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1. Papi G, Salvatori R, Ferretti G, Roti E: Thyroid hemiagenesis and autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type III. J Endocrinol Invest; 2003 Nov;26(11):1160-1
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  • [Title] Thyroid hemiagenesis and autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type III.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Hypothyroidism / complications. Hypothyroidism / drug therapy. Radionuclide Imaging. Thyroxine / therapeutic use

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  • [Cites] Eur J Pediatr. 2000 Jun;159(6):456-8 [10867854.001]
  • [Cites] J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2003 Jun;12(5):513-20 [12869299.001]
  • [Cites] Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2002 Jun;31(2):431-9, viii [12092459.001]
  • [Cites] Surg Today. 1994;24(2):164-9 [8054799.001]
  • [Cites] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1981 Feb;52(2):247-51 [7462390.001]
  • (PMID = 15008258.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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2. Christin-Maître S: [Ovarian genes]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2002 Oct;30(10):827-30
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  • Ovarian insufficiency can occur by three mechanisms: reduction in the primary follicles reserve (ataxia-telangiectasy), follicular maturation blocking (modification of the genes GDF-9 and GDF-9B, null mutation of FSH receptor gene, auto-immune polyglandular disease, PBE syndrome), or apoptosis acceleration (chemotherapy, smoking, galactosemia, Turner's syndrome).

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  • (PMID = 12478993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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3. Manz B, Scholz GH, Willgerodt H, Haustein UF, Nenoff P: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) type 1 and candida onychomycosis. Eur J Dermatol; 2002 May-Jun;12(3):283-6
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  • [Title] Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) type 1 and candida onychomycosis.
  • In addition, malabsorption syndrome and signs of pernicious anaemia occurred.
  • The onychomycosis totally improved under systemic treatment with fluconazole (Diflucan), endocrine and organ failure with replacement therapy.
  • The autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS 1) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disease.
  • Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) generally presents very early in life and is the most frequent of the three main diseases of APS type 1 (chronic hypoparathyroidism, autoimmune Addison's disease).
  • It can be considered as a precocious marker of APS type 1.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous / complications. Female. Fluconazole / therapeutic use. Hand Dermatoses / complications. Hand Dermatoses / drug therapy. Humans

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  • (PMID = 11978574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 8VZV102JFY / Fluconazole
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4. Carboni I, Soda R, Bianchi L, Chimenti S: Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and alopecia areata as cutaneous expressions of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I. Acta Derm Venereol; 2002;82(1):68-9
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  • [Title] Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and alopecia areata as cutaneous expressions of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antifungal Agents / administration & dosage. Biopsy, Needle. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 12013209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents
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5. Bogdanos DP, Dalekos GN: Enzymes as target antigens of liver-specific autoimmunity: the case of cytochromes P450s. Curr Med Chem; 2008;15(22):2285-92
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  • Characterization of liver-specific autoantigens has given a fresh impetus to research in the pathogenesis of autoimmune liver diseases, viral-triggered and drug-induced autoimmunity affecting the liver.
  • Detection of autoantibodies against the respective antigens is carried out for diagnostic and research purposes using indirect immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, radioimmunoassay, immunoprecipitation or assays determining inhibition of enzyme activity.
  • In patients with autoimmune hepatitis, a liver disorder of unknown etiology and pathogenesis, disease-specific autoantibodies are frequently directed against drug metabolizing enzymes of phase 1, namely cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6).
  • The same and other members of these families of enzymes (CYPs) have also been described as targets of liver-specific autoimmunity in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients, patients with autoimmune hepatitis as part of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type-1 (APS-1) and drug-induced autoimmunity.
  • Accordingly, in this review we will focus on the pathogenic role -if any- of autoimmune responses against liver-related CYPs in autoimmune hepatitis, HCV infection, APS-1 and drug-induced autoimmunity.
  • Learning more about the specificity of antibody responses against these enzymes may help us better understand the mechanisms underlying liver autoimmunity and may facilitate the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions.

