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1. Matsumoto J, Miyake H, Isozaki T, Koshino T, Araki T: Primary aldosteronism in pregnancy. J Nippon Med Sch; 2000 Aug;67(4):275-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Health Problems in Pregnancy.

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  • [Title] Primary aldosteronism in pregnancy.
  • Aldosteronism is a rare complication of pregnancy.
  • We report a case of a 26-year-old woman who became pregnant soon after a diagnosis of primary aldosteronism due to left adrenal adenoma was made.
  • Subsequently, antihypertensive medication was needed to control elevated blood pressure.
  • In this case report, we discuss management of aldosteronism in pregnancy and review the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperaldosteronism. Pregnancy Complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Abruptio Placentae. Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Cesarean Section. Female. Humans. Hypertension / drug therapy. Hypertension / etiology. Infant, Newborn. Laparoscopy. Male. Potassium, Dietary / administration & dosage. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10938597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1345-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nippon Med Sch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Potassium, Dietary
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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2. Lyman DJ: Paroxysmal hypertension, pheochromocytoma, and pregnancy. J Am Board Fam Pract; 2002 Mar-Apr;15(2):153-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Tumors and Pregnancy.

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  • [Title] Paroxysmal hypertension, pheochromocytoma, and pregnancy.
  • BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the most common medical complication of pregnancy.
  • Pheochromocytoma in pregnancy is rare, and if unrecognized, can cause serious perinatal morbidity and mortality.
  • The best time to diagnose a pheochromocytoma is before delivery because vaginal childbirth stimulates the release of lethal amounts of catecholamines.
  • Postpartum pulmonary edema associated with a pheochromocytoma is unusual.
  • The profound pressor response elicited by palpation of the postpartum abdomen, the failure of medications usually effective in the treatment of a hypertensive crisis, and the use of magnetic resonance imaging to confirm a functioning adrenal adenoma are the features unique to this case.


3. Kosaka K, Onoda N, Ishikawa T, Iwanaga N, Yamamasu S, Tahara H, Inaba M, Ishimura E, Ogawa Y, Hirakawa K: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy on a patient with primary aldosteronism during pregnancy. Endocr J; 2006 Aug;53(4):461-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy on a patient with primary aldosteronism during pregnancy.
  • Primary aldosteronism due to an aldosterone producing-adenoma was diagnosed.
  • The procedure was completed without complication, and plasma aldosterone and potassium levels rapidly improved post-operatively.
  • The optimal timing of laparoscopic surgery during pregnancy and perioperative management were subsequently discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Female. Fetal Death. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Hypertension / drug therapy. Laparoscopy. Potassium / blood. Pregnancy


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4. Sidibé el H: [Thyroid diseases in sub-Saharan Africa]. Sante; 2007 Jan-Mar;17(1):33-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Diseases.

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  • In this environment, thyroiditis can also be pregnancy-related.
  • Graves disease in young women can cause serious problems during pregnancy; in such cases assessment of the minimal effective dose of antithyroid agents is essential.
  • Single-nodule tumors were assessed in 89 patients in Khartoum: they were found to be simple goiters in 72% of cases, follicular adenoma in 13.5%, cancer in 13.5% (with 6 of the 12 cases follicular, 5 papillary, and 1 anaplastic).
  • Thyroid cancer at Ibadan was found to be papillary carcinoma in 45.3% of cases; follicular forms were seen in 44.5% and this series includes 5% of medullary cancers (7 cases), with a mean age of 34 years.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Africa South of the Sahara / epidemiology. Age Factors. Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Carbimazole / therapeutic use. Child. Female. Goiter / epidemiology. Goiter, Endemic / epidemiology. Goiter, Nodular / epidemiology. Graves Disease / drug therapy. Graves Disease / epidemiology. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / epidemiology. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Hypothyroidism / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology. Prevalence. Risk Factors. Rural Population. Sex Factors. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroiditis / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17897900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1157-5999
  • [Journal-full-title] Santé (Montrouge, France)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sante
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 8KQ660G60G / Carbimazole
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5. Schäffler A: [Treatment of pituitary gland hyperfunction: from acromegaly to prolactinoma]. Internist (Berl); 2006 Dec;47(12):1215-6, 1218-20, 1222
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  • [Title] [Treatment of pituitary gland hyperfunction: from acromegaly to prolactinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Therapie der Hypophysenüberfunktion: Von der Akromegalie zum Prolaktinom.
  • Evidence based drug therapy is currently available for the treatment of prolactinomas and growth hormone secreting adenomas (acromegaly).
  • Dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine, quinagolide or cabergoline represent the standard therapy for the treatment of micro- and macro-prolaktinomas.
  • In pregnancy, more differentiated, individual and patient-adapted therapeutic procedures have to be considered.
  • Transsphenoidal adenomectomy is the treatment of choice for patients suffering from acromegaly.
  • In therapy-resistant cases, growth hormone receptor antagonists can be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / therapy. Adenoma / therapy. Hyperpituitarism / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prolactinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Dopamine Antagonists / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Pregnancy. Receptors, Somatotropin / antagonists & inhibitors. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17033781.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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6. Arafah BM, Nasrallah MP: Pituitary tumors: pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and management. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2001 Dec;8(4):287-305
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  • They present with a variety of clinical manifestations that include symptoms and signs of excessive hormone secretion by the tumor, signs of hormone deficits by the normal pituitary gland and others related to expansion of the tumor mass and the resulting compression of surrounding structures such as the optic chiasm and cranial nerves.
  • Advances in molecular biology, immunocytochemical staining and imaging, and the introduction of new treatment options have improved our understanding of the natural history of these adenomas and their management.
  • Available treatments include surgical, medical and radiation therapy.
  • Although the primary treatment for each tumor type may vary, it is important to consider all available options and select the most applicable for that patient.
  • The interaction of all members of management team, including the primary care provider, the endocrinologist and the neurosurgeon in selecting the treatment course can only improve therapeutic outcome.
  • Regardless of the initial choice of treatment,follow-up of all patients should be maintained indefinitely.
  • The managing physician should be familiar with the natural history and long-term complications of pituitary adenomas, and with the side effects of treatments given over the years.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / classification. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Adult. Case Management. Child. Clone Cells / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / drug therapy. Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / etiology. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. False Negative Reactions. Female. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hypophysectomy / adverse effects. Hypophysectomy / methods. Hypopituitarism / drug therapy. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiopathology. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Nelson Syndrome / etiology. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Function Tests. Pituitary Hormones / analysis. Pituitary Hormones / secretion. Pituitary Hormones / therapeutic use. Pituitary-Adrenal System / secretion. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy. Prevalence. Prolactin / blood. Prolactin / secretion. Prolactinoma / blood. Prolactinoma / complications. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / therapy. Staining and Labeling

