over 90% of patients achieved complete response (CR) with this therapeutic strategy: three cycles of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine and prednisone followed by radiotherapy (40.5 Gy).
  • Although the CR rate was very high, some patients still showed resistance to this combination therapy.
  • In order to clarify the factors related to therapy resistance, we examined the relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which was examined using an in situ hybridization technique, and the patients' clinical courses.
  • The other patient achieved CR, but the lymphoma recurred with distant metastasis in the cerebellum 3 months after remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / virology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics. Lymphoma, B-Cell / virology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / virology. Radiation Tolerance. Stomach Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / secondary. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / virology. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / virology. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Prognosis. RNA, Viral / analysis. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16441428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-9032
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Viral; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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5. Heuer GG, Kiefer H, Judkins AR, Belasco J, Biegel JA, Jackson EM, Cohen M, O'Malley BW Jr, Storm PB: Surgical treatment of a clival-C2 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Jan;5(1):75-9
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of a clival-C2 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • These aggressive lesions of early childhood generally occur in the cerebellum or cerebral hemispheres.
  • A transoral biopsy procedure revealed an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor on histological examination.
  • Postoperatively, the patient underwent 16 months of chemotherapy along with 6 weeks of overlapping radiation therapy.
  • The conus tumor was resected and found to be consistent with the primary tumor.

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  • (PMID = 20043739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046274-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA046274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA046274-18
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS184119; NLM/ PMC2840717
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6. Hukin J, Siffert J, Velasquez L, Zagzag D, Allen J: Leptomeningeal dissemination in children with progressive low-grade neuroepithelial tumors. Neuro Oncol; 2002 10;4(4):253-60
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  • We have continuously tracked all patients with primary CNS tumors since 1986.
  • Satisfactorily followed data were obtained on 427 of the 588 patients with localized LGN at diagnosis between 1986 and 1998, 177 (42%) of whom developed progressive or recurrent disease.
  • The primary tumor sites were diencephalon (6), brainstem (3), cerebellum (2), cerebrum (1), and spinal cord (1).
  • Management included chemotherapy (2) or radiotherapy (3) or both (7); 1 patient received only radical resections of symptomatic lesions.
  • We strongly urge that for optimum treatment planning all patients with recurrent LGN be staged with an enhanced spine and brain MRI before adjuvant therapy is initiated.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12356355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1920666
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7. Belcher SM, Ma X, Le HH: Blockade of estrogen receptor signaling inhibits growth and migration of medulloblastoma. Endocrinology; 2009 Mar;150(3):1112-21
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  • These invasive neuroectodermal tumors arise from cerebellar granule cell-like precursors.
  • In the developing cerebellum, estrogen influences growth and viability of granule cell precursors that transiently express elevated levels estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) during differentiation.
  • Immunoanalysis revealed that ERbeta was expressed in the maturing human cerebellum, in all 22 primary MD tumors analyzed, and in two MD-derived cell lines (D283Med and Daoy).
  • Similar to previous studies in normal cerebellar granule cell precursors, these studies demonstrate that the physiological actions of estrogens in MD are mediated by ERbeta.
  • Preclinical studies assessing the therapeutic efficacy of antiestrogen chemotherapeutics for treating human MD were performed.
  • It was found that pharmacological inhibition of ER-mediated signaling with the ER antagonist drug Faslodex (ICI182,780) blocked all estrogen-mediated effects in both cell culture and xenograft models of human MD.
  • These studies have revealed that functional ERbeta expression is a fundamental aspect of MD biology and has defined antiestrogen therapy as a potentially efficacious clinical approach to improve the long-term outcomes for MD patients.

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  • (PMID = 19008315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7170
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES006096; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES015145; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30-ES06096; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01-ES015145
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 22X328QOC4 / fulvestrant; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2654749
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8. Miura M, Iijima N, Hayashida K, Kitazawa K, Ishii K, Ohara S: [Case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis effectively treated with intrathecal chemotherapy using ventriculoperitoneal shunt]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku; 2006 Jun;46(6):404-9
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  • [Title] [Case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis effectively treated with intrathecal chemotherapy using ventriculoperitoneal shunt].
  • Systemic investigation for primary neoplasm identified a Bormman type 3 gastric cancer (papillary adenocarcinoma with micropapillary pattern).
  • For the next five months, he was well on oral S-1 and monthly intrathecal chemotherapy, being able to walk using a walker and to stay at home.
  • He subsequently developed posterior cortical symptoms such as prosopagnosia and cortical blindness and gradually lapsed into coma.
  • At autopsy, primary gastric cancer was found but much reduced in size.
  • In the brain, leptomeningeal carcinomatosis involved the occipital lobes, the base of the temporal lobe, and the cerebellum.
