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1. Broniscer A, Gajjar A: Supratentorial high-grade astrocytoma and diffuse brainstem glioma: two challenges for the pediatric oncologist. Oncologist; 2004;9(2):197-206
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  • [Title] Supratentorial high-grade astrocytoma and diffuse brainstem glioma: two challenges for the pediatric oncologist.
  • Pediatric high-grade gliomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that accounts for 15%-20% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors.
  • These neoplasms predominantly involve the supratentorial hemispheres or the pons, in which case the tumors are usually called diffuse brainstem gliomas.
  • The diagnosis of supratentorial neoplasms is dependent on their histologic appearance.
  • Older children (>3 years) with supratentorial neoplasms undergo a multimodality treatment comprised of surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
  • The addition of chemotherapy seems to improve the survival of a subset of these children, particularly those with glioblastoma multiforme.
  • However, 2-year survival rates remain poor for children with supratentorial neoplasms, ranging from 10%-30%.
  • Radiation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for children with diffuse brainstem gliomas.
  • The role of chemotherapy for these children is not clear, and it is, in general, employed in the context of an investigational study.
  • Because the outcome for patients with either type of tumor is poor when standard multimodality therapy is used, these children are ideal candidates for innovative treatment approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / genetics. Glioma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Stem Neoplasms / physiopathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / therapy. Child. Disease Progression. Humans. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome


2. Fouladi M, Blaney SM, Poussaint TY, Freeman BB 3rd, McLendon R, Fuller C, Adesina AM, Hancock ML, Danks MK, Stewart C, Boyett JM, Gajjar A: Phase II study of oxaliplatin in children with recurrent or refractory medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors: a pediatric brain tumor consortium study. Cancer; 2006 Nov 1;107(9):2291-7
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  • [Title] Phase II study of oxaliplatin in children with recurrent or refractory medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors: a pediatric brain tumor consortium study.
  • BACKGROUND: An open-label Phase II study of oxaliplatin was conducted to evaluate its safety and efficacy in children with recurrent or refractory medulloblastoma (MB), supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (SPNET), and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Oxaliplatin was well tolerated in children but has limited activity in children with recurrent CNS embryonal tumors previously treated with platinum compounds.
  • [MeSH-major] Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Rhabdoid Tumor / drug therapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Teratoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Treatment Outcome


3. Sievert AJ, Fisher MJ: Pediatric low-grade gliomas. J Child Neurol; 2009 Nov;24(11):1397-408
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  • [Title] Pediatric low-grade gliomas.
  • Pediatric low-grade gliomas encompass a heterogeneous set of tumors of different histologies.
  • Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas occur most frequently followed by supratentorial diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas.
  • Recent research has implicated activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK pathway in tumorigenesis of these tumors.
  • Surgery is the mainstay of therapy.
  • Overall survival rates for patients whose tumors are completely resected are 90% or greater, 10 years from diagnosis.
  • Conversely, most optic pathway/hypothalamic, deep midline, and brain stem gliomas have minimal potential for resection; these tumors can be difficult to treat and deserve special attention.
  • Combination chemotherapy is currently recommended as front-line adjuvant treatment for progressive or recurrent tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19841428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA133173-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA133173; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA133173-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 146
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS208342; NLM/ PMC2917804
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4. McBride SM, Daganzo SM, Banerjee A, Gupta N, Lamborn KR, Prados MD, Berger MS, Wara WM, Haas-Kogan DA: Radiation is an important component of multimodality therapy for pediatric non-pineal supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Dec 1;72(5):1319-23
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  • [Title] Radiation is an important component of multimodality therapy for pediatric non-pineal supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To review a historical cohort of pediatric patients with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET), to clarify the role of radiation in the treatment of these tumors.
  • Initial therapy consisted of surgical resection and chemotherapy in all patients and up-front radiotherapy (RT) in 5 patients.
