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1. Yoshino T, Nakamura S, Matsuno Y, Ochiai A, Yokoi T, Kitadai Y, Suzumiya J, Tobinai K, Kobayashi Y, Oda I, Mera K, Ohtsu A, Ishikura S: Epstein-Barr virus involvement is a predictive factor for the resistance to chemoradiotherapy of gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Cancer Sci; 2006 Feb;97(2):163-6
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  • Primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphomas are generally well controlled by non-surgical treatment with combination chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy.
  • We have previously reported that over 90% of patients achieved complete response (CR) with this therapeutic strategy: three cycles of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine and prednisone followed by radiotherapy (40.5 Gy).
  • Although the CR rate was very high, some patients still showed resistance to this combination therapy.
  • In order to clarify the factors related to therapy resistance, we examined the relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which was examined using an in situ hybridization technique, and the patients' clinical courses.
  • The other patient achieved CR, but the lymphoma recurred with distant metastasis in the cerebellum 3 months after remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / virology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics. Lymphoma, B-Cell / virology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / virology. Radiation Tolerance. Stomach Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / secondary. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / virology. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / virology. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Prognosis. RNA, Viral / analysis. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16441428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-9032
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Viral; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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2. Lee YK, Choi CG, Lee JH: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the cerebellum: report of two infantile cases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2004 Mar;25(3):481-3
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the cerebellum: report of two infantile cases.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the CNS is an aggressive infantile neoplasm of uncertain origin.
  • In our two infantile cases, this tumor presented as a bulky cerebellar hemispheric mass with significant mass effect to the fourth ventricle and brain stem.
  • Although the attenuation on CT and signal intensity characteristics at MR imaging of this tumor were similar to those of vermian medulloblastoma, cerebellar hemispheric location and aggressive growth pattern could be considered as different gross morphologic characteristics of this tumor.
  • Despite intensive chemotherapy and radiation therapy, both of our two patients died within 8 months of pathologic diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / congenital. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Rhabdoid Tumor / congenital. Teratoma / congenital. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cerebellum / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Dominance, Cerebral / physiology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Humans. Infant. Kidney Neoplasms / congenital. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Medulla Oblongata / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / congenital. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15037476.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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3. Khalil EM: Treatment results of adults and children with medulloblastoma NCI, Cairo University experience. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2008 Jun;20(2):175-86
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  • [Title] Treatment results of adults and children with medulloblastoma NCI, Cairo University experience.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate treatment outcome and prognostic factors of adults and pediatric medulloblastoma patients treated by adjuvant postoperative craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy.
  • All patients underwent primary surgical resection; near total resection in 25% , Subtotal resection in 61% ; with tumor residual < 1.5cm(2) in 49% compared to 51% with > 1.5cm(2) residual tumor and 14% , had biopsy only.
  • Thirty four pediatric patients (67% ) received concomitant chemotherapy, while 61% received adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy and 57% received sequential chemotherapy.
  • Only 33% of patients did not receive chemotherapy.
  • Fourteen patients (21% ) relapsed (10 pediatric and 4 adults) at a median time of 11 months vs. 23 months and a median follow-up period of 8 and 12 months respectively; Neuro-axis was the most common site of relapse (11 patients).
  • Ninety percent (9/10) of the pediatric relapses were of the high risk group (8 received no chemotherapy) and took place within 2 years; similarly all adult relapses were of the high risk group; three relapses took place after 2 years.
  • Patients who did not receive chemotherapy had a 69% 5-year DFS vs. 76% (p=0.286).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Medulloblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20029474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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4. Yang WQ, Senger D, Muzik H, Shi ZQ, Johnson D, Brasher PM, Rewcastle NB, Hamilton M, Rutka J, Wolff J, Wetmore C, Curran T, Lee PW, Forsyth PA: Reovirus prolongs survival and reduces the frequency of spinal and leptomeningeal metastases from medulloblastoma. Cancer Res; 2003 Jun 15;63(12):3162-72
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  • Tumor cells invade surrounding tissue and disseminate through cerebral spinal fluid, making treatment difficult.
  • Human reovirus type 3 exploits an activated Ras pathway in tumor cells to support productive infection as an oncolytic virus.
  • Most human MB cell lines tested (five of seven = 71.4%), two MB cell lines derived from spontaneously arising tumors in Patched-1(+/-) mice (two of two = 100%) and three MB primary cultures derived from surgical specimens, were susceptible to reovirus infection.
  • These data suggest that this oncolytic virus may be a potentially effective novel therapy against human MB.