  • We suggest that intrathecal chemotherapy using ventriculoperitoneal shunt with programmable valve system could be an effective method for the treatment of meningeal carcinomatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Drug Combinations. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Intracranial Hypertension / etiology. Intracranial Hypertension / therapy. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Oxonic Acid / administration & dosage. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16986702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-918X
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinshō shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Shinkeigaku
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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9. Sell M, Mitrovics T, Sander BC: Primary nodular meningeal glioma mimicking metastatic tumor of the cerebellum with diffuse infra- and supratentorial leptomeningeal spread. Clin Neuropathol; 2000 May-Jun;19(3):126-30
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  • [Title] Primary nodular meningeal glioma mimicking metastatic tumor of the cerebellum with diffuse infra- and supratentorial leptomeningeal spread.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed an enhancing mass on the inferior aspect of the right cerebellar hemisphere as well as a thin, widespread leptomeningeal enhancement and T2-weighted hyperintense lesions in the left occipital lobe and both thalami.
  • Despite whole brain irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy the patient deteriorated gradually and died four months later.
  • Post-mortem examination of the brain revealed a nodular, high-grade astrocytic tumor within the subarachnoid space on the lower portion of the right cerebellar hemisphere.
  • Diffuse leptomeningeal spread was noted, but cerebellar parenchyma was not infiltrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Supratentorial Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 14606585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. al-Ghamdi H, Sabbah R, Martin J, Patay Z: Primary T-cell lymphoma of the brain in children: a case report and literature review. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 Jun;17(4):341-3
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  • [Title] Primary T-cell lymphoma of the brain in children: a case report and literature review.
  • Described here are the clinical features and results of treatment in a 10-year-old Saudi Arabian girl with primary T-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system.
  • The diagnosis was established by tissue biopsy obtained from the cerebellum.
  • Therapy included cranio-spinal irradiation and combination chemotherapy of a systemic high dose of methotrexate, cytosine, arabinoside, and L-asparaginase.
  • Remission was obtained easily but was interrupted by a local intracranial relapse 57 months after diagnosis (37 months after cessation of therapy; at present the patient is still alive and receiving palliative treatment).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Lymphoma, T-Cell
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Arabinose / therapeutic use. Asparaginase / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytosine / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Recurrence. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 10845234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8J337D1HZY / Cytosine; B40ROO395Z / Arabinose; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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11. Fukushima S, Terasaki M, Tajima Y, Shigemori M: Granulocytic sarcoma: an unusual complication of acute promyelocytic leukemia causing cerebellar hemorrhage. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2006 Dec;105(6):912-5
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  • [Title] Granulocytic sarcoma: an unusual complication of acute promyelocytic leukemia causing cerebellar hemorrhage. Case report.
  • Granulocytic sarcomas are rare tumors that occur primarily in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia or other myeloproliferative disorders, are seldom seen in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and have never been reported to occur in the cerebellum.
  • The authors describe the case of a patient with APL who harbored a hemorrhagic granulocytic sarcoma in the cerebellum.
  • This 39-year-old woman presented with cerebellar ataxia.
  • Magnetic resonance images revealed an intraaxial tumor in the cerebellum.
  • The patient was treated with chemotherapy and surgery.
  • She had no response to chemotherapy and died of progressive intratumoral hemorrhage.
  • Results of histopathological studies and immunohistochemical staining of the cerebellar tumor confirmed a granulocytic sarcoma.
  • This is the first report to document a granulocytic sarcoma in the cerebellum as the primary presentation in a patient with APL and abnormal coagulation.
  • Although central nervous system complications in patients with APL are rare, the data in this case highlight the need for individualized treatment when such conditions occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / etiology. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / complications. Sarcoma, Myeloid / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow / pathology. Cerebellar Ataxia / etiology. Cerebellum / pathology. Chimera / genetics. Female. Gene Fusion / genetics. Granulocyte Precursor Cells / pathology. Humans. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Karyotyping. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17405265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / retinoic acid receptor alpha
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12. Nagashima T, Mizutani Y, Kawahara H, Maguchi S, Terayama Y, Shinohara T, Orba Y, Chuma T, Mano Y, Itoh T, Sawa H, Sakai K, Motomura M, Nagashima K: Anti-Hu paraneoplastic syndrome presenting with brainstem-cerebellar symptoms and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Neuropathology; 2003 Sep;23(3):230-8
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  • [Title] Anti-Hu paraneoplastic syndrome presenting with brainstem-cerebellar symptoms and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome.
  • Two cycles of combined chemotherapy resulted in shrinkage of the lung tumor together with complete recovery of neurological symptoms and disappearance of anti-Hu antibody.
  • Relapse of SCLC 4 months later with re-appearance of anti-Hu antibody required additional chemotherapy and irradiation.