  • Five patients had RT at the time of progression, and 5 received no RT whatever.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age of Onset. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Pineal Gland / pathology. Radiotherapy / methods. Spinal Cord / pathology. Stem Cell Transplantation. Survival Analysis. Survivors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18485615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 82103; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS-42927-27A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097257
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Valera ET, Machado HR, Santos AC, de Oliveira RS, Araújo D, Neder L, Tone LG: The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to achieve complete surgical resection in recurring supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma. Childs Nerv Syst; 2005 Mar;21(3):230-3
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  • [Title] The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to achieve complete surgical resection in recurring supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Ependymoma is a central nervous system neoplasm that is often managed with surgery and radiotherapy.
  • The benefits of chemotherapy in treating this tumor remain poorly defined.
  • CASE REPORT: The use of a platinum-based chemotherapy as a neoadjuvant treatment to permit complete surgical resection of a supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma recurring for the third time is described.
  • DISCUSSION: This paper also discusses the possible use of chemotherapy as a strategy that may allow tumor shrinkage and ease tumor resection in giant recurring ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Combined Modality Therapy. Ependymoma / therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15338180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Pérez-Martínez A, Lassaletta A, González-Vicent M, Sevilla J, Díaz MA, Madero L: High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue for children with high risk and recurrent medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jan;71(1):33-8
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  • [Title] High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue for children with high risk and recurrent medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors.
  • Current treatment for high risk and recurrent medulloblastoma (MB) and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (stPNET) has a very poor prognosis in children.
  • High dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous stem cell rescue have improved survival rates.
  • Standard chemotherapy was prescribed in 10 patients.
  • Cryopreserved peripheral blood progenitor cells were re-infused 48 h after completion of chemotherapy.
  • Three patients died of treatment-related toxicities (15%).
  • Therefore we conclude that HDCT may improve survival rates in patients with high risk/recurrent MB and stPNET despite treatment toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / therapy. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Supratentorial Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Busulfan / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Melphalan / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Topotecan / administration & dosage. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15719272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan
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7. Narayana A, Kunnakkat S, Chacko-Mathew J, Gardner S, Karajannis M, Raza S, Wisoff J, Weiner H, Harter D, Allen J: Bevacizumab in recurrent high-grade pediatric gliomas. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Sep;12(9):985-90
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  • [Title] Bevacizumab in recurrent high-grade pediatric gliomas.
  • However, there is very little data on recurrent or progressive pediatric HGG treated with bevacizumab.
  • We report the results of a single institution experience using bevacizumab and irinotecan in children who relapsed or progressed following standard therapy.
  • Twelve pediatric patients with recurrent or progressive HGG received bevacizumab at 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks with irinotecan at 125 mg/m(2).
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed prior to therapy and every 8 weeks subsequently.
  • Ten patients had supratentorial HGG; 2 had DIPG.
  • Therapy was discontinued in 1 patient because of anaphylaxis.
  • Another patient developed grade III delayed wound healing and deep vein thrombosis.
  • Treatment tolerance, toxicity, and recurrence profiles were comparable to adult HGG patients treated with bevacizumab.
  • However, the radiological response rate, response duration, and survival appeared inferior in pediatric patients.
  • Genetic differences in pediatric gliomas might account for this difference.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bevacizumab. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Camptothecin / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20363768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940690
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8. Biswas S, Burke A, Cherian S, Williams D, Nicholson J, Horan G, Jefferies S, Williams M, Earl HM, Burnet NG, Hatcher H: Non-pineal supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (sPNET) in teenagers and young adults: Time to reconsider cisplatin based chemotherapy after cranio-spinal irradiation? Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Jul;52(7):796-803
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  • [Title] Non-pineal supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (sPNET) in teenagers and young adults: Time to reconsider cisplatin based chemotherapy after cranio-spinal irradiation?
  • BACKGROUND: Supratentorial PNET (sPNET) are rare CNS tumors of embryonal origin arising in children and adults.
  • The treatment of sPNET for all age groups at our cancer center has been based on the management of medulloblastoma (MB), involving neurosurgical debulking followed by cranio-spinal irradiation (CSI) and systemic chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Medical records were reviewed to gather demographic and clinical data about all embryonal CNS tumors in children and adults from 2001 to 2007.
  • Tumor pathology, clinical management and survival data were also assessed, particularly as regards those patients who received the Packer chemotherapy regimen for either sPNET or MB.
