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1. Higuchi T, Iwama T, Yoshinaga K, Toyooka M, Taketo MM, Sugihara K: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of rofecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on rectal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis patients. Clin Cancer Res; 2003 Oct 15;9(13):4756-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of rofecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on rectal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis patients.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, rofecoxib, on rectal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis patients.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of rofecoxib in the rectum.
  • We reviewed the videotapes to measure the number and size of polyps in the same area throughout the study period in each individual patient.
  • RESULTS: The polyp number, measured as the percentage of change from the baseline values, was significantly decreased in the rofecoxib group at 3, 6, and 9 months.
  • At 9 months, the polyp number in the rofecoxib group decreased by 6.8% from the baseline values, whereas that in the placebo group increased by 3.1%.
  • At 9 months, the rofecoxib group showed a significant reduction from the baseline in polyp size as compared with the placebo group (-16.2% versus 1.5%; P < 0.001).
  • There was no statistically significant increase in the incidence of any adverse events in treatment with rofecoxib compared with placebo (P = 0.922).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study, once-daily treatment with 25 mg rofecoxib, a cyclooxygenase 2-specific inhibitor, significantly decreased the number and size of rectal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / drug therapy. Colonic Polyps / drug therapy. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Isoenzymes / antagonists & inhibitors. Lactones / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cyclooxygenase 2. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors. Disease Progression. Double-Blind Method. Endoscopy. Female. Humans. Male. Membrane Proteins. Microscopy, Video. Middle Aged. Placebos. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases. Sulfones. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 14581346.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Placebos; 0 / Sulfones; 0QTW8Z7MCR / rofecoxib; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
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2. Schmiegel W, Pox C, Arnold D, Porschen R, Rödel C, Reinacher-Schick A, Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany, German Cancer Aid, German Cancer Society, German Society for Digestive and Metabolic Diseases, German Society for General and Visceral Surgery, German Society for Hematology and Oncology, German Society for Pathology, German Society for Radiooncology, German Roentgen Society, German Joint Society for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, German Society for Coloproctology, Association of Stoma Patients and Persons with Intestinal Cancer, German Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Association, German Society for Internal Medicine: Colorectal carcinoma: the management of polyps, (neo)adjuvant therapy, and the treatment of metastases. Dtsch Arztebl Int; 2009 Dec;106(51-52):843-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colonic Polyps.

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  • [Title] Colorectal carcinoma: the management of polyps, (neo)adjuvant therapy, and the treatment of metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the second most common type of cancer in Germany.
  • In view of recent major changes in the diagnosis and treatment of CRC, the S3 guideline for CRC published in its full version in 2004 was partially updated in 2008 and again in 2009.
  • METHOD: The literature was systematically searched for all articles published from 2004 onward concerning polyp management, (neo-)adjuvant treatment, and treatment of metastatic disease.
  • Evidence-based recommendations were developed in a consensus conference.
  • RESULTS: For some patients who have undergone polypectomy, the time to follow-up with colonoscopy can be lengthened.
  • In UICC stage III colon cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy with an oxaliplatin-based regimen is recommended.
  • In stage II colon cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered mainly when risk factors are present.
  • In stages II and III, neo-adjuvant therapy should be given before resection in rectal cancer.
  • In patients with metastatic disease, the use of all possible treatment options results in a median overall survival time of 24 months.
  • In some patients with primarily non-resectable liver metastases, systemic treatment may enable a secondary, potentially curative resection.
  • Therapeutic agents are chosen individually on the basis of clinical factors including the goal of treatment, the patient's general condition, and tumor molecular markers.
  • CONCLUSION: The S3 guideline contains evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Polyps / diagnosis. Colonic Polyps / therapy. Medical Oncology / standards. Neoadjuvant Therapy / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / therapy. Germany. Humans

