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1. Nasr C, Mason A, Mayberg M, Staugaitis SM, Asa SL: Acromegaly and somatotroph hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation due to pituitary metastasis of a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting pulmonary endocrine carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Dec;91(12):4776-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acromegaly and somatotroph hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation due to pituitary metastasis of a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting pulmonary endocrine carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: GHRH excess from extracranial endocrine tumors is known to cause somatotroph hyperplasia and acromegaly.
  • Hypothalamic gangliocytomas producing GHRH are also known to be associated with pituitary adenomas causing acromegaly.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe a case of acromegaly due to a pulmonary GHRH-secreting endocrine carcinoma with metastasis to the pituitary gland and to look at the peculiar histological features of this case.
  • After delivery, she underwent radiation and chemotherapy for pulmonary and skeletal metastases.
  • Her disease was clinically stable for 7 yr until she developed bitemporal hemianopia.
  • Histological examination confirmed metastatic endocrine carcinoma to the pituitary, and immunohistochemistry localized GHRH to the tumor cells.
  • The adjacent pituitary exhibited somatotroph hyperplasia with abundant reactivity for GH and alpha-subunit.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a GHRH-producing endocrine tumor metastasizing to the pituitary and causing local hyperstimulation with somatotroph hyperplasia and adenomatous transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / complications. Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / etiology. Carcinoma / complications. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Somatotrophs / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16968791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones, Ectopic; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
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2. Biermasz NR, Smit JW, Pereira AM, Frölich M, Romijn JA, Roelfsema F: Acromegaly caused by growth hormone-releasing hormone-producing tumors: long-term observational studies in three patients. Pituitary; 2007;10(3):237-49
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  • [Title] Acromegaly caused by growth hormone-releasing hormone-producing tumors: long-term observational studies in three patients.
  • During medical treatment basal GH secretion remained (slightly) elevated and secretory regularity was decreased in 24 h blood sampling studies.
  • We did not observe development of tachyphylaxis towards the drug or radiological evidence of (growing) metastases.
  • We propose life-long suppressive therapy with somatostatin analogs in cases with persisting elevated serum GHRH concentrations after removal of the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / secretion. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Lung Neoplasms / secretion. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secretion. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Entropy. Female. Hormones / blood. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Octreotide. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17541749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2045692
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3. Sasaki M, Funayama H, Asano T, Kasono K, Namai K, Tamemoto H, Ueno S, Ota M, Kawakami M, Shinoda S, Ishikawa SE: Full-blown Cushing's disease after an episode of pituitary apoplexy. Endocr J; 2003 Oct;50(5):501-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Full-blown Cushing's disease after an episode of pituitary apoplexy.
  • The present study reports a rare case of full-blown Cushing's disease several years after an episode of pituitary apoplexy.
  • Ten years ago she had an episode of pituitary apoplexy.
  • Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed at age 56, and thereafter she had been controlled her plasma glucose with diet therapy and oral hypoglycemic agents.
  • Dexamethasone suppression test showed that a large dose of 8 mg dexamethasone, but not a small dose of 2 mg, suppressed the pituitary-adrenocortical axis.
  • Brain T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging depicted a low signal of pituitary tumor, which was not enhanced by gadolinium.
  • The pituitary tumor was removed by transsphenoidal adenomectomy, and immunohistochemistry revealed an ACTH-producing adenoma.
  • The evidence suggested the possibility that the two pituitary tumors with dormant period of several years were a recurrence of ACTH-producing tumors in the present patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Pituitary Apoplexy / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / secretion. Adenoma / surgery. Administration, Oral. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Diabetes Complications. Diabetes Mellitus / diet therapy. Diabetes Mellitus / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Obesity / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 14614205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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4. Tanaka H, Kobayashi A, Bando M, Hosono T, Tsujita A, Yamasawa H, Ohno S, Hironaka M, Sugiyama Y: [Case of small cell lung cancer complicated with diabetes insipidus and Cushing syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 Oct;45(10):793-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Case of small cell lung cancer complicated with diabetes insipidus and Cushing syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion].