  • There was no difference in overall survival (OS) rates between pediatric and adult sPNET.
  • When only considering those patients treated with the Packer chemotherapy regimen, the 5-year OS was 12% for sPNET versus 79% for MB.
  • CONCLUSION: This retrospective study demonstrates that non-pineal sPNET are clinically distinct from MB and are resistant to the Packer chemotherapy regimen.
  • We suggest that it is time to reconsider the use of this regimen in teenage and young adult non-pineal sPNET and to investigate the utility of alternative approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / therapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19202566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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9. Grill J, Le Deley MC, Gambarelli D, Raquin MA, Couanet D, Pierre-Kahn A, Habrand JL, Doz F, Frappaz D, Gentet JC, Edan C, Chastagner P, Kalifa C, French Society of Pediatric Oncology: Postoperative chemotherapy without irradiation for ependymoma in children under 5 years of age: a multicenter trial of the French Society of Pediatric Oncology. J Clin Oncol; 2001 Mar 01;19(5):1288-96
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  • [Title] Postoperative chemotherapy without irradiation for ependymoma in children under 5 years of age: a multicenter trial of the French Society of Pediatric Oncology.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate a strategy that avoids radiotherapy in first-line treatment in children under 5 years of age with brain or posterior fossa ependymoma, by exclusively administering 16 months of adjuvant multiagent chemotherapy after surgery.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between June 1990 and October 1998, 73 children with ependymoma (82% with high-grade tumors) were enrolled onto this multicenter trial.
  • Children received adjuvant conventional chemotherapy after surgery consisting of seven cycles of three courses alternating two drugs at each course (procarbazine and carboplatin, etoposide and cisplatin, vincristine and cyclophosphamide) over a year and a half.
  • Systematic irradiation was not envisaged at the end of chemotherapy.
  • In the event of relapse or progression, salvage treatment consisted of a second surgical procedure followed by local irradiation with or without second-line chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Conventional chemotherapy was well tolerated and could be administered in outpatient clinics.
  • No radiologically documented response to chemotherapy more than 50% was observed.
  • Overall, 40% (95% CI, 29% to 51%) of the patients were alive having never received radiotherapy 2 years after the initiation of chemotherapy and 23% (95% CI, 14% to 35%) were still alive at 4 years without recourse to this modality.
  • In the multivariate analysis, the two factors associated with a favorable outcome were a supratentorial tumor location (P =.0004) and complete surgery (P =.0009).
  • CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of children with ependymoma can avoid radiotherapy with prolonged adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Deferring irradiation at the time of relapse did not compromise overall survival of the entire patient population.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ependymoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11230470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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10. Finkelstein-Shechter T, Gassas A, Mabbott D, Huang A, Bartels U, Tabori U, Janzen L, Hawkins C, Taylor M, Bouffet E: Atypical teratoid or rhabdoid tumors: improved outcome with high-dose chemotherapy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Jul;32(5):e182-6
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid or rhabdoid tumors: improved outcome with high-dose chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively review an institutional experience in managing atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) of the Central Nervous System with high-dose chemotherapy in infants and children less than 4 years old.
  • Tumor location was supratentorial in 3 cases, infratentorial in 3 cases, and multifocal in 2 patients.
  • Two of these patients did not receive any active therapy.
  • After surgery, the 6 remaining patients received induction therapy followed by sequential high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue.
  • RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 52 months, 4 patients are alive without evidence of tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This experience confirms that a subset of young AT/RT patients may achieve long-term survival with intensive and high-dose chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rhabdoid Tumor / drug therapy. Teratoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [ErratumIn] J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2011 Jul;33(5):400. Laura, Janzen [corrected to Janzen, Laura]
  • (PMID = 20495479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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11. Guenther PP, Huebner A, Sobottka SB, Neumeister V, Weissbach G, Todt H, Parwaresch R: Temporary response of localized intracranial mast cell sarcoma to combination chemotherapy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2001 Feb;23(2):134-8
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  • [Title] Temporary response of localized intracranial mast cell sarcoma to combination chemotherapy.
