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3. Grulich AE: Update: cancer risk in persons with HIV/AIDS in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Read; 2000 Jun;10(6):341-6
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  • [Title] Update: cancer risk in persons with HIV/AIDS in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy.
  • The incidence of AIDS-defining opportunistic infections has decreased markedly in persons with HIV who receive combination antiretroviral therapy, but less is known regarding the incidence of cancer.
  • It does appear that the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in persons receiving combination therapy has fallen dramatically.
  • In contrast, reduction in the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has been smaller.
  • Based on few data, it appears that the incidence of primary CNS NHL is significantly decreasing, whereas the incidence of systemic NHL has changed little.
  • Certain other cancers, comprising cervical cancer, Hodgkin disease, anal cancer, and conjunctival cancer, occur at increased rates in some populations with AIDS, but there are few data on incidence trends since the widespread use of combination therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Risk Factors


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4. Spano JP, Costagliola D, Katlama C, Mounier N, Oksenhendler E, Khayat D: AIDS-related malignancies: state of the art and therapeutic challenges. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Oct 10;26(29):4834-42
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  • [Title] AIDS-related malignancies: state of the art and therapeutic challenges.
  • Despite the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on HIV-related mortality, malignancy remains an important cause of death in the current era.
  • Although the advent of cART has resulted in reductions in the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-AIDS-defining malignancies present an increased risk for HIV-infected patients, characterized by some common clinical features, generally with a more aggressive behavior and a more advanced disease at diagnosis, which is responsible for poorer patient outcomes.
  • Specific therapeutic recommendations are lacking for these new nonopportunistic malignancies, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma, anal cancer, lung cancer, hepatocarcinoma, and many others.
  • Antiretroviral agents have a propensity for causing drug interactions as a result of their ability to either inhibit or induce the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system.
  • Because many antineoplastic drugs are also metabolized by the CYP system, coadministration with cART could result in either drug accumulation with increased toxicity, or decreased efficacy of one or both classes of drugs.
  • Further research delineating the combined safety and pharmacokinetics of antiretrovirals and antineoplastic therapy is necessary.
  • Special considerations of these AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related malignancies and their clinical and therapeutic aspects constitute the subject of this review.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18591544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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5. Sun Y, Wu J, Aboukameel A, Banerjee S, Arnold AA, Chen J, Nikolovska-Coleska Z, Lin Y, Ling X, Yang D, Wang S, Al-Katib A, Mohammad RM: Apogossypolone, a nonpeptidic small molecule inhibitor targeting Bcl-2 family proteins, effectively inhibits growth of diffuse large cell lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Biol Ther; 2008 Sep;7(9):1418-26
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  • [Title] Apogossypolone, a nonpeptidic small molecule inhibitor targeting Bcl-2 family proteins, effectively inhibits growth of diffuse large cell lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
  • The principal objective of this study was to compare stability and toxicity between ApoG2 and gossypol, and to evaluate anti-lymphoma activity of ApoG2 in vitro and in vivo.
  • ApoG2 showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation of WSU-DLCL(2) and primary cells obtained from lymphoma patients, whereas it displayed no toxicity on normal peripheral blood lymphocytes.
  • For a treatment of 72 h, the IC(50) of ApoG2 was determined to be 350 nM against WSU-DLCL2 cells.
  • Treatment with ApoG2 at 600 mg/kg resulted in significant growth inhibition of WSU-DLCL(2) xenografts.
  • For a treatment of 72 h, ApoG2 induced a maximum of 32% of apoptotic cell death.
  • Western blot experiments showed that treatment with ApoG2 led to cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP.
  • It is an attractive small molecule inhibitor of the Bcl-2 family proteins to be developed further for the treatment of diffuse large cell lymphoma.

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  • (PMID = 18769131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA022453; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109389; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA22453-20
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / apogossypol; 0 / bcl-X Protein; EC 2.4.2.30 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 9; KAV15B369O / Gossypol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS521870; NLM/ PMC4106024
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6. Freudenberg S, Palma P, Grobholz R, Ngendahayo L, Post S: HIV-related and Epstein-Barr virus-associated anal Burkitt's lymphoma: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Aug;48(8):1656-9
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  • [Title] HIV-related and Epstein-Barr virus-associated anal Burkitt's lymphoma: report of a case.