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  • (PMID = 11733226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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7. D'Agostini F, Mastracci L, Izzotti A, Balansky R, Pennisi TM, Steele VE, De Flora S: Modulation by phenethyl isothiocyanate and budesonide of molecular and histopathologic alterations induced by environmental cigarette smoke in mice. Cancer Prev Res (Phila); 2009 Jun;2(6):546-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / therapeutic use. Budesonide / therapeutic use. Isothiocyanates / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / prevention & control. Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / etiology. Adenoma / prevention & control. Age Factors. Animals. Animals, Newborn. Apoptosis / drug effects. Bone Marrow Cells / drug effects. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Carcinoma / etiology. Carcinoma / prevention & control. DNA Adducts / analysis. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Lung / chemistry. Lung / drug effects. Lung Diseases / drug therapy. Lung Diseases / pathology. Male. Mice. Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Pregnancy. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19491290.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6215
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN53301
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / DNA Adducts; 0 / Isothiocyanates; 0 / Tobacco Smoke Pollution; 51333-22-3 / Budesonide; 6U7TFK75KV / phenethyl isothiocyanate
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8. Jacoby RF, Cole CE, Tutsch K, Newton MA, Kelloff G, Hawk ET, Lubet RA: Chemopreventive efficacy of combined piroxicam and difluoromethylornithine treatment of Apc mutant Min mouse adenomas, and selective toxicity against Apc mutant embryos. Cancer Res; 2000 Apr 1;60(7):1864-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chemopreventive efficacy of combined piroxicam and difluoromethylornithine treatment of Apc mutant Min mouse adenomas, and selective toxicity against Apc mutant embryos.
  • Genetic knockout or pharmacological inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 decreases the number and size of adenomas in mouse models of familial adenomatous polyposis.
  • Epidemiological and clinical studies in humans indicate that the entire class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that inhibit both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes are promising colon cancer chemopreventive agents.
  • Min mice (n = 144) were exposed to low doses of the nonselective COX inhibitor piroxicam and the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) inhibitor difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), beginning at the time they were weaned and continuing throughout the duration of the experiment.
  • Piroxicam at 12, 25, and 50 ppm in the diet caused dose-dependent decreases in the number of tumors in the middle and distal portions of the small intestine.
  • This decrease in tumor multiplicity was associated with a striking decrease in the size of those tumors that did grow out.
  • Exposure to DFMO (0.5 or 1.0% in water) caused a dose-dependent decrease in tumor multiplicity in the middle and distal portions of the small intestine.
  • However, this decreased multiplicity was not associated with a striking decrease in the size of the tumors.
  • Combined treatment of mice with piroxicam plus DFMO was much more effective than either agent alone and resulted in a significant number of mice totally free of any intestinal adenomas (P < 0.001), in contrast to the 100% incidence and high multiplicity in control Min mice.
  • In addition to this profound effectiveness in reducing tumor number, the few residual tumors in mice treated with the combined drugs were markedly smaller in size than tumors that arose from control Min mice.
  • These COX-2 and ODC inhibitor drugs were not overtly toxic at the doses used when administered to mice after weaning.
  • However, when treatment was begun in utero, the Mendelian expected progeny ratio of 1:1 that we routinely obtained in untreated control litters was no longer observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / prevention & control. Anticarcinogenic Agents / therapeutic use. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Eflornithine / therapeutic use. Eflornithine / toxicity. Genes, APC. Intestinal Neoplasms / prevention & control. Piroxicam / therapeutic use. Piroxicam / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cyclooxygenase 1. Cyclooxygenase 2. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors. Drug Therapy, Combination. Embryo, Mammalian / drug effects. Female. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Male. Membrane Proteins. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Knockout. Mice, Mutant Strains. Ornithine Decarboxylase Inhibitors. Pregnancy. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 10766173.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01 CN 65122
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Ornithine Decarboxylase Inhibitors; 13T4O6VMAM / Piroxicam; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 1; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases; EC 1.14.99.1 / Ptgs1 protein, mouse; ZQN1G5V6SR / Eflornithine
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9. Baba T, Endo T, Kitajima Y, Kamiya H, Moriwaka O, Saito T: Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and pituitary adenoma: incidental pregnancy triggers a catastrophic event. Fertil Steril; 2009 Jul;92(1):390.e1-3
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  • [Title] Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and pituitary adenoma: incidental pregnancy triggers a catastrophic event.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a rare case of spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) associated with spontaneous pregnancy and a FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • In addition, her TSH level was normal, and hCG was appropriate for the date of pregnancy.
  • Subsequently, the patient developed massive thrombophlebitis in her right internal jugular and subclavian veins.
  • Termination of the pregnancy ameliorated the accumulation of ascites, but ovarian enlargement and hyperestrogenemia persisted.
  • No mutations of the FSH receptor, LH receptor, or aromatase genes were detected, but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head revealed a pituitary adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION(S): A gonadotropin-secreting adenoma caused ovarian hyperstimulation (ovarian enlargement and hyperestrogenemia).
  • In addition, spontaneous pregnancy and intrinsic hCG increased vascular permeability, which complicated the patient's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pregnancy Complications / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anticoagulants / therapeutic use. Dilatation and Curettage. Estrogens / blood. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / secretion. Humans. Paracentesis. Pregnancy. Thrombosis / complications. Thrombosis / drug therapy. Ultrasonography, Prenatal / adverse effects


