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1. Plotnikov A, Tichler T, Korenstein R, Keisari Y: Involvement of the immune response in the cure of metastatic murine CT-26 colon carcinoma by low electric field-enhanced chemotherapy. Int J Cancer; 2005 Dec 10;117(5):816-24
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  • [Title] Involvement of the immune response in the cure of metastatic murine CT-26 colon carcinoma by low electric field-enhanced chemotherapy.
  • Low electric field cancer treatment-enhanced chemotherapy (LEFCT-EC) is a new treatment modality that combines chemotherapeutic agents and low electric field stimulation.
  • LEFCT-EC was found to destroy malignant mouse tumors and cause massive death of tumor cells.
  • This may enable the immune system cells to efficiently recognize and eliminate tumor cells at the primary tumor site and at metastatic foci.
  • Mice with 15 mm diameter intracutaneous colon carcinomas (CT-26) were injected with BCNU (35 mg/kg), and 2 min later the tumors were exposed to low electric fields (intensity 40 V/cm, pulse duration 180 micros, frequency 500 Hz) for 12 min (LEFCT-EC).
  • We found that treatment with LEFCT-EC achieved complete cure of 93% of the animals.
  • In comparison, electric fields alone (13% cure), chemotherapy alone (0%), surgery (15%) or a combination of surgery and bis-chloroethyl-nitrosurea, carmustine (BCNU; 84%) treatments resulted in lower cure rates.
  • After treatment and cure with LEFCT-EC, 50% of the cured mice developed resistance to a tumor challenge (surgery + BCNU only 15%).
  • FACS analysis revealed restoration of normal splenocyte subpopulation proportions impaired by cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • Our results suggest that LEFCT-EC can directly destroy primary tumors and facilitate the destruction of metastatic disease by enforcement of antitumor immune responses.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Carmustine / therapeutic use. Colonic Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Flow Cytometry. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 15981217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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2. Park SS, Kim BK, Kim CJ, Kim WS, Kim IO, Park KW, Shin HY, Ahn HS: Colorectal adenocarcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm following rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2000 Aug;15(4):475-7
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  • [Title] Colorectal adenocarcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm following rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder: a case report.
  • Following improvements in therapy for childhood malignancies, the striking increase in survival rate over the past 30 years has led to the increase risk of developing second malignant neoplasms (SMNs).
  • We report a case of colorectal carcinoma as a SMN, following treatment for rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The patient was diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder at his age of three years, and developed adenocarcinoma in the colon 13 years later.
  • This case emphasizes the need for dose observation in survivors of early childhood malignancies treated with radiation and multiagent chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Colorectal Neoplasms / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Rhabdomyosarcoma. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Colitis / etiology. Colitis / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Genes, p53. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / etiology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / genetics. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology. Time Factors. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 10983702.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] KOREA (SOUTH)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3054655
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3. Mondal SK: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the cecum. J Cancer Res Ther; 2009 Oct-Dec;5(4):328-30
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  • [Title] Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the cecum.
  • Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SSC) of cecum is a very rare malignant neoplasm.
  • The neoplasm originated from surface epithelium, and invaded the bowel wall up to subserosal fat space.
  • Clinical features were that of an adenocarcinoma of the colon.
  • Postoperative chemotherapy was given for 6 months to eradicate any micrometastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 20160376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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4. Silva RG, Dahmoush L, Gerke H: Pancreatic metastasis of an ovarian malignant mixed Mullerian tumor identified by EUS-guided fine needle aspiration and Trucut needle biopsy. JOP; 2006;7(1):66-9
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  • [Title] Pancreatic metastasis of an ovarian malignant mixed Mullerian tumor identified by EUS-guided fine needle aspiration and Trucut needle biopsy.
  • CONTEXT: Malignant mixed Mullerian tumors are rare ovarian neoplasms that account for less than 2% of ovarian malignancies.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of a malignant mixed Mullerian tumor with metastasis to the pancreas.
  • CASE REPORT: We describe a 69-year-old female with concomitant Duke's C adenocarcinoma of the colon and stage III-C malignant mixed Mullerian tumor that presented with malignant ascites, increasing abdominal girth and a pancreatic head mass.
  • EUS revealed an 11 cm cystic mass in the head of the pancreas that was characterized as a carcinosarcoma/malignant mesodermal mixed tumor by EUS-FNA and Trucut needle biopsy.
  • The patient was treated with palliative chemotherapy and a three-month follow up CT scan did not reveal any new metastatic lesions.
  • Although ovarian adenocarcinoma has been reported as a primary site of pancreatic metastasis, it has not been previously described originating from a mixed Mullerian tumor of the ovary presenting as a cystic pancreatic head mass.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endosonography. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreas / pathology. Pancreas / radiography. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


5. Armbrust T, Sobotta M, Füzesi L, Grabbe E, Ramadori G: Chemotherapy-induced suppression to adenoma or complete suppression of the primary in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer: report of four cases. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Nov;19(11):988-94
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy-induced suppression to adenoma or complete suppression of the primary in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer: report of four cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Although modern chemotherapy of stage IV advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) has impressively improved overall survival, the response of the primary tumor has not been studied because surgical resection of the primary continues to be the standard procedure in stage IV CRC.
  • AIM: Long-term follow-up of the primary in patients with stage IV CRC under chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we report on the histological changes in the primary tumor in four patients suffering from stage IV CRC.
  • Systemic chemotherapy was started immediately after endoscopic tumor debulking in three cases.
  • In one case no endoscopic intervention was performed before chemotherapy.
  • Neither macroscopic nor histological evidence for malignant tumor growth was found at the former site of the primary after 6, 23, 26 or 48 months, respectively.