  • Eight months later, when multiple liver metastasis of SCLC was noticed, muscular weakness with positive waxing phenomenon compatible with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) developed.
  • Postmortem examinations revealed residual SCLC in the primary lung, and massive liver metastasis with generalized lymph node involvement, but no tumors in the CNS.
  • In the cerebellum, there was a slight loss of Purkinje cells with torpedo formation but without apparent lymphocytic infiltration.
  • The present PNS was unique in that the relapse of SCLC was accompanied by the appearance of anti-Hu antibody, and that initial signs of brainstem-cerebellar symptoms, encephalopathy and autonomic failure were replaced by LEMS coinciding with the tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / complications. Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / immunology. RNA-Binding Proteins / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Autoantibodies / blood. Autoantibodies / cerebrospinal fluid. Blotting, Western. Brain Stem / pathology. Cerebellum / pathology. ELAV Proteins. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14570293.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / ELAV Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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13. Endo H, Kumabe T, Jokura H, Shirane R, Ariga H, Takai Y, Yoshimoto T: Leptomeningeal dissemination of cerebellar malignant astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2003 Jun;63(2):191-9
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  • [Title] Leptomeningeal dissemination of cerebellar malignant astrocytomas.
  • Primary malignant astrocytomas of the cerebellum are extremely rare, and the dissemination patterns and effectiveness of postoperative radiation therapy are unclear.
  • Five consecutive cases of histologically proven cerebellar malignant astrocytoma, two anaplastic astrocytomas, one anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma, and two glioblastomas, were treated between 1997 and 2001.
  • Four patients underwent surgical removal, local irradiation, and chemotherapy, and one patient with anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma received subtotal removal followed by gamma knife radiosurgery for the residual tumor.
  • Two patients had no recurrence at the primary site.
  • All patients developed leptomeningeal dissemination.
  • The time interval between the diagnosis of the primary cerebellar tumor and the diagnosis of leptomeningeal dissemination was 5-29 months (mean 14.6 +/- 10.4 months).
  • Intensive treatment including chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be required in cerebellar malignant astrocytomas, considering the high incidence of symptomatic leptomeningeal dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / secondary. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cerebral Ventricles / pathology. Child. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12825824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Ferreri AJ, Blay JY, Reni M, Pasini F, Spina M, Ambrosetti A, Calderoni A, Rossi A, Vavassori V, Conconi A, Devizzi L, Berger F, Ponzoni M, Borisch B, Tinguely M, Cerati M, Milani M, Orvieto E, Sanchez J, Chevreau C, Dell'Oro S, Zucca E, Cavalli F: Prognostic scoring system for primary CNS lymphomas: the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group experience. J Clin Oncol; 2003 Jan 15;21(2):266-72
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  • [Title] Prognostic scoring system for primary CNS lymphomas: the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group experience.
  • PURPOSE: To identify survival predictors and to design a prognostic score useful for distinguishing risk groups in immunocompetent patients with primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The prognostic role of patient-, lymphoma-, and treatment-related variables was analyzed in a multicenter series of 378 PCNSL patients treated at 23 cancer centers from five different countries.
  • RESULTS: Age more than 60 years, performance status (PS) more than 1, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum level, high CSF protein concentration, and involvement of deep regions of the brain (periventricular regions, basal ganglia, brainstem, and/or cerebellum) were significantly and independently associated with a worse survival.
  • The prognostic role of this score was confirmed by limiting analysis to assessable patients treated with high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy (2-year OS +/- SD: 85% +/- 8%, 57% +/- 8%, and 24% +/- 11%; P =.0004).
  • The proposed score and its relevance in therapeutic decision deserve to be validated in further studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Cerebrospinal Fluid / metabolism. Female. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Risk Factors. Surveys and Questionnaires. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12525518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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15. Shibata K, Tokunaga K, Imai Y, Tono T, Masutani S, Ukei T, Kobayashi T: [Brain infarction related to hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2001 Oct;28(11):1554-7

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  • [Title] [Brain infarction related to hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy].
  • We examined the occurrence of brain infarction with hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for liver cancer.
  • One hundred and eighty-one cases of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy were carried out for liver cancer patients in 4 hospitals associated with Osaka University 2nd Dept. of Surgery.
  • These included metastatic (n = 103) and primary (n = 78) liver tumors.
  • The medication was mainly 5-FU with/without CDDP and IFN.
  • Occlusions were found in the cerebellum (n = 3), thalamus (n = 1), brain stem (n = 1) and TIA (n = 2).
  • Many more brain infarctions occurred in metastatic liver cancer patients than in primary liver cancer patients.