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  • [CommentIn] Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2010 Jun;107(22):399; author reply 399-400 [20574557.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2010 Feb;107(5):74
  • (PMID = 20062582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1866-0452
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsches Ärzteblatt international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch Arztebl Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803611
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adjuvant therapy / cancer treatment / colorectal carcinoma / palliative treatment / polyps
  • [Investigator] Schmitt W; Riemann JF; Baretton G; Faiss S 3rd; Gabbert HE; In der Smitten S; Mössner J; Neuhaus H; Pommer G; Pox C; Reiser M; Schoppmeyer K; Schumacher B; Wittekind Ch; Porschen R; Sauer R; Arnold D; Budach W; Folprecht G; Geissler M; Hofheinz RD 3rd; Köhne CH; Link KH; Rödel C; Reinacher-Schick A; Tannapfel A; Schmoll HJ; Graeven U; Bechstein WO; Eichler K; Heinemann V; Höhler T; Overkamp F; Petrasch S; Raab HR; Schmiegel W; Seufferlein T; Trarbach T; Vanhöfer U; Vogl T
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3. Terada T: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the digestive organs: a histopathologic study of 31 cases in a single Japanese institute. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2009;3(2):162-8
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  • They consisted of 24 cases of gastric GIST, 1 case of hepatic GIST, 1 case of small intestinal GIST, 4 cases of colon GIST, and 1 case of rectal GIST.
  • Endoscopy and imaging modalities including US, CT and MRI were useful to detect the tumors in all cases, and biopsies confirmed the GIST diagnosis in 21 cases.
  • Grossly, 23 cases were submucosal tumors, 6 serosa-side tumors, 1 solid tumor in the liver, and 1 rectal polyp.
  • Histologically, 28 cases were of spindle cell type and 3 of epithelioid type.
  • The chemotherapy was imatinib mesylate in 6 cases, and none in 25 cases.

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  • (PMID = 20126584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Codon; 0 / Vimentin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2809996
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; GIST / KIT / PDGFRA / clinicopathology / desmin / genetics / immunohisology
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4. Matsushita D, Kitazono M, Baba K, Ishigami S, Shinchi H, Ueno S, Ogawa H, Natsugoe S: [A case of advanced rectal cancer with liver and lung metastasis showing a complete response by neo-adjuvant FOLFOX4 chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Jan;37(1):173-6
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced rectal cancer with liver and lung metastasis showing a complete response by neo-adjuvant FOLFOX4 chemotherapy].
  • Colonoscopy detected rectal cancer and sigmoid al polyps.
  • The biopsy results suggested that the rectal lesion was well- to moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma and the sigmoidal polyp contained well -differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • CT scan revealed multiple lung, liver and lymph node metastasis.
  • We judged the case to be inoperable and decided to start systemic chemotherapy (FOLFOX4).
  • After treatment with chemotherapy, the tumor shrank and metastatic lesions disappeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy

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  • (PMID = 20087057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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5. Khosraviani K, Weir HP, Hamilton P, Moorehead J, Williamson K: Effect of folate supplementation on mucosal cell proliferation in high risk patients for colon cancer. Gut; 2002 Aug;51(2):195-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FOLIC ACID .