  • Two patients had a complete suppression of the primary, two patients had an adenoma at the former site of the primary.
  • CONCLUSION: The four cases illustrate that today's chemotherapy may effectively induces suppression of the primary in CRC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / pathology. Aged. Colon / pathology. Colonic Polyps / drug therapy. Colonic Polyps / pathology. Colonic Polyps / surgery. Colonoscopy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18049169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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6. Bacci G, Ferrari C, Longhi A, Ferrari S, Forni C, Bacchini P, Palmerini E, Briccoli A, Pignotti E, Balladelli A, Picci P: Second malignant neoplasm in patients with osteosarcoma of the extremities treated with adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2006 Dec;28(12):774-80
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  • [Title] Second malignant neoplasm in patients with osteosarcoma of the extremities treated with adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • We evaluated the rate of second malignancies in 1205 patients with osteosarcoma of the extremity treated at our Institution with different protocols of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Twenty-six patients (2.15%) developed a second malignant neoplasm at a median of 7.6 years (1 to 25 y) after primary osteosarcoma treatment.
  • Of these, 2 developed a third cancer which were not considered in the series.
  • Second neoplasms were leukemia (10), breast (7), lung (2), kidney (2), central nervous system cancer (2), soft tissue (1), parotid (1), and colon (1).
  • Ten of these 26 patients are disease free at a median of 7.7 years (range 1 to 15 y) after the last treatment.
  • Our study showed that the risk of second neoplasm within 15 years increased and then leveled off and that although secondary solid tumors could be explained as unrelated cases, leukemias seem to be over represented.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Osteosarcoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Male. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17164644.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Meinardi MT, Gietema JA, van Veldhuisen DJ, van der Graaf WT, de Vries EG, Sleijfer DT: Long-term chemotherapy-related cardiovascular morbidity. Cancer Treat Rev; 2000 Dec;26(6):429-47

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  • [Title] Long-term chemotherapy-related cardiovascular morbidity.
  • As a consequence of the successful use of chemotherapy in the treatment of curable neoplasms such as germ cell tumours and malignant lymphomas, and the increasing application of primary and adjuvant chemotherapy for various tumour types, the number of patients with a prolonged life expectancy after treatment is rising.
  • In this review we evaluate the literature on long-term cardiovascular toxicity related to chemotherapy in adult patients.
  • Two categories of patient with favourable life expectancy have been reviewed, namely patients cured of metastatic disease by chemotherapy and patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • In the first category, the literature on long-term cardiovascular morbidity in survivors of metastatic testicular cancer and lymphomas is discussed, while in the second category this is done for patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for breast and colon cancer.
  • As well as the direct toxic effects of chemotherapy on the cardiovascular system, the indirect toxic effects such as chemotherapy-related metabolic changes that may cause cardiovascular morbidity are also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Cardiovascular Diseases / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Male. Morbidity. Neoplasm Metastasis. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • (PMID = 11139373.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Number-of-references] 191
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8. Lloyd JM, McIver CM, Stephenson SA, Hewett PJ, Rieger N, Hardingham JE: Identification of early-stage colorectal cancer patients at risk of relapse post-resection by immunobead reverse transcription-PCR analysis of peritoneal lavage fluid for malignant cells. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jan 15;12(2):417-23
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  • [Title] Identification of early-stage colorectal cancer patients at risk of relapse post-resection by immunobead reverse transcription-PCR analysis of peritoneal lavage fluid for malignant cells.
  • PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer patients diagnosed with stage I or II disease are not routinely offered adjuvant chemotherapy following resection of the primary tumor.
  • The aim of this study was to determine if tumor-associated markers could detect disseminated malignant cells and so identify a subgroup of patients with early-stage colorectal cancer that were at risk of relapse.
  • Immunobead reverse transcription-PCR of five tumor-associated markers (carcinoembryonic antigen, laminin gamma2, ephrin B4, matrilysin, and cytokeratin 20) was used to detect the presence of colon tumor cells in peripheral blood and within the peritoneal cavity of colon cancer patients perioperatively.
  • A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was done to determine whether detection of tumor cells was an independent prognostic marker for disease relapse.
  • CONCLUSION: The markers used in this study identified a subgroup of early-stage patients at increased risk of relapse post-resection for primary colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Ascitic Fluid / pathology. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / genetics. Female. Humans. Keratin-20. Keratins / blood. Keratins / genetics. Laminin / blood. Laminin / genetics. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / blood. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / genetics. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Peritoneal Lavage. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, Eph Family / blood. Receptors, Eph Family / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Risk Factors. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16428481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / LAMC2 protein, human; 0 / Laminin; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Eph Family; EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7
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9. Sasaki S, Hatanaka K, Sahara N, Uekusa T, Hirayama K, Shirahata A, Ishimaru M: Collision tumor of primary malignant lymphoma and adenocarcinoma in the colon: report of a case. Surg Today; 2010 Oct;40(10):975-81
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  • [Title] Collision tumor of primary malignant lymphoma and adenocarcinoma in the colon: report of a case.
  • This report presents the case of a 62-year-old man with a collision tumor of primary malignant lymphoma and adenocarcinoma in the cecum.
  • All regional mesenteric lymph nodes that were removed surgically were found to be occupied by lymphoma cells and no lymph nodes contained any cancer cells, although the primary carcinomas did exhibit lymphatic invasion.
  • Malignant lymphoma was also seen in the duodenum.
  • Systemic chemotherapy was administered for the malignant lymphoma, and a complete response was thus obtained.
  • However, just after chemotherapy multiple liver metastases of adenocarcinoma emerged, and chemotherapy against adenocarcinoma was therefore continued.
