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3. Wu HY, Snyder HM 3rd: Pediatric urologic oncology: bladder, prostate, testis. Urol Clin North Am; 2004 Aug;31(3):619-27, xi
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  • [Title] Pediatric urologic oncology: bladder, prostate, testis.
  • Although treatment for bladder, prostate, and testis cancer comprises a large part of adult urologic practice, the tumors that affect these organs in children are rare.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma,which affects the bladder, prostate, vaginal, and paratesticular areas,is treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.
  • Most transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder and prepubertal testis tumors are managed surgically owing to the low stage at presentation.
  • Application of the technical advances learned in adults with tumors of the bladder, prostate, and testis, combined with an understanding of the difference in tumor biology, helps urologists improve the treatment of these tumors in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Female. Humans. Leydig Cell Tumor / surgery. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Risk Assessment. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15313070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-0143
  • [Journal-full-title] The Urologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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4. Corbacioglu S, Eber S, Gungor T, Hummerjohann J, Niggli F: Induction of long-term remission of a relapsed childhood B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia with rituximab chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and autologous stem cell transplantation. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2003 Apr;25(4):327-9
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  • [Title] Induction of long-term remission of a relapsed childhood B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia with rituximab chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and autologous stem cell transplantation.
  • Childhood B-cell neoplasms account for approximately 2% of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • The short but intensive chemotherapy yields a currently 75% to 85% event-free survival.
  • He relapsed in the bone marrow immediately after primary chemotherapy.
  • After 4 treatments with rituximab an isolated CNS relapse occurred.
  • CNS remission was reinduced with chemotherapy and the patient received an autologous transplant with rituximab for in vivo purging.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Burkitt Lymphoma / therapy. Immunotherapy. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antigens, CD20 / immunology. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Purging. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Leukemic Infiltration / drug therapy. Leukemic Infiltration / therapy. Male. Meninges / pathology. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Rituximab. Testis / pathology. Topotecan / administration & dosage. Transplantation, Autologous. Vindesine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12679650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; RSA8KO39WH / Vindesine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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5. Akramipour R, Zargooshi J, Rahimi Z: Infant with concomitant presence of hernia/hydrocele and primary paratesticular neuroblastoma: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 May;31(5):349
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  • [Title] Infant with concomitant presence of hernia/hydrocele and primary paratesticular neuroblastoma: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.
  • We report an 8-month-old boy with stage 1 neuroblastoma, whose "testicular tumor" was removed during a "radical orchiectomy" by a pediatric surgeon who encountered a scrotal mass during a hernia repair.
  • Pathologic examination of the specimen suggested seminoma and the surgeon sent the patient for cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • However, follow-up examination showed a normal testis.
  • The patient is tumor free after 36 months of follow-up.
  • This case shows that in presence of hernia, distorted anatomy, and inguinal testis, paratesticular tumors can be misdiagnosed for the testis and cause great diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Male / complications. Genital Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Hernia, Inguinal / complications. Neuroblastoma / complications. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Testicular Hydrocele / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Scrotum / pathology. Scrotum / surgery. Testis / blood supply. Testis / cytology. Testis / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19415016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Talon I, Moog R, Kauffmann I, Grandadam S, Becmeur F: Sertoli cell tumor of the testis in children: reevaluation of a rarely encountered tumor. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Sep;27(9):491-4
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  • [Title] Sertoli cell tumor of the testis in children: reevaluation of a rarely encountered tumor.
  • Testis tumors are uncommon in childhood, and they differ from adult tumors in terms of histology and frequency.
  • They are more frequently benign, but because of the absence of specific signs of malignancy, treatment consists of radical orchiectomy, sometimes followed by radiotherapy or chemotherapy based on histologic analysis.
  • In the authors' hospital, of 13 testis tumors diagnosed since 1996, only 2 were Sertoli cell tumors.
  • It would be helpful to have an algorithm for the management of testis tumors, outlining how to make the diagnosis of malignancy and which treatment and follow-up to pursue.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy

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  • (PMID = 16189443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Terenziani M, Piva L, Spreafico F, Salvioni R, Massimino M, Luksch R, Cefalo G, Casanova M, Ferrari A, Polastri D, Mazza E, Bellani FF, Nicolai N: Clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis in childhood and adolescence: an analysis of 31 cases. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2002 Aug-Sep;24(6):454-8
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  • [Title] Clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis in childhood and adolescence: an analysis of 31 cases.
  • A 20-year single-institution experience of clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis (NSGCTT) in childhood and adolescents was reviewed in relation to clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and survival.