  • Small-cell lung cancer (metastases in the pituitary, subcutaneous tissue, and lungs) was diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsy and subcutaneous nodule biopsy of the abdomen.
  • Chemotherapy was done with CDDP and VP-16, which resulted in reduction of the tumor and improvement in endocrinological findings.
  • Nevertheless, chemotherapy could not be continued because of infected bullae.
  • We concluded that this case was Cushing syndrome caused by ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing small cell lung cancer, and that it presented with diabetes insipidus because of pituitary metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / etiology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary


5. Ragel BT, Couldwell WT: Pituitary carcinoma: a review of the literature. Neurosurg Focus; 2004 Apr 15;16(4):E7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pituitary carcinoma: a review of the literature.
  • Pituitary carcinomas, defined as distant metastases of a pituitary neoplasm, are rare; fewer than 140 reports exist in the English literature.
  • The initial presenting pituitary tumor is usually a secreting, invasive macroadenoma, with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)--and prolactin (PRL)--secreting tumors being the most common.
  • The latency period between the diagnosis of a pituitary tumor and the diagnosis of a pituitary carcinoma is 9.5 years for ACTH-producing lesions and 4.7 years for PRL-secreting tumors.
  • Treatment options include additional surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, all of which are associated with poor results.
  • Future studies will focus on identifying those invasive pituitary tumors most likely to metastasize and treating them aggressively before they progress to pituitary carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, p53. Genes, ras / genetics. Humans. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Gland / ultrastructure. Point Mutation. Prolactin / secretion

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  • [CommentIn] Neurosurg Focus. 2005 Sep 15;19(3):E11; author reply E11 [16196164.001]
  • (PMID = 15191336.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
  • [Number-of-references] 122
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6. Kobayashi T, Mori Y, Uchiyama Y, Kida Y, Fujitani S: Long-term results of gamma knife surgery for growth hormone-producing pituitary adenoma: is the disease difficult to cure? J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102 Suppl:119-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term results of gamma knife surgery for growth hormone-producing pituitary adenoma: is the disease difficult to cure?
  • OBJECT: The authors conducted a study to determine the long-term results of gamma knife surgery for residual or recurrent growth hormine (GH)-producing pituitary adenomas and to compare the results with those after treatment of other pituitary adenomas.
  • The mean maximum dose was 35.3 Gy and the mean margin dose was 18.9 Gy.
  • Growth hormone normalization (GH < 1.0 ng/ml) was found in 4.8%, nearly normal (< 2.0 ng/ml) in 11.9%, significantly decreased (< 5.0 ng/ml) in 23.8%, decreased in 21.4%, unchanged in 21.4%, and increased in 16.7%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gamma knife surgery was effective and safe for the control of tumors; however, normalization of GH and IGF-1 secretion was difficult to achieve in cases with large tumors and low-dose radiation.
  • Gamma knife radiosurgery is thus indicated for small tumors after surgery or medication therapy when a relatively high-dose radiation is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Adenoma / surgery. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / instrumentation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / pathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery. Prolactinoma / pathology. Prolactinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15662793.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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7. Wiesner TD, Trantakis C, Meixensberger J, Koch CA, Zimmer C, Paschke R: [Structure of an interdisciplinary pituitary outpatient care unit at the University Hospital of Leipzig and results for treatment of prolactin and growth hormone secreting pituitary tumors]. Med Klin (Munich); 2005 Apr 15;100(4):173-9
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  • [Title] [Structure of an interdisciplinary pituitary outpatient care unit at the University Hospital of Leipzig and results for treatment of prolactin and growth hormone secreting pituitary tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Arbeitsweise einer interdisziplinären neurochirurgisch-endokrinologischen Sprechstunde für Hypophysentumoren am Universitätsklinikum Leipzig und Ergebnisse der Behandlung von hormonaktiven Hypophysenadenomen.
  • BACKGROUND: Treatment of patients with pituitary adenomas is complex and involves several medical specialties.
  • At the Medical Center of the University of Leipzig, Germany, an interdisciplinary pituitary outpatient care unit has been established for 6 years.