  • The accurate clinical determination of the dominant tumor and a close follow-up is required for proper treatment in these cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cecal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Duodenal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Colectomy / methods. Colonoscopy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20872204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-2813
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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10. Lazaris AC, Kavantzas NG, Zorzos HS, Tsavaris NV, Davaris PS: Markers of drug resistance in relapsing colon cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2002 Feb;128(2):114-8
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  • [Title] Markers of drug resistance in relapsing colon cancer.
  • PURPOSE: 5-Fluorouracil failure and drug resistance, which often occurs during chemotherapy, is still a great obstacle to the success of human colon cancer treatment.
  • Thus, the comparative study of markers of drug resistance in cancer cells before and after chemotherapy may be extremely helpful in the selection of the appropriate chemotherapeutic drug in colon cancer patients who fail adjuvant treatment with 5-fluorouracil.
  • In the present study we examined the differential expression of three multidrug resistance-related proteins (i.e., P-glycoprotein, MRP, and LRP) and of topoisomerase IIalpha in a series of 20 primary colon carcinomas and their recurrences.
  • METHODS: All markers were determined at tissue level by three-step immunohistochemistry using appropriate monoclonal antibodies, and the markers' immunopositivity was quantified by image analysis.
  • In addition, Feulgen stain was used for the assessment of nuclear DNA content of malignant cells at their primary location.
  • RESULTS: Some degree of aneuploidy was detected in all primary carcinomas.
  • The immunoexpression of the three multidrug resistance-related proteins did not change significantly, either qualitatively (positivity vs negativity) or quantitatively, after chemotherapy.
  • On the contrary, the percentages of topoisomerase IIalpha-positive malignant cells were significantly increased in the tumour recurrences by comparison to their primary locations ( P=0.011).
  • CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, increased topoisomerase IIalpha immunohistochemical expression appears to be part of the malignant cells' phenotype in recurrent colon cancers.
  • Therapeutic options after failure of 5-fluorouracil-based treatment could therefore include appropriate topoisomerase IIalpha-targeted drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / biosynthesis. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Fluorouracil / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Aneuploidy. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antigens, Neoplasm. DNA, Neoplasm. DNA-Binding Proteins. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. P-Glycoprotein / biosynthesis. P-Glycoprotein / genetics. P-Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. P-Glycoproteins / genetics. Phenotype. Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles / biosynthesis. Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles / genetics

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  • (PMID = 11862483.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / P-Glycoproteins; 0 / Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles; 0 / major vault protein; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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11. Mauritz R, Giovannetti E, Beumer IJ, Smid K, Van Groeningen CJ, Pinedo HM, Peters GJ: Polymorphisms in the enhancer region of the thymidylate synthase gene are associated with thymidylate synthase levels in normal tissues but not in malignant tissues of patients with colorectal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2009 Jul;8(3):146-54
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  • [Title] Polymorphisms in the enhancer region of the thymidylate synthase gene are associated with thymidylate synthase levels in normal tissues but not in malignant tissues of patients with colorectal cancer.
  • The analysis of the relationship between TSER genotype and TS mRNA and activity in normal and malignant tissues might explain the previous controversial data and help in the selection of useful markers to predict drug response and/or toxicity.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: To address this issue, we studied TSER genotype, TS expression, and activity with specific polymerase chain reaction and activity assays (TS catalytic activity and FdUMP binding) in normal (liver, mucosa) and malignant (primary tumor and liver metastasis) tissues from 83 patients with CRC.
  • RESULTS: No correlation between TSER genotype and TS mRNA and protein levels was observed in malignant tissues.
  • In contrast, normal tissues harboring one or two 3RG alleles were characterized by higher TS protein levels (2.4-fold; P = .008) and catalytic activity (P < .05) compared with the other TSER genotypes.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that TSER polymorphisms do not predict tumoral TS levels possibly depending on altered TS regulation in cancer tissues, and might explain the lack of clear correlation with clinical outcome after chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines.
  • However, the relationship between TS phenotype and TSER genotype in normal tissues warrants further investigations in large-scale prospective studies evaluating TS genotype and fluoropyrimidine tolerability.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colon / enzymology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / enzymology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Rectum / enzymology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19632929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-0674
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase
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12. Stelzner F, von Mallek D, Ruhlmann J, Biersack HJ: [PET-CT studies of metastasizing cancer of the colon and rectum. Variability of tumor aggressiveness as a micro-evolutionary process of cancer stem cells with predetermined prognosis]. Chirurg; 2009 Jul;80(7):645-51
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  • [Title] [PET-CT studies of metastasizing cancer of the colon and rectum. Variability of tumor aggressiveness as a micro-evolutionary process of cancer stem cells with predetermined prognosis].
  • [Transliterated title] PET-CT-Untersuchungen zur Stammzellkarzinogenese im Kolorektalbereich. Malignitätsvariabilität als mikroevolutionärer Prozess mit festgelegter Prognose.
  • Formation of cancer stem cells which are both rare and variably therapy-resistant marks the beginning of a new disease without precursors.
  • Based on molecular changes, these cells are derived from normal cells and exhibit pre-programmed malignant behaviour.
  • We conclude that the primary tumors behave differently from distant metastases.
  • Radical exstirpation of the primary tumor is able to cure the malignant process if the homing area is resected.
  • The primary tumor acts as the supplier of cancer stem cells for metastases which appear in different organs.
  • When chemotherapy is administered the distribution of metastases in different organs appears dependent of the response or non-response of cancer stem cells to this therapy.
  • Large numbers of colorectal carcinomas existed for the same time duration before death (15 years) independent of the malignancy grade.