10. Biermasz NR, Romijn JA, Pereira AM, Roelfsema F: Current pharmacotherapy for acromegaly: a review. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2005 Nov;6(14):2393-405
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  • [Title] Current pharmacotherapy for acromegaly: a review.
  • Acromegaly is associated with considerable morbidity and excess mortality; however, after effective treatment, both morbidity and mortality risks improve.
  • Growth hormone excess in acromegaly can be controlled in many patients by pharmacotherapy alone, and with a combination of transsphenoidal surgery and pharmacotherapy in almost all patients.
  • This review focuses on the treatment options for acromegaly (e.g., surgery, radiotherapy and pharmacotherapy with the depot preparations of the somatostatin analogues octreotide long-acting release formulation, lanreotide slow-release formulation and lanreotide Autogel, the growth hormone antagonist pegvisomant and the dopamine agonist cabergoline).
  • Pharmacological characteristics of these drugs and the clinical and adverse effects are discussed individually and in relation to the other treatment modalities.
  • The evidence for biochemical goals aimed at during medical treatment and the costs of pharmacotherapy are discussed.
  • A new treatment algorithm is proposed, in which the choice between primary medical treatment and primary surgery is individualised, dependent on adenoma size and extension, patient factors (age, preference for therapy, contraindication for surgery), surgical experience of the centre and octreotide sensitivity of the adenoma.
  • The high cost of lifelong medical treatment, especially of pegvisomant, must be weighed against the cost of a single surgical procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adenoma / drug therapy. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Human Growth Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Receptors, Somatotropin / antagonists & inhibitors. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Bromocriptine / administration & dosage. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Costs and Cost Analysis. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16259571.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7666
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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11. Blackhurst G, Strachan MW, Collie D, Gregor A, Statham PF, Seckl JE: The treatment of a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary macroadenoma with octreotide in twin pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2002 Sep;57(3):401-4
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Tumors and Pregnancy.

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  • [Title] The treatment of a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary macroadenoma with octreotide in twin pregnancy.
  • We describe the case of a 21-year-old woman who, despite twin pregnancy, became euthyroid and had dramatic tumour shrinkage on octreotide treatment.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first description of the use of octreotide for a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma throughout pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy. Thyrotropin / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Twins

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  • (PMID = 12201834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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12. Christin-Maître S, Delemer B, Touraine P, Young J: Prolactinoma and estrogens: pregnancy, contraception and hormonal replacement therapy. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2007 Jun;68(2-3):106-12
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pregnancy.