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  • Our aim was to determine the effect of folate supplementation on patients with recurrent adenomatous polyps using rectal mucosal cell proliferation as a biomarker.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven patients with recurrent adenomatous polyps of the colon were randomised into a treatment group (n=6) receiving a dietary supplement of 2 mg folic acid per day for three months and a control group (n=5) receiving a placebo.
  • Rectal biopsies where taken at 10 cm from the anal verge prior to supplementation and repeated at four, 12, and 18 weeks from the start of the supplementation.
  • Twenty five orientated crypts were identified for each time point and the number and position of BrdU positive and BrdU negative cells were counted.
  • RESULTS: The LI of the treatment group (9.1 (6.7, 12.3)) and the control group (9.3 (7.8, 10.3)) were comparable at the start.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / prevention & control. Colonic Polyps / drug therapy. Dietary Supplements. Folic Acid / administration & dosage. Intestinal Mucosa / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Erythrocytes / chemistry. Humans. Rectum. Recurrence. Risk. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 12117879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-5749
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 935E97BOY8 / Folic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1773332
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6. Keller JJ, Offerhaus GJ, Hylind LM, Giardiello FM: Rectal epithelial apoptosis does not predict response to sulindac treatment or polyp development in presymptomatic familial adenomatous polyposis patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2002 Jul;11(7):670-1
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  • [Title] Rectal epithelial apoptosis does not predict response to sulindac treatment or polyp development in presymptomatic familial adenomatous polyposis patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / prevention & control. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / drug therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / prevention & control. Sulindac / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Apoptosis / drug effects. Biopsy, Needle. Epithelium / drug effects. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / drug effects. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Rectum / drug effects. Rectum / pathology. Reference Values. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12101116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA53801
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 184SNS8VUH / Sulindac
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7. Giardiello FM, Casero RA Jr, Hamilton SR, Hylind LM, Trimbath JD, Geiman DE, Judge KR, Hubbard W, Offerhaus GJ, Yang VW: Prostanoids, ornithine decarboxylase, and polyamines in primary chemoprevention of familial adenomatous polyposis. Gastroenterology; 2004 Feb;126(2):425-31
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  • [Title] Prostanoids, ornithine decarboxylase, and polyamines in primary chemoprevention of familial adenomatous polyposis.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Familial adenomatous polyposis because of germline mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene is characterized by development of colorectal adenomas and, ultimately, colorectal cancer.
  • The usefulness of colorectal mucosal compounds to predict the effect on adenoma development of primary chemoprevention with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac was evaluated.
  • METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 41 subjects genotypically affected with familial adenomatous polyposis but phenotypically unaffected was conducted.
  • The levels of 5 prostanoids, ornithine decarboxylase, and polyamines were measured serially in normal-appearing rectal mucosa.
  • RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups in baseline levels of prostanoids, ornithine decarboxylase, or polyamines.
  • Among the subset of patients taking sulindac, 3 of 5 prostaglandin levels were statistically significantly lower in patients who were polyp free than in those who developed polyps.
  • By contrast, there were no statistically significant differences in ornithine decarboxylase or polyamines between treatment groups or in those on sulindac who were polyp free compared with those who developed polyps.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal mucosal prostaglandin levels, but not ornithine decarboxylase or polyamines, may be valuable biomarkers to assess appropriate drug dosage and medication compliance in patients undergoing primary chemoprevention therapy with sulindac.

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  • (PMID = 14762779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5085
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R24 DK064399-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK064399-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 51085; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 53801; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R24 DK064399; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 63721; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA 93-16
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Polyamines; 0 / Prostaglandins; 184SNS8VUH / Sulindac; EC 4.1.1.17 / Ornithine Decarboxylase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS38268; NLM/ PMC2225536
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8. Knottenbelt CM, Simpson JW, Tasker S, Ridyard AE, Chandler ML, Jamieson PM, Welsh EM: Preliminary clinical observations on the use of piroxicam in the management of rectal tubulopapillary polyps. J Small Anim Pract; 2000 Sep;41(9):393-7
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  • [Title] Preliminary clinical observations on the use of piroxicam in the management of rectal tubulopapillary polyps.
  • Rectal tubulopapillary polyps were diagnosed in eight dogs following proctoscopy and mucosal pinch biopsy.
  • The remaining cases were diagnosed as benign polyps.
  • All dogs were re-examined after four to six weeks of piroxicam therapy and the extent of haematochezia, tenesmus and faecal mucus production was reduced in all cases.
  • Medical management with piroxicam may provide a non-invasive treatment option for dogs with rectal polyp formation in which surgical treatment is likely to be associated with complications such as incontinence, infection and wound breakdown, or where the owner declines such treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Intestinal Polyps / drug therapy. Intestinal Polyps / veterinary. Piroxicam / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Cell Cycle. Dogs. Female. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11023124.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4510
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 13T4O6VMAM / Piroxicam
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9. Akasu T, Yokoyama T, Sugihara K, Fujita S, Moriya Y, Kakizoe T: Peroral sustained-release indomethacin treatment for rectal adenomas in familial adenomatous polyposis: a pilot study. Hepatogastroenterology; 2002 Sep-Oct;49(47):1259-61
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  • [Title] Peroral sustained-release indomethacin treatment for rectal adenomas in familial adenomatous polyposis: a pilot study.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: The efficacy of peroral sustained-release indomethacin on rectal adenomas in colectomized patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and its toxicity were evaluated preliminarily.
  • METHODOLOGY: A total of seven colectomized patients with familial adenomatous polyposis were treated with peroral sustained-release indomethacin at the usual clinical doses.
  • The numbers of rectal polyps before and after treatment and approximately one year after cessation of treatment were counted using a flexible colonoscope and compared.
  • RESULTS: After treatment, reductions of rectal polyp size were observed in all patients.
  • Numbers of the rectal polyps also decreased significantly after treatment (median, 1; range, 0 to 30) compared with those before treatment (median, 19; range, 4 to 78) (P = 0.023).
  • Moreover, one year after termination of the treatment, increase in the size and number of rectal polyps was observed in six patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because of incomplete efficacy and severe toxicity, general use of this treatment for familial adenomatous polyposis patients must be deemed inappropriate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / drug therapy. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage. Indomethacin / administration & dosage. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12239919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; XXE1CET956 / Indomethacin
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10. Ben-Josef E, Han S, Tobi M, Shaw LM, Bonner HS, Vargas BJ, Prokop S, Stamos B, Kelly L, Biggar S, Kaplan I: A pilot study of topical intrarectal application of amifostine for prevention of late radiation rectal injury. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 Aug 1;53(5):1160-4
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. AMIFOSTINE .