  • An 8-year-old girl with an isolated cerebral mast cell tumor is presented.
  • Treatment with irradiation, intrathecal cytarabine, and interferon-alpha2b did not induce regression whereas polychemotherapy did.
  • Systemic combination chemotherapy led to marked transient tumor regression in this proliferating mast cell sarcoma in an unusual intracranial location.
  • [MeSH-major] Mast-Cell Sarcoma / drug therapy. Parietal Lobe / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Temporal Lobe / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Female. Headache / etiology. Humans. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Injections, Spinal. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Nausea / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Palliative Care. Papilledema / etiology. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Radioisotope Teletherapy. Recombinant Proteins. Remission Induction. Treatment Failure. Vomiting / etiology

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  • (PMID = 11216707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; DAV regimen
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12. Tamber MS, Rutka JT: Pediatric supratentorial high-grade gliomas. Neurosurg Focus; 2003 Feb 15;14(2):e1

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pediatric supratentorial high-grade gliomas.
  • The purpose of this review is to highlight some of the pertinent concepts and controversies surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric supratentorial high-grade gliomas.
  • Unlike the adult counterparts, pediatric high-grade gliomas are likely derived from distinct cytogenetic and molecular alterations.
  • Some success is associated with the provision of chemotherapy.
  • The challenges involved in improving the poor prognosis of children in whom these very aggressive tumors have been diagnosed will be discussed, as well as some of the novel approaches being investigated to improve patient survival and quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma. Supratentorial Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Aberrations. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniotomy. Female. Forecasting. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / epidemiology. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15727422.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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13. Sasani M, Oktenoglu T, Ozer AF, Sarioglu AC: Giant supratentorial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor presentation: a case of a five-year-old child with favorable outcome and review of the literature. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2007;43(2):149-54
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  • [Title] Giant supratentorial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor presentation: a case of a five-year-old child with favorable outcome and review of the literature.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system is a highly malignant neoplasm and that usually arises in the posterior fossa, survival from this is frequently poor.
  • We present a unique case in a 21-month-old girl who had an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor with cystic components located in the right fronto-parietal lobe.
  • The patient underwent radical surgical intervention followed by chemotherapy.
  • Two years later at the last follow-up visit, there was no evidence of a tumor relapse on MRI, and the examination was symptom free.
  • It is possible the favorable outcome of the patient resulted from a rapid diagnosis, prompt management, radical surgical intervention and aggressive chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Frontal Lobe / surgery. Parietal Lobe / surgery. Rhabdoid Tumor / surgery. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Teratoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Humans. Infant. Keratins / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Microsurgery. Mitotic Index. Necrosis. Neurologic Examination. Vimentin / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17337931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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14. Rostomily RC, Halligan J, Geyer R, Stelzer K, Lindsley K, Berger MS: Permanent low-activity (125)I seed placement for the treatment of pediatric brain tumors: preliminary experience. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2001 Apr;34(4):198-205
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  • [Title] Permanent low-activity (125)I seed placement for the treatment of pediatric brain tumors: preliminary experience.
  • Although external beam radiation therapy is effective in the treatment of many pediatric brain neoplasms its use in this patient population has been associated with the development of significant cognitive and endocrine dysfunction and is severely limited as an option in previously irradiated patients.
  • Therefore, we have adopted a strategy for management of residual microscopic disease by implantation of low-activity (125)I seeds in the tumor bed at the time of surgery.
  • Six patients aged 2-14 years with recurrent tumors including two supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (n = 2), one medulloblastoma, one malignant ependymoma (n = 1), glioblastoma (n = 1) and one pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma were implanted at the time of reoperation.
  • A total of 11-126 seeds were implanted resulting in total doses of 16-21.8 Gy (after theoretical infinite time) at a depth of 5 mm from the implanted resection bed.
  • Five patients had prior external beam radiation while the other patient (2 years old at initial diagnosis) progressed after surgery and chemotherapy.
  • Two patients had lasting local tumor control.