  • After orchiectomy, the children were assigned to surveillance and the adolescents to active treatment: 16 underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) and 1 had adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy because of a high-risk histology.
  • All three children were treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy with or without surgery.
  • All were treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy with or without surgery.
  • In particular, almost all the childhood cases had the same yolk sac tumor histology, the children tended to have localized disease, and an increased alpha-fetoprotein level had a very high predictive value, suggesting that follow-up should include AFP measurements.
  • A conservative approach is the best option in children, while adolescent NSGCTT behaves like the adult disease and management must include similar treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Germinoma / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12218592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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8. Yang WP, Zou Y, Huang CS, Zhang SZ, Xiao Q, Dai KL, Zhong HS, Xiong XJ: [Clinicopathologic and prognostic study of pediatric immature teratoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Oct;36(10):666-71
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic and prognostic study of pediatric immature teratoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features and biologic behavior of pediatric immature teratoma.
  • METHODS: The clinical data, pathologic features, immunohistochemical findings (for cyclin D1, P27 and Ki-67) and follow-up information of 39 cases of pediatric immature teratoma were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Amongst the 39 cases studied, 12 arose in the sacrococcygeal region, 12 in testis, 5 in retroperitoneum, 4 in ovary, 4 in abdomen and 2 in mediastinum.
  • Seven of the cases contained foci of yolk sac tumor.
  • Immature neuroepithelial features used in histologic grading included the presence of primitive neural tubules, immature rosettes, undifferentiated neuroblastoma cells and primitive neuroectodermal structures.
  • Three of them, including 2 cases with histologic grade 3 (with or without yolk sac tumor component), recurred after operation.
  • On the other hand, p27 overexpression shows little correlation with tumor grade.
  • Sacrococcygeal immature teratoma occurring in patients younger than 1 year old and with low histologic grade do not require postoperative chemotherapy if the tumor is completely excised.
  • Similarly, for testicular immature teratoma occurring in patients below 1 year of age, regardless of tumor grading, need no adjunctive therapy.
  • On the other hand, ovarian immature teratoma with high histologic grade requires postoperative chemotherapy, regardless of age of the patients.
  • The presence of microscopic foci of yolk sac tumor is a useful predictor of recurrence in pediatric immature teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / metabolism. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Sacrococcygeal Region. Survival Rate. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18194599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 0 / p27 antigen; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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9. Mann JR, Gray ES, Thornton C, Raafat F, Robinson K, Collins GS, Gornall P, Huddart SN, Hale JP, Oakhill A, UK Children's Cancer Study Group Experience: Mature and immature extracranial teratomas in children: the UK Children's Cancer Study Group Experience. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jul 20;26(21):3590-7
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  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to describe the features, treatment, and risk factors for relapse of children with mature teratoma (MT) and immature teratoma (IT) to assist future treatment plans.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were younger than 16 years of age and referred to the UK Children's Cancer Study Group centers with biopsy-proven extracranial MT and IT and no prior chemotherapy.
  • Complete excision, with the coccyx in sacrococcygeal patients, and follow-up, including serum alpha-fetoprotein monitoring for early detection of malignant yolk sac tumor (YST) recurrence, were recommended.
  • Pathology was reviewed and treatments, outcome, and prognostic features assessed.
  • Tumor sites were: testis (n = 53), ovary (n = 130), sacrococcygeal region (n = 98), thorax (n = 23), and other (n = 47).
  • Poorer outcome occurred with incomplete resection, tumor rupture, nongonadal site (particularly sacrococcygeal), young age, higher stage and grade, and gliomatosis peritonei, but not with cyst fluid aspiration/spillage, tumor enucleation, nodal gliomatosis, or microfoci of YST in the tumor (Heifetz lesions).
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment remains primarily surgical, with JEB chemotherapy for YST relapse.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery for sacrococcygeal patients is not advocated.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Great Britain. Humans. Infant. Male. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18541896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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10. Suita S, Shono K, Tajiri T, Takamatsu T, Mizote H, Nagasaki A, Inomata Y, Hara T, Okamura J, Miyazaki S, Kawakami K, Eguchi H, Tsuneyoshi M, Committee for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area: Malignant germ cell tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A report from the study group for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area, Japan. J Pediatr Surg; 2002 Dec;37(12):1703-6
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  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A report from the study group for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area, Japan.
  • PURPOSE: This study aims to assess the prognostic factors and optimal treatments for malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT) in childhood.