  • [MeSH-major] Biological Therapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Mammalian orthoreovirus 3 / physiology. Medulloblastoma / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Administration Schedule. Enzyme Activation. Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2 / antagonists & inhibitors. Female. Genes, Reporter. Genes, p53. Green Fluorescent Proteins. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Luminescent Proteins / analysis. Luminescent Proteins / genetics. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / physiology. Signal Transduction. Transcription, Genetic. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Virus Replication. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays. eIF-2 Kinase / antagonists & inhibitors. eIF-2 Kinase / physiology

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  • (PMID = 12810644.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2; 0 / Luminescent Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / eIF-2 Kinase; EC 3.6.5.2 / HRAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
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5. Castellino RC, De Bortoli M, Lin LL, Skapura DG, Rajan JA, Adesina AM, Perlaky L, Irwin MS, Kim JY: Overexpressed TP73 induces apoptosis in medulloblastoma. BMC Cancer; 2007 Jul 12;7:127
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  • Children who relapse usually die of their disease, which reflects resistance to radiation and/or chemotherapy.
  • Improvements in outcome require a better understanding of the molecular basis of medulloblastoma growth and treatment response.
  • METHODS: We analyzed medulloblastoma samples from thirty-four pediatric patients and the established medulloblastoma cell lines, Daoy and D283MED, for expression of TP73 RNA including the full-length transcript and the 5'-terminal variants that encode the DeltaNp73 isoform, as well as TP53 RNA using quantitative real time-RTPCR.
  • CONCLUSION: These results indicate that primary medulloblastomas express significant levels of TP73 isoforms, and suggest that they can modulate the survival and genotoxic responsiveness of medulloblastomas cells.

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  • (PMID = 17626635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS043517; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / T32 HD042977; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD042977; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS043517
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1955450
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6. Grill J, Sainte-Rose C, Jouvet A, Gentet JC, Lejars O, Frappaz D, Doz F, Rialland X, Pichon F, Bertozzi AI, Chastagner P, Couanet D, Habrand JL, Raquin MA, Le Deley MC, Kalifa C, French Society of Paediatric Oncology: Treatment of medulloblastoma with postoperative chemotherapy alone: an SFOP prospective trial in young children. Lancet Oncol; 2005 Aug;6(8):573-80
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  • [Title] Treatment of medulloblastoma with postoperative chemotherapy alone: an SFOP prospective trial in young children.
  • We aimed to assess whether adjuvant treatment with protracted chemotherapy alone could replace radiotherapy.
  • Patients were treated with combination chemotherapy, which did not include methotrexate, for more than 16 months irrespective of the extent of disease.
  • Patients who relapsed or had disease progression received salvage treatment, which consisted of high-dose chemotherapy and stem-cell transplantation followed by local or craniospinal radiotherapy.
  • For children classified as R0M0, the primary endpoint was 5-year overall survival and the secondary endpoint was 5-year progression-free survival.
  • For children classified as R1M0 or RXM+, the primary endpoint was best radiological response and the secondary endpoints were 5-year overall survival and 5-year progression-free survival.
  • INTERPRETATION: Conventional chemotherapy alone can be used to cure children with non-metastatic medulloblastoma who have gross total resection confirmed by early radiological assessment, but is not sufficient for treatment of those with metastatic or incompletely resected medulloblastoma.
  • Salvage treatment followed by posterior-fossa radiotherapy can effectively treat local relapses or progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


7. Packer RJ, Gajjar A, Vezina G, Rorke-Adams L, Burger PC, Robertson PL, Bayer L, LaFond D, Donahue BR, Marymont MH, Muraszko K, Langston J, Sposto R: Phase III study of craniospinal radiation therapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for newly diagnosed average-risk medulloblastoma. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Sep 1;24(25):4202-8
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  • [Title] Phase III study of craniospinal radiation therapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for newly diagnosed average-risk medulloblastoma.
  • METHODS: Four hundred twenty-one patients between 3 years and 21 years of age with nondisseminated medulloblastoma (MB) were prospectively randomly assigned to treatment with 23.4 Gy of CSRT, 55.8 Gy of posterior fossa RT, plus one of two adjuvant chemotherapy regimens: lomustine (CCNU), cisplatin, and vincristine; or cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and vincristine.