  • The hemostasis function deteriorated in primary liver cancer patients, and is thought to be involved in the brain infarction.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Hepatic Artery. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 11707978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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16. Bowers DC, Krause TP, Aronson LJ, Barzi A, Burger PC, Carson BS, Weingart JD, Wharam MD, Melhem ER, Cohen KJ: Second surgery for recurrent pilocytic astrocytoma in children. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2001 May;34(5):229-34
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  • In cases where the tumor progresses or recurs following primary surgical resection, the appropriate treatment is unclear.
  • Options include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgical resection or a combination thereof.
  • Patients were excluded if they received adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
  • Tumor locations included: cerebral hemisphere (3), cerebellum (7), optic pathway/hypothalamus (5), thalamus (1) and brainstem (4).
  • Surgery for tumors located in the cerebral hemispheres or cerebellum resulted in GTR or NTR in all cases and can result in long periods of progression-free survival without further adjuvant treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Reoperation / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


17. Koeller KK, Rushing EJ: From the archives of the AFIP: medulloblastoma: a comprehensive review with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2003 Nov-Dec;23(6):1613-37
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  • Medulloblastoma is the most common pediatric central nervous system malignancy and the most common primary tumor of the posterior fossa in children.
  • This highly malignant neoplasm occurs more frequently in males and usually before 10 years of age.
  • Clinical symptoms and signs are generally brief, typically less than 3 months in duration, and reflect the strong predilection of this tumor to arise within the cerebellum, most often in the vermis.
  • Surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have substantially lowered the mortality associated with this tumor, with 5-year survival rates now commonly well above 50%.
  • Still, both dissemination at the time of diagnosis and recurrence remain obstacles in achieving a cure.
  • Evidence of leptomeningeal metastatic spread is present in 33% of all cases at the time of diagnosis and is well evaluated with contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the brain and the spine.
  • With continued research, treatment of these common neoplasms should improve, perhaps even achieving a cure in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Medulloblastoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Meninges / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 14615567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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18. Shinwari Z, Manogaran PS, Alrokayan SA, Al-Hussein KA, Aboussekhra A: Vincristine and lomustine induce apoptosis and p21(WAF1) up-regulation in medulloblastoma and normal human epithelial and fibroblast cells. J Neurooncol; 2008 Apr;87(2):123-32
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  • Medulloblastomas arise in the cerebellum and are the most common pediatric primary malignant brain tumors.
  • Currently, medulloblastoma patients are best treated with surgical removal of the tumor, adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • However, the effects of these drugs on medulloblastomas as well as on other cell types is still not well defined.
  • In the present report we present evidence that the cytotoxic effect of these drugs is not specific for medulloblastoma cells but includes also normal fibroblast and epithelial cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / drug effects. Lomustine / pharmacology. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Vincristine / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Fibroblasts / drug effects. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunoblotting. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / drug effects. Up-Regulation. bcl-X Protein / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18058069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine
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19. Iwase T, Sugiyama K, Takahira M, Uchiyama A: Intraocular lymphoma metastasis from larynx. Eur J Ophthalmol; 2007 Jan-Feb;17(1):133-5
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  • PURPOSE: To present a rare case of primary larynx diffuse large B cell lymphoma non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), disseminated to the cerebellum and the intraocular tissue.
  • RESULTS: The authors discovered diffuse large B cell NHL with cytopathologic examination from vitreous specimen in this case, which was identical with diffuse large B cell NHL of the larynx and cerebellum, and therefore could diagnose the intraocular lesion as the metastasis of NHL.
  • The authors treated by the combined curative chemotherapy and radiotherapy to ocular tissue, since providing sufficient evidence that the chorioretinal lesion was to predict the metastasis of diffuse large B cell NHL After those treatments, chorioretinal lesions have disappeared in both eyes and the vision has recovered.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increased attention to the possibility of dissemination of laryngeal NHL to the intraocular tissue is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / secondary. Eye Neoplasms / secondary. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Vitreous Body / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Vitrectomy

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  • (PMID = 17294396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-6721
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Inoue T, Kanamori M, Sonoda Y, Watanabe M, Sasajima T, Kamisato N, Kumabe T, Tominaga T: [Glioblastoma multiforme developing separately from the initial lesion 9 years after successful treatment for gliomatosis cerebri: a case report]. No Shinkei Geka; 2008 Aug;36(8):709-15
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  • [Title] [Glioblastoma multiforme developing separately from the initial lesion 9 years after successful treatment for gliomatosis cerebri: a case report].
  • We report a case of histologically confirmed glioblastoma multiforme in the cerebellar vermis which occurred 9 years after treatment for gliomatosis cerebri.
  • She received 60 Gy hyperfractionated irradiation to the whole brain, and the lesion responded partially.