  • The prognostic factors and treatments were assessed based on the 5-year survival rate. RESULTS:.
  • (1) Stage: 100% for stage I (n = 54), 75.0% for stage II (n = 4), 67.3% for stage III (n = 14), and 54.8% for stage IV (n = 33); Unknown: n = 12. (2) Primary site: 93.4% for the testis (n = 52), 86.7% for the ovary (n = 31), 56.9% for the sacrococcygeal (n = 21), and 60.6% for others (n = 12); unknown: n = 1. (3) Surgical intervention for primary tumor: 100% for stage I with a complete resection (n = 53), 78.4% for stage III, IV with a complete resection (n = 26), and 33.3% for stage III, IV with an incomplete resection (n = 21). (4) Type of chemotherapy for the stage III and IV: 83.9% for the PVB (cisplatin, vinblastin, bleomycin; n = 13), 66.7% for the VAC (vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide; n = 6), and 47.1% for other regimens (n = 25).
  • Radical complete resection alone is a sufficient treatment for localized MGCT.
  • The PVB regimen is optimal chemotherapy for advanced MGCT; however, high-risk cases still may require more aggressive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2003 Sep;170(3):1040 [12926414.001]
  • (PMID = 12483635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Acosta JM, Tiao G, Stein JE, Mahour GH: Temporary relocation of testes to the anterior abdominal wall before radiation therapy of the pelvis or perineum. J Pediatr Surg; 2002 Aug;37(8):1232-3
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  • [Title] Temporary relocation of testes to the anterior abdominal wall before radiation therapy of the pelvis or perineum.
  • Recent advances in the treatment of pelvic malignancies in children has resulted in an increased life expectancy.
  • In the past, treatment of soft tissue sarcomas with simple surgical excision resulted in a recurrence rate of approximately 75%.
  • Combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery have significantly altered the outcome of advanced pelvic soft tissue sarcomas.
  • With the improved survival rate of patients treated with combination therapy, sterility secondary to radiation therapy has become an issue.
  • This alternative surgical approach should be considered in boys who are afflicted with a pelvic/perineal malignancy requiring radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dimethylpolysiloxanes. Protective Clothing. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Radiation Protection / methods. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / radiotherapy. Silicones. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Testis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Buttocks. Child. Groin. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Posture

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 12149714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dimethylpolysiloxanes; 0 / Silicones; 63148-62-9 / baysilon
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12. Hirayama Y, Kubota M, Imamura M, Imai C, Okuyama N, Tsukada M, Kobayashi K, Sato K, Takachi T, Iwavuchi H, Uchiyama M: A 2-year-old boy with a stage III yolk sac tumor occurring in an intra-abdominal retained testis. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Dec;44(12):2395-8
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  • [Title] A 2-year-old boy with a stage III yolk sac tumor occurring in an intra-abdominal retained testis.
  • We, herein, report the case of a 2-year-old boy who presented with a huge yolk sac tumor with retroperitoneal lymph nodes metastasis that originated in a left intra-abdominal undescended testis.
  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a huge round tumor connecting to the left retroperitoneal lymph nodes with metastasis extending from the left pelvic region to the left renal hilum.
  • The right abdominal tumor appeared to be a giant testis that had strangulated at the neck of the cord.
  • The tumor had ruptured at the side of the left pelvic lymph node metastasis, and a yolk sac tumor was diagnosed from a histologic analysis of the resected specimens.
  • Postoperative PEB chemotherapy was effective, and a complete surgical resection of the tumor was performed 3 months after the initial laparotomy.
  • The pathologic findings showed fibrous tissue without any tumor cells.
  • This case might be a coincidental association of a yolk sac tumor occurring in an undescended testis, which thus caused a delay in making an accurate diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryptorchidism / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] CA-125 Antigen / blood. Child, Preschool. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Testis / pathology. Testis / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20006035.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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13. Calaminus G, Schneider DT, Weissbach L, Schönberger S, Okpanyi V, Leuschner I, Poremba C, Göbel U: Survival after an antiangiogenetic therapy and surgery in a wide spread growing teratoma originating from a testicular mixed malignant germ cell tumor. Klin Padiatr; 2009 May-Jun;221(3):136-40
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  • [Title] Survival after an antiangiogenetic therapy and surgery in a wide spread growing teratoma originating from a testicular mixed malignant germ cell tumor.
  • Growing teratoma is still an often unsolved problem especially in male with mixed malignant GCTs of the testis or the mediastinum.