  • EFS was unaffected by sex, race, age, treatment regimen, brainstem involvement, or excessive anaplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: This study discloses an encouraging EFS rate for children with nondisseminated MB treated with reduced-dose craniospinal radiation and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Vincristine / administration & dosage


8. Beppu T, Yoshida Y, Arai H, Wada T, Suzuki M, Ogawa A, Hakozaki S, Kubo N: A phase II study of nimustine hydrochloride, cisplatin, and etoposide combination chemotherapy for supratentorial malignant gliomas. J Neurooncol; 2000 Sep;49(3):213-8
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  • [Title] A phase II study of nimustine hydrochloride, cisplatin, and etoposide combination chemotherapy for supratentorial malignant gliomas.
  • Twenty-eight patients who were previously treated by aggressive surgery and radiation and were diagnosed with supratentorial malignant gliomas received a combination of nimustine hydrochloride; 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl) methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), cisplatin and etoposide (ACE therapy) as primary treatment.
  • Treatment was repeated at 4-week intervals for up to 3 cycles.
  • The median time of tumor progression was 40 weeks, and the median survival time was 146 weeks.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Nimustine / administration & dosage. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11212900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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9. Nagashima T, Mizutani Y, Kawahara H, Maguchi S, Terayama Y, Shinohara T, Orba Y, Chuma T, Mano Y, Itoh T, Sawa H, Sakai K, Motomura M, Nagashima K: Anti-Hu paraneoplastic syndrome presenting with brainstem-cerebellar symptoms and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Neuropathology; 2003 Sep;23(3):230-8
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  • [Title] Anti-Hu paraneoplastic syndrome presenting with brainstem-cerebellar symptoms and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome.
  • Two cycles of combined chemotherapy resulted in shrinkage of the lung tumor together with complete recovery of neurological symptoms and disappearance of anti-Hu antibody.
  • Relapse of SCLC 4 months later with re-appearance of anti-Hu antibody required additional chemotherapy and irradiation.
  • Eight months later, when multiple liver metastasis of SCLC was noticed, muscular weakness with positive waxing phenomenon compatible with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) developed.
  • Postmortem examinations revealed residual SCLC in the primary lung, and massive liver metastasis with generalized lymph node involvement, but no tumors in the CNS.
  • In the cerebellum, there was a slight loss of Purkinje cells with torpedo formation but without apparent lymphocytic infiltration.
  • The present PNS was unique in that the relapse of SCLC was accompanied by the appearance of anti-Hu antibody, and that initial signs of brainstem-cerebellar symptoms, encephalopathy and autonomic failure were replaced by LEMS coinciding with the tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / complications. Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / immunology. RNA-Binding Proteins / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Autoantibodies / blood. Autoantibodies / cerebrospinal fluid. Blotting, Western. Brain Stem / pathology. Cerebellum / pathology. ELAV Proteins. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14570293.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / ELAV Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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10. Kurokawa T, Taniwaki T, Arakawa K, Kikuchi H, Yao T, Tanaka K, Tanaka M, Yamada T, Kira J: [A case of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration with resting tremor]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku; 2001 Jan;41(1):24-30
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  • [Title] [A case of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration with resting tremor].
  • She received chemotherapy with 5-FU and cisplatin resulting in reduction of ascites.
  • Serum CA-125 was normalized by chemotherapy using cisplatin, farumorubicin and endoxan.
  • The physical examination on admission revealed swelling of left suraclavicular lymphnodes, nystagmus on lateral gaze, saccadic eye movement on smooth pursuit and severe cerebellar ataxia.
  • Brain MRI revealed mild cerebellar atrophy.
  • She was diagnosed as paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) by serum anti Yo antibody and clinical course.
  • The primary focus of adenocarcinoma in cervical lymphnodes was suggested to be ovary rather than stomach due to the pattern of immunostaining for cytokeratin, CEA and CA125, although no carcinoma was found in ovarium clinically.
  • [MeSH-major] Nerve Tissue Proteins. Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration / complications. Tremor / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Aged. Autoantigens. DNA-Binding Proteins / immunology. Female. HLA-A Antigens / immunology. HLA-A24 Antigen. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology. Stomach Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 11433763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-918X
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinshō shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Shinkeigaku
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / CDR1 protein, human; 0 / CDR2 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / HLA-A Antigens; 0 / HLA-A24 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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11. Monje ML, Ramakrishna NR, Young G, Drappatz J, Doherty LM, Wen PY, Kesari S: Durable response of a radiation-induced, high-grade cerebellar glioma to temozolomide. J Neurooncol; 2007 Sep;84(2):179-83
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  • [Title] Durable response of a radiation-induced, high-grade cerebellar glioma to temozolomide.
  • We report a patient with radiation-induced cerebellar high-grade glioma who had a durable response to temozolomide.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Case report of a 77-year-old woman with a radiation-induced, high-grade cerebellar glioma that responded durably to temozolomide.