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  • [Title] A pilot study of topical intrarectal application of amifostine for prevention of late radiation rectal injury.
  • PURPOSE: Clinical symptomatic late injury to the rectal wall occurs in about one-third of patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam irradiation.
  • Reducing the physical dose to the anterior rectal wall without a similar reduction in the posterior peripheral zone is difficult because of the proximity of the prostate to the anterior rectal wall.
  • On the basis of our previous observations in an animal model that intrarectal application of amifostine resulted in very high concentrations of amifostine and its active metabolite WR-1065 in the rectal wall, a Phase I dose-escalation clinical trial was undertaken.
  • The total dose to the prostate was 70.2 Gy in 20 patients and 73.8 Gy in 9 patients.
  • Therapy was delivered using a 4-field technique with three-dimensional conformal planning.
  • Amifostine was administered intrarectally as an aqueous solution 30 min before irradiation on the first 15 days of therapy.
  • Proctoscopy was performed before therapy and at 9 months after completion.
  • The clinical symptoms (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale) and a proctoscopy score were assessed during follow-up.
  • RESULTS: All patients completed therapy with no amifostine-related toxicity at any dose level.
  • With a median follow-up of 26 months, 9 patients (33%) developed rectal bleeding (8 Grade 1, 1 Grade 2).
  • At 9 months, 16 and 3 patients developed Grade 1 and Grade 2 telangiectasia, respectively.
  • This was mostly confined to the anterior rectal wall.
  • Four patients (14%) developed symptoms suggestive of radiation damage that, on sigmoidoscopy, proved to be secondary to unrelated processes.
  • These included preexisting nonspecific proctitis (n = 1), diverticular disease of the sigmoid colon (n = 1), rectal polyp (n = 1), and ulcerative colitis (n = 1).
  • Symptoms developed significantly more often in patients receiving 500-1000 mg than in patients receiving 1500-2500 mg amifostine (7 [50%] of 14 vs. 2 [15%] of 13, p = 0.0325, one-sided chi-square test).
  • Systemic absorption of amifostine and its metabolites is negligible, and close monitoring of patients is not required with rectal administration.
  • Proctoscopy is superior to symptom score as a method of assessing radiation damage of the rectal wall.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Amifostine / administration & dosage. Amifostine / pharmacology. Analysis of Variance. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Humans. Intestines / metabolism. Male. Mercaptoethylamines / pharmacology. Multivariate Analysis. Radiation-Protective Agents / pharmacology. Rectum / pathology. Rectum / radiation effects. Telangiectasis / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12128116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mercaptoethylamines; 0 / Radiation-Protective Agents; 31098-42-7 / WR 1065; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine
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11. Gence A, Sahin C, Celayir AC, Yavuz H: Primary Burkitt lymphoma presenting as a solitary rectal polyp in a child. Pediatr Surg Int; 2008 Nov;24(11):1215-7