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  • [Title] Prolactinoma and estrogens: pregnancy, contraception and hormonal replacement therapy.
  • The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date assessment of this subject with regard to pregnancy, use of contraceptive pills and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy.
  • There is no adverse data concerning the safety of dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine, if the woman is treated during the first trimester of pregnancy but there is little information regarding the most recent treatments such as cabergoline or quinagolide.
  • In women with microadenomas, pregnancy generally has little impact on their adenoma, delivery is normal and breast-feeding is allowed.
  • Concerning macroprolactinomas, tumor progression during pregnancy is possible and endocrine follow-up remains necessary.
  • This type of contraceptive has long been avoided in patients presenting prolactinoma.
  • The most important problem to overcome with this type of prescription, which masks the clinical consequences of hyperprolactinemia, is the possibility of overlooking hypophyseal disease that could result from this approach.
  • The problem of macroprolactinoma is different; the possibility of prescribing contraceptive pills must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis and the impact of the drug on the adenoma must be very closely monitored.
  • Estrogen replacement therapy in patients presenting hypogonadism should be attempted in patients with a history of prolactinoma and standard-monitoring precautions should be taken.
  • In menopausal women, when replacement therapy is desirable, the presence of a microprolactinoma should not by itself avoid this prescription.
  • [MeSH-major] Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal / adverse effects. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Estrogens / physiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Pregnancy / physiology. Prolactinoma / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17540335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogens; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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13. Fassnacht M, Capeller B, Arlt W, Steck T, Allolio B: Octreotide LAR treatment throughout pregnancy in an acromegalic woman. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2001 Sep;55(3):411-5
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  • [Title] Octreotide LAR treatment throughout pregnancy in an acromegalic woman.
  • We report a 24-year-old woman with active acromegaly despite pituitary surgery and irradiation who received continuous octreotide LAR treatment for the control of GH excess throughout her pregnancy.
  • The patient delivered a healthy girl following an uneventful pregnancy.
  • In almost all previously described cases (n = 13) octreotide was stopped after the diagnosis of pregnancy was established.
  • Octreotide treatment in pregnancy seems to be feasible and safe.
  • Due to the still-limited number of reported cases, the potential benefits of octreotide treatment should be weighed carefully against its possible risks.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy. Prenatal Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adult. Delayed-Action Preparations. Female. Humans. Maternal-Fetal Exchange. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11589686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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14. Ricci G, Giolo E, Nucera G, Pozzobon C, De Seta F, Guaschino S: Pregnancy in hyperprolactinemic infertile women treated with vaginal bromocriptine: report of two cases and review of the literature. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 2001;51(4):266-70
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  • [Title] Pregnancy in hyperprolactinemic infertile women treated with vaginal bromocriptine: report of two cases and review of the literature.
  • This article presents two cases of successful pregnancy resulting from this alternative treatment.
  • Repeated postcoital tests during treatment proved normal.
  • The therapy was discontinued during pregnancy, without complications.
  • Although bromocriptine treatment was not resumed after delivery, postpartum prolactin levels were lower than before treatment and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an unchanged empty sella.
  • Another patient with infertility and pituitary microadenoma with intolerance to oral dopaminergic agonists received the same treatment.
  • Despite bromocriptine withdrawal, no significant complications occurred during pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bromocriptine / administration & dosage. Hormone Antagonists / administration & dosage. Hyperprolactinemia / drug therapy. Infertility, Female / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / drug therapy. Administration, Intravaginal. Adult. Female. Humans. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pregnancy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 11408739.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-7346
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic and obstetric investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine
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15. Möller L, Mann K: [Update hyperthyreoidism]. Internist (Berl); 2010 May;51(5):574, 576-8, 580-3
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  • Hyperthyroidism is mainly caused by Graves' disease and toxic adenoma or multinodular goiter.
  • In Europe, treatment of both disorders is usually started with antithyroidal drugs such as methimazole.
  • Propylthiouracil, therefore, should not be used as first line agent and is only recommended when an antithyroid drug is to be started during the first trimester of pregnancy or in individuals who have experienced adverse responses to methimazole.
  • Toxic adenoma is finally treated with radioioidine.
  • To reduce the risk of treatment failure, antithyroidal drugs should be stopped at least one week prior to radioiodine.
  • For Graves' disease, remission is unlikely if antibodies against the TSH-receptor remain above 10 mU/l after 6 months of antithyroidal treatment and radioiodine or thyroidectomy can be recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperthyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperthyroidism / therapy. Methimazole / administration & dosage. Propylthiouracil / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / radiotherapy. Agranulocytosis / chemically induced. Antithyroid Agents / administration & dosage. Female. Goiter, Nodular / complications. Graves Disease / complications. Graves Disease / diagnosis. Graves Disease / therapy. Humans. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20383482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1289
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole; 721M9407IY / Propylthiouracil
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16. Bronstein MD, Salgado LR, de Castro Musolino NR: Medical management of pituitary adenomas: the special case of management of the pregnant woman. Pituitary; 2002;5(2):99-107
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  • The development of efficacious surgical and medical therapies for pituitary adenomas as well as the improvement of hormone therapy for ovulation induction has made pregnancy possible for women harboring pituitary tumors.
  • However, gestational risks due to the possibility of tumor growth during pregnancy, mainly in women with macroadenomas, raise a concern.
  • Bromocriptine has a well-established role for prolactinoma treatment before and during pregnancy, even when a symptomatic tumor increase occurs.
  • Somatostatin analogs have been used in acromegaly even during pregnancy with uneventful outcomes, but their safety in pregnancy is not well established, yet.
  • The largest experience with medical treatment for Cushing's disease during pregnancy involves metyrapone, a steroidogenesis inhibitor, without descriptions of congenital abnormalities.
  • The purpose of this review is to provide an update on therapeutic strategies to restore fertility as well as gestational and post-gestational management of patients with pituitary adenomas, focusing mainly on the role of medical treatment for different tumor types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / etiology. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12675507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 84
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17. Henzen Ch: [Hyperthyroidism--differential diagnosis and differential therapy]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2003 Jan 8;92(1-2):18-24
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Hyperthyroidism.