  • RESULTS: Our patient developed a cerebellar high-grade glioma 9 years after treatment for a stage IV (T4N0M0) supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with cisplatinum and fluorouracil chemotherapy, and subsequently focal head and neck radiotherapy.
  • Patient was treated with radiation and concurrent temozolomide (only partially due to toxicity) and was stable for 1 year without further adjuvant treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: High-grade gliomas are a late complication of radiation to the central nervous system and may respond to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioma / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiotherapy / adverse effects

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  • [Cites] J Neurooncol. 2006 May;78(1):55-7 [16314941.001]
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  • (PMID = 17332945.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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12. Sternberg DW, Aird W, Neuberg D, Thompson L, MacNeill K, Amrein P, Shulman LN: Treatment of patients with recurrent and primary refractory acute myelogenous leukemia using mitoxantrone and intermediate-dose cytarabine: a pharmacologically based regimen. Cancer; 2000 May 1;88(9):2037-41
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  • [Title] Treatment of patients with recurrent and primary refractory acute myelogenous leukemia using mitoxantrone and intermediate-dose cytarabine: a pharmacologically based regimen.
  • BACKGROUND: Although chemotherapy can achieve a high rate of disease remission induction in patients with newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), patients with recurrent or refractory AML generally have a poorer rate of response.
  • This study assessed the utility of mitoxantrone and intermediate-dose cytarabine (Ara-C) in the treatment of patients with recurrent or refractory AML.
  • Of the 25 patients age > or = 60 years, 19 (76%) had a complete disease remission and the median duration of disease remission in this group was 114 days (range, 33-370 days), although all patients subsequently developed a disease recurrence.
  • The chemotherapy generally was well tolerated, with a mean duration of neutropenia of 31 days and a mean duration of thrombocytopenia of 33 days.
  • Three patients died of infectious complications between 23-26 days after the initiation of chemotherapy, 1 patient died of sudden cardiac arrest 13 days after the initiation of chemotherapy, and 1 patient developed cutaneous desquamation.
  • Three patients developed acute cerebellar dysfunction.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The use of mitoxantrone and Ara-C is effective in the treatment of patients with recurrent and refractory AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Cause of Death. Cerebellar Diseases / chemically induced. Death, Sudden, Cardiac / etiology. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Exanthema / chemically induced. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Remission Induction. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10813714.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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13. Nagashima G, Fujimoto T, Miyo T, Asai J, Suzuki R: [Irinotecan (topoisomerase-I inhibitor) for the treatment of recurrent primary intracranial malignant lymphoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2000 Mar;27(3):479-85
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  • [Title] [Irinotecan (topoisomerase-I inhibitor) for the treatment of recurrent primary intracranial malignant lymphoma].
  • Primary intracranial malignant lymphoma is a fetal disease with poor prognosis, and there is no effective treatment against recurrent primary intracranial malignant lymphomas.
  • We report 3 cases of malignant lymphoma treated with irinotecan (topoisomerase-I inhibitor, camptothecin derivatives), an aromatic drug extracted from camptotheca acuminata.
  • After the initial diagnosis, surgical resection followed by radiation therapy was performed for one cerebral, and two cerebellar malignant lymphomas.
  • The tumors recurred 1 month, 18 months, and 18 months after the initial treatment, respectively.
  • The former two cases were treated with additional radiation therapy and/or radiosurgery for the recurrent tumors; however, the tumors recurred again.
  • All cases were treated finally with a combination therapy of irinotecan and cis-platinum followed by a maintenance therapy with irinotecan only.
  • All cases showed a sharp roentgenographical response to the chemotherapy even after cumulative recurrences.
  • These results indicate the usefulness of irinotecan for the treatment of recurrent primary intracranial malignant lymphoma; however, further investigation is necessary to establish a better protocol for irinotecan treatment against primary intracranial malignant lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 10740645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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14. Widdess-Walsh P, Tavee JO, Schuele S, Stevens GH: Response to intravenous immunoglobulin in anti-Yo associated paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration: case report and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2003 Jun;63(2):187-90
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  • [Title] Response to intravenous immunoglobulin in anti-Yo associated paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration: case report and review of the literature.
  • Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is a debilitating neuro-degenerative disease associated with antibodies directed against the purkinje cells of the cerebellum.
  • Treatment using chemotherapy or other treatment of the primary tumor to various immunologically directed therapies has been attempted but outcomes have been poor.
  • A Medline search from 1966-2002 produced fifteen cases of PCD confirmed by antibody testing that were treated with IVIG, either alone, or with a combination of other therapies.