  • The primary tumor and the metastases appear variably quickly depending on the malignancy grade and are autonomic processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biological Evolution. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cell Survival / genetics. Cell Survival / radiation effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / radiation effects. Gene Transfer Techniques. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Organ Specificity. Probability Theory. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • [Cites] Proc R Soc Med. 1944 Feb;37(4):131-44 [19992767.001]
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  • (PMID = 19562240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0385
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Nikolaeva TG, Dobrynin IaV, Letiagin VP, Prorokov VV, Matiakin EG, Davydov MI: [The experience in the use of DNA flow cytometry to predict the natural history of malignant neoplasms]. Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk; 2002;(1):45-9

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  • [Title] [The experience in the use of DNA flow cytometry to predict the natural history of malignant neoplasms].
  • A total of 467 patients with primary carcinomas of the breast (n = 177), lung (n = 88), head and neck (n = 140), and colon and rectum (n = 62) were examined.
  • All the patients underwent surgery alone or in combination with radiotherapy (X-ray)/chemotherapy.
  • DNA was measured in the operative tumor tissue specimens by using an ICP-22 flow cytometer.
  • The survival rates after one operation, preoperative, and postoperative radiation therapy was greater in patients with diploid tumors than in patients with aneuploid ones.
  • Thus, DNA-ploidy of the study neoplasms is of high informative value in predicting the course of a tumorous process and in choosing treatment policy on an individual basis.

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  • (PMID = 11882972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0869-6047
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik Rossiiskoi akademii meditsinskikh nauk
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Akad. Med. Nauk SSSR
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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14. Catani M, De Milito R, Simi M: [New orientations in the management of advanced, metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST): combination of surgery and systemic therapy with imatinib in a case of primary gastric location]. Chir Ital; 2005 Jan-Feb;57(1):127-33
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  • [Title] [New orientations in the management of advanced, metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST): combination of surgery and systemic therapy with imatinib in a case of primary gastric location].
  • [Transliterated title] Nuovi orientamenti nella cura dei tumori stromali gastroenterici (GIST) avanzati e metastatici: trattamento combinato intervento chirurgico-terapia sistemica con imatinib in un caso a localizzazione primitiva gastrica.
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are rare neoplasms originating from connective tissue in the digestive tract with an incidence of less than 1% and account for most non-epithelial primitive digestive tumours.
  • Metastasis diagnosed at the time of disease discovery confirms GIST malignancy.
  • Resistance to conventional chemotherapy is commonly shown by malignant GIST.
  • Most patients with advanced malignant GIST achieve clinical benefit with imatinib mesilate, an orally administered selective inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase receptor.
  • At the time of the first operation the patient had lost 10 kg body weight over the previous months and was seriously cachectic.
  • The liver presented no less than 5 large metastases distributed in both the left and right lobes.
  • Considering the action mechanism of imatinib and the extent of the lesion we decided to perform a total gastrectomy procedure.
  • At the time of the operation the stomach seemed to have a modified volume and shape: it appeared to be divided into two sacs, the larger and deeper of which was the original gastric cavity, while the superficial, smaller one seemed to be a protrusion of the organ.
  • The stomach was indistinguishable from the spleen, the transverse colon and the distal pancreatic tract.
  • The neoplasm was directly linked to the left liver and to the inferior diaphragmatic surface.
  • We performed total gastrectomy and resection of the tail of the pancreas, the spleen, and the transverse colon all in one and the same session.
  • The patient was discharged on postoperative day 8 and commenced imatinib therapy 30 days after the operation with 4 tablets per day.
  • One year after the operation the outcome appears to be lasting and the patient has tolerated the drug treatment well.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrectomy. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Benzamides. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15832750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
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15. Wong NA, Malcomson RD, Jodrell DI, Groome NP, Harrison DJ, Saunders PT: ERbeta isoform expression in colorectal carcinoma: an in vivo and in vitro study of clinicopathological and molecular correlates. J Pathol; 2005 Sep;207(1):53-60
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  • Colorectal carcinoma shows several sex-related differences with regard to incidence, response to chemotherapy and microsatellite instability.
  • These differences may relate to differential expression of ERbeta1 (wild-type) as well as the truncated ERbeta2 and ERbeta5 splice variant isoforms, which have recently been detected in normal and malignant colorectal epithelium.
  • This hypothesis was tested through the study of ERbeta isoform protein and/or mRNA expression amongst 91 primary colorectal carcinoma cases and 20 colorectal carcinoma cell lines.
  • ERbeta1 and ERbeta2 protein expression was lost in 22% and 49%, respectively, of the primary colorectal carcinomas.
  • By contrast, ERbeta5 expression was found in all primary colorectal carcinomas and all colorectal carcinoma cell lines studied.
  • There was no correlation between ERbeta protein isoform expression and response to 5-fluorouracil therapy, tumour proliferation, or thymidylate synthase expression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blotting, Western. Cohort Studies. Colon / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Genomic Instability. Humans. Male. Microsatellite Repeats. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Prognosis. Protein Isoforms / genetics. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Rectum / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sex Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15954165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U127685844; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / U.1276.00.002.00005.01 (85844)
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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16. Hao LS, Zhu X, Zhao LH, Qian K, Zhou Y, Bu J, Wu XT: Clear cell adenocarcinoma of colorectum: a case report and review of the literature. Acta Gastroenterol Belg; 2007 Apr-Jun;70(2):235-8
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  • Primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the colorectum is a rare neoplasm, which differs from ordinary carcinomas of the colorectum in morphological features, but shares some traits of clear cell carcinoma of other organs.
  • The tumor was located in descending colon of a 37-year-old man, and was rich in glycogen but poor in mucin.