  • These results suggest that the use of permanent low-activity (125)I seeds as an adjunct to surgery can provide good local tumor control and is a suitable treatment option for pediatric patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brain / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Implants. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 11359113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / 2T 32-N07144
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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15. Per H, Kontaş O, Kumandaş S, Kurtsoy A: A report of a desmoplastic non-infantile ganglioglioma in a 6-year-old boy with review of the literature. Neurosurg Rev; 2009 Jul;32(3):369-74; discussion 374
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  • Desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas (DIG) are uncommon supratentorial brain tumors with a usually good prognosis despite an aggressive radiological appearance that typically occurs in infants below the age of 24 months.
  • DIGs are exclusively supratentorial, generally have a voluminous size, and are partially cystic.
  • Total surgical removal is sufficient for the treatment of these tumors, and no chemotherapy or radiotherapy is indicated if complete resection is achieved.
  • Non-infantile variants of this biologically benign intracranial neoplasm are rare; only 15 cases of non-infantile DIGs have been reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglioglioma / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19280238.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-2320
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. Jaing TH, Wang HS, Tsay PK, Tseng CK, Jung SM, Lin KL, Lui TN: Multivariate analysis of clinical prognostic factors in children with intracranial ependymomas. J Neurooncol; 2004 Jul;68(3):255-61

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The optimal postoperative management of pediatric intracranial ependymomas is controversial.
  • Our retrospective series included 15 with supratentorial and 28 with infratentorial tumors.
  • Radiotherapy was done in 31 patients and chemotherapy in 13.
  • The median survival time was 30 months, and 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 53.9% and 45.9%, respectively.
  • By tumor site: supratentorial, 56.6% and 50.9%; infratentorial, 52.3% and 42.5%.
  • Only one of 15 patients with supratentorial tumors developed isolated spinal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / diagnosis. Infratentorial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Supratentorial Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15332330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Hong TS, Mehta MP, Boyett JM, Donahue B, Rorke LB, Zeltzer PM: Patterns of treatment failure in infants with primitive neuroectodermal tumors who were treated on CCG-921: a phase III combined modality study. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Oct 15;45(5):676-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Patterns of treatment failure in infants with primitive neuroectodermal tumors who were treated on CCG-921: a phase III combined modality study.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze patterns of treatment failure in infants with primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) who were treated primarily with chemotherapy in a large multi-institutional study.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five prospectively staged patients with PNET confirmed by central pathology review, who were 18 months or younger were treated on Children's Cancer Group Study 921 (CCG-921) primarily with chemotherapy.
  • Forty-six patients had posterior fossa (PF) primary tumors and 19 patients had supratentorial (ST) primaries.
  • Patterns of sites of initial treatment failure were analyzed and compared to failure patterns of 180 older children who had PF-PNETs, and 44 older children with ST-PNETs who were treated on the same protocol.
  • Cumulative 5-year relapse incidence (+/-SE) for younger patients with PF-PNETs was 64.5 +/- 8.9% for patients without metastases (M0) compared to 71.4 +/- 13.4% for patients with metastases (M+).
  • The overall treatment failure rate was significantly higher for younger compared to older patients with PF-PNET and ST-PNET.
  • There was no statistically significant difference in relapse patterns between patients with PF primary tumors and ST primaries when stratified by stage.
  • All patients had a high risk of recurrence at primary tumor site.
  • Younger patients who had PF primary tumors without metastasis at presentation were significantly more likely to relapse in PF than older patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite aggressive chemotherapy, younger children with PNETs have high rates of treatment failure and fare worse than high-risk, older patients with PF-PNETs, indicating the need to maximize local, regional, and systemic therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Supratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16007595.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Saran F, Baumert BG, Creak AL, Warrington AP, Ashley S, Traish D, Brada M: Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in the management of recurrent or residual medulloblastoma/PNET. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):554-60
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  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in the management of locally recurrent or residual central nervous system (CNS) primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1991 and 2005, 12 patients with locally recurrent medulloblastoma and two patients with residual supratentorial PNET were treated with hypofractionated stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT).
  • Nine of 12 patients underwent resection at recurrence and 13 patients received at least one cycle of chemotherapy prior to SCRT.
