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1. Kang KM, Chung WC, Lee KM, Hur SE, Nah JM, Kim GH, Back JY, Kim SK, Yang JM, Choi HJ: [A case of primary hepatic lymphoma mimicking hepatitis]. Korean J Hepatol; 2005 Sep;11(3):284-8
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  • [Title] [A case of primary hepatic lymphoma mimicking hepatitis].
  • We report here on a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in which liver involvement was the predominant clinical manifestation.
  • The abdominal CT scan showed only diffuse hepatosplenomegaly and uneven contrast enhancement of the spleen without any definite mass of the liver and spleen.
  • US-guided aspiration biopsy of liver and the histologic examination confirmed a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, the diffuse large B cell type.
  • Bone marrow biopsy showed the infiltration of malignant lymphoma cells.
  • PET-CT showed an increased FDG uptake of the liver, spleen and long bones.
  • The patient was treated with combination regimen of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone chemotherapy.
  • Even in the absence of a mass lesion or lymphadenopathy, primary hepatic or hepatosplenic lymphoma should be considered in differential diagnosis of hepatitis or liver cirrhosis, especially for patients with diffuse hepatosplenomegaly and markedly elevated LDH.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16177555.001).
  • [ISSN] 1738-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Hepatol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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2. Tokuchi Y, Kamachi M, Harada M, Hasegawa M, Mishina T, Yamashiro K, Suzuki H, Isobe H: Synchronous triple lung cancers after treatment for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: metachronous quadruple cancers. Intern Med; 2003 Oct;42(10):1031-4
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  • [Title] Synchronous triple lung cancers after treatment for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: metachronous quadruple cancers.
  • After chemotherapy and radiotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma during a one-year period, a 66-year-old man developed synchronous triple lung cancers in both lungs.
  • Although he received repeated chemotherapy for lung cancer, the patient died of hepatic failure due to multiple liver metastases.
  • Autopsy revealed disseminated metastasis of the large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine morphology throughout the entire body, but no recurrence of malignant lymphoma or squamous cell carcinoma was found.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of triple lung cancers occurring after treatment for malignant lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Large Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Lung Neoplasms / etiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Prednisone / adverse effects. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 14606721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-2918
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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3. Lee SH, Kim HJ, Mun JS, Oh HC, Lee HW, Choi CH, Kim JW, Do JH, Kim JG, Chang SK, Kim MK: A case of primary hepatic Burkitt's lymphoma. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2008 Apr;51(4):259-64
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  • [Title] A case of primary hepatic Burkitt's lymphoma.
  • Burkitt's lymphoma is a rare disease that belongs to the aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Herein, we report a case of primary hepatic Burkitt's lymphoma.
  • Abdominal-Pelvis CT scan and abdominal MRI finding were compatible with malignant lymphoma.
  • Liver biopsy examination confirmed Burkitt's lymphoma.
  • Chemotherapy was administered every 3 weeks for fifteen cycles.
  • Serial follow-up CT scan showed a marked decrease in the size of hepatic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18516006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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4. Hsieh PY, Huang SI, Li DK, Mao TL, Sheu JC, Chen CH: Primary effusion lymphoma involving both pleural and abdominal cavities in a patient with hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis. J Formos Med Assoc; 2007 Jun;106(6):504-8
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  • [Title] Primary effusion lymphoma involving both pleural and abdominal cavities in a patient with hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis.
  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an unusual form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which is characterized by lymphomatous effusion in body cavities, but no associated mass lesions.
  • We describe a 54-year-old man with HIV-negative PEL, with a history of hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis.
  • The genomic human herpesvirus-8 was detected in the lymphoma cells.
  • The patient received four cycles of chemotherapy of CHOP and Picibanil (OK-432) intraperitoneal administration.
  • Adefovir failed to halt the progressive liver failure after the development of YMDD mutant related to lamivudine.
  • He died of sepsis and hepatic failure.


5. Eidt S, Nebeling M, Pohl C, Siedek M: [Neoadjuvant chemotherapy of primary hepatic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma]. Med Klin (Munich); 2003 Feb 15;98(2):96-9
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  • [Title] [Neoadjuvant chemotherapy of primary hepatic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoadjuvante Chemotherapie eines primären malignen Non-Hodgkin-Lymphoms der Leber.
  • BACKGROUND: Since primary malignant lymphomas of the liver represent a rare entity, no commonly accepted therapeutic strategy has been developed so far.
  • CASE STUDY: We report the case of a diffuse large-cell B-cell lymphoma of the liver in a 48-year-old female patient.
  • After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the lymphoma was completely resected (R0).
  • A massive therapy-induced tumor regression was found histologically.
  • After six courses of adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient has been alive and well for more than 5 years and shows no evidence of tumor relapse.
  • CONCLUSION: This case documents the effect of systemic chemotherapy on lymphoma cells.
  • In many centers systemic chemotherapy is used as the only therapeutic regimen.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy might, however, represent an important addition to the therapeutic strategies concerning unilocular primary hepatic lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy

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  • (PMID = 12601534.001).
  • [ISSN] 0723-5003
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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6. Kang HG, Choi JS, Seo JA, Moon SS, Kim JH, Jee SR, Lee YJ, Seol SY: [A case of primary biliary malignant lymphoma mimicking Klatskin tumor]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2009 Sep;54(3):191-5
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  • [Title] [A case of primary biliary malignant lymphoma mimicking Klatskin tumor].
  • Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the extrahepatic bile duct presenting as obstructive jaundice is extremely rare.
  • A 60-year-old man was admitted due to suddenly developed jaundice.
  • Computerized tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a tumor at the proximal common hepatic duct.
  • The resection of the common hepatic duct tumor, lymph node dissection, and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy were carried out.
  • Histology and immunohistochemistry of the resected specimen confirmed a diffuse large B-cell malignant lymphoma involving the common hepatic duct.
  • The patient is scheduled to receive adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • In summary, primary non-Hodgkins lymphoma of the extrahepatic bile duct, despite its rarity, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of causes for obstructive jaundice.