  • PURPOSE: This article describes and discusses primary Burkitt's lymphoma of the anus which is an extremely rare site of origin.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: A 38-year-old HIV+ Rwandan farmer had an 8-cm x 13-cm anal tumor.
  • Histopathology and immunohistology provided evidence of an Epstein-Barr virus-associated Burkitt's lymphoma.
  • Chemotherapy in combination of virostatic therapy is the gold standard for treatment, but because of economic constraints surgical treatment was the only practicable intervention and an abdominoperineal resection of the anorectum was performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because of the AIDS epidemic and the increase of anal malignant pathologies, anal Burkitt's lymphoma may appear more frequently.
  • Adequate treatment is available for only a small percentage of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Burkitt Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis


7. Tiedemann RE, Mao X, Shi CX, Zhu YX, Palmer SE, Sebag M, Marler R, Chesi M, Fonseca R, Bergsagel PL, Schimmer AD, Stewart AK: Identification of kinetin riboside as a repressor of CCND1 and CCND2 with preclinical antimyeloma activity. J Clin Invest; 2008 May;118(5):1750-64
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  • Knockout and transgenic studies in mice demonstrate that normal somatic tissues redundantly express 3 cyclin D proteins, whereas tumor cells seem dependent on a single overexpressed cyclin D.
  • Thus, selective suppression of the individual cyclin D deregulated in a tumor represents a biologically valid approach to targeted cancer therapy.
  • Kinetin riboside induced marked suppression of CCND2 transcription and rapidly suppressed cyclin D1 and D2 protein expression in primary myeloma cells and tumor lines, causing cell-cycle arrest, tumor cell-selective apoptosis, and inhibition of myeloma growth in xenografted mice.
  • These data support targeted repression of cyclin D genes as a therapeutic strategy for human malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 18431519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9738
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA100707-070008; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100707-070008; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG020686; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG020686-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA100707
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CCND2 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin D; 0 / Cyclin D2; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Nucleosides; P39Y9652YJ / Kinetin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2323188
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8. Pepper C, Lowe H, Fegan C, Thurieau C, Thurston DE, Hartley JA, Delavault P: Fludarabine-mediated suppression of the excision repair enzyme ERCC1 contributes to the cytotoxic synergy with the DNA minor groove crosslinking agent SJG-136 (NSC 694501) in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells. Br J Cancer; 2007 Jul 16;97(2):253-9
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  • In this study, we set out to establish whether fludarabine could enhance the DNA interstrand crosslinking capacity of SJG-136 in primary human chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells and thereby offer a rationale for its clinical use in combination with SJG-136.
  • SJG-136 rapidly induced DNA crosslinking in primary CLL cells which was concentration-dependent.
  • The data presented here provides a clear indication that this combination of drugs may have clinical utility as salvage therapy in drug-resistant CLL.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. DNA / drug effects. DNA / genetics. DNA Repair / drug effects. Drug Synergism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Transcription, Genetic / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17579621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 1,1'-((propane-1,3-diyl)dioxy)bis(7-methoxy-2-methylidene-1,2,3,10,11,11a-hexahydro-5H-pyrrolo(2,1-c)(1,4)benzodiazepin-5,11-dione); 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzodiazepinones; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Pyrroles; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 3.1.- / ERCC1 protein, human; EC 3.1.- / Endonucleases; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360304
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9. Taguchi I, Minayoshi K, Ito N, Kameyama H, Adachi Y, Miyake T: [Malignant lymphoma of the prostate: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2001 May;47(5):337-40
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  • [Title] [Malignant lymphoma of the prostate: a case report].
  • A case of a primary malignant lymphoma of the prostate is presented.
  • An 82-year-old man visited our hospital complaining of anal pain.
  • According to the Working Formulation, he was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell origin, diffuse, mixed, small and large cell.
  • The results of bone marrow puncture and imaging studies led to the diagnosis of primary malignant lymphoma of the prostate.
  • Because of poor performance status deriving from severe anal pain, radiation therapy was performed to control the pain.