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  • (PMID = 18781950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] Current medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantigens; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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6. Moloney FJ, Hughes R, O'Shea D, Kirby B: Type I immediate hypersensitivity reaction to cyanocobalamin but not hydroxycobalamin. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2008 Jul;33(4):412-4
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  • [Title] Type I immediate hypersensitivity reaction to cyanocobalamin but not hydroxycobalamin.
  • We report a case of a 42-year-old woman with a background of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, who developed a type I immediate hypersensitivity reaction to intramuscular cyanocobalamin.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Hypersensitivity / etiology. Hypersensitivity, Immediate / chemically induced. Vitamin B 12 / adverse effects. Vitamin B 12 Deficiency / drug therapy. Vitamin B Complex / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anemia, Pernicious / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Hydroxocobalamin / administration & dosage. Hydroxocobalamin / adverse effects. Injections, Intramuscular. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18498413.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12001-76-2 / Vitamin B Complex; P6YC3EG204 / Vitamin B 12; Q40X8H422O / Hydroxocobalamin
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7. Lipowsky C, Schorl-Schweikardt BA, Kehl O, Brändle M: [19-year-old patient with adrenal cortex insufficiency--only the tip of the iceberg. Polyendocrine autoimmune syndrome type II (Schmidt syndrome)]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2008 Jan 23;97(2):77-81
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  • [Title] [19-year-old patient with adrenal cortex insufficiency--only the tip of the iceberg. Polyendocrine autoimmune syndrome type II (Schmidt syndrome)].
  • [Transliterated title] 19-Jährige mit Nebennierenrindeninsuffizienz--nur die Spitze des Eisbergs. Polyglandulares Autoimmunsyndrom Typ II (Schmidt-Syndrom).
  • We report on a 19-year-old woman with polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II (APS II).
  • In patients and their relatives, who have autoimmune disorders, a search for autoimmune polyglandular syndrome is crucial.
  • Therapy of APS II consists of hormone replacement therapy, but thyroxin replacement may induce life-threatening adrenal failure in a patient with untreated Addison's disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Cortisone / analogs & derivatives. Cortisone / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Fatigue / etiology. Female. Fludrocortisone / therapeutic use. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Muscle Weakness / etiology. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / diagnosis. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / drug therapy. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / genetics. Thyroxine / therapeutic use. Weight Loss

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  • (PMID = 18303665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 883WKN7W8X / cortisone acetate; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine; U0476M545B / Fludrocortisone; V27W9254FZ / Cortisone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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8. Graves L 3rd, Klein RM, Walling AD: Addisonian crisis precipitated by thyroxine therapy: a complication of type 2 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. South Med J; 2003 Aug;96(8):824-7
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  • [Title] Addisonian crisis precipitated by thyroxine therapy: a complication of type 2 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome.
  • Rarely, it may occur in combination with autoimmune failure of other endocrine glands (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 2, previously known as Schmidt's syndrome).
  • Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for this condition in patients with Addison's disease, those with a family history of autoimmune endocrine gland failure, patients with one autoimmune endocrine disease who develop nonspecific or serious illness, and patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus whose insulin requirements drop without obvious explanation.
  • [MeSH-major] Addison Disease / etiology. Hormone Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Hypothyroidism / complications. Hypothyroidism / drug therapy. Iodide Peroxidase. Iron-Binding Proteins. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / complications. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / drug therapy. Thyroxine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone. Adult. Autoantibodies / blood. Autoantigens / immunology. B-Lymphocytes / immunology. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Monitoring. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Male. Precipitating Factors. T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Thyrotropin / blood. Weight Loss

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  • [CommentIn] South Med J. 2004 Apr;97(4):424 [15108845.001]
  • (PMID = 14515930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-4348
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Iron-Binding Proteins; 0 / anti-thyroglobulin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; EC 1.11.1.7 / TPO protein, human; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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9. Strassburg CP: Autoimmune hepatitis. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2010 Oct;24(5):667-82
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  • Key for the improvement of prognosis is a timely diagnosis before cirrhosis has developed.
  • Treatment achieves remission rates in 80% of individuals and consists of immunosuppression with corticosteroids and azathioprine.
  • A recent randomised controlled multicenter trial has added budesonide to the effective treatment options in non-cirrhotic patients and leads to a reduction of unwanted steroid side effects.
  • However, apart from the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1, in which 10% of patients suffer from an autoantibody-positive autoimmune hepatitis linked to mutations of the autoimmune regulator gene, there is no clear evidence for a hereditary aetiology of this disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Azathioprine / administration & dosage. Budesonide / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Liver Cirrhosis / epidemiology. Liver Transplantation. Major Histocompatibility Complex / genetics. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / genetics. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Recurrence