  • By immunoperoxidase and histochemical staining, we clarified the clinicopathological characteristics, diagnosis and differential diagnoses, and pursued its potential pathogenesis.
  • In our case, necrosis, high mitotic activity and lymph node metastasis may suggest a highly malignant tumor and an advanced pathological stage.
  • Nevertheless, the patient has survived for one year with the help of operation and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Regardless of the stage and differentiation, surgical therapy and proper adjuvant chemotherapy are effective means to treat the clear cell adenocarcinoma of the colorectum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Colonoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17715642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1784-3227
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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17. Nahas CS, Akhurst T, Yeung H, Leibold T, Riedel E, Markowitz AJ, Minsky BD, Paty PB, Weiser MR, Temple LK, Wong WD, Larson SM, Guillem JG: Positron emission tomography detection of distant metastatic or synchronous disease in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving preoperative chemoradiation. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Mar;15(3):704-11
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  • [Title] Positron emission tomography detection of distant metastatic or synchronous disease in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving preoperative chemoradiation.
  • Choice of optimal treatment--neoadjuvant chemoradiation versus systemic chemotherapy alone--depends on accurate assessment of distant disease.
  • We prospectively evaluated the ability of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to detect distant disease in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were otherwise eligible for combined modality therapy (CMT).
  • Sites other than the rectum, mesorectum, or the area along the inferior mesenteric artery were considered distant and were divided into nine groups: neck, lung, mediastinal lymph node (LN), abdomen, liver, colon, pelvis, peripheral LN, and soft tissue.
  • A score greater than 3 was considered malignant.
  • Confirmation was based on tissue diagnosis, surgical exploration, and subsequent imaging.
  • Greatest accuracy was demonstrated in detection of liver (accuracy = 99.9%, sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 98.8%) and lung (accuracy = 99.9%, sensitivity = 80%, specificity = 100%) disease; PET detected 11/12 confirmed malignant sites in liver and lung.
  • All 10 were correctly staged by pre-CMT PET; abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scans accurately detected nine of them.
  • PET may play a significant role in defining extent of distant disease in selected cases, thus impacting the choice of neoadjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Rectal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Single-Blind Method

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  • [ErratumIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2008 Apr;15(4):1265. Leibold, Tobias [added]
  • (PMID = 17882490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / R01 82534-01
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. de Parades V, Bauer P, Benbunan JL, Bouillet T, Cottu PH, Cuenod CA, Durdux C, Fléjou JF, Atienza P: [Initial pretherapeutic assessment of anal epidermoid carcinoma]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 Feb;31(2):157-65
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  • [Transliterated title] Bilan préthérapeutique initial du carcinome épidermoïde invasif de l'anus.
  • Anal epidermoid carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor, comprising less than 5% of all carcinomas of the colon, rectum, and anus.
  • The primary therapy now includes radiotherapy, often in combination with chemotherapy.
  • Therapeutic indications are based on locoregional staging, the presence of visceral metastases and an evaluation of the medical history.
  • In addition, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography scanning and inguinal sentinel lymph node procedure should play a role in a more selective approach in patients with anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17347624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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19. Eilber FC, Eilber KS, Eilber FR: Retroperitoneal sarcomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2000 Aug;1(3):274-8
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  • Imaging of the abdomen and pelvis by computed tomography (CT) provides both an imaging modality and a method by which to obtain tissue for diagnosis.
  • Because a histologic diagnosis is essential in treatment planning, adequate tissue can usually be obtained by a CT-guided core biopsy.
  • If the diagnosis is sarcoma, additional tests necessary for staging include plain chest radiography and evaluation of the liver by either CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • The treatment options for primary retroperitoneal sarcomas include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, or a combination of these modalities; therefore, a multidisciplinary group best manages treatment planning.
  • Primary radiation therapy for cure is seldom effective for retroperitoneal sarcomas but can provide palliation in select cases.
  • Systemic chemotherapy for chemosensitive lesions, such as poorly differentiated liposarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), synovial cell sarcoma, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), can be useful when used in a neoadjuvant manner.
  • Consequently, surgical resection continues to be the mainstay of treatment for retroperitoneal sarcomas and requires en bloc resection of the primary tumor.
  • Frequently this includes adjacent organs such as colon, small bowel, kidney, adrenal, and pancreas.
  • Postoperative adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy or radiation has not been proven to be of any additional benefit.
  • Overall treatment results are predominantly influenced by tumor stage, grade, size, and margins of surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / therapy. Sarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy / methods. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Radiotherapy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12057171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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20. Várady E, Deák B, Molnár ZS, Rosta A, Schneider T, Esik O, Eckhardt S: Second malignancies after treatment for Hodgkin's disease. Leuk Lymphoma; 2001 Nov-Dec;42(6):1275-81
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  • [Title] Second malignancies after treatment for Hodgkin's disease.
  • The occurrence of treatment-related second malignancy following Hodgkin's disease (HD) has now been recognized as a major problem.
  • Second neoplasm developed in 32 cases (4.8%).
  • Among patients with second hematological malignancies, the mean age at diagnosis of HD was 44 years and the mean interval until the development of second malignancy was 6.1 years.
  • Five patients received chemo- and radiotherapy and in two cases chemotherapy was used.
  • Twenty-five patients have had solid tumors, affecting lung (5), breast (3), colon (3), stomach (2), urinary bladder (2), head-and-neck (1), thyroid gland (1), esophagus (1), liver (1), pancreas (1), furthermore, three sarcomas and two malignant melanomas were observed.
  • Their mean age at the diagnosis of HD was 46 years and the mean period of latency was 8.3 years.