  • After improvement of his performance status, he received combination chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine and predonisone (CHOP regimen).
  • His prostate markedly diminished in size, but pneumonia developed.
  • Malignant lymphoma involving the prostate, whether primary or secondary, is very rare.
  • In our understanding, this case is thought to be the 28th clinical case of a malignant lymphoma of the prostate in Japan.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 11433756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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11. Gates AE, Kaplan LD: AIDS malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Oncology (Williston Park); 2002 Apr;16(4):441-51, 456, 459
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  • [Title] AIDS malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a dramatic impact on the morbidity and mortality of individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • The incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has dropped precipitously since the introduction of HAART in 1995.
  • Systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) appears to be declining in incidence as well, but to a lesser degree than KS and PCNSL.
  • The impact of HAART on the epidemiology of other HIV-associated malignancies, including Hodgkin's disease and anal carcinoma, remains unclear.
  • Data regarding the impact of HAART on the natural history and treatment outcomes of HIV-associated malignancies are limited.
  • The possibility of direct and indirect roles of HIV in HIV-related carcinogenesis suggests that antiretroviral therapy may be an important component of the treatment strategy for several HIV-related malignancies.
  • Patients with HIV-NHL treated with HAART in addition to chemotherapy experience fewer intercurrent opportunistic infections.
  • Furthermore, the simultaneous administration of HAART and chemotherapy does not appear to significantly increase toxicity.
  • Whether the combination of HAART and standard therapy results in improved survival remains uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / etiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Incidence. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / etiology. Risk Factors


12. Place RJ, Huber PJ, Simmang CL: Anorectal lymphoma and AIDS: an outcome analysis. J Surg Oncol; 2000 Jan;73(1):1-4; discussion 4-5
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  • [Title] Anorectal lymphoma and AIDS: an outcome analysis.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Primary lymphoma of the anus is an extremely rare problem.
  • METHODS: Over an 18-year period, we identified 6 patients with AIDS and primary anorectal NHL.
  • No benefit was shown from radiation or chemotherapy in those with "B" symptoms.
  • Younger patients and those without systemic constitutional symptoms of lymphoma do better.
  • One patient without "B" symptoms was able to tolerate his radiation and chemotherapy and is disease free at 10 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite traditional non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treatment regimens, our AIDS patients (and those examined in a review of the pertinent literature) with anorectal NHL and "B" symptoms have a poor prognosis.
  • For those without "B" symptoms and who can tolerate the therapy, NHL remission may be obtained.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 10649269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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13. Karp JE, Ricklis RM, Balakrishnan K, Briel J, Greer J, Gore SD, Smith BD, McDevitt MA, Carraway H, Levis MJ, Gandhi V: A phase 1 clinical-laboratory study of clofarabine followed by cyclophosphamide for adults with refractory acute leukemias. Blood; 2007 Sep 15;110(6):1762-9
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  • In vitro investigations with clofarabine in combination with cyclophosphamide in primary cells have demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity and inhibition of DNA repair.

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  • (PMID = 17562873.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00293410
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA057629; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA57629
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenine Nucleotides; 0 / Arabinonucleosides; 0 / H2AFX protein, human; 0 / Histones; 762RDY0Y2H / clofarabine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1976362
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14. Chang JE, Voorhees PM, Kolesar JM, Ahuja HG, Sanchez FA, Rodriguez GA, Kim K, Werndli J, Bailey HH, Kahl BS: Phase II study of arsenic trioxide and ascorbic acid for relapsed or refractory lymphoid malignancies: a Wisconsin Oncology Network study. Hematol Oncol; 2009 Mar;27(1):11-6
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  • The primary end point was objective response.
  • In a subset of patients, sequential levels of intracellular glutathione and measures of Bcl-2 and Bax gene expression were evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during treatment.
  • The median age was 71, and the majority of enrolled patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (12/17).
  • Sixteen patients were evaluable, and one patient with mantle cell lymphoma achieved an unconfirmed complete response after five cycles of therapy for an overall response rate of 6%.