  • All received focal SCRT (30-40 Gy/6-8 #) using non-coplanar arcs (n = 6) or fixed conformal non-coplanar fields (n = 8).
  • However, overall long-term disease control is rare and limited by the occurrence of CSF mediated relapses, which thus could benefit from intensive systemic chemotherapy as part of the primary relapse strategy even in local recurrences.
  • Larger multi-national studies will be necessary to assess the value of such combined treatment approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Dose Fractionation. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm, Residual. Palliative Care. Retrospective Studies. Stereotaxic Techniques

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17941071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. El-Gaidi MA, Eissa EM: Infantile intracranial neoplasms: characteristics and surgical outcomes of a contemporary series of 21 cases in an Egyptian referral center. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2010;46(4):272-82
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  • [Title] Infantile intracranial neoplasms: characteristics and surgical outcomes of a contemporary series of 21 cases in an Egyptian referral center.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the demographic, clinical, radiological, pathological and surgical features and outcomes of infantile intracranial neoplasms, the second most common neoplasm in infants.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study in the Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery at the Abo El-Reish Children's Hospital from 2005 to 2008.
  • RESULTS: Out of 451 patients with primary intracranial neoplasms (age 0-14 years), 21 infants (<1 year) underwent surgery, representing 4.7% of total cases.
  • The most common tumor was choroid plexus papilloma (23.8%), followed by teratoma (19%) then astrocytoma and ependymoma (14.3% each).
  • Of the 21 surgical cases, 90% were intra-axial, 80% were in the supratentorial region, and 57% were intraventricular.
  • Three patients received chemotherapy, but none received radiotherapy.
  • The statistically significant predictors of prognosis were the extent of resection and tumor grade.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the prognosis for infantile intracranial neoplasms is worse than for older children, an overall promising outcome with low operative morbidity and mortality was achieved using gross total excision and appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy as part of a multidisciplinary approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / mortality. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Egypt / epidemiology. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / mortality. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Morbidity. Neurilemmoma / drug therapy. Neurilemmoma / mortality. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Referral and Consultation / statistics & numerical data. Retrospective Studies. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / mortality. Teratoma / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21160236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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20. Massimino M, Giangaspero F, Garrè ML, Genitori L, Perilongo G, Collini P, Riva D, Valentini L, Scarzello G, Poggi G, Spreafico F, Peretta P, Mascarin M, Modena P, Sozzi G, Bedini N, Biassoni V, Urgesi A, Balestrini MR, Finocchiaro G, Sandri A, Gandola L, AIEOP Neuro-Oncology Group: Salvage treatment for childhood ependymoma after surgery only: Pitfalls of omitting "at once" adjuvant treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Aug 1;65(5):1440-5
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  • [Title] Salvage treatment for childhood ependymoma after surgery only: Pitfalls of omitting "at once" adjuvant treatment.
  • PURPOSE: To discuss the results obtained by giving adjuvant treatment for childhood ependymoma (EPD) at relapse after complete surgery only.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1993 and 2002, 63 children older than 3 years old entered the first Italian Association for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology protocol for EPD (group A), and another 14 patients were referred after relapsing after more tumor excisions only (group B).
  • RESULTS: Mean time to first local progression in group B had been 14 months.
  • Tumors originated in the posterior fossa (PF) in 10 children and were supratentorial (ST) in 4; 11 had first been completely excised (NED) and 3 had residual disease (ED).
  • All received radiotherapy (RT) to tumor bed and 5 also had pre-RT chemotherapy.
  • Six of 14 patients (6/10 with PF tumors) had a further relapse a mean 6 months after the last surgery; 4 of 6 died: progression-free survival and overall survival at 4 years after referral were 54.4% and 77%, respectively.
  • Considering only PF tumors and setting time 0 as at the last surgery for group B, progression-free survival and overall survival were 32% and 50% for group B and 52% (p < 0.20)/70% (p < 0.29) for the 46 patients in group A with PF tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Relapsers after surgery only, especially if with PF-EPD, do worse than those treated after first diagnosis; subsequent surgery for tumor relapse has severe neurologic sequelae.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Salvage Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Neoplasm, Residual. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16863927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Akyüz C, Emir S, Akalan N, Söylemezoğlu F, Kutluk T, Büyükpamukçu M: Intracranial ependymomas in childhood--a retrospective review of sixty-two children. Acta Oncol; 2000;39(1):97-100
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  • [Title] Intracranial ependymomas in childhood--a retrospective review of sixty-two children.