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  • [Title] [Hyperthyroidism--differential diagnosis and differential therapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Hyperthyreose--Differenzialdiagnose und differenzierte Therapie.
  • The prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and toxic adenoma is increased in areas of limited iodine supply.
  • Thyrotoxicosis in patients with multinodular goitre can be precipitated by iodinated radiocontrast agents and the antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone.
  • Transient hyperthyroidism may be caused by HCG-induced thyroiditis in pregnancy or de Quervain subacute thyroiditis.
  • The differential diagnosis and the treatment principles of the varied causes of thyrotoxicosis are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Graves Disease / complications. Graves Disease / diagnosis. Graves Disease / therapy. Humans. Pregnancy. Risk Factors. Thyroid Function Tests

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  • (PMID = 12577605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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18. Wallaschofski H, Donné M, Eigenthaler M, Hentschel B, Faber R, Stepan H, Koksch M, Lohmann T: PRL as a novel potent cofactor for platelet aggregation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2001 Dec;86(12):5912-9

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  • Pregnancy (including puerperium) is a period of hypercoagulability and seems to be an independent major risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE).
  • However, the basis of the increased risk of VTE in pregnancy and around delivery is unknown.
  • We hypothesized that changes in PRL, which is a prominently increased hormone during pregnancy and lactation, might be involved in the activation of platelets.
  • To investigate platelet functional abnormalities in pregnancy, we assessed the ADP-stimulated and nonstimulated P-selectin expression of platelets in 42 consecutive pregnant women, 22 normo- and hyperprolactinemic patients with pituitary tumors, and controls.
  • Moreover, our data indicate that PRL may be a physiological cofactor of the delicate coagulation balance during pregnancy and puerperium that might explain the increased risk of VTE in pregnant women around delivery.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenosine Diphosphate / pharmacology. Adult. Aged. Blood Physiological Phenomena. Blood Platelets / drug effects. Blood Platelets / physiology. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Hyperprolactinemia / blood. Hyperprolactinemia / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / blood. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pregnancy. Prolactinoma / blood. Prolactinoma / complications. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Reference Values. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone / pharmacology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11739463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 5Y5F15120W / Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone; 61D2G4IYVH / Adenosine Diphosphate; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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19. Nasr C, Mason A, Mayberg M, Staugaitis SM, Asa SL: Acromegaly and somatotroph hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation due to pituitary metastasis of a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting pulmonary endocrine carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Dec;91(12):4776-80
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  • SUBJECT: The patient was a 44-yr-old woman who was diagnosed with a biopsy-proven metastatic pulmonary endocrine tumor during pregnancy.
  • After delivery, she underwent radiation and chemotherapy for pulmonary and skeletal metastases.
  • Her disease was clinically stable for 7 yr until she developed bitemporal hemianopia.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / complications. Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / etiology. Carcinoma / complications. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Somatotrophs / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Hemianopsia / etiology. Hemianopsia / radiography. Hormones, Ectopic / secretion. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / etiology. Indium Radioisotopes. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic

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  • (PMID = 16968791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones, Ectopic; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
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20. Kohorn EI: What we know about low-level hCG: definition, classification and management. J Reprod Med; 2004 Jun;49(6):433-7
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  • RESULTS: One of the 9 Yale patients had developed placental site trophoblastic tumor metastatic to the lung.
  • Following resection and 18 months of observation, she then had a successful pregnancy, has remained without evidence of disease and has negative hCG.
  • The experience from England shows that 2 of 14 patients with detectable hCG in urine and serum developed overt trophoblastic neoplasia and were treated successfully.
  • None have developed gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, 3 have regular menstrual periods, and 1 has had 2 pregnancies.
  • Forty of the 63 (63%) received single agent or combination chemotherapy, and 10 underwent hysterectomy, also. hCG persisted in spite of therapy.
  • Four of the 63 (6%) eventually developed overt trophoblastic neoplasia and were then treated effectively; their hCG became negative.
  • In these 4 patients whose hCG rose significantly and who did require therapy, the proportion of hyperglycosylated hCG became > or =80% of total hCG.
  • CONCLUSION: Active therapy with chemotherapy or surgery for persistent, elevated, low-level, real hCG is counterproductive.
  • Therapy should be initiated only if overt trophoblastic neoplasia appears.
  • All patients with low-level, real hCG require sophisticated imaging to exclude the presence of extrauterine sites of trophoblast, such as trophoblastic metastases or pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnostic Errors. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Hydatidiform Mole / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Pregnancy. Reference Values. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 15283049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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21. Verhelst J, Abs R: Hyperprolactinemia: pathophysiology and management. Treat Endocrinol; 2003;2(1):23-32
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  • If serum prolactin levels are above 200 microg/L, a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma (prolactinoma) is the underlying cause, but if levels are lower, differential diagnoses include the intake of various drugs, compression of the pituitary stalk by other pathology, hypothyroidism, renal failure, cirrhosis, chest wall lesions, or idiopathic hyperprolactinemia.
  • The large majority of patients with prolactinomas, both micro- and macroprolactinomas, can be successfully treated with dopaminergic drugs as first-line treatment, with normalization of prolactin secretion and gonadal function, and with significant tumor shrinkage in a high percentage of cases.
  • Surgical resection of the prolactinoma is the option for patients who may refuse or do not respond to long-term pharmacological therapy.
  • In patients with asymptomatic microprolactinoma no treatment needs to be given and a regular follow-up with serial prolactin measurements and pituitary imaging should be organized.
  • When comparing the plasma half-life, efficacy and tolerability of these drugs, cabergoline seems to have the most favorable profile, followed by quinagolide.
  • Ifprolactin levels are well controlled with dopamine agonist therapy, gradual tapering of the dose to the lowest effective amount is recommended, and in a number of cases medication can be stopped after several years.
  • Evidence to date suggests that cabergoline and quinagolide appear to have a good safety profile for women who wish to conceive, but hard evidence proving that dopamine agonists do not provoke congenital malformations when taken during early pregnancy is currently only available for bromocriptine.
  • Once pregnant, dopamine agonist therapy should be immediately stopped, unless growth of a macroprolactinoma is likely or pressure symptoms occur.
  • In the small group of patients who do not respond to this treatment, or who refuse long-term therapy, surgery is offered.
  • Radiotherapy is given if both pharmacologic therapy and surgery fail.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperprolactinemia / physiopathology. Hyperprolactinemia / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Estrogens / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Pergolide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms. Pregnancy. Prolactin / blood. Prolactin / physiology. Prolactinoma. Radiotherapy. Surgical Procedures, Operative