  • An accurate histopathologic diagnosis and surgical resection combined with chemotherapy may be the approach to offer a chance for cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD20 / metabolism. Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Klatskin Tumor / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19844157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD20
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7. Giuliante F, Sarno G, Ardito F, Pierconti F: Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma in a young man after Hodgkin's disease: diagnostic pitfalls and therapeutic challenge. Tumori; 2009 May-Jun;95(3):374-7
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  • [Title] Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma in a young man after Hodgkin's disease: diagnostic pitfalls and therapeutic challenge.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary leiomyosarcoma of the liver is a rare tumor whose development patterns are unsatisfactorily known.
  • PATIENT CASE: A 26-year-old male patient with a previous history of radiochemotherapy treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma was referred to our unit with a histological and radiological diagnosis of primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma.
  • Six months before referral, in a workup for hypertension, a CT scan of the abdomen had shown a 2.5-cm lesion in liver segment VII, which was interpreted as an angioma.
  • Shortly before referral the lesion had grown to 7.8 cm, associated with two smaller lesions in segments VIII and III, and a diagnosis of hepatic leiomyosarcoma was made at biopsy.
  • This was followed by rapid progression of the disease, in spite of transient stabilization under gemcitabine treatment.
  • Octreotide was also administered after the detection of elevated chromogranin A in serum.
  • The patient died 25 months after liver resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The challenges and peculiarities of this case are related to the rarity of the tumor, its accidental discovery without immediate suspicion of its nature, its very aggressive behavior that was only partly controlled by chemotherapy, and the unusual expression of a neuroendocrine phenotypic feature with high serum chromogranin A levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease. Leiomyosarcoma. Liver Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Second Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Hepatectomy. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19688980.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Takauchi K, Kono H, Ito T, Zaima K, Okumoto S: [A case of primary hepatic lymphoma successfully treated by THP-COP therapy]. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi; 2003 Jan;40(1):65-8
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  • [Title] [A case of primary hepatic lymphoma successfully treated by THP-COP therapy].
  • The presence of a tumor mass in the umbilical portion of the liver was recognized by abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography scan.
  • Needle biopsy of the tumor showed non Hodgkin's lymphoma (diffuse large B cell type) by histology and histoimmunology.
  • Primary hepatic lymphoma is so infrequent that standard treatments are not established yet.
  • Most cases of primary hepatic lymphoma are treated by surgical resection in Japan; however our conservative approach to remission is considered as very helpful for discussing how to treat primary hepatic lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12649851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Ronen Igakkai zasshi. Japanese journal of geriatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VEP-THP protocol
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9. Kitabayashi K, Hasegawa T, Ueno K, Saito H, Kosaka T, Takashima S, Kurose N, Nojima T: Primary hepatic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient with chronic hepatitis C: report of a case. Surg Today; 2004;34(4):366-9
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  • [Title] Primary hepatic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient with chronic hepatitis C: report of a case.
  • We report a case of primary hepatic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a 77-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C.
  • Laboratory data revealed slightly elevated liver function parameters and positive antibody for hepatitis C virus (HCV).
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed that the tumor was marginally enhanced in the early phase, but no enhancement was seen in the late phase.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the tumor was hypointense in relation to the liver on T1-weighted images, but hyperintense on T2-weighted images.
  • Hepatic angiography showed a homogeneously stained hypervascular tumor.
  • Under the diagnosis of a liver tumor, thought to be a hepatocellular carcinoma, left lateral segmentectomy was performed.
  • Histological examination confirmed a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that was positive for L-26 and CD79Alpha, but negative for CD3 and UCHL-1.
  • The surrounding liver tissue showed signs of chronic active hepatitis.
  • Multiple recurrent lesions were found in the liver, spleen, and iliac bones 4 months postoperatively.
  • However, complete remission was achieved after five courses of systemic chemotherapy using pirarubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine sulfate, and prednisolone.
  • We review the literature on primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arising in the liver infected by HCV.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis C, Chronic / complications. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Lymphoma, B-Cell / complications. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / complications

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  • (PMID = 15052456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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10. Salmon JS, Thompson MA, Arildsen RC, Greer JP: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involving the liver: clinical and therapeutic considerations. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma; 2006 Jan;6(4):273-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involving the liver: clinical and therapeutic considerations.
  • Primary hepatic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a rare disease that presents unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.
  • Secondary liver involvement by lymphoma is common and can complicate treatment decisions.
  • A review of the published case reports and the few larger series suggests that primary hepatic NHL represents a heterogeneous mixture of disparate diseases rather than a single entity.
  • Presentations vary from the incidental discovery of hepatic abnormalities in an otherwise asymptomatic patient to that of fulminant hepatic failure with rapid progression of encephalopathy to coma and death.
  • The clinical, laboratory, and radiographic characteristics are nonspecific, which means the diagnosis is often not suspected until histopathologic examination of liver tissue.
  • There appears to be a strong association between primary hepatic NHL and the hepatitis C virus.
  • Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma has attained its own status as a unique disease, whereas case reports suggest that the spectrum of hepatic lymphoma includes many histologies.
  • Involvement of the liver by lymphoma can compound the difficulty of pursuing aggressive chemotherapy in patients who have a life-threatening illness and impaired metabolism of the most effective drugs.
  • Therapy should be tailored to the individual clinical situation, with consideration of the underlying histology and degree of hepatic insufficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Hepatitis C / complications. Hepatitis C / pathology. Hepatitis C / therapy. Humans. Liver Failure / etiology. Liver Failure / pathology. Liver Failure / therapy. Splenic Neoplasms / pathology. Splenic Neoplasms / secondary. Splenic Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16507204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9190
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma & myeloma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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11. Fesler MJ, Becker-Koepke S, Di Bisceglie AM, Petruska PJ: Procarbazine-induced hepatotoxicity: case report and review of the literature. Pharmacotherapy; 2010 May;30(5):540
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  • Procarbazine hydrochloride is an oral alkylating agent primarily used as a component of chemotherapy regimens for Hodgkin's lymphoma, as well as in regimens for primary central nervous system lymphoma and high-grade gliomas.
  • Although the prescribing information for procarbazine lists hepatic dysfunction as a potential adverse reaction, we found only one published report with a probable link between procarbazine and liver injury.
  • We describe a 65-year-old man who developed liver injury due to procarbazine during salvage chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • The patient had no preexisting liver disease, his lymphoma was without hepatic involvement, and no liver injury developed after initial chemotherapy with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone).