  • Intracellular depletion of glutathione was not consistently observed during treatment.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • (PMID = 18668698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-1069
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA087718-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087718-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA087718-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA087718; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087718-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087718-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA087718-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA087718-08
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS212975; NLM/ PMC2897137
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15. Balakrishnan K, Verma D, O'Brien S, Kilpatrick JM, Chen Y, Tyler BF, Bickel S, Bantia S, Keating MJ, Kantarjian H, Gandhi V, Ravandi F: Phase 2 and pharmacodynamic study of oral forodesine in patients with advanced, fludarabine-treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood; 2010 Aug 12;116(6):886-92
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  • Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with primary resistance to fludarabine-based therapy or with progressive disease were eligible for oral forodesine (200 mg/d) for up to 24 weeks.
  • Six had Rai stage III to IV and were previously heavily treated (median prior therapy = 5).
  • [MeSH-major] Enzyme Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Purine Nucleosides / administration & dosage. Purine Nucleosides / pharmacokinetics. Pyrimidinones / administration & dosage. Pyrimidinones / pharmacokinetics. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Apoptosis / drug effects. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphocyte Count. Lymphocytes / cytology. Lymphocytes / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / metabolism. Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase / antagonists & inhibitors. Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase / metabolism. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 20427701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00289549
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA081534; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA81534; United States / PHS HHS / / P30-16672
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Purine Nucleosides; 0 / Pyrimidinones; 426X066ELK / forodesine; EC 2.4.2.1 / Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase; EC 3.1.3.2 / Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2924226
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16. Bai M, Katsanos KH, Economou M, Kamina S, Balli C, Briasoulis E, Kappas AM, Agnantis N, Tsianos EV: Rectal Epstein-Barr virus-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient with Crohn's disease: case report and review of the literature. Scand J Gastroenterol; 2006 Jul;41(7):866-9
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  • [Title] Rectal Epstein-Barr virus-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient with Crohn's disease: case report and review of the literature.
  • Seven years after the adenocarcinoma diagnosis, the patient presented with severe continuous anal pain and diarrhea.
  • In parallel with antibiotic administration, the patient was given treatment with Infliximab, but without clinical symptom amelioration.
  • Sigmoidoscopy and subsequent biopsies from an ulcerated rectal area supported the diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus-positive (EBV+) primary Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Infliximab administration was immediately discontinued and the patient underwent oncological follow-up and began a course of chemotherapy.
  • Only a few cases with primary gastrointestinal Hodgkin's lymphoma in Crohn's disease patients have so far been reported, including a variety of scenarios on the causal relationship including disease duration, presence of EBV, long-term immunosuppressive treatment and, recently, anti-TNFalpha administration.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents. Male. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / virology

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  • (PMID = 16785203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5521
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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17. Hayden RE, Pratt G, Drayson MT, Bunce CM: Lycorine sensitizes CD40 ligand-protected chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to bezafibrate- and medroxyprogesterone acetate-induced apoptosis but dasatanib does not overcome reported CD40-mediated drug resistance. Haematologica; 2010 Nov;95(11):1889-96
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  • [Title] Lycorine sensitizes CD40 ligand-protected chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to bezafibrate- and medroxyprogesterone acetate-induced apoptosis but dasatanib does not overcome reported CD40-mediated drug resistance.
  • The proliferative and survival signals in these proliferation centers include interactions with T lymphocytes expressing CD40 ligand.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed to drug combinations for 72 hours on control and CD40 ligand-expressing fibroblast monolayers.
  • The effect of CD40 ligand and drug treatments on mitochondrial superoxide levels were assessed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate the potential of bezafibrate, medroxyprogesterone acetate and lycorine as novel therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and have important implications for the reported potential of c-abl kinase inhibitors in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids / pharmacology. Antigens, CD40 / metabolism. Bezafibrate / pharmacology. CD40 Ligand / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Hypolipidemic Agents / pharmacology. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell. Phenanthridines / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Coculture Techniques. Female. Fibroblasts / metabolism. Humans. L Cells (Cell Line). Male. Mice. Time Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 20634492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids; 0 / Antigens, CD40; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Hypolipidemic Agents; 0 / Phenanthridines; 147205-72-9 / CD40 Ligand; I9Q105R5BU / lycorine; Y9449Q51XH / Bezafibrate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2966911
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18. Gates AE, Kaplan LD: AIDS malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Oncology (Williston Park); 2002 May;16(5):657-65; discussion 665, 668-70
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  • [Title] AIDS malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a dramatic impact on the morbidity and mortality of individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • The incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has dropped precipitously since the introduction of HAART in 1995.
  • Systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) appears to be declining in incidence as well, but to a lesser degree than KS and PCNSL.
  • The impact of HAART on the epidemiology of other HIV-associated malignancies, including Hodgkin's disease and anal carcinoma, remains unclear.
  • Data regarding the impact of HAART on the natural history and treatment outcomes of HIV-associated malignancies are limited.
  • The possibility of direct and indirect roles of HIV in HIV-related carcinogenesis suggests that antiretroviral therapy may be an important component of the treatment strategy for several HIV-related malignancies.
  • Patients with HIV-NHL treated with HAART in addition to chemotherapy experience fewer intercurrent opportunistic infections.
  • Furthermore, the simultaneous administration of HAART and chemotherapy does not appear to significantly increase toxicity.
  • Whether the combination of HAART and standard therapy results in improved survival remains uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / complications. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Hodgkin Disease / complications. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / epidemiology. Humans. Male


19. Morton LM, Curtis RE, Linet MS, Bluhm EC, Tucker MA, Caporaso N, Ries LA, Fraumeni JF Jr: Second malignancy risks after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: differences by lymphoma subtype. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Nov 20;28(33):4935-44
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  • [Title] Second malignancy risks after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: differences by lymphoma subtype.
  • PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown increased risks of second malignancies after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); however, no earlier investigation has quantified differences in risk of new malignancy by lymphoma subtype.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated second cancer and leukemia risks among 43,145 1-year survivors of CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), or follicular lymphoma (FL) from 11 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based registries during 1992 to 2006.
  • RESULTS: Among patients without HIV/AIDS-related lymphoma, lung cancer risks were significantly elevated after CLL/SLL and FL but not after DLBCL (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], CLL/SLL = 1.42, FL = 1.28, DLBCL = 1.00; Poisson regression P for difference among subtypes, P(Diff) = .001).
  • Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia risks were significantly elevated after FL and DLBCL, particularly among patients receiving initial chemotherapy, but not after CLL/SLL (SIR: CLL/SLL = 1.13, FL = 5.96, DLBCL = 4.96; P(Diff) < .001).
  • Patients with HIV/AIDS-related lymphoma (n = 932) were predominantly diagnosed with DLBCL and had significantly and substantially elevated risks for second anal cancer (SIR = 120.50) and Kaposi's sarcoma (SIR = 138.90).
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that differing immunologic alterations, treatments (eg, alkylating agent chemotherapy), genetic susceptibilities, and other risk factors (eg, viral infections, tobacco use) among lymphoma subtypes contribute to the patterns of second malignancy risk.
  • Elucidating these patterns may provide etiologic clues to lymphoma as well as to the second malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 20940199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3020697
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20. Hawwa AF, Millership JS, Collier PS, McCarthy A, Dempsey S, Cairns C, McElnay JC: The development of an objective methodology to measure medication adherence to oral thiopurines in paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia--an exploratory study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol; 2009 Nov;65(11):1105-12
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  • [Title] The development of an objective methodology to measure medication adherence to oral thiopurines in paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia--an exploratory study.
  • AIMS: To develop a method that prospectively assesses adherence rates in paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) who are receiving the oral thiopurine treatment 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP).
  • METHODS: A total of 19 paediatric patients with ALL who were receiving 6-MP therapy were enrolled in this study.
  • A new objective tool (hierarchical cluster analysis of drug metabolite concentrations) was explored as a novel approach to assess non-adherence to oral thiopurines, in combination with other objective measures (the pattern of variability in 6-thioguanine nucleotide erythrocyte concentrations and 6-thiouric acid plasma levels) and the subjective measure of self-reported adherence questionnaire.