  • The patient remained stable for 4 years, but T2-weighted MR imaging 5 years after the initial treatment showed enlargement of the hyperintense area.
  • She received nimustine hydrochloride chemotherapy, and again partial response was observed. However.
  • T1-weighted MR imaging after administration of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid detected enhanced lesions in the cerebellar vermis, cerebellar hemisphere, and left posterior limb of the internal capsule 9 years after the initial treatment, although no abnormal findings were observed on initial and follow-up MR imaging.
  • She underwent subtotal removal of the lesion in the cerebellar vermis.
  • The patient received gamma knife irradiation for the remnant lesion in the cerebellar vermis, and the lesions in the cerebellar hemisphere and left posterior limb of the internal capsule, and chemotherapy with temozolomide.
  • However, multiple enhanced lesions were detected in the cerebellar vermis 2 months after the start of the temozolomide chemotherapy, and she died 8 months later.
  • This case suggests that glioblastoma multiforme could develop in the long term after initial treatment for gliomatosis cerebri, and in a location separate from the initial lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Cerebellum. Glioblastoma / therapy. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiosurgery. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18700534.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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21. Michelucci R: Optimizing therapy of seizures in neurosurgery. Neurology; 2006 Dec 26;67(12 Suppl 4):S14-8
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  • [Title] Optimizing therapy of seizures in neurosurgery.
  • The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the neurosurgical setting has a number of implications, including their possible role in the prevention of seizures after acute cerebral insults or brain tumors and the potential for toxicity and interactions when these agents are administered in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • 1) AEDs should be prescribed on a short-term basis to prevent seizures occurring within the first week after a cerebral insult (trauma, neurosurgical procedure) but are ineffective to avoid true post-traumatic epilepsy or first seizures in patients with primary or secondary cerebral neoplasms.
  • The newly developed AEDs that are devoid of hepatic metabolism, such as levetiracetam and gabapentin, are now recommended because of good results in preliminary studies and because they do not show interactions with anticancer agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Epilepsy / drug therapy. Epilepsy / etiology. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Anticonvulsants / adverse effects. Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cerebellum / surgery. Craniocerebral Trauma / complications. Drug Interactions. Humans. Radiation Injuries

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  • (PMID = 17190915.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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22. Yazigi-Rivard L, Masserot C, Lachenaud J, Diebold-Pressac I, Aprahamian A, Avran D, Doz F: [Childhood medulloblastoma]. Arch Pediatr; 2008 Dec;15(12):1794-804
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  • It is a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) and predominantly arises in the cerebellum and 4th ventricle.
  • Tumor molecular genetic findings allow the use of emerging prognostic factors and may ultimately contribute to the development of targeted therapy.
  • Current treatment in the oldest children combines surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • Treatment in younger patients is as much as possible restricted to surgery and chemotherapy.
  • However, long-term sequelae after treatment for medulloblastoma remain frequent and the detection and treatment of those sequelae is an essential part of the follow-up of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms. Medulloblastoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Meta-Analysis as Topic. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18995998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-693X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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23. Back M, Ahern V, Berry M, Borg M, Sexton M, Cameron F, Stevens G, Allison R, Childs J, Barton M: Importance of radiation time and dose factors on outcome for childhood medulloblastoma. Australas Radiol; 2005 Aug;49(4):298-303
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  • [Title] Importance of radiation time and dose factors on outcome for childhood medulloblastoma.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of posterior fossa radiation therapy duration (PFRTD) and relapse-free survival (RFS) following adjuvant craniospinal RT for childhood medulloblastoma.
  • Children receiving prolonged (>180 days) pre-RT chemotherapy were excluded.
  • Data were obtained for potential prognostic factors in domains of patient, tumour and treatment factors.
  • Radiation therapy time factors assessed were PFRTD and time interval from surgery to commencement of RT (SRTD).
  • Seventy-three per cent of children presented with disease confined to the cerebellum; 13% had initial neuraxis disease.
  • Macroscopic resection was described in 54%; 42% received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Median RT dose and RT duration to PF was 55 Gy and 45 days, respectively.
  • Other factors assessed that did not reach significance were patient age, local tumour extent, presence of internal shunt and use of chemotherapy.
  • The importance of local treatment factors was confirmed in this audit with established prognostic factors such as primary tumour macroscopic resection and adequate PF RT dose being associated with RFS.
  • A treatment time effect is weakly suggested, although less significant than RT dose delivered.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / radiography. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16026436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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24. Taya K, Terao T, Tanaka T, Sawauchi S, Numoto RT, Murakami S, Nishiwaki K, Hashimoto T, Abe T: [Spontaneous regression of primary central nervous system lymphoma: a case report]. No Shinkei Geka; 2004 Jun;32(6):637-42
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  • [Title] [Spontaneous regression of primary central nervous system lymphoma: a case report].