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  • [Title] Primary Burkitt lymphoma presenting as a solitary rectal polyp in a child.
  • Primary rectal lymphoma in childhood is extremely rare.
  • This report focuses on the importance of considering the possibility of malignancy in rectal polyps.
  • We report a 5-year-old girl with fresh rectal bleeding who was admitted in our clinic.
  • In physical exam, we found a single pedicled polyp on the posterior wall of the rectum.
  • Surgical removal under general anesthesia involved polyp and its pedicle.
  • Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry study of the polyp revealed a high-grade B-cell lymphoma (Burkitt lymphoma).
  • The patient was referred to pediatric oncology center for chemotherapy.
  • Primary rectal lymphoma in childhood is extremely rare; therefore, the possibility of malignancy in rectal polyps should be considered in the pediatric patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / surgery. Intestinal Polyps / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18810465.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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12. Stănciulea O, Preda C, Herlea V, Popa M, Ulmeanu D, Vasilescu C: [Rare indication of cephalic duodenopancreatectomy with total gastrectomy--periampullary carcinoma in moderate form of familial adenomatous polyposis]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2007 Mar-Apr;102(2):215-20
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  • [Title] [Rare indication of cephalic duodenopancreatectomy with total gastrectomy--periampullary carcinoma in moderate form of familial adenomatous polyposis].
  • We present the case of a 52 years old man, with significant familial history, diagnosed with familial adenomatous polyposis-attenuated form, with no clinical and endoscopic surveillance until 2001 when he was admitted for an upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage episode.
  • Upper gastrointestinal scopy revealed duodenal adenomatous polyps and gastric hyperplastic polyps.
  • The histopathological exam revealed duodenal G2 adenocarcinoma pT3N0, and gastric hyperplastic polyps with no signs of dysplasia.
  • The surgical procedure was followed by chemotherapy.
  • In 2002 the patient was admitted for rectal bleeding and colonoscopy showed 2 sigmoid polyps, appropriate for endoscopic removal and a poly-lobate polyp in the transverse colon.
  • March 2003--the patient underwent endoscopic removal for a rectal polyp (histopathological exam: moderate dysplasia).
  • Intraoperatively were noted: peritoneal carcinomatosis and multiple liver metastasis.
  • The surgical procedure recommended in patients with attenuated form of familial adenomatous polyposis and suspect periampullary lesions is duodenopancreatectomy.
  • The particularity of the case is the association of total gastrectomy for gastric hyperplastic polyps.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery. Duodenal Neoplasms / surgery. Gastrectomy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Pancreaticoduodenectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Ampulla of Vater. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17615925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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13. Kawamori R, Tajima N, Iwamoto Y, Kashiwagi A, Shimamoto K, Kaku K, Voglibose Ph-3 Study Group: Voglibose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomised, double-blind trial in Japanese individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. Lancet; 2009 May 9;373(9675):1607-14
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  • [Title] Voglibose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomised, double-blind trial in Japanese individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.
  • BACKGROUND: The increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major concern for health providers.
  • We therefore assessed whether voglibose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, could prevent the development of type 2 diabetes in high-risk Japanese individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.
  • METHODS: 1780 eligible patients on a standard diet and taking regular exercise with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned to oral voglibose 0.2 mg three times a day (n=897) or placebo (n=883) in a multicentre, double-blind, parallel group trial.
  • Treatment was continued until participants developed type 2 diabetes (primary endpoint) or normoglycaemia (secondary endpoint), or for a minimum of 3 years, subject to the findings of an interim analysis.
  • Patients treated with voglibose had a lower risk of progression to type 2 diabetes than did those on placebo (50 of 897 vs 106 of 881; hazard ratio 0.595, 95% CI 0.433-0.818; p=0.0014).
  • Serious adverse events (all one each) in the voglibose group were cholecystitis, colonic polyp, rectal neoplasm, inguinal hernia, liver dysfunction, and subarachnoid haemorrhage, and in the placebo group were cerebral infarction and cholecystitis.
  • INTERPRETATION: Voglibose, in addition to lifestyle modification, can reduce the development of type 2 diabetes in high-risk Japanese individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / prevention & control. Glucose Intolerance / drug therapy. Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use. Inositol / analogs & derivatives