  • METHODS: The interdisciplinary collaboration and the outcome of patients with growth hormone-(GH-) and prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas are described.
  • Moreover, therapeutic strategies for patients with hormonally active pituitary adenomas are presented and discussed.
  • RESULTS: In patients suffering from GH-producing adenomas, a remission could be achieved in 80% (microadenomas) and 40% (macroadenomas) of the cases, respectively.
  • Furthermore, prolactinomas decreased in size during treatment in at least 75% of all cases depending on the initial size of the lesion which is also comparable to data from other groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Taken together, an interdisciplinary approach improves outcome and quality of care of patients with hormonally active pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prolactinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / surgery. Acromegaly / therapy. Adult. Age Factors. Combined Modality Therapy. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Growth Hormone / blood. Growth Hormone / secretion. Hospital Units. Humans. Interdisciplinary Communication. Male. Middle Aged. Outpatients. Patient Care Team. Prolactin / blood. Prolactin / secretion. Sex Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15834525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0723-5003
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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8. Vance ML: Medical treatment of functional pituitary tumors. Neurosurg Clin N Am; 2003 Jan;14(1):81-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medical treatment of functional pituitary tumors.
  • Medical therapy with a dopamine agonist is the most effective for treatment of a prolactin-producing adenoma and is considered as primary treatment.
  • Surgery and pituitary radiation are reserved for patients who either do not tolerate or do not respond to a dopamine agonist drug.
  • A somatostatin analogue is effective medical therapy for patients with acromegaly, and this is usually administered if there is persistent GH hypersecretion after surgical resection.
  • Medical treatment for patients with Cushing's disease is directed at the adrenal glands to reduce cortisol hypersecretion.
  • Unfortunately, there is no effective medical therapy to reduce pituitary corticotropin production.
  • Medical therapy for a gonadotrope adenoma with a dopamine agonist or somatostatin analogue has limited utility but is employed in patients who are unable to undergo surgery and may delay or prevent additional tumor growth.
  • Many patients with a pituitary adenoma can be successfully treated with one treatment, either a dopamine agonist for a prolactinoma or surgery for other types of tumors.
  • A substantial number of patients require multimodality therapy, however, including medical therapy, surgery, and pituitary radiation.
  • Because the biologic behavior of pituitary adenomas varies considerably, a patient with a pituitary adenoma requires lifelong regular monitoring for hormone hypersecretion, tumor recurrence, and development of new pituitary hormone deficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12690980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-3680
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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9. Zangeneh F, Young WF Jr, Lloyd RV, Chiang M, Kurczynski E, Zangeneh F: Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic production of corticotropin-releasing hormone in an infant with ganglioneuroblastoma. Endocr Pract; 2003 Sep-Oct;9(5):394-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic production of corticotropin-releasing hormone in an infant with ganglioneuroblastoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the first recognized case of Cushing's syndrome due to a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-secreting ganglioneuroblastoma, which was found in an 18-month-old boy with hypertensive encephalopathy.
  • The serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentration was 7 pg/mL (normal, 10 to 60), and the CRH level was 439 pg/mL (normal, 24 to 40).
  • Despite discordant dynamic endocrine testing and negative somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, computed tomography showed a right 3.6- by 3.0-cm extra-adrenal retroperitoneal mass with central calcification extending 7 cm cephalocaudally.
  • The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, followed by chemotherapy.
  • Because most CRH-producing tumors also secrete ACTH, the ectopic production may represent a paracrine phenomenon in addition to an endocrine phenomenon.
  • The ectopic CRH may also indirectly provoke pituitary ACTH secretion.
  • This dual mechanism may explain the resistance of the tumor to feedback inhibition and a CRH-stimulation response indistinguishable from that observed in pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Ganglioneuroblastoma / complications. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 14583423.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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10. Ahtiainen P, Sharp V, Rulli SB, Rivero-Müller A, Mamaeva V, Röyttä M, Huhtaniemi I: Enhanced LH action in transgenic female mice expressing hCGbeta-subunit induces pituitary prolactinomas; the role of high progesterone levels. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Sep;17(3):611-21
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  • [Title] Enhanced LH action in transgenic female mice expressing hCGbeta-subunit induces pituitary prolactinomas; the role of high progesterone levels.