  • Tumour sites were in the posterior fossa in 47 patients and supratentorial in 15 patients.
  • Two slightly different types of chemotherapy protocols were applied for an average of one year in 47 patients.
  • Sex, histopathologic type, localization of the tumour, extent of surgery, and chemotherapy did not influence the prognosis in our study.
  • New treatment strategies should be developed in order to improve local control.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ependymoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10752661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NORWAY
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22. Gutenberg A, Schulten HJ, Gunawan B, Ludwig HC, Brück W, Larsen J, Rohde V: CNS tumor 22 years after spinal neuroblastoma IV: diagnostic dilemma between recurrence and secondary malignancy. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2009;45(1):61-8
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  • [Title] CNS tumor 22 years after spinal neuroblastoma IV: diagnostic dilemma between recurrence and secondary malignancy.
  • We present the very unusual case of a young woman suffering from a brain tumor 22 years after a stage IV spinal neuroblastoma as an infant, demonstrating the difficulties of differentiating late neuroblastoma relapse from secondary supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET).
  • Lacking specific immunohistochemical features, the first cerebral tumor at the age of 21 was regarded as sPNET, and we pursued a therapeutic approach consisting of neurosurgical resection as well as irradiation and high-dose alkylator-based chemotherapy according to the HIT2000 protocol.
  • Moreover, the lack of PNET-specific translocations (EWS/FLI1 gene fusion) in both brain tumors as well as the development of hepatic metastases was more compatible with the diagnosis of a very late relapse 22 years after initial stage IV spinal neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genetic Markers. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19258732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Genetic Markers
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23. Agaoglu FY, Ayan I, Dizdar Y, Kebudi R, Gorgun O, Darendeliler E: Ependymal tumors in childhood. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Sep;45(3):298-303
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  • [Title] Ependymal tumors in childhood.
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymal tumors are classified as ependymoma (benign or low grade) versus anaplastic ependymoma (malignant or high grade).
  • Ependymomas represent 5-10% of intracranial neoplasm in children.
  • In this study, demographic data and the treatment results of pediatric patients with ependymal tumors, treated in a single institute, is reported.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1989 and 2001, 40 (22 M/18 F) previously untreated patients with a median age of 5.5 years (3 months-15 years), of histologically proven ependymal tumors (except ependymoblastomas) were referred to the Institute of Oncology, University of Istanbul.
  • The localization was supratentorial in 18, infratentorial in 20, both supra and infratentorial in two patients.
  • Total tumor resection was performed in 20 patients (50%), subtotal in 18 patients (45%), and biopsy only in 2 patients (5%).
  • Postoperative treatment consisted of regional (8 patients) or craniospinal (CSI) (9 patients) radiotherapy (RT) in patients with ependymoma; regional (7 patients) or CSI RT (14 patients) with chemotherapy (ChT) in patients with anaplastic ependymoma; ChT only (1 patient) in patients less than 3 years of age.
  • The standard technique for posterior fossa irradiation was parallel-opposed lateral fields and total dose was 45-54 Gy.
  • Median time for progression or relapse was 24.3 months and there were 19 patients (43.6%) with relapse or progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The majority of complete responders were patients who had total tumor removal.
  • Treatment failure occurred mainly within the first 2 years, and outcome was dismal for patients who relapsed or had progressive disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Ependymoma

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15770637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Dhodapkar K, Dunkel IJ, Gardner S, Sapp M, Thoron L, Finlay J: Preliminary results of dose intensive pre-irradiation chemotherapy in patients older than 10 years of age with high risk medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Med Pediatr Oncol; 2002 Jan;38(1):47-8
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  • [Title] Preliminary results of dose intensive pre-irradiation chemotherapy in patients older than 10 years of age with high risk medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Medical Records. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11835236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-1532
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical and pediatric oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pediatr. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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