  • The clinical characteristics and treatment responses of these patients are analyzed in this review.
  • Early treatment with sufficiently high doses of IVIG seems to provide a better chance of treatment success.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Autoantigens / immunology. DNA-Binding Proteins / immunology. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology. Nerve Tissue Proteins. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Methylprednisolone / therapeutic use. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 12825823.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / CDR1 protein, human; 0 / CDR2 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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15. Ren H, Boulikas T, Lundstrom K, Söling A, Warnke PC, Rainov NG: Immunogene therapy of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme with a liposomally encapsulated replication-incompetent Semliki forest virus vector carrying the human interleukin-12 gene--a phase I/II clinical protocol. J Neurooncol; 2003 Aug-Sep;64(1-2):147-54
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  • [Title] Immunogene therapy of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme with a liposomally encapsulated replication-incompetent Semliki forest virus vector carrying the human interleukin-12 gene--a phase I/II clinical protocol.
  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an incurable brain tumor resistant to standard treatment modalities such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.
  • Since recurrent GBM tends to develop predominantly within the infiltrative rim surrounding the primary tumor focus, novel therapy strategies need in addition to focal tumor destruction to target this somewhat diffuse area.
  • The vector will be administered in doses of 1 x 10(7)-1 x 10(9) infectious particles by continuous intratumoral infusion, thus exploiting the advantages of convection-enhanced drug delivery in the brain.
  • The present protocol is also designed to investigate systemic and local immune response and to identify factors predicting tumor response to LSFV-IL12 therapy, such as volume of extracellular space of the tumor, volume of contrast enhancing lesion, and immune status of the patients.
  • This protocol will be the first study of SFV-IL12 therapy of human recurrent GBM.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Genetic Therapy / methods. Glioblastoma / therapy. Immunotherapy / methods. Interleukin-12 / genetics. Interleukin-12 / immunology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy

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  • [ErratumIn] J Neurooncol. 2003 Nov;65(2):191
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  • (PMID = 12952295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Capsules; 0 / Liposomes; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12
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16. Skowrońska-Gardas A, Chojnacka M, Morawska-Kaczyńska M, Perek D, Perek-Polnik M: Patterns of failure in children with medulloblastoma treated with 3D conformal radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol; 2007 Jul;84(1):26-33
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  • All of them were previously treated with surgery and chemotherapy.
  • For primary tumour bed we applied two or three photon beams.
  • We evaluated every primary site of failure.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of failure in medulloblastoma patients treated with 3D conformal radiotherapy indicated that the relapse was mainly associated with poor response to pre-irradiation chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Conformal
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Cranial Irradiation. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Male. Radiation Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 17560676.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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17. Alavi S, Rashidi A, Khatami AR, Arzanian MT: Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney presenting with hemiplegia: report of a case. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2007 Mar;24(2):123-8
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  • Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (RTK) is a rare and highly malignant neoplasm of infancy, with a strong tendency for early metastasis to distant regions.
  • RTK is unique in its significant association with primary or metastatic brain tumors.
  • Intensive chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin and etoposide alternating with cyclophosphamide was unsuccessful and the patient died 5 months later because of severe respiratory distress resulting from widespread pulmonary metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Hemiplegia / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Ischemia / drug therapy. Brain Ischemia / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Infant. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17454778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. von Hoff K, Hinkes B, Gerber NU, Deinlein F, Mittler U, Urban C, Benesch M, Warmuth-Metz M, Soerensen N, Zwiener I, Goette H, Schlegel PG, Pietsch T, Kortmann RD, Kuehl J, Rutkowski S: Long-term outcome and clinical prognostic factors in children with medulloblastoma treated in the prospective randomised multicentre trial HIT'91. Eur J Cancer; 2009 May;45(7):1209-17
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  • METHODS: We analysed 280 patients with medulloblastoma (3-18 years) included from 1991 to 1997 in the randomised multicentre trial HIT'91 comparing pre-('sandwich') and postradiation ('maintenance') chemotherapy (median follow-up of survivors for 10 years).
  • RESULTS: In 187 patients with complete staging, overall survival (OS) was higher after maintenance compared to sandwich treatment for M0 (10-year OS 91% and 62%, p=0.001) and M1 patients (10-year OS 70% and 34%, p=0.020).
  • Incomplete staging, metastases, younger age and sandwich chemotherapy were independent adverse risk factors.