  • Due to relapse of his non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, salvage chemotherapy with C-MOPP-R (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, and rituximab) was administered, and the patient developed fever and aminotransferase level elevation during the second cycle.
  • After discontinuation of all drug therapy, exclusion of other potential etiologies, and resolution of hepatic injury, the patient was rechallenged with procarbazine and again experienced fever with aminotransferase level elevation.
  • His aminotransferase levels promptly returned to normal after discontinuation of procarbazine, and he experienced no further evidence of liver disease.
  • Use of validated scoring systems of drug-induced liver injury indicated a definitive association between the patient's hepatic injury and procarbazine.
  • Based on our experience with this patient, periodic assessment of hepatic function, as suggested in the package insert, is recommended in patients receiving procarbazine.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Procarbazine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Alanine Transaminase / blood. Drug Monitoring. Humans. Liver / drug effects. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Male. Salvage Therapy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20412004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-9114
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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12. Okamoto R, Maeda Y, Sasaki T: [Hepatotoxicity of chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 Jun;30(6):772-8
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  • [Title] [Hepatotoxicity of chemotherapy].
  • Patients who will receive chemotherapy require careful assessment of liver function prior to treatment to determine which drugs are not appropriate, and which drugs need dose modification.
  • However, if the hepatic parenchymal abnormalities are caused by an underlying neoplasm and the neoplasm is sensitive to the drugs, it may not be necessary to reduce the dose.
  • Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) involves either the nucleoside analogue lamivudine or interferon alpha.
  • Primary prophylaxis with lamivudine may be a well tolerated and effective method to reduce the frequency of chemotherapy-induced HBV reactivation in chronic HbsAg carriers.
  • HbsAg screening is necessary before beginning chemotherapy for non Hodgkin's lymphoma patients.
  • However, the main problem with long-term lamivudine therapy is the emergence of genotypic resistance because of base pair substitution at specific sites within the YMDD locus of the DNA polymerase gene.
  • Significant hepatic dysfunction is uncommon among hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients treated with chemotherapy for hematological malignancies.
  • Clinical judgment and a high index of suspicion remain critical tools in preventing and treating hepatic manifestations of cancer chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / drug therapy. Liver Diseases / prevention & control. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hepatitis B / drug therapy. Hepatitis B / prevention & control. Hepatitis C / drug therapy. Hepatitis C / prevention & control. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Lamivudine / therapeutic use. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12852343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 2T8Q726O95 / Lamivudine
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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13. Page RD, Romaguera JE, Osborne B, Medeiros LJ, Rodriguez J, North L, Sanz-Rodriguez C, Cabanillas F: Primary hepatic lymphoma: favorable outcome after combination chemotherapy. Cancer; 2001 Oct 15;92(8):2023-9
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  • [Title] Primary hepatic lymphoma: favorable outcome after combination chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary hepatic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PHL) is a rare and difficult to diagnose lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology.
  • The primary presenting complaint was right upper quadrant abdominal pain, with hepatomegaly found at physical examination.
  • Serum liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, and beta-2-microglobulin levels all were elevated, but alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen levels were within normal range.
  • Liver scans demonstrated either a solitary lesion or multiple lesions.
  • Pathologic examination revealed diffuse large cell lymphoma in 23 patients (96%).
  • Combination chemotherapy was the mainstay of treatment; surgery consisted of diagnostic biopsy.
  • HCV infection did not appear to influence the outcome of therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of patients with PHL who are treated with combination chemotherapy may be more favorable than that reported elsewhere.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Hepatitis C / complications. Humans. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11596015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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14. Kestler MH, Gardner EM, Cohn DL: Hepatic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with lactic acidosis in HIV-infected patients: report of 2 cases. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic); 2010 Sep-Oct;9(5):301-5
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  • [Title] Hepatic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with lactic acidosis in HIV-infected patients: report of 2 cases.
  • We report 2 patients with HIV-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with massive hepatic involvement and lactic acidosis.
  • The lactic acidosis was likely caused by excessive tumor lactate production coupled with impaired hepatic clearance.
  • Although 1 patient died rapidly, the other survived for 7 months after receiving urgent combination chemotherapy.
  • Clinicians should be aware of this condition and the importance of its early diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Acidosis, Lactic / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20739590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-1097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (Chicago, Ill. : 2002)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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15. Nasr Ben Ammar C, Chaari N, Kochbati L, Besbes M, Maalej M: [Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the liver: case report and review of the literature]. Cancer Radiother; 2006 Dec;10(8):595-601
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  • [Title] [Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the liver: case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Lymphome non hodgkinien primitif du foie: à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature.
  • Purpose was to describe the clinical, radiological and therapeutic features in primary liver lymphoma.
  • Systematical ultrasound find a mass of the left liver confirmed by Computed tomography (CT).
  • Histological examination of laparoscopic liver biopsy specimens confirmed diffuse large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • The disease was confined to the liver without any evidence of extrahepatic involvement.
  • PET-scan show increased FDG uptake at the site of hepatic lesion and the mediastin.
  • The patient received chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy of the left liver at the dose of 31 Gy.
  • The patient was alive and free of disease 20 months after the diagnosis of primary liver lymphoma.
  • The primary hepatic lymphoma is a rare malignancy, which classically affects 50-year-old patients with a male preponderance.
  • The imaging studies including ultrasound, CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and now PET-scan help to establish the diagnosis and to the following.
  • Treatment options are surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms. Lymphoma, B-Cell
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Liver / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy Dosage. Rituximab. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17137818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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16. Zheng W, Yong WB, Zhu J, Zhang YT, Wang XP, Xie Y: [Clinical analysis of liver non-Hodgkin's lymphoma]. Ai Zheng; 2004 Nov;23(11 Suppl):1451-4
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of liver non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Incidence of liver non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is increasing.
  • This study was to explore clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of liver NHL.
  • METHODS: Records of 45 patients with liver NHL treated in our hospital from Jan.
  • Clinical features of liver NHL were presented with fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegalia, and liver dysfunction.
  • Combination treatment based on chemotherapy was the major therapy.
  • Median survival time was 4 months, overall 1-, and 2-year survival rates were 22%, and 18%.