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  • (PMID = 15871552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-6349
  • [Journal-full-title] Treatments in endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Treat Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Estrogens; 24MJ822NZ9 / Pergolide; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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22. Papi G, Carapezzi C, Corsello SM: [The management of thyrotoxicosis: a schematic approach]. Minerva Endocrinol; 2002 Jun;27(2):119-26

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Approccio schematico alla terapia delle tireotossicosi.
  • A number of causes of thyrotoxicosis are known, and it is therefore very important for the treatment to establish its etiology.
  • Besides medical therapy, other two therapeutic options are available for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis: radioiodide administration (131I) and surgery.
  • The physician can decide the best therapy on the basis of the following factors: etiology of thyrotoxicosis; patient's age and needs; presence/absence of concomitant diseases or pregnancy; presence of ophthalmopathy; goiter's size; advantages and disadvantages of each therapeutic option.
  • On the basis of the natural history and of its consequences on the cardiovascular system and skeletal integrity, the authors propose to begin therapy whether subclinical thyrotoxicosis develop in the following four subgroups of subjects: patients with nodular goiter; women in post-menopause; patients with cardiac diseases; patients with osteoporosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyrotoxicosis / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Aged. Amiodarone / adverse effects. Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Cardiovascular Diseases / complications. Female. Goiter, Nodular / complications. Graves Disease / complications. Graves Disease / drug therapy. Graves Disease / surgery. Humans. Interferons / adverse effects. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoporosis / complications. Osteoporosis / prevention & control. Postmenopause. Pregnancy. Puerperal Disorders / drug therapy. Thyroid Hormones / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Thyrotropin / blood

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  • (PMID = 11961503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9008-11-1 / Interferons; N3RQ532IUT / Amiodarone
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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23. Zhang N, Pan L, Dai J, Wang B, Wang E, Zhang W, Cai P: Gamma Knife radiosurgery as a primary surgical treatment for hypersecreting pituitary adenomas. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg; 2000;75(2-3):123-8
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  • [Title] Gamma Knife radiosurgery as a primary surgical treatment for hypersecreting pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECT: To estimate the efficacy of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKR) especially as a primary surgical treatment for hypersecreting pituitary adenomas.
  • The mean peripheral dose was 28.7 Gy.
  • CONCLUSION: GKR as a primary surgical treatment for hypersecreting pituitary adenomas may be safe and effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Hormones / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Acidophil / secretion. Adenoma, Acidophil / surgery. Adenoma, Basophil / secretion. Adenoma, Basophil / surgery. Adolescent. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Adult. Aged. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Hyperglycemia / etiology. Hyperprolactinemia / etiology. Hypertension / etiology. Infertility, Female / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Prolactin / secretion. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / secretion. Prolactinoma / surgery. Safety. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 11740180.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-6125
  • [Journal-full-title] Stereotactic and functional neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stereotact Funct Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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24. Agha A, Tomlinson JW, Clark PM, Holder G, Stewart PM: The long-term predictive accuracy of the short synacthen (corticotropin) stimulation test for assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jan;91(1):43-7
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  • Patients did not receive routine glucocorticoid therapy, but those in group 2 were advised to take hydrocortisone in case of intercurrent illness.
  • Of the remaining 11 patients, seven became hypoadrenal after subsequent pituitary surgery or radiotherapy, one patient in group 1 developed adrenal insufficiency at 2 yr, and one patient in group 2 developed adrenal insufficiency at 6 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / drug effects. Pituitary Function Tests. Pituitary-Adrenal Function Tests
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adrenal Insufficiency / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Empty Sella Syndrome / diagnosis. False Negative Reactions. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Hypophysectomy. Infarction / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Diseases / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Predictive Value of Tests. Pregnancy. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16249286.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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25. Mezosi E, Nemes O: [Treatment of pituitary adenomas]. Orv Hetil; 2009 Sep 27;150(39):1803-10
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  • [Title] [Treatment of pituitary adenomas].
  • The first-line therapy of prolactinomas are the dopamine agonists, and the aims of the treatment are to normalize the prolactin level, restore fertility in child-bearing age, decrease tumor mass, save or improve the residual pituitary function and inhibit the relapse of the disease.
  • In case of tumors with good therapeutic response, medical therapy can be withdrawn after 3-5 years; hyperprolactinemia will not recur in 2/3 of these patients.
  • Neurosurgery is the primary therapy of GH-, ACTH-, TSH-producing and inactive adenomas.
  • Acromegalic patients with unresectable tumors have a great benefit from somatostatin analog treatment.
  • The growth hormone receptor antagonist pegvisomant is the newest modality for the treatment of acromegaly.
  • The medical therapy of Cushing's disease is still based on the inhibition of steroid production.
  • The rare TSH-producing tumor can respond to both dopamine agonist and somatostatin analog therapy.
  • The application of conventional radiotherapy has decreased; radiotherapy is mainly used in the treatment of invasive, incurable or malignant tumors.
  • Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact role of radiosurgery and fractionated stereotaxic irradiation in the treatment of pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Pituitary Hormones / blood. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / therapy. Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / etiology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / therapy. Human Growth Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Incidental Findings. Male. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy. Prolactinoma / therapy. Radiosurgery. Receptors, Somatotropin / antagonists & inhibitors. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Thyrotropin / blood