  • Twelve percent of all relapses (13 of 107) occurred after more than five years, and 12 patients had secondary neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After maintenance therapy, long-term survival was excellent in fully assessable patients with localised medulloblastoma, and favourable for M1 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Medulloblastoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm, Residual. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19250820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine
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19. Selek U, Zorlu F, Hurmuz P, Cengiz M, Turker A, Soylemezoglu F, Gurkaynak M: Craniospinal radiotherapy in adult medulloblastoma. Strahlenther Onkol; 2007 May;183(5):236-40
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  • A dose of 30.6 Gy with 1.8 Gy/fraction/day was prescribed to M0 patients, while 36 Gy were to be applied in patients with positive cerebrospinal liquor findings.
  • The posterior fossa was boosted to 54 Gy.
  • While 20 patients underwent external-beam radiotheray alone, only six received sequential adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The median follow-up time was 46.5 months.
  • Patient characteristics, treatment factors and tumor characteristics failed to show any significance in univariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: Yet, the current standard of care seems to remain craniospinal irradiation after maximal surgical resection of the primary neoplasm without clear indications for adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cranial Irradiation. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Spine / radiation effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17497094.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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20. Narendran A, Monteleone PM, Steele DA, Hicks RJ, Kelleher JF: Successful treatment of disseminated relapsed medulloblastoma in an infant by primary radiotherapy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2001 Jan;23(1):51-3
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of disseminated relapsed medulloblastoma in an infant by primary radiotherapy.
  • An infant who experienced disseminated relapse of medulloblastoma while receiving chemotherapy is described.
  • He was subsequently treated with radiation therapy.
  • We emphasize the importance of considering radiation as one of the treatment modalities for young children with relapsed medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11196271.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Alobid I, Gastón F, Morello A, Guilemany JM, Mullol J: Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cerebellopontine angle. Acta Otolaryngol; 2005 Apr;125(4):426-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors are highly malignant small cell neoplasms.
  • The patient was treated with chemotherapy (etoposide, vincristine, adriamycin, ifosfamide and actinomycin D) and radiotherapy.
  • Radical cervical dissection was performed and the patient was treated with a second course of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellopontine Angle / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive, Peripheral / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Ear, Inner / pathology. Ear, Inner / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / therapy. Retreatment

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  • (PMID = 15823816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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22. Spiller SE, Ravanpay AC, Hahn AW, Olson JM: Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid is effective in preclinical studies of medulloblastoma. J Neurooncol; 2006 Sep;79(3):259-70
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  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND RESULTS: Tissue culture studies were performed treating primary human fibroblasts, established medulloblastoma cell lines, and primary human medulloblastoma tumors with SAHA.
  • Primary medulloblastomas from patients were sensitive to SAHA compared to vehicle alone in ex vivo studies.
  • In athymic mice with medulloblastoma xenograft tumors, oral SAHA resulted in apoptosis of tumor tissue and significantly slowed tumor growth.
  • In the ND2:Smo transgenic mouse medulloblastoma model, SAHA treatment caused significant apoptosis in these cerebellar tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SAHA effectively induces cell death in established medulloblastoma cell lines, human patient primary tumor cultures, medulloblastoma xenografts and intracranial spontaneous medulloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Child. Fibroblasts / drug effects. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16645722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112350-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 58IFB293JI / vorinostat
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23. Nagasaki A, Miyagi T, Nakazato T, Taira N, Ohshima K, Kikuchi M, Takasu N, Masauda M: Very late central nervous system relapse in a patient with B cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. Acta Haematol; 2004;112(4):212-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We report a case of a patient who developed central nervous system (CNS) relapse of LBL 16 years after the onset of the primary disease.
  • Examination of a biopsy of the skin tumor showed typical features of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (diffuse medium-sized cell type).
  • She received multiagent chemotherapy and went into remission.
  • Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed a cerebellar lesion, which was hypointense on T1-weighted images and of heterogeneous intensity on T2-weighted images.
  • Revised immunohistochemistry of the primary specimens of skin tumor obtained 16 years earlier revealed a phenotype similar to that of the CNS disease.
  • Polymerase chain reaction products for the immunoglobulin gene from both the skin and cerebellar specimens were an identical size.
  • After salvage chemotherapy, the patient underwent high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell support and subsequent craniospinal irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Recurrence. Salvage Therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • [Copyright] 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 15564734.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5792
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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24. Jenkin D, Shabanah MA, Shail EA, Gray A, Hassounah M, Khafaga Y, Kofide A, Mustafa M, Schultz H: Prognostic factors for medulloblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2000 Jun 1;47(3):573-84
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  • From 1988-1994, treatment was at the discretion of the investigator.