  • CONCLUSION: Early diagnose liver NHL is difficult, its treatment effect and prognosis are poor, combination therapy should be given as early as possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Alanine Transaminase / blood. Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood. Bilirubin / blood. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / blood. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / blood. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15566655.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; RFM9X3LJ49 / Bilirubin; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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17. Cameron AM, Truty J, Truell J, Lassman C, Zimmerman MA, Kelly BS Jr, Farmer DG, Hiatt JR, Ghobrial R, Busuttil RW: Fulminant hepatic failure from primary hepatic lymphoma: successful treatment with orthotopic liver transplantation and chemotherapy. Transplantation; 2005 Oct 15;80(7):993-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fulminant hepatic failure from primary hepatic lymphoma: successful treatment with orthotopic liver transplantation and chemotherapy.
  • Systemic lymphomas may involve the liver but rarely cause fulminant hepatic failure (FHF).
  • Acute liver failure from primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is even less common with most patients succumbing to the sequelae of FHF before the correct diagnosis is made.
  • We report a patient who underwent successful orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) and chemotherapy for FHF secondary to PHL.
  • This previously-well male developed profound coagulopathy and encephalopathy 6 weeks after the onset of jaundice and fatigue.
  • Workup failed to reveal the underlying cause of his liver failure and the patient soon required urgent OLT.
  • Pathologic evaluation of his explanted liver revealed a malignant T-cell rich, large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with widespread hepatocellular necrosis.
  • The patient made an excellent clinical recovery and is undergoing CHOP-Rituxan chemotherapy.
  • This scenario demonstrates that lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of FHF without clear etiology because of the potential for intervention with transplant and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Failure, Acute / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Liver Transplantation. Lymphoma, B-Cell / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Liver / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome


18. Schweiger F, Shinder R, Rubin S: Primary lymphoma of the liver: a case report and review. Can J Gastroenterol; 2000 Dec;14(11):955-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary lymphoma of the liver: a case report and review.
  • The case of a previously healthy man who developed primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the liver is presented.
  • Biopsy confirmed that the tumour was of the diffuse large cell type and was of apparent T-cell origin.
  • The diagnosis of these rare tumours is suggested by the presence of a hepatic mass without lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly or bone marrow involvement, as well as normal carcinoembryonic antigen and alpha-fetoprotein levels.
  • However, histological examination of tissue is essential to confirm the diagnosis.
  • The response to treatment varies, but surgical resection and/or chemotherapy can result in prolonged remissions.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, T-Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11125187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0835-7900
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] CANADA
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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19. Noronha V, Shafi NQ, Obando JA, Kummar S: Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the liver. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2005 Mar;53(3):199-207
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the liver.
  • We review the literature on primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL).
  • PHL is a rare malignancy, and constitutes about 0.016% of all cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Imaging studies reveal solitary, or less often, multiple masses in the liver.
  • The predominant histology is B-cell lymphoma, most commonly diffuse large cell type.
  • Most patients are treated with chemotherapy, with some physicians employing a multimodality approach incorporating surgery and radiotherapy with chemotherapy.
  • The prognosis is variable, with good response to early aggressive combination chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15718146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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20. Walter T, Béziat C, Miailhes P, Scalone O, Lebouché B, Trepo C: [Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the liver in HIV infected patient: case-report]. Rev Med Interne; 2004 Aug;25(8):596-600
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the liver in HIV infected patient: case-report].
  • [Transliterated title] Lymphome non hodgkinien primitif du foie chez un patient infecté par le VIH: à propos d'une observation.
  • INTRODUCTION: Primary liver non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, are extremely rare in HIV-infected patient.
  • Most of them are diffuse large-cell lymphoma with B cell type.
  • Abdominal computerised tomography showed numerous hypodense lesions on all liver segments.
  • The various biological, microbiological and morphological examinations (ultrasound, MRI with intravenous contrast agent specific for the liver) initially suggested a tumoral origin.
  • The liver biopsy concluded to a large B-cell lymphoma.
  • A chemotherapy (CHOP) with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) was initiated without discontinuing antiretroviral therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: This case-report does emphasize on the numerous presentations of primary liver lymphoma in HIV-Infected patient, and we illustrate the interest of MRI using a new intravenous contrast agent critical for differential diagnosis.


21. Maher MM, McDermott SR, Fenlon HM, Conroy D, O'Keane JC, Carney DN, Stack JP: Imaging of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the liver. Clin Radiol; 2001 Apr;56(4):295-301
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imaging of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the liver.
  • AIM: To describe the radiological findings in primary liver lymphoma, which is a rare entity, presenting usually as a localized liver mass.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively the imaging findings at presentation, of patients in whom a diagnosis of primary liver lymphoma was finally made histologically.
  • Imaging prior to diagnosis included ultrasonography (seven patients), computed tomography (seven patients) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (two patients).
  • Appearances during and after aggressive chemotherapy were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Imaging appearances were of either single or multiple liver lesions simulating liver metastases.
  • On ultrasound all foci of primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) were hypoechoic relative to normal liver.
  • Computed tomography (CT) showed hypoattenuating lesions in all cases, and two cases showed rim enhancement following contrast administration.
  • The MRI appearances were variable, and no pathognomonic feature of PHL was identified, so that histology was required in all patients to establish the diagnosis.
  • We conclude that although PHL is a rare condition, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of liver metastases when no primary tumour is apparent.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11286581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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22. Ozden I, Yavuz E, Acarli K, Karabulut L, Yöney E, Cevikbaş U, Alper A: Primary lymphoma of the liver: report of a case. Surg Today; 2000;30(4):376-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary lymphoma of the liver: report of a case.
  • We describe herein a female patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the liver and present a review of the related literature.
  • The patient was referred with the diagnosis of malignant hemangiopericytoma (with an open biopsy).
  • Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell type.
  • These findings established the diagnosis of primary hepatic lymphoma.
  • The best treatment results have been obtained by a resection followed by chemotherapy when feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 10795873.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
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23. Mattar WE, Alex BK, Sherker AH: Primary hepatic burkitt lymphoma presenting with acute liver failure. J Gastrointest Cancer; 2010 Dec;41(4):261-3
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  • [Title] Primary hepatic burkitt lymphoma presenting with acute liver failure.
  • INTRODUCTION: We report the first case of immunophenotypically confirmed primary hepatic Burkitt lymphoma presenting with acute liver failure.
  • The patient survived following an aggressive diagnostic approach followed by emergent chemotherapy.