  • The etiology of pituitary adenomas remains largely unknown, with the exception of involvement of estrogens in the formation of prolactinomas.
  • We have examined the molecular pathogenesis of prolactin-producing pituitary adenomas in transgenic female mice expressing the human choriongonadotropin (hCG) beta-subunit.
  • Curiously, despite normal estrogen levels, large prolactinomas developed in these mice, and we provide here several lines of evidence that the elevated P(4) levels are involved in the growth of these estrogen-dependent tumors.
  • The antiprogestin mifepristone inhibited tumor growth, and combined postgonadectomy estradiol/P(4) treatment was more effective than estrogen alone in inducing tumor growth.
  • Evidence for direct growth-promoting effect of P(4) was obtained from cultures of primary mouse pituitary cells and rat somatomammotroph GH3 cells.
  • The mouse tumors and cultured cells revealed stimulation of the cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4/retinoblastoma protein/transcription factor E2F1 pathway in the growth response to P(4).
  • If extrapolated to humans, and given the importance of endogenous P(4) and synthetic progestins in female reproductive functions and their pharmacotherapy, it is relevant to revisit the potential role of these hormones in the origin and growth of prolactinomas.

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  • (PMID = 20453081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 063552; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 082101
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2881531
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11. Drake WM, Berney DM, Kovacs K, Monson JP: Markers of cell proliferation in a GH-producing adenoma of a patient treated with pegvisomant. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Aug;153(2):203-5
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  • [Title] Markers of cell proliferation in a GH-producing adenoma of a patient treated with pegvisomant.
  • We report our findings on markers of cell proliferation (Ki-67 labelling index and topoisomerase-alpha expression) in a somatotroph pituitary tumour before and after exposure to pegvisomant, a GH receptor antagonist developed for the treatment of acromegaly.
  • Specimens from two separate pituitary operations, separated by a period of 17 years that included 4 years of pegvisomant treatment, were stained for markers of cellular proliferation.
  • Clearly, caution must be exercised when interpreting findings from a single case, particularly one sufficiently refractory to conventional therapies to require treatment with pegvisomant.
  • However, our data reinforce the requirement for careful radiological surveillance of the pituitary in the context of a drug that does not target the tumour responsible and where serum GH cannot serve as a marker of disease activity or tumour size.

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  • (PMID = 16061824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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12. Alves C, Alves AC: Primary hypothyroidism in a child simulating a prolactin-secreting adenoma. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Dec;24(12):1505-8
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  • [Title] Primary hypothyroidism in a child simulating a prolactin-secreting adenoma.
  • OBJECTS: To report a case of primary hypothyroidism associated to hyperprolactinemia mimicking a prolactin secreting adenoma.
  • Diagnostic evaluation demonstrated free thyroxine (F-T4): 0.22 ng/dL (0.75-1.80) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): 135 UI/mL (0.3-5.0).
  • Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an intrasellar and suprasellar mass measuring 1.9 x 1.7 x 1.7 cm, impinging on the optic chiasm.
  • Due to the possibility of a pseudoprolactinoma caused by hyperplasia of the TSH and prolactin-producing cells, she was treated for the primary hypothyroidism with levothyroxine.
  • A new pituitary MRI, 8 months later, demonstrated a complete resolution of the pituitary mass confirming the initial suspicion of thyrotroph hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Hypothyroidism / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prolactin / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperprolactinemia / blood. Hyperprolactinemia / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Thyroxine / administration & dosage. Thyroxine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18690463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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13. Schally AV, Comaru-Schally AM, Nagy A, Kovacs M, Szepeshazi K, Plonowski A, Varga JL, Halmos G: Hypothalamic hormones and cancer. Front Neuroendocrinol; 2001 Oct;22(4):248-91
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  • The use of peptide analogs for the therapy of various cancers is reviewed.