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  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2009 May 9;373(9675):1579-80 [19395080.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2009 Aug 8;374(9688):448-9 [19665640.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2009 Aug 8;374(9688):448 [19665639.001]
  • (PMID = 19395079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-547X
  • [Journal-full-title] Lancet (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 4L6452S749 / Inositol; 83480-29-9 / voglibose
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14. Chmiel B, Nocoń G: [Secondary primary, bilocal sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma in a patient previously treated for testicular cancer]. Wiad Lek; 2004;57(5-6):288-9
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  • The patient underwent nearly total colectomy and resection of the rectal polyp.
  • This case is an illustration of the problem of cancerogenesis within polyps of the large bowel in patients treated before by chemotherapy because of testicular cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Rectal Neoplasms. Sigmoid Neoplasms. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15518079.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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15. Shia J, Teruya-Feldstein J, Pan D, Hegde A, Klimstra DS, Chaganti RS, Qin J, Portlock CS, Filippa DA: Primary follicular lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract: a clinical and pathologic study of 26 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2002 Feb;26(2):216-24
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  • Four of four cases showed cytogenetic or molecular genetic evidence of t(14;18).
  • Initial treatment modalities included surgery plus chemotherapy (nine cases), surgery alone (seven cases), chemotherapy alone (four cases), observation alone (four cases), and chemotherapy and abdominal radiation (one case).
  • One case presented with rectal polyps and was treated with polypectomy.
  • A complete response was observed in 15 of 22 cases that received treatment, and of the 15 cases, five recurred 27-60 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • No significant correlation was identified between treatment response and various clinical and pathologic features.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cytogenetics. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11812943.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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16. Solaz Moreno E, Vallalta Morales M, Silla Búrdalo G, Cervera Miguel JI, Díaz Beveridge R, Rayón Martín JM: [Primary melanoma of the rectum: an infrequent neoplasia with an atypical presentation]. Clin Transl Oncol; 2005 May;7(4):171-3
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  • [Title] [Primary melanoma of the rectum: an infrequent neoplasia with an atypical presentation].
  • The main clinical presentations are local symptoms such as rectal bleeding, anal mass or pain, or a change in bowel habits.
  • The tumour is frequently mistaken for benign conditions as haemorrhoids or rectal polyps.
  • Many treatments can be used: surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy and even bio-therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15960927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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17. Zakharash MP, Poĭda OI: [Application of preparations relief ultra and relief advance in practice of coloproctological department]. Klin Khir; 2005 Oct;(10):9-12
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ZINC SULFATE .

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  • Efficacy of application of preparations Relief Ultra and Relief Advance as pathogenetically directed medicines was established, basing on analysis of the examination and treatment results in 133 patients with anal region diseases (acute and chronic hemorrhoids, nonspeciphic ulcerative colitis, the Crohn's disease, acute paraproctitis, rectal polyp).
  • For local conservative treatment it is expedient to apply preparations in various pharmacological forms in complex.
  • Application of preparation Relief Ultra endorectally in conjunction with preparation Relief Advance endorectally and locally on the wound surface is indicated after performance of elective and urgent operative interventions for rectal and anal zone diseases.