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  • (PMID = 19758960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 80Q9QWN15M / quinagolide; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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26. Knip M, Douek IF, Moore WP, Gillmor HA, McLean AE, Bingley PJ, Gale EA, European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial Group: Safety of high-dose nicotinamide: a review. Diabetologia; 2000 Nov;43(11):1337-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Nicotinamide, the amide derivative of nicotinic acid, has over the past forty years been given at high doses for a variety of therapeutic applications.
  • It is currently in trial as a potential means of preventing the onset of Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in high-risk, first-degree relatives.
  • Nicotinamide is for regulatory purposes classed as a food additive rather than a drug and has not therefore required the formal safety evaluation normally expected of a new therapy.
  • Because the safety of treatment with megadoses of vitamins cannot be assumed, a full literature review has been undertaken.
  • The therapeutic index of nicotinamide is wide but at very high doses reversible hepatotoxicity has been reported in animals and humans.
  • The drug is well tolerated, especially in recent studies which have used relatively pure preparations of the vitamin.
  • Experience to date therefore suggests that the ratio of risk to benefit of long-term nicotinamide treatment would be highly favourable, should the drug prove efficacious in diabetes prevention.
  • High-dose nicotinamide should still, however, be considered as a drug with toxic potential at adult doses in excess of 3 gm/day and unsupervised use should be discouraged.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / prevention & control. Niacinamide / administration & dosage. Niacinamide / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Abnormalities, Drug-Induced. Adenoma, Islet Cell / chemically induced. Animals. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Female. Growth Disorders / chemically induced. Humans. Pancreatic Neoplasms / chemically induced. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 11126400.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Diabetologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diabetologia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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27. Iván G, Szigeti-Csúcs N, Oláh M, Nagy GM, Góth MI: Treatment of pituitary tumors: dopamine agonists. Endocrine; 2005 Oct;28(1):101-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of pituitary tumors: dopamine agonists.
  • Therefore, in addition to prolactinomas, targets of dopamine agonist therapy are somatotroph tumors, nonfunctioning pituitary tumors, corticotroph pituitary tumors, Nelson's syndrome, gonadotropinomas, and thyrotropin-secreting pituitary tumors.
  • It is also an option for the treatment of pituitary disease during pregnancy.
  • Differences between the effectiveness and the resistance of different dopaminergic agents as well as the future perspectives of them in the therapy of pituitary tumors are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Dopamine Agonists / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bromocriptine / pharmacology. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Dopamine / metabolism. Ergolines / pharmacology. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Humans. Receptors, Dopamine / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16311416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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28. Beckers A, Valdes-Socin H, Betea D, Stevenaert A: [Differential diagnosis and medical treatment in Cushing's disease]. Neurochirurgie; 2002 May;48(2-3 Pt 2):163-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Differential diagnosis and medical treatment in Cushing's disease].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnostic différentiel et traitement médical dans la maladie de Cushing.
  • According to our experience and the literature, we summarize the approach in medical treatment of Cushing's disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / complications. Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / secretion. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / complications. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / drug therapy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Adult. Algorithms. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Child. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Dexamethasone. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / drug effects. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiopathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Petrosal Sinus Sampling. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Pituitary-Adrenal Function Tests. Pituitary-Adrenal System / drug effects. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiopathology. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Vasopressins

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  • (PMID = 12058123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 11000-17-2 / Vasopressins; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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29. Phitayakorn R, McHenry CR: Hyperparathyroid crisis: use of bisphosphonates as a bridge to parathyroidectomy. J Am Coll Surg; 2008 Jun;206(6):1106-15