  • A rare case of primary central nervous system lymphoma that regressed spontaneously as shown on serial cranial magnetic resonance imagings (MRI) is described.
  • A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a well-enhanced mass lesion in the cerebellum although MRI had demonstrated no abnormal findings 4 months before admission.
  • Pathologic examination suspected B-cell type of malignant lymphoma.
  • Postoperative MRI performed on February 23, 2001 showed disappearance of the mass lesion without further treatment.
  • Different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays detected clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements in paraffin-embedded tissues diagnosed as B-cell lymphoma.
  • One year after operation, MRI revealed an abnormal finding in the cerebellum without apparent neurological deterioration.
  • Radiation therapy of the whole brain and the local site was carried out with a total dose of 50Gy.
  • MRI demonstrated complete remission of the tumor following radiation therapy.
  • Subsequently, systemic chemotherapy was carried out.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphoma, B-Cell / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15352634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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25. Widdess-Walsh P, Tavee JO, Schuele S, Stevens GH: Response to intravenous immunoglobulin in anti-Yo associated paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration: case report and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2003 Jun;63(2):187-90
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  • [Title] Response to intravenous immunoglobulin in anti-Yo associated paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration: case report and review of the literature.
  • Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is a debilitating neuro-degenerative disease associated with antibodies directed against the purkinje cells of the cerebellum.
  • Treatment using chemotherapy or other treatment of the primary tumor to various immunologically directed therapies has been attempted but outcomes have been poor.
  • A Medline search from 1966-2002 produced fifteen cases of PCD confirmed by antibody testing that were treated with IVIG, either alone, or with a combination of other therapies.
  • The clinical characteristics and treatment responses of these patients are analyzed in this review.
  • Early treatment with sufficiently high doses of IVIG seems to provide a better chance of treatment success.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Autoantigens / immunology. DNA-Binding Proteins / immunology. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology. Nerve Tissue Proteins. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Methylprednisolone / therapeutic use. Middle Aged

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  • [Cites] J Neurol. 1999 Apr;246(4):299-303 [10367699.001]
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  • (PMID = 12825823.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / CDR1 protein, human; 0 / CDR2 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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26. Gilmer-Hill HS, Ellis WG, Imbesi SG, Boggan JE: Spinal oligodendroglioma with gliomatosis in a child. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2000 Jan;92(1 Suppl):109-13
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  • The authors present a rare case of oligodendrogliomatosis in a child, which they believe originated from a primary spinal cord tumor.
  • At 2.5 years of age this boy developed poor balance, neck stiffness, and a regression in developmental milestones.
  • A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the head initially revealed ventriculomegaly and multiple cystic cerebellar lesions.
  • A CT scan of the head and an MR image obtained 3 years later demonstrated diffuse small cysts on the surface of the brainstem, cerebellum, medial temporal and inferior frontal cortices, subcortical white matter, and corpus callosum suggestive of leptomeningeal tumor spread.
  • Despite having a complicated course, chemotherapy with carboplatin has provided the patient with long-term palliation and a high quality of life.
  • This case may represent the fifth report in the literature of oligodendrogliomatosis occurring in a child but only the third occurring with a spinal primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Palliative Care. Photomicrography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


27. Benesch M, Wagner S, Berthold F, Wolff JE: Primary dissemination of high-grade gliomas in children: experiences from four studies of the Pediatric Oncology and Hematology Society of the German Language Group (GPOH). J Neurooncol; 2005 Apr;72(2):179-83
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  • [Title] Primary dissemination of high-grade gliomas in children: experiences from four studies of the Pediatric Oncology and Hematology Society of the German Language Group (GPOH).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective data analysis of all patients enrolled into four consecutive HGG protocols of the Pediatric Oncology and Hematology Society of the German Language Group (GPOH) to determine the incidence of primary CNS dissemination of HGG and to describe clinical characteristics and outcome of children with HGG who were diagnosed with CNS dissemination at initial presentation.
  • RESULTS: A total of 10 patients (3.1%) (anaplastic astrocytoma: n=3, glioblastoma multiforme: n=6, diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma: n=1) had primary tumor dissemination.
  • The most frequent primary tumor sites were the cortex (n=4), followed by the ventricles (n=2), cerebellum (n=1), spinal cord (n=1), and pons (n=1).
  • Following surgery eight patients received local radiotherapy and eight additional chemotherapy.
  • Median progression-free and overall survival was 0.8 years (95% CI 0.2-1.4) and 1.5 years (95% CI 0.67-2.29) for patients with primary tumor dissemination, respectively, with no statistically significant differences between the group with and the group without primary tumor dissemination.