  • RESULTS: Parents of five ALL patients (26.3%) reported at least one aspect of non-adherence, with the majority (80%) citing "carelessness at times about taking medication" as the primary reason for non-adherence followed by "forgetting to take the medication" (60%).
  • Of these patients, three (15.8%) were considered non-adherent to medication according to the self-reported adherence questionnaire (scored > or = 2).
  • Four ALL patients (21.1%) had metabolite profiles indicative of non-adherence (persistently low levels of metabolites and/or metabolite levels clustered variably with time).
  • Out of these four patients, two (50%) admitted non-adherence to therapy.
  • Overall, when both methods were combined, five patients (26.3%) were considered non-adherent to medication, with higher age representing a risk factor for non-adherence (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present study explored various ways to assess adherence rates to thiopurine medication in ALL patients and highlighted the importance of combining both objective and subjective measures as a better way to assess adherence to oral thiopurines.
  • [MeSH-major] 6-Mercaptopurine / therapeutic use. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Medication Adherence. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19636546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1041
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of clinical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 268B43MJ25 / Uric Acid; 7F23ZQP3EM / 6-thiouric acid; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; FTK8U1GZNX / Thioguanine
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21. Mounier N, Katlama C, Costagliola D, Chichmanian RM, Spano JP: Drug interactions between antineoplastic and antiretroviral therapies: Implications and management for clinical practice. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2009 Oct;72(1):10-20
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  • [Title] Drug interactions between antineoplastic and antiretroviral therapies: Implications and management for clinical practice.
  • Despite the impact of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related mortality, malignancies remain the second most common cause of death in HIV infection in developed countries.
  • In addition to the AIDS-defining malignancies, other cancers such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and anal cancer, are more frequent in HIV-infected patients who survive longer even though they do not have complete immune restoration The use of concomitant antineoplastic chemotherapy and cART have been demonstrated to be feasible and effective in patients with HIV-related malignancies; however, many drugs used in cART regimens have the potential for causing drug interactions as a result of their ability to either inhibit or induce the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system.
  • Since many antineoplastic drugs are also metabolised by the CYP system, co-administration with cART could result in either drug accumulation and possible toxicity, or rapid drug metabolism and decreased efficacy.
  • Unfortunately, very limited prospective interaction data are available to safely guide the combined use of cART and chemotherapy.
  • This paper reviews the potential drug interactions and therapeutic considerations of the antiretroviral agents used to treat HIV and the most common anticancer agents used in the treatment of malignancies found in patients with HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Interactions. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19070506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0461
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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22. Bonnet F, Lewden C, May T, Heripret L, Jougla E, Bevilacqua S, Costagliola D, Salmon D, ChĂȘne G, Morlat P: Malignancy-related causes of death in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Cancer; 2004 Jul 15;101(2):317-24
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  • [Title] Malignancy-related causes of death in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), malignancies accounted for less than 10% of all deaths among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.
  • This figure may have increased, and the observed types of malignant disease may have been modified, as a result of decreased occurrence of opportunistic infections, the chronicity of HIV infection, the possible oncogenic role of HIV itself, and the aging of the HIV-infected population.
  • Acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS)-related malignancies were the underlying cause of 149 deaths (15%); among these malignancies were non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 105 [11%]), noncerebral lymphoma (n = 78 [median CD4 count, 86 x 10(6) per liter; interquartile range [IQR], 35-231 x 10(6) per liter), and primary cerebral lymphoma (n = 27 [median CD4 count, 20 x 10(6) per liter; IQR, 4-109 x 10(6) per liter).
  • Non-AIDS-related malignancies were the underlying cause of 120 deaths (13%); these non-AIDS-related malignancies included 103 solid tumors (50 respiratory tumors, 19 hepatocarcinomas, 9 digestive tumors, and 6 anal tumors; median CD4 count, 218 x 10(6) per liter; IQR, 108-380 x 10(6) per liter) and 17 hemopathies (12 Hodgkin lymphomas, 4 myeloid leukemias, and 1 myeloma; median CD4 count, 113 x 10(6) per liter; IQR, 56-286 x 10(6) per liter).
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / complications. Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / mortality. Adult. Female. France / epidemiology. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / mortality. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies






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