  • Chemotherapy was applied to nine patients, 16 patients received both chemo- and radiotherapy.
  • Since alkylating agents increase the risk of leukemia and irradiation contributes mainly to other malignancies, future treatment protocols should attempt to reduce the most serious consequence of therapy without compromising the survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11911408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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21. Fernández-Esparrach G, Bordas JM, Giráldez MD, Ginès A, Pellisé M, Sendino O, Martínez-Pallí G, Castells A, Llach J: Severe complications limit long-term clinical success of self-expanding metal stents in patients with obstructive colorectal cancer. Am J Gastroenterol; 2010 May;105(5):1087-93
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  • OBJECTIVES: Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) are increasingly being used to treat malignant colorectal obstruction.
  • The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the long-term clinical success of SEMS in patients with malignant colorectal obstruction in a single tertiary center and to identify possible predictive factors of developing complications.
  • The stents were placed in the rectum (n=7, 15%), sigmoid (n=33, 70%), left colon (n=4, 9%), or anastomosis (n=3, 6%).
  • SEMS served as a bridge to scheduled surgery in 9 (20%) patients and as a palliative definitive treatment in 38 (80%) cases.
  • In the bridge-to-surgery group, primary anastomosis was possible in only four of nine patients (44%).
  • However, eight of nine patients with stent migration and two of three patients with perforation had been previously treated with chemotherapy.
  • For patients with potentially curable lesions, the use of colonic stents for malignant obstruction should only be considered when surgery is scheduled shortly after the stent insertion.
  • Moreover, in patients with incurable obstructing colorectal cancer eligible for chemotherapy and a long life expectancy, palliative treatments other than SEMS should be considered.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Colonoscopy / adverse effects. Colonoscopy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Metals. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Predictive Value of Tests. Probability. Prosthesis Design. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Statistics, Nonparametric. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 Jul;105(7):1670; author reply 1670-1 [20606664.001]
  • [CommentIn] Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 May;105(5):1209; author reply 1209-10 [20445522.001]
  • (PMID = 19935785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-0241
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Metals
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22. Wiedmann M, Schoppmeyer K, Witzigmann H, Hauss J, Mössner J, Caca K: [Current diagnostics and therapy for carcinomas of the biliary tree and gallbladder]. Z Gastroenterol; 2005 Mar;43(3):305-15
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  • [Title] [Current diagnostics and therapy for carcinomas of the biliary tree and gallbladder].
  • [Transliterated title] Aktuelle Diagnostik und Therapie von Gallengangs- und Gallenblasenkarzinomen.
  • Biliary neoplasms are classified into intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumour, middle and distal extrahepatic tumours), gallbladder cancer, and ampullary carcinoma.
  • Transformation of normal into malignant bile duct tissue requires a chain of consecutive gene mutations, similar to the adenoma-dysplasia-carcinoma-sequence in colon cancer.
  • Abdominal ultrasound, combined non-invasive magnetic resonance cholangiography/tomography (MRC/MRT), and facultatively endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) for unclear diagnosis, represent the gold standard for primary diagnosis.
  • In contrast, there has been no clinical benefit for adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies.
  • For palliation, bile duct stenting and photodynamic therapy are established methods.
  • Radio- and chemotherapy should be reserved for clinical studies.
  • New therapeutic approaches include brachytherapy, the use of modern chemotherapeutics, COX-2- and tyrosine kinase-receptor-inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Ampulla of Vater. Bile Ducts / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Biopsy. Brachytherapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / therapy. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Gallbladder / pathology. Hepatectomy. Hepatic Duct, Common. Humans. Klatskin Tumor / diagnosis. Klatskin Tumor / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Stents. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Z Gastroenterol. 2005 May;43(5):473-5 [15871071.001]
  • (PMID = 15765304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 153
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23. Hornick JL, Jaffe ES, Fletcher CD: Extranodal histiocytic sarcoma: clinicopathologic analysis of 14 cases of a rare epithelioid malignancy. Am J Surg Pathol; 2004 Sep;28(9):1133-44
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  • Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in lymph nodes, skin, and the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Seven tumors arose in soft tissue (6 lower limb; 1 upper limb), 5 in the gastrointestinal tract (1 involving both stomach and colon, 1 ileum, 2 rectum, 1 anus), 1 in the nasal cavity, and 1 in the lung.
  • The tumors were generally composed of sheets of large epithelioid cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, oval to irregular nuclei, vesicular chromatin, and large nucleoli.
  • Six patients were treated with postoperative radiation and 7 with chemotherapy (CHOP or ProMACE-MOPP).
  • Two tumors recurred locally, and 5 patients developed distant spread: 3 to lymph nodes, 1 to lung, and 1 to bone.
  • At the last follow-up, 2 patients have died of disseminated disease, 4 and 5 months following initial diagnosis.
  • The patients who died thus far had the largest primary tumors.
  • Histiocytic sarcoma may arise primarily in soft tissue and shows reproducible histologic features, including abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and a prominent inflammatory infiltrate.
  • Metastatic carcinoma, metastatic melanoma, and large cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas should be excluded by immunohistochemistry.

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  • (PMID = 15316312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Ensinger C, Sterlacci W: Implications of EGFR PharmDx kit for cetuximab eligibility. Expert Rev Mol Diagn; 2008 Mar;8(2):141-8
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  • EGF receptor (EGFR) represents an attractive target for anticancer therapies in a variety of malignant neoplasms, including colorectal, non-small-cell lung, head and neck carcinomas and gliomas.
  • Particularly for application of drugs against extracellular EGFR parts, knowledge about EGFR levels within the cell membrane is of high import, because only EGFR-depending tumors respond to these therapeutic approaches.