  • DISCUSSION: Data from the primary hepatic non-Hodgkin lymphoma literature show a survival rate of 87% at 5 years with combination regimens of chemotherapy.
  • However, mortality rate in this population is 85% in patients with acute liver failure.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary hepatic Burkitt lymphoma may respond well to emergent chemotherapy even in the setting of acute liver failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / complications. Liver Failure, Acute / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Female. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Humans. Middle Aged. Rituximab

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  • (PMID = 20405241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-6636
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gastrointest Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
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24. Shito M, Kakefuda T, Omori T, Ishii S, Sugiura H: Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the main hepatic duct junction. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2008;15(4):440-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the main hepatic duct junction.
  • A rare case of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the main hepatic duct junction is reported.
  • A 71-year-old man was admitted for treatment of obstructive jaundice.
  • Radiological examination revealed stenosis of the main hepatic duct junction.
  • A left hepatic and caudate lobectomy, combined with resection of bile ducts and lymph node dissection, was performed with the preoperative diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma of the main hepatic duct junction.
  • Macroscopic examination of the resected specimen revealed tumorous growth in the main hepatic duct junction.
  • Histological and immunochemistry findings disclosed a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.
  • The patient received three courses of combination chemotherapy [cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (CHOP)], and there was no evidence of recurrence 45 months after the surgery.
  • Although primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the main hepatic duct junction is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively, aggressive surgery followed by chemotherapy, as here, is a possible curative option.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hepatic Duct, Common. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 18670848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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25. Corti M, Villafañe Fioti MF, Lewi D, Schtirbu R, Narbaitz M, de Dios Soler M: [Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the digestive tract and anexal glands in AIDS patients]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam; 2006 Dec;36(4):190-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the digestive tract and anexal glands in AIDS patients].
  • BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is the second most common neoplasm among patients with AIDS.
  • METHODS: From January 1997 to December 2004, 8 cases of NHL of the digestive tract and anexal glands (liver and parotid gland) were observed at the HIV/AIDS division of the Infectious Diseases FJ Muñiz Hospital from Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • All patients were staged by computed tomography scanning and bone marrow examination, in addition to the endoscopic evaluation.
  • RESULTS: All patients were males; 4 were heterosexual, 2 homosexual, and 1 were a hemophilic and an intravenous drug abuser.
  • The median age was 42 years and the median CD4 T cell count was 87 cells/uL at the time of the diagnosis of neoplasm.
  • No patient was receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at lymphoma diagnosis.
  • The global incidence of AIDS-associated lymphomas (central nervous system lymphomas, non-Hodgkin lymphomas and Hodgkin lymphoma) during the time of study was 2,9% (54 cases); 17 patients (32%) had diagnosis of systemic NHL; 10 (58,8%) of them were extranodal at the onset of clinical symptoms and 8 (80%) involvement the digestive tract and anexal glands (parotid gland, cavum, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, the right colon in 2 patients and the liver), as primary NHL of high grade and "B" phenotype.
  • All patients presented "B" symptoms at the time of diagnosis.
  • Primary duodenal lymphoma was the only Burkitt lymphoma of this serie and we detected the Epstein-Barr virus genome in the biopsy smears of this tumor and in the hepatic lymphoma.
  • Four patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy with granulocitic growth factor support plus highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); 2 of them (cavum and one of the colon) had a prolonged survival with immune reconstitution during 5 and 6 years, respectively, after the diagnosis.
  • The median survival of the patients, which received HAART plus chemotherapy, was 33 months.
  • Early diagnosis followed by chemotherapy plus HAART are necessary to improve the prognosis and the survival of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17225446.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9033
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Latinoam.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
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26. Balduzzi C, Yantorno M, Mosca I, Apraiz M, Velázquez MJ, Puente Mdel C, Moragrega V, Ligorría R, Ottino A, Belloni R, Barbero R, Jmelniztky A, Chopita N: [Primary hepatic lymphoma: an infrequent cause of focal hepatic lesion]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam; 2010 Dec;40(4):361-6
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  • [Title] [Primary hepatic lymphoma: an infrequent cause of focal hepatic lesion].
  • Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is confined to the liver with no evidence of extrahepatic lymphomatosis.
  • Histopathologically, the PHL belongs to the group of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and the most common subtype is the diffise large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Liver function tests are normal, erythrocyte sedimentation rate is accelerated and LDH progressively increases during the hospitalization.
  • Imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan, nuclear magnetic resonance) show a multilobued mass of around 12 cm of diameter in the right hepatic lobe.
  • The pathology of an echo-guided biopsy informs a massive infiltration by a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • The patient starts chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone but worsens and dies two weeks after beginning treatment.
  • Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice in these cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Prednisone / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 21381411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9033
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Latinoam.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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27. De Renzo A, Perna F, Persico M, Notaro R, Mainolfi C, de Sio I, Ciancia G, Picardi M, Del Vecchio L, Pane F, Rotoli B: Excellent prognosis and prevalence of HCV infection of primary hepatic and splenic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Eur J Haematol; 2008 Jul;81(1):51-7
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  • [Title] Excellent prognosis and prevalence of HCV infection of primary hepatic and splenic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary Hepatic (PHL) and Primary Splenic (PSL) non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma are rare entities.
  • Small series of PHL and PSL have been reported, suggesting a non-fortuitous association with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection.
  • Twenty-four patients had a B-cell lymphoma, defined as Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma in 18.
  • Combination chemotherapy was the mainstay of treatment for PHL and PSL; all but one patient with PSL underwent splenectomy before chemotherapy.
  • Complete remission was achieved in all the cases after frontline therapy; only four patients relapsed but responded to additional chemotherapy courses.
  • HCV infection did not appear to influence the results of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis C / complications. Liver Neoplasms / virology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Splenic Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Prognosis. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18397390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0609
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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28. Iannitto E, Ammatuna E, Tripodo C, Marino C, Calvaruso G, Florena AM, Montalto G, Franco V: Long-lasting remission of primary hepatic lymphoma and hepatitis C virus infection achieved by the alpha-interferon treatment. Hematol J; 2004;5(6):530-3
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  • [Title] Long-lasting remission of primary hepatic lymphoma and hepatitis C virus infection achieved by the alpha-interferon treatment.