  • From 1994-1998, patients entered a single-arm best practice protocol in which, in staged patients, the surgical intent was total resection, standard radiation treatment was defined, and adjuvant chemotherapy was given to a "high-risk" subset.
  • RESULTS: For 150 patients who completed surgical and radiation treatment, the 5-year survival rate was 58%, compared with 0% for 16 patients who were unable to start or complete radiation treatment.
  • Other favorable significant prognostic factors were age >14 years and gross cystic/necrotic features in the primary tumor.
  • The size of the primary tumor, the degree of hydrocephalus at diagnosis, the presence of residual tumor in the post-operative CT/MRI, and the functional status of the patient prior to radiation treatment were not significant factors.
  • Total resection and standard radiation treatment were not sensitive prognostic factors in a treatment environment in which 78% of patients underwent at least 90% tumor resection and 60% received standard radiation treatment.
  • In order to improve the proportion of patients able to complete radiation treatment, consideration should be given to limiting resection when the attainment of total resection is likely to be morbid, and to delaying rather than omitting radiation treatment in the patient severely compromised postoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10837938.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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25. Koeller KK, Rushing EJ: From the archives of the AFIP: medulloblastoma: a comprehensive review with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2003 Nov-Dec;23(6):1613-37
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Medulloblastoma is the most common pediatric central nervous system malignancy and the most common primary tumor of the posterior fossa in children.
  • This highly malignant neoplasm occurs more frequently in males and usually before 10 years of age.
  • Clinical symptoms and signs are generally brief, typically less than 3 months in duration, and reflect the strong predilection of this tumor to arise within the cerebellum, most often in the vermis.
  • Surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have substantially lowered the mortality associated with this tumor, with 5-year survival rates now commonly well above 50%.
  • Still, both dissemination at the time of diagnosis and recurrence remain obstacles in achieving a cure.
  • Evidence of leptomeningeal metastatic spread is present in 33% of all cases at the time of diagnosis and is well evaluated with contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the brain and the spine.
  • With continued research, treatment of these common neoplasms should improve, perhaps even achieving a cure in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Medulloblastoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Meninges / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 14615567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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26. Smee RI, Williams JR: Medulloblastomas-primitive neuroectodermal tumours in the adult population. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol; 2008 Feb;52(1):72-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • All patients completed craniospinal radiotherapy (35-36 Gy at 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions) barring one patient, who died of surgical complications during his radiotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy was given in five of the nine patients postradiotherapy.
  • Of the 10 primary patients 7 are alive with no evidence of disease, 2 died because of disease, with 1 intercurrent death.
  • One patient developed a second malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / epidemiology. Medulloblastoma / epidemiology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Databases, Factual / statistics & numerical data. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Intracranial Pressure. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neurosurgical Procedures. New South Wales / epidemiology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rare Diseases. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18373831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-9477
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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27. Slampa P, Pavelka Z, Dusek L, Hynkova L, Sterba J, Ondrova B, Princ D, Novotny T, Kostakova S: Longterm treatment results of childhood medulloblastoma by craniospinal irradiation in supine position. Neoplasma; 2007;54(1):62-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Longterm treatment results of childhood medulloblastoma by craniospinal irradiation in supine position.
  • Medulloblastoma, a primitive neuroectodermal tumor growing in cerebellum, is one of the most sensitive to radiation therapy childhood brain tumors.
  • The radiotherapy is an essential method of treatment for these tumours, but the surgery is the primary treatment of choice in medulloblastoma.
  • All of the patients were irradiated with a dose of 24-36 Gy to the whole craniospinal axis and boost with conformal therapy restricted to the tumor bed to the total dose of 50-54 Gy (30-36 Gy "high risk", 24-30 Gy "standard risk" group).
  • Chemotherapy received 26 patients (78%).
  • Irradiation was performed using standard fractionation (5 fractions per week) with a single dose of 1.5-1.8 Gy for craniospinal axis by photon beam (6 MV) of the linear accelerator.
  • Endocrine deficits occurred in 45% (8 patients of the group were hypothyroid, 6 patients needed growth hormone replacement therapy, 1 patient had early puberty).
  • Further evaluation of the effectiveness of our therapy is not feasible due to the small number of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / methods. Supine Position
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


28. Yazigi-Rivard L, Masserot C, Lachenaud J, Diebold-Pressac I, Aprahamian A, Avran D, Doz F: [Childhood medulloblastoma]. Arch Pediatr; 2008 Dec;15(12):1794-804
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • It is a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) and predominantly arises in the cerebellum and 4th ventricle.