  • As prognosis of children with HGG and primary CNS dissemination was not inferior to patients without dissemination in our population, these patients should be treated in the same way as patients without primary CNS dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / analogs & derivatives. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15925999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; H64JRU6GJ0 / trofosfamide
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28. Oliveira AM, Scheithauer BW, Salomao DR, Parisi JE, Burger PC, Nascimento AG: Primary sarcomas of the brain and spinal cord: a study of 18 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2002 Aug;26(8):1056-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary sarcomas of the brain and spinal cord: a study of 18 cases.
  • Primary sarcomas of the central nervous system are exceedingly rare.
  • We reviewed the clinicopathologic features of 18 primary central nervous system sarcomas diagnosed from 1959 through 1999.
  • Fifteen tumors arose in the cerebrum (83%), two in the cerebellum, and one in the spinal cord.
  • Histopathologically, the most common tumor types included fibrosarcoma (six), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (five), and undifferentiated sarcoma (three).
  • All patients had subtotal to gross total tumor resection; 16 also received radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • Survival at 5 years for patients with high-grade tumors was 28% compared with 83% for those with low-grade neoplasms (p = 0.03).
  • Primary central nervous system sarcomas most often affect young and middle-aged adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis


29. Higashi H, Fukutomi T, Watanabe T, Adachi I, Narabayashi M, Shibui S, Hokamura N, Akashi-Tanaka S: Seven cases of breast cancer recurrence limited to the central nervous system without other visceral metastases. Breast Cancer; 2000;7(2):153-6
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  • The primary tumors were all invasive ductal carcinomas.
  • The metastatic CNS lesions included the cerebrum (4 cases), cerebellum, cervical spinal cord, and meninges.
  • Multidisciplinary treatments including surgery, radiotherapy and systemic or intrathecal chemotherapy were given.
  • Although the mean survival time from clinical manifestations of the metastases of the 4 deceased patients was 20 months (median 20.5; range 6-33), one patient treated with surgery and radiotherapy is been still alive18 years later.
  • Premenopausal patients with negative hormone receptor status are more likely to develop this type of recurrence, regardless of the histological type.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 11029788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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30. Fujimaki T: Surgical treatment of brain metastasis. Int J Clin Oncol; 2005 Apr;10(2):74-80
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of brain metastasis.
  • Treatment modalities for brain metastasis or metastatic brain tumor include surgery, conventional irradiation, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), chemotherapy, and supportive care with corticosteroid.
  • In most cases, these treatments are used in combination.
  • For a single metastasis, surgery followed by whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) has been the standard treatment.
  • SRS has become increasingly popular and challenges the standard procedure, but there are still insufficient data for the outcomes of combinations including SRS.
  • For the treatment of multiple metastases, WBRT is the standard procedure.
  • For tumors larger than 3 cm, and in life-threatening situations such as a large metastasis to the cerebellum, surgery is the only feasible approach.
  • Histological examination is sometimes useful for characterizing metastatic tumors from unknown primary sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Decision Making. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15864691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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31. Corns R, Crocker M, Kumar A, Salisbury J, Tolias C, Sadler G, Hill M: Low grade cerebellar T-cell lymphoma: a novel response to treatment; a case report. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2010 Jun;152(6):1075-7
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  • [Title] Low grade cerebellar T-cell lymphoma: a novel response to treatment; a case report.
  • Low-grade primary T-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system is extremely rare.
  • We present a case developing in a previously fit young woman presenting with symptoms of raised intracranial pressure and found on CT to have a cerebellar mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cranial Irradiation. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / radiotherapy. Methotrexate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Cerebellum / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurologic Examination. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19936608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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32. Slampa P, Pavelka Z, Dusek L, Hynkova L, Sterba J, Ondrova B, Princ D, Novotny T, Kostakova S: Longterm treatment results of childhood medulloblastoma by craniospinal irradiation in supine position. Neoplasma; 2007;54(1):62-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Longterm treatment results of childhood medulloblastoma by craniospinal irradiation in supine position.
  • Medulloblastoma, a primitive neuroectodermal tumor growing in cerebellum, is one of the most sensitive to radiation therapy childhood brain tumors.
  • The radiotherapy is an essential method of treatment for these tumours, but the surgery is the primary treatment of choice in medulloblastoma.
  • All of the patients were irradiated with a dose of 24-36 Gy to the whole craniospinal axis and boost with conformal therapy restricted to the tumor bed to the total dose of 50-54 Gy (30-36 Gy "high risk", 24-30 Gy "standard risk" group).
  • Chemotherapy received 26 patients (78%).
  • Irradiation was performed using standard fractionation (5 fractions per week) with a single dose of 1.5-1.8 Gy for craniospinal axis by photon beam (6 MV) of the linear accelerator.