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The manifestations of hyperparathyroid crisis and outcomes of bisphosphonate-based therapy and delayed parathyroidectomy were determined and compared with cases from a review of the literature.
  • Isotonic sodium chloride and furosemide, in combination with a bisphosphonate drug in 7 of 8 patients, resulted in a calcium decline from 16.2+/-1.6 mg/dL to 11.8+/-1.6 mg/dL, with resolution of electrocardiogram and mental status changes, and pancreatitis before resection of an adenoma (n=7) or carcinoma (n=1).
  • There was no mortality from hyperparathyroid crisis, compared with a 7% mortality rate for cases reported in the literature since 1978.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Rehydration, calciuresis, and bisphosphonate therapy are effective in correcting life-threatening manifestations of hyperparathyroid crisis, providing an effective bridge to parathyroidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Hypercalcemia / prevention & control. Hyperparathyroidism / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Drug Utilization. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Parathyroidectomy. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18501807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates
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30. Jezková J, Hána V, Krsek M, Weiss V, Vladyka V, Liscák R, Vymazal J, Pecen L, Marek J: Use of the Leksell gamma knife in the treatment of prolactinoma patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 May;70(5):732-41
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  • [Title] Use of the Leksell gamma knife in the treatment of prolactinoma patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological treatment with dopaminergic agonists (DA) is the treatment of choice for prolactinomas.
  • Surgical and radiation treatment is also indicated in certain situations.
  • The central radiation dose range was 40-80 Gy (median 70 Gy), and the minimal peripheral dose was 20-49 Gy (median 34 Gy).
  • RESULTS: Normoprolactinaemia was achieved in 37.1% of the patients who discontinued DA and in 42.9% of patients who continued DA treatment after LGK irradiation.
  • The median time to prolactin normalization after discontinuation of DA was 96 months.
  • CONCLUSION: LGK treatment resulted in normoprolactinaemia in 80.0% of the patients, all of whom had failed pharmacological treatment due to DA resistance or intolerance.
  • The size of the adenoma decreased even in those patients in whom it was not changed by previous DA treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Prolactin / blood. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18710463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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31. Tauchmanova L, Guerra E, Pivonello R, De Martino MC, De Leo M, Caggiano F, Lombardi G, Colao A: Weekly clodronate treatment prevents bone loss and vertebral fractures in women with subclinical Cushing's syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest; 2009 May;32(5):390-4
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  • [Title] Weekly clodronate treatment prevents bone loss and vertebral fractures in women with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Currently, it is unclear if patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) with osteoporosis or osteopenia may benefit from antiresorptive treatment and the type of therapy to be given.
  • RESULTS: After 12 months of treatment, in group 1, a significant increase in lumbar BMD occurred (p=0.04), while bone turnover markers decreased by about one third (p<0.05).
  • Since the untreated group continued to lose bone, antiresorptive treatment should be considered in patients with SCS, according to the prevision of surgical treatment, prevalent fractures, BMD values, age, concomitant morbidities, and desire for pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Resorption / prevention & control. Clodronic Acid / administration & dosage. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Spinal Fractures / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / drug therapy. Administration, Oral. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adult. Bone Density Conservation Agents / administration & dosage. Bone Density Conservation Agents / adverse effects. Calcium / administration & dosage. Cholecalciferol / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19794285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0813BZ6866 / Clodronic Acid; 1C6V77QF41 / Cholecalciferol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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32. Mezosi E: [Hyperthyroidism]. Orv Hetil; 2006 Jul 16;147(28):1309-14
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Hyperthyroidism.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, which is an everyday problem due to the widespread use of amiodarone treatment, is also better characterized.
  • The role of different treatment modalities in the therapeutic algorithm was established, the part of surgery decreased.
  • The optimal duration and dose of drug treatment in Graves' disease is still questionable in the lack of good evidence, nowadays one and half year of antithyroid treatment is generally recommended.
  • The reduction of relapse rate below 50% after the discontinuation of antithyroid drug was unsuccessful, risk factors are the large goiter, elevated level of the TSH receptor antibodies, in certain studies the male gender and young age.
  • Due to the high relapse rate, the radioiodine treatment is preferred, even as a primary therapy.
  • In case of toxic adenoma, toxic multinodular goiter and congenital non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism the medical treatment cannot result in permanent cure, therefore primary ablative treatment is required.
  • The chances of patients with hyperthyroidism for the complete recovery are excellent, however, long time follow-up is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Hyperthyroidism. Thyroid Hormones / blood. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Graves Disease / etiology. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Male. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16999016.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Thyroid Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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33. Hierl T, Ziegler R, Kasperk C: Pregnancy in persistent acromegaly. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2000 Aug;53(2):262-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pregnancy in persistent acromegaly.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / surgery. Pregnancy Complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / radiotherapy. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Pregnancy. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 10931109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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34. Masding MG, Lees PD, Gawne-Cain ML, Sandeman DD: Visual field compression by a non-secreting pituitary tumour during pregnancy. J R Soc Med; 2003 Jan;96(1):27-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Vision Impairment and Blindness.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Visual field compression by a non-secreting pituitary tumour during pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy. Vision Disorders / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Constriction, Pathologic / complications. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 12519799.001).
  • [ISSN] 0141-0768
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J R Soc Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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35. Herrmann BL, Strasburger CJ: [Growth hormone-receptor antagonist pegvisomant]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2004 Oct 29;129(44):2356-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Human Growth Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Receptors, Somatotropin / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / radiotherapy. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Female. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Male. Mutation. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Pregnancy. Risk Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15497105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-0472
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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36. Nicholls MG, Robertson JI, Inagami T: The renin-angiotensin system in the twenty-first century. Blood Press; 2001;10(5-6):327-43

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Renin-Angiotensin System / drug effects. Renin-Angiotensin System / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / etiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / physiopathology. Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacology. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Cardiovascular Diseases / drug therapy. Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology. Female. Humans. Hypertension, Renal / drug therapy. Hypertension, Renal / etiology. Male. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 11822537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0803-7051
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood pressure
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood Press.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 124
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