  • This specific situation with progressive tumor growth and simultaneous normalization of tumor markers during or after treatment of malignant GCTs with teratomatous elements is judged as a fatal situation if this situation can not be controlled by extensive surgery, as teratoma are not sensible to chemotherapy or irradiation.
  • Here, we report the case history of a 17-year old male patient with a testicular malignant GCT and wide spread lymph node metastases, who developed a rapidly progressive growing teratoma within the lymph node metastases.
  • Within the molecular profile of the tumor we could find a cytogenetic picture typically found in malignant adult GCTs.
  • In view of the bulky abdominal, thoracic and cervical metastases and the uncontrolled tumor progression, the situation was considered incurable.
  • However, following an individual treatment attempt, this patient was treated with a four-agent combination of drugs with antiangiogenetic potential as well as low-dose cyclic chemotherapy.
  • We therefore would like to highlight this treatment approach in unresectable growing teratoma and would like to stimulate further research and collaboration to come to an optimized treatment suggestion for this group of poor prognostic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / adverse effects. Lymph Nodes / blood supply. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Recombinant Proteins. Reoperation. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Thalidomide / administration & dosage. Thalidomide / adverse effects. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects

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  • [CommentIn] Klin Padiatr. 2009 May-Jun;221(3):134-5 [19437359.001]
  • (PMID = 19437360.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3824
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a
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14. Popadiuk S, Korzon M, Chybicka A, Szmyd K, Balwierz W, Trelinska J, Kowalczyk J, Wisniewska-Slusarz H, Woźniak W, Bilska K, Wachowiak J, Wysocki M, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Szumera M, Sznurkowska K, Renke J: [Analysis of risk factor treatment failures in therapeutic programme for malignant germ cell tumours in children. Multicentre prospective study of Polish Pediatric Group for Solid Tumours 1998--2006]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2007 Jul-Sep;11(3 Pt 2):301-6

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  • [Title] [Analysis of risk factor treatment failures in therapeutic programme for malignant germ cell tumours in children. Multicentre prospective study of Polish Pediatric Group for Solid Tumours 1998--2006].
  • AIMS: The aim of the study was the analysis of risk factors of therapeutic failures in children with malignant germ cell tumours treated within the multicentre programme of PPGGL from 1999--2006.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The investigated group included 18 (14.3%) patients, of 123 who have finished the treatment of malignant germ cell tumour, in whom no remission was obtained or relapse occurred.
  • RESULTS: Among 18 patients with therapeutic failures 12 died.
  • Two patients from the high risk group died of complications of the treatment--sepsis during neutropenia after chemotherapy and one after haemorrhage to the central nervous system.
  • In 3 patients testis was the primary location (I and II stage), in 3 patients the tumour was localized in the sacrococcygeal region (III and IV stage).
  • All the patients are alive in remission after second line therapy, with 78 months (median) of follow-up.
  • The main risk factor for therapeutic failures in malignant germ cell tumours was primary chemoresistance in inoperable tumours of the sacrococcygeal region.
  • 2. The mortality of treatment complications was low.
  • 3. The relapse of cancer was not a risk factor for therapeutic failure due to the high probability of second remission 4.
  • Therapeutic failures are mainly observed in patients with mixed germ cell tumour with components of yolk sac tumour or carcinoma embrionale.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Poland. Risk Factors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 18663271.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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15. Cao Avellaneda E, Alarcón Martínez H, Fuster Soler JL, López Cubillana P, Llinares Riestra E, Pérez Albacete M: [Testicular and paratesticular prepuberal tumors: our experience and update on the topic]. Actas Urol Esp; 2005 Apr;29(4):355-9
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  • [Title] [Testicular and paratesticular prepuberal tumors: our experience and update on the topic].
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the importance of testicular and paratesticular prepubertal tumors in our center and to make an update on the topic.
  • METHODS AND PATIENTS: Data from all patients diagnosed of testicular and paratesticular prepubertal tumors and treated in our pediatric oncology unit from January 1st 1998 to December 31st 2003 have been revised.
  • RESULTS: Seven cases are reported among one hundred and ninety patients (represents 3,68 percent of all treated tumors): five tumors affecting the testis and two cases of paratesticular tumors.
  • Pathology classification was as follows: one yolk sack tumor, one mature teratoma, two nongerminomatous testicular tumors (one Sertoli cell tumor and one unclassifiable), one Burkitt's lymphoma and two paratesticular rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • Primary approach was inguinal radical orchiectomy in all cases except neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the case of lymphoma and partial escrotectomy in one patient previously managed with transcrotal orchiectomy.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma cases received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Testicular and paratesticular prepubertal tumors are rare.