  • Endocrine deficits occurred in 45% (8 patients of the group were hypothyroid, 6 patients needed growth hormone replacement therapy, 1 patient had early puberty).
  • Further evaluation of the effectiveness of our therapy is not feasible due to the small number of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / methods. Supine Position
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


33. Elamin MH, Shinwari Z, Hendrayani SF, Al-Hindi H, Al-Shail E, Khafaga Y, Al-Kofide A, Aboussekhra A: Curcumin inhibits the Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway and triggers apoptosis in medulloblastoma cells. Mol Carcinog; 2010 Mar;49(3):302-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Medulloblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor that arises in the cerebellum of children and young adults.
  • The Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway that plays important roles in the pathology of this aggressive disease is a promising therapeutic target.
  • These results indicate that curcumin, a natural nontoxic compound, represents great promise as Shh-targeted therapy for medulloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Curcumin / pharmacology. Hedgehog Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / radiation effects. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Flow Cytometry. Gamma Rays. Humans. Immunoblotting. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Mitochondria / drug effects. Mitochondria / radiation effects. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Veratrum Alkaloids / pharmacology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20025076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2744
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Carcinog.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SHH protein, human; 0 / Veratrum Alkaloids; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin; ZH658AJ192 / cyclopamine
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34. Pazaitou-Panayiotou K, Kaprara A, Chrisoulidou A, Boudina M, Georgiou E, Patakiouta F, Drimonitis A, Vainas I: Cerebellar metastasis as first metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma. Endocr J; 2005 Dec;52(6):653-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cerebellar metastasis as first metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Even more, cerebellar metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are exceptional.
  • We report a 69-year-old male patient with infiltrative PTC who developed high levels of thyroglobulin (Tg) and deteriorated neurological symptoms four years after the initial diagnosis.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) of the brain demonstrated a cerebellar mass and the patient underwent surgery.
  • Although PTC has generally a good prognosis, metastases to the cerebellum can occur, even as the first metastatic site, despite the fact that appropriate therapy (surgery, radioactive iodine therapy, TSH suppression therapy, chemotherapy and external radiotherapy) had been given for the primary tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Thyroglobulin / analysis. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16410655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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35. Hukin J, Siffert J, Cohen H, Velasquez L, Zagzag D, Allen J: Leptomeningeal dissemination at diagnosis of pediatric low-grade neuroepithelial tumors. Neuro Oncol; 2003 07;5(3):188-96
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  • The charts were reviewed and patients contacted to validate the demographic data, treatment, and clinical status.
  • The distribution of LM patients by primary tumor site was diencephalon, 5; cerebrum, 2; spinal cord, 3; brainstem, 2; and cerebellum, 1.
  • Six of 8 patients with LM had durable objective responses to chemotherapy.
  • We suggest that staging be considered in the following circumstances: diencephalic primary site, unexplained hydrocephalus, clinical features suggestive of LM, and before adjuvant therapy is initiated.
  • The prognosis for children with LM at diagnosis is favorable, and its identification alters therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 12816725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1920691
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36. Rajendra T, Ann Lee K, Thomas J, Hong A, Chan C: Results of surgical treatment for cerebral metastases. J Clin Neurosci; 2003 Mar;10(2):190-4
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  • [Title] Results of surgical treatment for cerebral metastases.
  • Medical and radiation therapy confer median survival ranging from 3 to 6 months only.
  • The primary cancer was breast in nine cases, eight were lung cancers, six colonic cancers, two unknown primaries and one was a soft tissue sarcoma.
  • Two patients underwent a radiosurgical boost and six patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Surgical treatment appears beneficial, with subgroups such as breast cancer possibly doing better.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cerebellum / pathology. Cerebellum / radiography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12637047.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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37. Vibhakar R, Foltz G, Yoon JG, Field L, Lee H, Ryu GY, Pierson J, Davidson B, Madan A: Dickkopf-1 is an epigenetically silenced candidate tumor suppressor gene in medulloblastoma. Neuro Oncol; 2007 Apr;9(2):135-44
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  • Medulloblastoma is a heterogeneous pediatric brain tumor with significant therapy-related morbidity, its five-year survival rates ranging from 30% to 70%.
  • Improvement in diagnosis and therapy requires better understanding of medulloblastoma pathology.
  • This analysis yielded 714 up-regulated genes in immortalized medulloblastoma cell line D283 on treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA).
  • We examined DKK1 expression in primary medulloblastoma cells and patient samples by reverse transcriptase PCR and found it to be significantly down-regulated relative to normal cerebellum.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Chromatin / genetics. Colony-Forming Units Assay. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Gene Silencing. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Humans. Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Analysis. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17329407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromatin; 0 / DKK1 protein, human; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 3X2S926L3Z / trichostatin A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871668
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