  • Inhibition of the pituitary-gonadal axis forms the basis for oncological applications of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists and antagonists, but direct effects on tumors may also play a role.
  • Analogs of somatostatin are likewise used for treatment of various tumors.
  • Radiolabeled somatostatin analogs have been successfully applied for the localization of tumors expressing somatostatin receptors.
  • Studies on the role of tumoral LH-RH, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH), and bombesin/GRP and their receptors in the proliferation of various tumors are summarized, but the complete elucidation of all the mechanisms involved will require much additional work.
  • Human tumors producing hypothalamic hormones are also discussed.
  • Treatment of many cancers remains a major challenge, but new therapeutic modalities are being developed based on antagonists of GH-RH and bombesin, which inhibit growth factors or their receptors.
  • These new classes of peptide analogs should lead to a more effective treatment for various cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypothalamic Hormones / physiology. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bombesin / antagonists & inhibitors. Bombesin / physiology. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Female. Gastrin-Releasing Peptide / antagonists & inhibitors. Gastrin-Releasing Peptide / physiology. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / physiology. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / physiology. Humans. Male. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 11587553.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-3022
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Neuroendocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-40003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-40004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-40077
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypothalamic Hormones; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 80043-53-4 / Gastrin-Releasing Peptide; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; PX9AZU7QPK / Bombesin
  • [Number-of-references] 160
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14. Mezosi E, Nemes O: [Treatment of pituitary adenomas]. Orv Hetil; 2009 Sep 27;150(39):1803-10
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  • [Title] [Treatment of pituitary adenomas].
  • According to epidemiological studies, the prevalence of pituitary adenomas is 16.5% and the majority of them are "incidentalomas".
  • The symptoms of pituitary disorders are often non-specific; disturbances of pituitary function, compression symptoms, hypophysis apoplexy or accidental findings may help the diagnosis.
  • The hormonal evaluation of pituitary adenomas is different from the algorithm used in the disorders of peripheral endocrine organs.
  • The first-line therapy of prolactinomas are the dopamine agonists, and the aims of the treatment are to normalize the prolactin level, restore fertility in child-bearing age, decrease tumor mass, save or improve the residual pituitary function and inhibit the relapse of the disease.
  • In case of tumors with good therapeutic response, medical therapy can be withdrawn after 3-5 years; hyperprolactinemia will not recur in 2/3 of these patients.
  • Neurosurgery is the primary therapy of GH-, ACTH-, TSH-producing and inactive adenomas.
  • Acromegalic patients with unresectable tumors have a great benefit from somatostatin analog treatment.
  • The growth hormone receptor antagonist pegvisomant is the newest modality for the treatment of acromegaly.
  • The medical therapy of Cushing's disease is still based on the inhibition of steroid production.
  • The rare TSH-producing tumor can respond to both dopamine agonist and somatostatin analog therapy.
  • The application of conventional radiotherapy has decreased; radiotherapy is mainly used in the treatment of invasive, incurable or malignant tumors.
  • Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact role of radiosurgery and fractionated stereotaxic irradiation in the treatment of pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Pituitary Hormones / blood. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / therapy. Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / etiology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / therapy. Human Growth Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Incidental Findings. Male. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy. Prolactinoma / therapy. Radiosurgery. Receptors, Somatotropin / antagonists & inhibitors. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Thyrotropin / blood

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  • (PMID = 19758960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 80Q9QWN15M / quinagolide; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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15. Lee EJ, Jameson JL: Cell-specific Cre-mediated activation of the diphtheria toxin gene in pituitary tumor cells: potential for cytotoxic gene therapy. Hum Gene Ther; 2002 Mar 1;13(4):533-42
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  • [Title] Cell-specific Cre-mediated activation of the diphtheria toxin gene in pituitary tumor cells: potential for cytotoxic gene therapy.
  • Diphtheria toxin has been suggested for the treatment of malignant cancer.
  • In this paper, we describe a strategy for targeting the expression of the diphtheria toxin gene to growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary tumor cells using adenoviral vectors.