  • Primary hepatic lymphoma is a rare but well-defined lymphoma entity that often pursues an aggressive clinical course.
  • Most cases have been described in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related chronic liver disease patients.
  • Although anthracycline-based chemotherapy has been reported to be highly effective, the best therapeutic strategy has not been defined yet.
  • The prognosis is dismal especially in patients treated with chemotherapy alone or when an advanced liver disease is present.
  • Herein, we describe a case of primary hepatic large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, in a patient with HCV chronic infection.
  • After a minor response with eight cycles of CHOP chemotherapy, a complete and sustained remission was obtained with alpha-interferon at the daily dose of 3 MU.
  • HCV-RNA clearance pace from the blood almost paralleled the response of the lymphoma and both diseases went in remission within 1 year of therapy.
  • The possible place of alpha-Interferon in the treatment of primary hepatic lymphoma is discussed.

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  • (PMID = 15570298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1466-4860
  • [Journal-full-title] The hematology journal : the official journal of the European Haematology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha
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29. Das K, Fisher A, Wilson DJ, dela Torre AN, Seguel J, Koneru B: Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the bile ducts mimicking cholangiocarcinoma. Surgery; 2003 Sep;134(3):496-500
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  • [Title] Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the bile ducts mimicking cholangiocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the liver and bile duct mimicking cholangiocarcinoma is rare.
  • METHODS: The clinical and radiologic features and the treatment of 2 patients with primary NHL of the bile ducts are presented and analyzed together with cases collected from a review of the English literature between 1966 and 2003.
  • RESULTS: Fifteen patients with primary NHL, including our 2 patients, presented with clinical features mimicking cholangiocarcinoma.
  • In only 1 patient was the diagnosis established without surgery.
  • Seven received chemotherapy immediately after the diagnosis was made.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the liver and bile duct must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with obstructive jaundice.
  • If the correct diagnosis is made before surgery, current protocols of chemotherapy may be the primary modality of therapy.
  • Surgical resection should be reserved to address complications of biliary obstruction or the failure of chemotherapy to eradicate localized disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 14555939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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30. Zhang YJ, Chen MS, Liang HH, Xu L, Zhang YQ: [Clinicopathologic features and treatment outcomes of primary hepatic lymphoma: a report of four cases]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Mar;24(3):365-7
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic features and treatment outcomes of primary hepatic lymphoma: a report of four cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL), a rare malignancy, has seldom been reported.
  • This article was to investigate clinicopathologic features and treatment of PHL.
  • All patents were positive for HBV antigen, 3 were misdiagnosed preoperatively, and 1 had no clear diagnosis before operation.
  • Pathologic examination revealed that 3 were B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 1 was Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Two patients received resection, and 2 received biopsy; all patients received adjuvant chemotherapy postoperatively.
  • PHL should be considered for the patients presented liver mass and B-symptomatolgy.
  • Resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with CHOP regiment seems to be the best option for PHL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hepatectomy. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Diagnostic Errors. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hepatitis Antigens / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15757544.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hepatitis Antigens; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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31. Adani GL, Marcello D, Mazzetti J, Maestroni U, Anania G, Donini A: [Role of surgery in the treatment of primary gastric lymphoma and assessment of new therapeutic approaches]. G Chir; 2001 Aug-Sep;22(8-9):273-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Role of surgery in the treatment of primary gastric lymphoma and assessment of new therapeutic approaches].
  • Controversy remains regarding the best treatment for primary gastric lymphoma (PGL).
  • Recent developments in diagnosis and chemotherapy have changed strategies for this disease.
  • Fourteen patients with primary gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma underwent surgery.
  • Before surgery 9/14 patients underwent Helicobacter pylori eradication, and 4/14 were treated with chemotherapy.
  • In two patients chemotherapy was not possible because of risk of perforation recurred.
  • Total gastrectomy with N2 lymphadenectomy, splenectomy, biopsy of mesenteric lymph nodes, and hepatic biopsy were done.
  • Then patients underwent post-operative chemotherapy.
  • Involved-field radiation therapy was made in four patients.
  • Surgery was the treatment of choice in cases of gastric lymphoma non-responsive to medical therapy and to control complications or when gastroscopy did not supply correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11682961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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32. Emile JF, Azoulay D, Gornet JM, Lopes G, Delvart V, Samuel D, Reynès M, Bismuth H, Goldwasser F: Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the liver with nodular and diffuse infiltration patterns have different prognoses. Ann Oncol; 2001 Jul;12(7):1005-10
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  • [Title] Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the liver with nodular and diffuse infiltration patterns have different prognoses.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary liver non-Hodgkin's lymphomas have peculiar clinical and biological patterns.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical records and histology of patients with primary liver non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, treated at our institution over a 20-year period, were reviewed.
  • Lymphoproliferations occurring after liver transplantation were excluded.
  • Three patients had a nodular liver infiltration, corresponding to a large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Five patients had a diffuse liver infiltration, of whom three had a T-cell lymphoma with predominant sinusoid infiltration, and two had a large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Patients with diffuse liver infiltration presented with hepatomegaly, and two of these also had acute liver failure.
  • Among these latter patients, those treated with an anthracycline-based chemotherapy had a better outcome (P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with primary liver lymphomas can be classified in two groups, depending on the type of infiltration.
  • Those with nodular infiltration may benefit from anthracycline-based chemotherapy.
  • Diffuse infiltration has a bad prognosis, and should be suspected in patients presenting with altered liver functions and hepatomegaly.

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  • (PMID = 11521784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Kojima H, Takei N, Mukai Y, Hasegawa Y, Suzukawa K, Nagata M, Noguchi M, Mori N, Nagasawa T: Hemophagocytic syndrome as the primary clinical symptom of Hodgkin's disease. Ann Hematol; 2003 Jan;82(1):53-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hemophagocytic syndrome as the primary clinical symptom of Hodgkin's disease.
  • However, its association with Hodgkin's disease has been only rarely reported.
  • We present here a 72-year-old woman manifesting with HPS as the primary and solitary clinical symptom of Hodgkin's disease.
  • In spite of extensive surveys including various cultures, serological tests for collagen disease, abdominal and cardiac sonography, chest computed tomography (CT), and renal biopsy, the origin of the fever was not determined.
  • She was treated with steroid pulse therapy and then referred.