  • Immunohistochemical investigation of tissue slides of the primary tumor are performed to screen for EGFR occurrence in tumor cells.
  • Since 2004, the combination of 'EGFR PharmDx kit', a diagnostic test for EGFR, and subsequent application of cetuximab in EGFR-positive colon carcinomas has been approved by the US FDA.
  • It represents the second approved combination of diagnostic tools and dependent application of monoclonal antibody therapies after the successful HercepTest/Herceptin for breast carcinomas.
  • This proceeding represents an important step toward a personalized cancer therapy with major advantages for patients, mainly reduction of toxic side effects and dramatically increased efficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic. Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cetuximab. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Protein Structure, Tertiary. Trastuzumab. United States. United States Food and Drug Administration

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  • (PMID = 18366301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8352
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of molecular diagnostics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; 0 / Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
  • [Number-of-references] 111
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25. Paulino AC, Fowler BZ: Secondary neoplasms after radiotherapy for a childhood solid tumor. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Mar;22(2):89-101
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  • This study was conducted to determine the outcome of patients who develop a second neoplasm after radiotherapy (RT) for a childhood solid tumor.
  • From 1956 to 1998, 429 children with a malignant solid tumor were treated at a single radiation oncology facility.
  • The medical records and radiotherapy charts were reviewed to determine if the patient developed a secondary neoplasm after treatment for malignancy.
  • Twenty-three (5.4%) patients developed a secondary neoplasm.
  • There were 14 malignant neoplasms in 13 (3.0%) and 14 benign neoplasms in 11 patients (2.6%).
  • The types of initial solid tumors treated with RT were Ewing sarcoma in 6, Wilms tumor in 6, medulloblastoma in 5, neuroblastoma in 3, and other in 3.
  • Median RT dose was 45 Gy (range, 12.3 to 60 Gy) using 4 MV in 9, 1.25 MV in 8, 250 KV in 4, and 6 MV photons in 1 patient.
  • Fourteen had chemotherapy.
  • For the 14 malignant neoplasms, the median time interval from initial tumor to second malignancy was 10.1 years.
  • The 14 second malignant neoplasms (SMN) were osteosarcoma in 3, breast carcinoma in 2, melanoma in 2, malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 1, dermatofibrosarcoma in 1, leiomyosarcoma in 1, mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 1, colon cancer in 1, chronic myelogenous leukemia in 1, and basal cell carcinoma in 1.
  • The 5- and 10-year overall survival rate after diagnosis of an SMN was 69.2%; it was 70% for children with a SMN at the edge or inside the RT field and 66.7% for those outside of the RT field.
  • The 14 benign neoplasms appeared at a median time of 16.9 years and included cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in 3, osteochondroma in 3, thyroid adenoma in 1, duodenal adenoma in 1, lipoma in 1, cherry angioma in 1, uterine leiomyoma in 1, ovarian cystadenofibroma in 1, and giant cell tumor in 1.
  • More than two-thirds of children with a radiation-induced malignancy are alive 10 years after the diagnosis of a SMN.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 15804994.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Yegüez JF, Martinez SA, Sands DR, Sands LR, Hellinger MD: Colorectal malignancies in HIV-positive patients. Am Surg; 2003 Nov;69(11):981-7
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  • Due to the development of more effective medications, those infected with HIV are living longer.
  • A retrospective review of HIV/AIDS patients with colorectal malignant tumors was undertaken.
  • We included adult patients, with ELISA and Western blot test positive for HIV, and primary malignant tumors located in the colon or rectum.
  • Malignant neoplasms of the anus were excluded for the purposes of this study.
  • Twelve patients (9 males and 3 females), mean age 41 years, were identified with the following neoplasm: 6 adenocarcinomas (ACA), 5 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), and 1 small-cell carcinoma.
  • Intravenous drug abuse was the main risk factor for HIV.
  • No patient had identified risk factors for colorectal neoplasm.
  • Five out of six patients with ACA had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis.
  • One patient with stage II ACA developed early liver metastases after colonic resection.
  • These patients developed tumors at earlier ages and were diagnosed at an advanced stage.
  • The use of the new antiretroviral therapy regimens should be further evaluated to know its impact in the survival.


27. van Hooft JE, Fockens P, Marinelli AW, Timmer R, van Berkel AM, Bossuyt PM, Bemelman WA, Dutch Colorectal Stent Group: Early closure of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of endoscopic stenting versus surgery for stage IV left-sided colorectal cancer. Endoscopy; 2008 Mar;40(3):184-91
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  • BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The introduction of self-expandable metal stents has offered a promising alternative for palliation of malignant left-sided colonic obstruction.
  • This randomized clinical trial aimed to assess whether a nonsurgical policy, with endoluminal stenting, is superior to surgical treatment in patients with stage IV left-sided colorectal cancer and imminent obstruction.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with incurable left-sided colorectal cancer who fulfilled the study criteria were randomly assigned to nonsurgical or surgical treatment.
  • The primary outcome measure was survival in good health out of hospital (World Health Organization performance scores 0 or 1).
  • Ten patients were allocated to surgical treatment and 11 patients to nonsurgical palliation.