  • We generated adenoviral vectors in which a stuffer DNA fragment, flanked by two loxP sequences, was placed between the GH or cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoters and the diphtheria toxin gene (GH-loxP-DT, and CMV-loxP-DT) or the beta-Gal gene (GH-loxP-Gal, and CMV-loxP-Gal).
  • Co-infection of GH-loxP-DT with either CMV-Cre or GH-Cre induced cytotoxicity that was limited to GH4 cells.
  • Intratumoral co-injection of adenoviruses carrying diphtheria toxin (GH-loxP-DT, and CMV-loxP-DT) and Cre recombinase (GH-Cre, and CMV-Cre) caused rapid regression of the transplanted GH4 tumors.
  • These results indicate that Cre-mediated activation of a loxP-repressed form of the DT gene provides a useful strategy for targeted suicide gene therapy.
  • This approach may be useful for GH-secreting adenomas and should be applicable to other neoplastic disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Diphtheria Toxin / genetics. Integrases / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Viral Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoviridae. Animals. Cell Death / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Transfer Techniques. Genetic Therapy. Genetic Vectors. Growth Hormone / biosynthesis. Growth Hormone / genetics. Mice. Mice, Nude. Mice, Transgenic. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11874631.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-0342
  • [Journal-full-title] Human gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Gene Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphtheria Toxin; 0 / Viral Proteins; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; EC 2.7.7.- / Cre recombinase; EC 2.7.7.- / Integrases
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16. Nakagawa H, Yamamoto K: [A case of small cell lung cancer complicated by Cushing syndrome]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Mar;46(3):210-5
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  • Marked increases in ACTH levels were observed, but no abnormality was found in the pituitary MRI findings, and therefore ACTH-producing small cell lung cancer was suspected.
  • Chemotherapy was administered in addition to appropriate treatment for Cushing's syndrome.
  • The tumor temporarily began to decrease in size, but hypercortisolemia remained, and thus adrenal hormone synthesis-inhibiting therapy was concurrently administered.
  • Therefore, from an early stage, it is believed that adrenal cortical hormone synthesis-inhibiting therapy should be performed concurrently with chemotherapy, if hypercortisolemia cannot be controlled by radiation and chemotherapy alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / complications. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Lung Neoplasms / complications


17. Kellner O, Voigt W, Schneyer U, Dempke W, Schmoll HJ: HCG induced hyperthyreosis in germ cell cancer. Anticancer Res; 2000 Nov-Dec;20(6D):5135-8
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  • Human germ cell tumors have the unique capacity for totipotential differentiation.
  • AFP (the product of normal yolk sac) and HCG (produced by trophoblastic tissues) are frequently produced by germ cell tumors.
  • The a-subunit of the glycoprotein HCG is identical to that of several pituitary glycoprotein hormones (e.g.
  • However, the role of TSH within this hormone superfamily is still not yet established.
  • An ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland showed no abnormalities and no iodine exposure had occurred during the last months.
  • The patient was then entered in our phase-II-study for relapsing germ cell carcinomas using a high-dose chemotherapy regime (paclitaxel 175 mg/m2, ifosfamide 9.000 mg/m2, carboplatin 900 mg/m2, etoposide 900 mg/m2) with subsequent retransfusion of collected stem cells.
  • In this case report we have demonstrated a clear positive correlation between HCG levels and thyroidal hormones in a patient with germ cell tumor suggesting a direct stimulation of hormone producing thyroidal cells by HCG, however, this was not associated with clinical symptoms of hyperthyreosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chorionic Gonadotropin / adverse effects. Hyperthyroidism / chemically induced. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Thyroid Gland / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 11326684.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
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18. Laczi F, Magony S, Julesz J: [Current alternative in the pharmacotherapy of acromegaly: the long-acting somatostatin analogue octreotide]. Orv Hetil; 2002 May 12;143(19 Suppl):1062-6
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  • [Title] [Current alternative in the pharmacotherapy of acromegaly: the long-acting somatostatin analogue octreotide].
  • In each case, a growth hormone-producing pituitary adenoma was responsible for the development of acromegaly (microadenomas in 3 and macroadenomas in the rest of the patients).