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  • (PMID = 16509076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] UKR
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Fish Oils; 0 / Suppositories; 3X7931PO74 / hydrocortisone acetate; 7733-02-0 / Zinc Sulfate; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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18. Tonelli F, Valanzano R, Messerini L, Ficari F: Long-term treatment with sulindac in familial adenomatous polyposis: is there an actual efficacy in prevention of rectal cancer? J Surg Oncol; 2000 May;74(1):15-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term treatment with sulindac in familial adenomatous polyposis: is there an actual efficacy in prevention of rectal cancer?
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) is still used in the treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).
  • Sulindac appears to induce regression of colorectal adenomas; however, its effects in long-term therapy and in preventing carcinoma remain unclear.
  • Number, size, and type of rectal polyps were assessed by endoscopic and histological evaluation every 6 months.
  • RESULTS: Significant regression of polyps was observed in all patients after 6 months (P < 0.02).
  • However, after a mean of 48.6 +/- 28.7 months, both number and size of polyps increased again, showing no statistical difference with baseline values.
  • Minute polyps appeared reddish, while the largest lesions were flat or slightly elevated.
  • Two patients were submitted to restorative proctectomy because of a large polyp with severe dysplasia and a rectal cancer, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sulindac appears to influence the morphological appearance of polyps in FAP patients, inducing apparent regression.
  • However, at a dose of 200 mg, it does not influence the progression of polyps toward a malignant pattern.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / drug therapy. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / prevention & control. Sulindac / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proctocolectomy, Restorative

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP).
  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Familial Polyposis.
  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Rectal Cancer.
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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 10861602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 184SNS8VUH / Sulindac
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19. Bese T, Simsek Y, Bese N, Ilvan S, Arvas M: Extensive pelvic endometriosis with malignant change in tamoxifen-treated postmenopausal women. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2003 May-Jun;13(3):376-80
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TAMOXIFEN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A 74-year-old woman with a history of breast carcinoma who received tamoxifen therapy for 2 years was admitted with uterine bleeding.
  • Hysteroscopic polypectomy revealed a hyperplastic polyp.
  • The cervix, rectum, and the accompanying mass were resected.
  • Histopathologic examination revealed endocervical adenocarcinoma and endometriosis involving cervix uteri and the rectal muscular wall.
  • As cervical cancer occurred in a short period, it might be speculated that tamoxifen might have stimulated the proliferative and mitotic activity of cervical endometrial tissue which has progressed into invasive cancer in time.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Pelvis. Postmenopause


20. Young-Fadok TM, Radice E, Nelson H, Harmsen WS: Benefits of laparoscopic-assisted colectomy for colon polyps: a case-matched series. Mayo Clin Proc; 2000 Apr;75(4):344-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colonic Polyps.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benefits of laparoscopic-assisted colectomy for colon polyps: a case-matched series.
  • OBJECTIVE: To clarify the true benefits of laparoscopic-assisted colectomy by comparing clinical outcomes from a series of laparoscopic right colectomies with matched open colectomies, all performed for the singular indication of polyp not amenable to colonoscopic removal.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-matched study was performed of consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic-assisted right hemicolectomy for polyps between January 1992 and July 1997.
  • Each case was matched to a control undergoing the equivalent open procedure for the same indication during the same time period.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients undergoing laparoscopic-assisted right hemicolectomy for polyps were identified, and matches were found.
  • Operative times were longer for laparoscopic-associated colectomy (median, 208 minutes vs 150 minutes, P < .001).
  • Laparoscopic-assisted colectomy resulted in shorter postoperative ileus (time to flatus, 3.0 vs 4.0 days, P < .001; time to bowel movement, 3.5 vs 5.0 days, P < .001) and in earlier tolerance of regular diet (3.5 vs 6.0 days, P < .001).
  • Laparoscopic-assisted resection has become our preferred approach for polyps not amenable to colonoscopic polypectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Colectomy / methods. Colonic Polyps / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analgesics, Opioid / administration & dosage. Blood Loss, Surgical. Case-Control Studies. Defecation. Diet. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Pain, Postoperative / drug therapy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10761487.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-6196
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid
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21. Bollen P, Bourgain C, Van Berlaer G, Duville L, Vandenplas Y: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma presenting as a solitary rectal polyp. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 2000 Aug;31(2):193-4
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHYLPREDNISOLONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin lymphoma presenting as a solitary rectal polyp.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Polyps / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Rectum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Child. Colonoscopy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage. Humans. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Immunophenotyping. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methylprednisolone / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Hodgkin lymphoma.
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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DOXORUBICIN .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. HYDROCORTISONE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. VINCRISTINE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LEUCOVORIN .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHOTREXATE .
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  • (PMID = 10941976.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; COPADEM protocol
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