  • Tumor molecular genetic findings allow the use of emerging prognostic factors and may ultimately contribute to the development of targeted therapy.
  • Current treatment in the oldest children combines surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • Treatment in younger patients is as much as possible restricted to surgery and chemotherapy.
  • However, long-term sequelae after treatment for medulloblastoma remain frequent and the detection and treatment of those sequelae is an essential part of the follow-up of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms. Medulloblastoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Meta-Analysis as Topic. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18995998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-693X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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29. Elamin MH, Shinwari Z, Hendrayani SF, Al-Hindi H, Al-Shail E, Khafaga Y, Al-Kofide A, Aboussekhra A: Curcumin inhibits the Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway and triggers apoptosis in medulloblastoma cells. Mol Carcinog; 2010 Mar;49(3):302-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Medulloblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor that arises in the cerebellum of children and young adults.
  • The Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway that plays important roles in the pathology of this aggressive disease is a promising therapeutic target.
  • These results indicate that curcumin, a natural nontoxic compound, represents great promise as Shh-targeted therapy for medulloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Curcumin / pharmacology. Hedgehog Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / radiation effects. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Flow Cytometry. Gamma Rays. Humans. Immunoblotting. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Mitochondria / drug effects. Mitochondria / radiation effects. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Veratrum Alkaloids / pharmacology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20025076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2744
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Carcinog.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SHH protein, human; 0 / Veratrum Alkaloids; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin; ZH658AJ192 / cyclopamine
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30. Saran F, Baumert BG, Creak AL, Warrington AP, Ashley S, Traish D, Brada M: Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in the management of recurrent or residual medulloblastoma/PNET. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):554-60
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  • Nine of 12 patients underwent resection at recurrence and 13 patients received at least one cycle of chemotherapy prior to SCRT.
  • All received focal SCRT (30-40 Gy/6-8 #) using non-coplanar arcs (n = 6) or fixed conformal non-coplanar fields (n = 8).
  • However, overall long-term disease control is rare and limited by the occurrence of CSF mediated relapses, which thus could benefit from intensive systemic chemotherapy as part of the primary relapse strategy even in local recurrences.
  • Larger multi-national studies will be necessary to assess the value of such combined treatment approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Dose Fractionation. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm, Residual. Palliative Care. Retrospective Studies. Stereotaxic Techniques

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17941071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Bowers DC, Gargan L, Weprin BE, Mulne AF, Elterman RD, Munoz L, Giller CA, Winick NJ: Impact of site of tumor recurrence upon survival for children with recurrent or progressive medulloblastoma. J Neurosurg; 2007 Jul;107(1 Suppl):5-10
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  • METHODS: Postprogression survival and patient, tumor, and treatment factors were examined in 46 cases of recurrent medulloblastoma (mean age of patients at diagnosis 6.5 years, mean age at progression 8.4 years).
  • Forty-one patients received salvage therapy and five patients received hospice care only.
  • Log-rank analysis showed an association between prolonged patient survival and recurrence limited to the primary site (p = 0.008), initial therapy including the Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) regimen for the treatment of brain tumors in infants ("Baby POG;" p = 0.037), and treatment with radiation therapy (RT) following initial progression (p = 0.015).
  • Cox regression analysis showed a significant association between prolonged survival and only one variable--tumor recurrence restricted to the primary site (p = 0.037).
  • There was no significant association between prolonged survival and any other variables, including patient sex, age at progression, interval from tumor diagnosis to progression, initial tumor stage, and salvage treatment with chemotherapy.
  • Subgroup analysis revealed that site of tumor progression was also prognostic for survival among the subgroup of patients older than 3 years of age at diagnosis who were initially treated with RT and chemotherapy (p = 0.017, log-rank test).
  • Patients whose tumors recur at only the primary tumor site have an increased chance of prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / mortality. Medulloblastoma / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 17644914.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Toledano Delgado R, Garcia N, Riva-Amarante E, Rodríguez Pascual J, García Leal R, Sendra Tello J: [Spinal leptomeningeal metastasis from cerebral glioblastoma: case report]. Neurologia; 2006 Sep;21(7):378-81
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  • INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system.
  • Most of the time it is diagnosed late and misdiagnosis is a common problem.
  • CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 65-year-old man with a right temporal GBM treated by surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, who is readmitted 10 months later as he developed an ataxic gait.
  • A new cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple cerebellar metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SLM need to be suspected in patients with a past history of intracranial GBM, who present with clinical features that can not been explained by the primary lesion.
  • Awareness of this complication might facilitate more rapid diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16977559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-4853
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurología (Barcelona, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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