  • Radiological studies revealed only mild hepatosplenomegaly and small lymph node swellings around celiac and common hepatic arteries.
  • Under the diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease, she was treated with combination chemotherapy containing pirarubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone.
  • However, it was not effective and she died of rapidly progressive hepatic failure on the 5th day of the chemotherapy.
  • Autopsy was performed, which showed proliferation of lymphoma cells in para-aortic lymph nodes.
  • We believe that diagnostic survey to rule out the underlying lymphoma should be vigorously performed for patients with hemophagocytic syndrome of unknown origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytosis, Non-Langerhans-Cell / complications. Hodgkin Disease / complications

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  • (PMID = 12574967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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34. Chen HW, Sheu JC, Lin WC, Tsang YM, Liu KL: Primary liver lymphoma in a patient with chronic hepatitis C. J Formos Med Assoc; 2006 Mar;105(3):242-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary liver lymphoma in a patient with chronic hepatitis C.
  • Primary liver lymphoma is a very rare disease and is frequently overlooked as a possible diagnosis.
  • We report the case of an asymptomatic middle-aged man with chronic hepatitis C who developed primary liver lymphoma (PLL).
  • A large solitary tumor in the left lobe of the liver was incidentally detected on routine ultrasound examination.
  • Atypical hepatectomy was performed and the pathology of the hepatic tumor revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • There was no tumor recurrence more than 4 years after operation and chemotherapy.
  • PLL should be included in the differential diagnosis of solitary hepatic tumor in patients who are hepatitis C virus-positive, and who have atypical imaging and no known malignancy or elevated tumor marker levels.

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  • (PMID = 16520842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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35. Dawson LA, Saito NG, Ratanatharathorn V, Uberti JP, Adams PT, Ayash LJ, Reynolds CM, Silver SM, Schipper MJ, Lichter AS, Eisbruch A: Phase I study of involved-field radiotherapy preceding autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with high-risk lymphoma or Hodgkin's disease. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 May 1;59(1):208-18
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  • [Title] Phase I study of involved-field radiotherapy preceding autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with high-risk lymphoma or Hodgkin's disease.
  • PURPOSE: This Phase I study was designed to evaluate the tolerability of involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) to areas of persistent disease in patients with high-risk Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-one patients with primary refractory or relapsed Hodgkin's disease (n = 13) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 18) were treated with IFRT followed by high-dose chemotherapy and ASCT.
  • All patients had bulky disease (> or =5 cm) and/or an inadequate response to salvage chemotherapy.
  • The IFRT dose was escalated to a maximum of 36 Gy.
  • The chemotherapy regimen consisted of cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and carmustine.
  • RESULTS: The delivered dose of IFRT was 20 Gy in 9 patients, 28-30 Gy in 20, and 32-36 Gy in 2 patients to mediastinal (n = 19) and nonmediastinal (n = 12) sites.
  • One patient developed Bearman Grade 3 hepatic toxicity.
  • A trend toward increased mucositis severity was seen in patients previously treated with a larger number of chemotherapy agents (p = 0.09) and in those with a shorter interval between IFRT and ASCT (p = 0.12).
  • The 2-year overall and progression-free survival rate was 70% and 49% for all patients, 84% and 50% for patients with Hodgkin's disease, and 59% and 47% for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carmustine / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Radiation Injuries / classification. Radiotherapy Dosage. Recurrence. Statistics as Topic. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 15093918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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36. Novelli G, Rossi M, Pretagostini R, Poli L, Novelli L, Berloco P, Ferretti G, Iappelli M, Cortesini R: MARS (Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System): experience in 34 cases of acute liver failure. Liver; 2002;22 Suppl 2:43-7
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  • [Title] MARS (Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System): experience in 34 cases of acute liver failure.
  • As reported in the literature, the mortality rates for patients with Acute Hepatic Failure (AHF) approaches 80% in cases in which liver transplantation is not possible.
  • Post-transplant mortality mostly depends on the severity of the neurological condition at the time of the operation (20% in I-II degree coma patients and 44% in III degree coma patients).
  • The primary indications for liver transplantation in AHF are Fulminant Hepatitis (FH)(93%), Subfulminant Hepatitis (5%) and other indications (2%).
  • Other causes of AHF are Primary Non-Function (PNF) and Delayed Function (DF), which occur in 7-10%.
  • Therefore it becomes necessary to monitor the patients with a Liver Support Device to be able to improve the clinical condition of the patients before liver transplantation (LT).
  • In our experience we used the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) (MARS Monitor; Teraklin AG, Rostock Germany), which enables the selective removal of albumin-bound substances accumulating in liver failure by the use of albumin-enriched dialysate.
  • The system is used as a bridging device to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) of patients with FHF.
  • We studied 34 patients, including 16 males and 18 females: 9 were affected by Primary-Non-Function (PNF), nine by Fulminant Hepatitis (FH), six by Delayed-Non-Function (DNF), and ten by Acute on Chronic Hepatic Failure (AOCHF).
  • The parameters that we monitored, before and after each treatment, were neurological status (EEG, cerebral CT, Glasgow Coma Score), haemodynamic parameters, acid base equilibrium, and blood gas analysis.
  • We also monitored hepatic and renal function.
  • In addition, the clinical conditions of the patients were monitored using kidney and liver ultrasound/ultrasonography (US).
  • In conclusion, four out of nine patients with PNF are alive without a second transplantation and were discharged after about 48 days; four out of nine underwent OLT, while one out of nine died; five out of six patients with DF are alive without a second transplantation, and they were discharged after an average time of 55.5 days, one out of six died; six out of nine patients with fulminant hepatitis underwent OLT and four of these are alive, while two died due to sepsis; three patients are alive without OLT.
  • Four patients with AOCHF underwent OLT and are alive, three patients are alive and on a waiting list, two died while on a waiting list and one patient who experienced reactivation of HBV infection during chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is alive.
  • In spite of the limited number of cases of our study, we believe that MARS can be applied with high tolerance for a very long period of time.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Failure, Acute / therapy. Renal Dialysis. Sorption Detoxification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Ammonia / blood. Bilirubin / blood. Female. Hepatic Encephalopathy / blood. Hepatic Encephalopathy / therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12220303.001).