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20955969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1916
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 51333-22-3 / Budesonide; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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10. Mazul-Sunko B, Resetic J, Solter M, Ivanec Z: Postoperative adrenal crisis in a patient with Schmidt syndrome (autoimmune polyglandular endocrinopathy type II). Eur J Anaesthesiol; 2004 May;21(5):416-7
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  • [Title] Postoperative adrenal crisis in a patient with Schmidt syndrome (autoimmune polyglandular endocrinopathy type II).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anesthetics, Intravenous / adverse effects. Anesthetics, Intravenous / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Estradiol / therapeutic use. Etomidate / adverse effects. Etomidate / therapeutic use. Female. Fentanyl / adverse effects. Fentanyl / therapeutic use. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Hyperthyroidism / complications. Hyperthyroidism / drug therapy. Methimazole / therapeutic use. Thyroiditis / complications. Thyroiditis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15141804.001).
  • [ISSN] 0265-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of anaesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Anaesthesiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Intravenous; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole; UF599785JZ / Fentanyl; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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11. Bassotti G, Di Sarra D, Pietrobono D, Schiaffini R, Battocletti T, D'Amico T, Gargiulo P: Polyglandular autoimmune endocrine insufficiency complicated by severe osteoporosis. Minerva Endocrinol; 2006 Dec;31(4):289-96
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  • [Title] Polyglandular autoimmune endocrine insufficiency complicated by severe osteoporosis.
  • In literature different cases of polyglandular autoimmune type II syndrome (PGA II) are reported, where Addison's disease is associated with gonadal insufficiency.
  • Between 1988 and 1997 the patient developed a progressive insufficiency of other endocrine glands, leading to the classic feature of PGA II.
  • They would directly act on the bony tissue, independently from oestrogens peripheral conversion, thus producing a stimulant effect on the bone formation.
  • A new therapeutical approach, in case of osteoporosis, is today represented by DHEA replacement therapy in women showing low hormone levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Dehydroepiandrosterone / therapeutic use. Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / etiology. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Addison Disease / etiology. Adult. Asthenia / etiology. Bone Density / drug effects. Female. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / deficiency. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Humans. Hyperglycemia / drug therapy. Hyperglycemia / etiology. Insulin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17213795.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 0 / Insulin; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone
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12. Berger JR, Weaver A, Greenlee J: Neurologic consequences of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1. Neurology; 2008 Jun 3;70(23):2248-51
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  • [Title] Neurologic consequences of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1.
  • BACKGROUND: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is chiefly characterized by polyendocrinopathy, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and ectodermal dystrophy.
  • Miller Fisher syndrome, from which she had fully recovered.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmune neurologic disease may develop with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous / complications. Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous / diagnosis. Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use. Miller Fisher Syndrome / complications. Miller Fisher Syndrome / diagnosis. Miller Fisher Syndrome / drug therapy. Rats. Spinocerebellar Degenerations / complications. Spinocerebellar Degenerations / diagnosis. Spinocerebellar Degenerations / drug therapy. Syndrome

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  • [ErratumIn] Neurology. 2008 Jul;71(4):304. Wahlen, George E [removed]
  • (PMID = 18519874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous
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13. Wollina U, Schreiber G: Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II (Schmidt's syndrome) in patients with autoimmune connective tissue disorders. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2003 May;17(3):371-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II (Schmidt's syndrome) in patients with autoimmune connective tissue disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Connective Tissue Diseases / diagnosis. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Autoimmune Diseases / complications. Autoimmune Diseases / diagnosis. Autoimmune Diseases / drug therapy. Autoimmune Diseases / pathology. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous. Middle Aged. Steroids

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  • (PMID = 12702101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Steroids
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14. Fujioka T, Honda M, Yoshizaki T, Ogawa M, Matsuno H, Shimokawa K, Koyama K: A case of type 1 diabetes onset and recurrence of Graves' disease during pegylated interferon-α plus ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Intern Med; 2010;49(18):1987-90
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  • [Title] A case of type 1 diabetes onset and recurrence of Graves' disease during pegylated interferon-α plus ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C.
  • We report a case of type 1 diabetes onset and recurrence of Graves' disease during pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN)-alpha plus ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C.
  • Because Graves' disease remitted, PEG-IFN-alpha plus ribavirin treatment was started for chronic hepatitis C.
  • She was examined because of complaints of general fatigue, weight loss, and palpitations after 24 weeks of the treatment.
  • She was diagnosed with a recurrence of Graves' disease, and methimazole treatment was started.
  • She was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes with ketosis, and insulin treatment was started.
  • Graves' disease and type 1 diabetes are often complicated, and the coincidental occurrence of these 2 diseases is known as autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type III.
  • However, only a few cases have shown that these diseases occur after IFN treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / chemically induced. Graves Disease / chemically induced. Hepatitis C, Chronic / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / adverse effects. Polyethylene Glycols / adverse effects. Ribavirin / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / chemically induced. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / complications. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / diagnosis. Recombinant Proteins. Secondary Prevention. Treatment Outcome