  • Of the six perforations, two were stent-related because they occurred at the proximal edge of the stent by erosion through a normal colon wall; one was probably stent-related (it was located in the region of the proximal half of the stent); one was a colon blowout; and two were late tumor perforations in patients on chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The unexpected high rate of perforation in the nonsurgical arm might be specifically WallFlex-related or enteral stent-related in patients on chemotherapy and warrants attention.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Endoscopy. Intestinal Obstruction / therapy. Intestinal Perforation / etiology. Stents / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Equipment Design. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 18322873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8812
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Investigator] Bijnen AB; Tuynman H; van Coevorden F; Boot H; Rijken AM; Eichhorn RF; Klicks RJ; Teunen A; Guicherit OR; Schrijver M; Rosman C; Wittema E; Davids P; Breumelhof R; Schouten WR; Siersema P; Verbeek P; Wagtmans MJ; Ottow RT; ten Hove W; Wiggers T; van Dullemen H; Juttman JW; Ponsioen C; Weidema WF; Bac DJ; Gelderman W; van Munster I; Meijerink WJ; Spoelstra P; Tollenaar RA; Veenendaal RA; Steup WH; Nicolai J; Meijssen M; Gerritsen JJ; Russel MG; Bleichrodt RP; Nagengast F; de Wit LT; Geraedts A; Boutkan H; Houben M; Sjardin FJ; Derksen E; Depla A; van Ramshorst B; van Wagensveld BA; Scholten P; Borel Rinkes IH; Oldenburg B; van Laarhoven CJ; van Milligen de Wit AJ
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28. Hishikawa Y, Kohno H, Ueda S, Kimoto T, Dhar DK, Kubota H, Tachibana M, Koji T, Nagasue N: Expression of metallothionein in colorectal cancers and synchronous liver metastases. Oncology; 2001;61(2):162-7
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  • The aim of this study is to clarify whether the expression of metallothionein (MT) is related with the malignant potential in primary colorectal cancer and/or synchronous liver metastasis.
  • Immunohistochemical staining for MT was performed on the specimens of adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum and its liver metastases in 34 patients treated with curative surgery, respectively.
  • In patients with primary colorectal cancer, positive expression was found in 7 of 34 (20.6%) patients, but MT was not detected in any of the cases of liver metastases (0%; p = 0.0111).
  • In the primary tumor, positive MT expression was significantly associated with a higher degree of lymph node involvement (mean +/- SD: 48.4 +/- 33.8 vs. 18.6 +/- 24.4% in MT-positive and MT-negative tumors, respectively; p = 0.0122).
  • The survival rate in the patients with MT-negative tumors was significantly better than that in those with MT-positive tumors as primary sites (p = 0.0198).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / chemistry. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Metallothionein / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Life Tables. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 11528256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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29. Chen YC, Shen SC, Chow JM, Ko CH, Tseng SW: Flavone inhibition of tumor growth via apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Int J Oncol; 2004 Sep;25(3):661-70
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  • Colorectal carcinoma is a human malignant tumor, which is very resistant to currently available methods of treatment.
  • Results of MTT assay indicated that flavone shows the most potent cytoxic effect among them on these three cell types.
  • In vivo anti-tumor study indicates that flavone exhibits ability to inhibit tumor formation elicited by s.c. injection of COLO205 cells in nude mice, and apoptotic cells and an increase in p21, but not p53, protein were observed in tumor tissues derived from flavone-treated group.
  • Additionally, flavone induced apoptosis in primary colon carcinoma cells COLO205-X with appearance of DNA ladders, caspase 3 protein procession, PARP protein cleavage, and an increase in p21 (not p53) protein.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Apoptosis. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Flavonoids / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Caspase 3. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Flavones. Humans. Male. Mice. Neoplasm Transplantation / pathology. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / metabolism. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 15289867.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cdkn1a protein, mouse; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Flavones; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 525-82-6 / flavone; EC 2.4.2.30 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases; EC 3.4.22.- / CASP3 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Casp3 protein, mouse; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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30. Baccari P, Bisagni P, Crippa S, Sampietro R, Staudacher C: Operative and long-term results after one-stage surgery for obstructing colonic cancer. Hepatogastroenterology; 2006 Sep-Oct;53(71):698-701
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  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: To analyze retrospectively the operative results and five-year survival after single-stage resection and primary anastomosis for right- or left-sided colonic malignant obstruction.
  • METHODOLOGY: From 1994 to 2002, 83 patients with acute obstruction due to primary cancer underwent a one-stage procedure, 36 (43.3%) for cancer of the right and 47 (56.7%) of the left colon.
  • CONCLUSIONS: One-stage resection and primary anastomosis can be applied to the majority of patients with malignant colonic obstruction and it allows achieving excellent operative results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Colectomy. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Intestinal Obstruction / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anastomosis, Surgical. Antibiotic Prophylaxis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17086871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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31. Djeu JY, Wei S: Clusterin and chemoresistance. Adv Cancer Res; 2009;105:77-92
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  • Resistance to anticancer agents is one of the primary impediments to effective cancer therapy.
  • Chemoresistance occurs not only to clinically established therapeutic agents but also to novel targeted therapeutics.
  • Both intrinsic and acquired mechanisms have been implicated in drug resistance but it remains controversial which mechanisms are responsible that lead to failure of therapy in cancer patients.
  • Moreover, it is abnormally upregulated in numerous advanced stage and metastatic cancers spanning prostate, renal, bladder, breast, head and neck, colon, cervical, pancreatic, lung carcinomas, melanoma, and lymphoma.
  • Expression of sCLU may be an adaptive response to genotoxic and oxidative stresses but this adaptive response could pose a threat in malignant cells being treated with cytotoxic agents by enhancing their survival potential.
  • Thus, sCLU has a key role in preventing apoptosis induced by cytotoxic agents and has the potential to be targeted for cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Clusterin / physiology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Resistance, Multiple. Humans. Oxidative Stress

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  • (PMID = 19879424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098080
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLU protein, human; 0 / Clusterin
  • [Number-of-references] 78
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS539156; NLM/ PMC3889866
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