  • [ISSN] 0106-9543
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7664-41-7 / Ammonia; RFM9X3LJ49 / Bilirubin
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37. Krentz HB, Kliewer G, Gill MJ: Changing mortality rates and causes of death for HIV-infected individuals living in Southern Alberta, Canada from 1984 to 2003. HIV Med; 2005 Mar;6(2):99-106
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: A database search of primary care information for the dates and causes of death for all patients documented with HIV infection and living in Southern Alberta between 1984 and 2003 was undertaken.
  • The time span was divided into pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (1984-1996) and current HAART (1997-2003) periods.
  • The leading causes of AIDS deaths were AIDS multiple causes (31%), Mycobacterium avium complex (18%), Pneumocystis pneumonia (10%) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (7%).
  • The proportion of non-AIDS related deaths increased from 7% pre-HAART to 32% in the current HAART era.
  • Accidental deaths, including drug overdose (29%), suicide (7%) and violence (3%), hepatic disease (19%), non-AIDS related malignancies (19%), and cardiovascular disease (16%) accounted for the majority of non-AIDS related deaths.
  • No deaths directly caused by drug toxicity were found.
  • A total of 14% of patients dying from AIDS were ARV-naive in contrast to 35% dying from non-HIV related conditions.
  • Of all those dying from AIDS, 23% died<3 months after their initial diagnosis, reflecting late presentation.
  • In the current HAART era, 87% of patients who died from AIDS were extensively treated, reflecting HAART treatment failures due mostly to multiclass drug resistance (42%), inexorable disease progression despite ARV (32%), lack of ability or interest to be maintained on a lifelong HAART programme (21%) and, rarely, drug intolerance (<1%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Deaths from AIDS-related causes have decreased significantly, but deaths from non-AIDS related conditions have increased, both as an absolute number of deaths and as a proportion of all deaths in HIV-infected patients.
  • The increasing age of the HIV population, and the increased mean CD4 count, increased proportion of intravenous drug users, increased hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus coinfection rate, and increased history of smoking seen in our population also influenced the mortality rate and causes of death.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / mortality. Alberta. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Cause of Death / trends. Disease Progression. Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection / mortality. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection / virology. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / mortality. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / virology. Socioeconomic Factors. Substance Abuse, Intravenous. Treatment Refusal


38. McAfee SL, Powell SN, Colby C, Spitzer TR: Dose-escalated total body irradiation and autologous stem cell transplantation for refractory hematologic malignancy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 May 1;53(1):151-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation of total body irradiation (TBI) above the previously reported maximally tolerated dose, we have undertaken a Phase I-II trial of dose-escalated TBI with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) for chemotherapy-refractory lymphoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Nine lymphoma patients with primary refractory disease (PRD) or in resistant relapse (RR) received dose-escalated TBI and PBSCT.
  • Three patients, two with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in RR and one with PRD Hodgkin's disease, received 1,600 cGy + PBSCT, three patients (two NHL in RR, one PRD) received 1,800 cGy + PBSCT, and three patients with NHL (two in RR, one PRD) received 2,000 cGy + PBSCT.
  • RESULTS: Toxicities associated with this high-dose TBI regimen included reversible hepatic veno-occlusive disease in 1 patient, Grade 2 mucositis requiring narcotic analgesics in 8 patients, and neurologic toxicities consisting of a symmetrical sensory neuropathy (n = 4) and Lhermitte's syndrome (n = 1).
  • Interstitial pneumonitis developed in 1 patient who received 1,800 cGy after receiving recombinant alpha-interferon (with exacerbation after rechallenge with interferon).
  • CONCLUSION: TBI in a dose range 1,600-2,000 cGy as preparative therapy for autologous PBSCT is feasible and has substantial activity in chemorefractory non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Whole-Body Irradiation / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 12007954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Brisse H, Servois V, Bouche B, Avni F, Petit P, Thibault F, Zucker JM, Devalck C, Neuenschwander S: Hepatic regenerating nodules: a mimic of recurrent cancer in children. Pediatr Radiol; 2000 Jun;30(6):386-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hepatic regenerating nodules: a mimic of recurrent cancer in children.
  • BACKGROUND: Pseudometastatic lesions of the liver may be discovered incidentally in children previously treated for malignant tumour.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine children, 2-12 years' old at the time of diagnosis, are described in this retrospective multicentre report.
  • The primary tumours were: nephroblastoma (n = 2), neuroblastoma (n = 2), Ewing's tumour/PNET (n = 2), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 1), and osteosarcoma (n = 2), treated by surgery (8/9), chemotherapy (9/9), intensive chemotherapy and bone-marrow transplantation (5/9), and radiotherapy (7/9).
  • Three children suffered veno-occlusive disease (VOD) during treatment.
  • The hepatic assessment was performed by sonography (8/9), Doppler (7/9), multiphase spiral CT (8/9) and MRI (7/9).
  • RESULTS: Lesions were discovered 15 months to 16 years after completing treatment.
  • CT was the most sensitive modality for diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Pseudometastatic hypervascular hepatic nodules can appear after treatment of a malignant tumour in children.
  • The hypothesis of benign regenerative lesions secondary to treatment and/or VOD is considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Liver Regeneration. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 10876822.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
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40. Reichenberger F, Wyser C, Gonon M, Cathomas G, Tamm M: Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency syndrome. Respiration; 2001;68(1):109-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency syndrome.
  • Common variable immunodeficiency syndrome (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency typically presenting with recurrent sinopulmonary infections.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and other secondary cancers are typical late complications of CVID.
  • We report on a patient suffering from CVID with a history of recurrent sinopulmonary infections, interstitial pulmonary changes and hepatic granulomas.
  • Despite treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin followed by a reduction in the number of pulmonary infections, reticular and nodular lung changes progressed.
  • Video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy showed a low-grade B cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the bronchus without evidence of pulmonary infection.
  • In conclusion, MALT lymphoma of the lung should be considered in the differential diagnosis of progressive lung disease in CVID.
  • [MeSH-major] Common Variable Immunodeficiency / complications. Common Variable Immunodeficiency / drug therapy. Lung / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / complications. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Chlorambucil / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / administration & dosage. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Respiratory Function Tests. Syndrome. Thoracoscopy / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 11223743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7931
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiration; international review of thoracic diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respiration
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 18D0SL7309 / Chlorambucil; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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