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Diabetes.
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  • (PMID = 20847504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / peginterferon alfa-2a; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 49717AWG6K / Ribavirin; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a
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15. Fink H, Hintze G: [Autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis): current diagnostics and therapy]. Med Klin (Munich); 2010 Jul;105(7):485-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis): current diagnostics and therapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Die Autoimmunthyreoiditis (Hashimoto-Thyreoiditis): aktuelle diagnostik und therapie.
  • Autoimmune thyroiditis is frequently associated with autoimmune disease of other organs, such as vitiligo, Addison's disease, diabetes mellitus type 1, often in the sense of polyglandular syndrome 2.
  • [MeSH-major] Hashimoto Disease / diagnosis. Hashimoto Disease / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Autoantibodies / blood. Comorbidity. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / diagnosis. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Hypothyroidism / diagnosis. Hypothyroidism / drug therapy. Hypothyroidism / immunology. Infertility, Female / diagnosis. Infertility, Female / drug therapy. Infertility, Female / immunology. Insulin / therapeutic use. Iodide Peroxidase / immunology. Male. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Thyroglobulin / immunology. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroxine / therapeutic use. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20676951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-6722
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Insulin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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16. Sünkel S, Wichmann-Hesse A, Gärtner R, Hesse G: [Increasing pigmentation in Schmidt syndrome (polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II]. Hautarzt; 2001 Oct;52(10 Pt 2):974-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Increasing pigmentation in Schmidt syndrome (polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II].
  • This confirmed the diagnosis of Schmidt syndrome as part of polyglandular autoimmune disease (PGAS) type II.
  • After another 18 months of treatment with hormone substitution of L-thyroxine and hydrocortisone, the hyperpigmentation resolved and the hyperpigmented nevi decreased in number.
  • [MeSH-minor] Addison Disease / complications. Adolescent. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Drug Therapy, Combination. Fludrocortisone / administration & dosage. Fludrocortisone / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Male. Nevus, Pigmented / complications. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin / pathology. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / complications. Thyroxine / administration & dosage. Thyroxine / therapeutic use. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11715397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine; U0476M545B / Fludrocortisone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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17. Owecki M, Waśko R, Sowiński J: [Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 and osteoporosis in a 69 years old patient]. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2003 Nov;110(5):1335-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 and osteoporosis in a 69 years old patient].
  • We present a case of a 69 year old female with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 or Schmidt's syndrome.
  • The syndrome consists of primary autoimmune adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison's disease), autoimmune hypothyroidism, and type 1 diabetes.
  • After substitutional pharmacotherapy was implemented, the patient was discharged in good health.
  • Possible correlation between bone metabolism disorders and autoimmune polyglandular syndrome needs further investigation.


18. Schloot NC, Hübinger A, Scherbaum WA: [Prerenal kidney failure in type 1 diabetes mellitus]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2003 Dec 5;128(49):2588-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Prerenal kidney failure in type 1 diabetes mellitus].
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus had been diagnosed when he was 13 years old, hypothyroidism was treated with L-thyroxine for 2 years.
  • Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) type II with Addison's disease, diabetes mellitus type 1 and hypothyroidism (Schmidt-Carpenter-Syndrome) were diagnosed.
  • TREATMENT AND COURSE: Initially, the patient was treated with sodium chloride 0.9% i. v. and oral sodium 5 g 4 times/day.
  • Intensified conventional insulin therapy was continued.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with type 1 diabetes, especially in combination with associated organ-specific autoimmune diseases, autoimmune polyglandular syndrome should be considered and adequately treated with those hormones that are reduced.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Addison Disease / blood. Addison Disease / complications. Addison Disease / diagnosis. Addison Disease / drug therapy. Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Fludrocortisone / therapeutic use. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Hyperpigmentation. Hypotension. Hypothyroidism / blood. Hypothyroidism / complications. Hypothyroidism / diagnosis. Hypothyroidism / drug therapy. Male. Sodium Chloride / therapeutic use. Syndrome. Thyroxine / therapeutic use






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