  • Treatment with long-acting octreotide was indicated for those patients who had not reacted satisfactorily upon previous therapeutic procedures or proved to be unsuitable for irradiation therapy and/or surgery or refused both of these therapies.
  • After a 6-month treatment, the daily mean of serum growth hormone became suppressed below 2.5 ng/ml in 58.3% of the patients, whereas the growth hormone nadir during oral glucose tolerance test was found at or below 2.5 ng/ml in an even higher proportion of patients (70%).
  • During a 2-year period, the growth hormone-suppressive effect of long-acting octreotide remained stable in all but one patient.
  • The size of the pituitary adenomas remarkably decreased in 50% of this patient cohort.
  • The medication with this preparation was well tolerated.
  • The present retrospective study yields evidence for the microcapsulated octreotide to be an effective tool in the modern therapy of acromegaly.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Delayed-Action Preparations. Diabetes Mellitus / chemically induced. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Glucose Intolerance / chemically induced. Hormones / therapeutic use. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12063861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Hormones; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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19. Schopohl J, Gutt B: [Therapy of pituitary diseases. What can be achieved with medication and hormones?]. MMW Fortschr Med; 2001 Nov 1;143(44):34-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Therapy of pituitary diseases. What can be achieved with medication and hormones?].
  • [Transliterated title] Therapie hypophysärer Erkrankungen. Was Sie mit Medikamenten und Hormonen erreichen können.
  • Pharmacotherapy is available only for pituitary adenomas producing growth hormone and prolactin (acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia).
  • While dopamine agonists and somatostatin analogues are usually administered to acromegaly patients only after unsuccessful surgery, dopamine agonists are the treatment of choice in patients with prolactinomas.
  • Replacement treatment in patients with insufficiency of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis is oriented to the extent of the deficits.
  • Theoretically, replacement treatment can be applied for any functional loss.
  • In adults, replacement of growth hormone is also indicated to decrease cardiovascular risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Dopamine Agonists / administration & dosage. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hormones / administration & dosage. Hormones / therapeutic use. Human Growth Hormone / administration & dosage. Human Growth Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans. Hypogonadism / drug therapy. Hypopituitarism / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Peptides, Cyclic / administration & dosage. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pregnancy. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Somatostatin / administration & dosage. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11732393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-3276
  • [Journal-full-title] MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MMW Fortschr Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Hormones; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / pegvisomant; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 0
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20. Schoof E, Dörr HG, Kiess W, Lüdecke DK, Freitag E, Zindel V, Rascher W, Dötsch J: Five-year follow-up of a 13-year-old boy with a pituitary adenoma causing gigantism--effect of octreotide therapy. Horm Res; 2004;61(4):184-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Five-year follow-up of a 13-year-old boy with a pituitary adenoma causing gigantism--effect of octreotide therapy.
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: In children, there is little experience with octreotide therapy for pituitary tumors, especially growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas.
  • We report on a 13-year-old boy with gigantism due to a GH-producing pituitary adenoma caused by a Gsalpha mutation on the basis of McCune-Albright syndrome.
  • METHODS: At the age of 6.5 years a GH- and prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma was diagnosed.
  • RESULTS: During therapy with octreotide, the growth rate dropped to normal values; however, rose again after 2 years of treatment.
  • After 5 years of octreotide therapy, GH (6.9 microg/l), IGF-I (620 microg/l), IGF-binding protein 3 (5.4 mg/l), and prolactin (17.0 ng/ml) levels were still elevated.
  • A magnetic resonance imaging scan showed an unchanged residual 4-mm rim of adenoma at the pituitary site.
  • Side effects from octreotide therapy were not reported by the patient or his family.
  • The therapy was changed to the long-acting release octreotide analog octreotide-LAR.
  • After 1 year of treatment with octreotide-LAR, the GH level was 1.0 microg/l, and the prospective final height dropped by 10 cm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates that combined surgical and medical treatment can influence the prognosis of childhood gigantism; however, the prognosis of this rare condition remains uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Gigantism / etiology. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs / genetics. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm, Residual / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 14739526.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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