  • Except for one patient affected of lymphoma, surgical primary approach have been essential for treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15981422.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas espanolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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16. Celkan TT, Bariş S, Ozdemir N, Ozkan A, Apak H, Doğru O, Karaman S, Canbolat A, Ozdil M, Aki H, Adaletli I, Kurugoglu S, Hallac M, Yildiz I: Treatment of pediatric Burkitt lymphoma in Turkey. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Oct;32(7):e279-84
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  • [Title] Treatment of pediatric Burkitt lymphoma in Turkey.
  • This study aimed to assess the demographic data and treatment results of children who were diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma and treated according to the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster-95 (BFM) protocol in a single institution.
  • Primary tumor sites were abdomen (70.8%), head and neck (22.9%), peripheral lymph node (2%), bone (2%), and testis (2%).
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Asparaginase / adverse effects. Biopsy. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / mortality. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / mortality. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / adverse effects. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / mortality. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Turkey / epidemiology. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20736844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; PVDA protocol
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17. Lo Curto M, Lumia F, Alaggio R, Cecchetto G, Almasio P, Indolfi P, Siracusa F, Bagnulo S, De Bernardi B, De Laurentis T, Di Cataldo A, Tamaro P: Malignant germ cell tumors in childhood: results of the first Italian cooperative study "TCG 91". Med Pediatr Oncol; 2003 Nov;41(5):417-25
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  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors in childhood: results of the first Italian cooperative study "TCG 91".
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: About 20% of patients with germ cell tumor (GCT) are still resistant to therapy.
  • The site of the primary tumor was gonadal in 59, extragonadal in 36.
  • The treatment was surgery alone in 31; surgery plus radiotherapy in 1; chemotherapy +/- surgery in 63.
  • Post-chemotherapy resection in 19 (10 complete, 9 partial).
  • The chemotherapy regimen was carboplatin 400 mg/m2/day on days 1, 2; etoposide 150 mg/m2/day on days 1, 2; ifosfamide 1,500 mg/m2/day on days 21, 22; dactinomycin 1.5 mg/m2/day on day 21; vincristine 1.5 mg/m2/day on day 21.
  • Three patients died because of toxicity and two non-responders (to primary chemotherapy), died of progression; among the remaining 90 patients 20 relapsed, 9 are in second remission, 2 are alive with disease, and 9 died of disease progression (one from progression and intracranial hemorrhage).
  • Survival according to: (a) site: testis: 100%; ovary: 88%; sacrococcyx: 69.6%; other sites: 33.3% (P < 0.001);.
  • All the pts who had complete resection of the primary tumor at diagnosis or at delayed surgery, remained in remission.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multivariate analysis showed that the primary site of tumor was the only independent prognostic factor for survival and EFS.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Germinoma / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Confidence Intervals. Female. Humans. Incidence. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sex Distribution. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 14515380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-1532
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical and pediatric oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pediatr. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Terenziani M, D'Angelo P, Bisogno G, Boldrini R, Cecchetto G, Collini P, Conte M, De Laurentis T, Ilari I, Indolfi P, Inserra A, Piva L, Siracusa F, Spreafico F, Tamaro P, Lo Curto M: Teratoma with a malignant somatic component in pediatric patients: the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Apr;54(4):532-7
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  • [Title] Teratoma with a malignant somatic component in pediatric patients: the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Teratoma with a malignant somatic component (TMSC) is rare but described in adults, whereas information on pediatric presentation is sparse.
  • PROCEDURE: The Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica identified 14 cases of TMSC.
  • RESULTS: The series (9 female, 5 male) showed the following disease: testis (2), sacrococcygeal (3), ovary (3), retroperitoneum (3), mediastinum (2), and foot soft tissue (1).
  • Distribution of the somatic component was: carcinoma (4), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (1), neuroblastoma (3), rhabdomyosarcoma (3), rhabdomyosarcoma plus liposarcoma, chondrosarcoma, neurogenic sarcoma (1), chondrosarcoma plus neuroectodermal sarcoma (1), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (1).
  • The pediatric disease appears to be more heterogeneous in tumor site distribution and MSC histology than in adults.
  • Chemotherapy optimized for histology should include reagents directed to the somatic malignancy, if chemosensitive.
  • Malignant GCT warrants GCT-directed chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Italy. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20049928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Göbel U, Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Haas RJ, Schmidt P, Harms D: Germ-cell tumors in childhood and adolescence. GPOH MAKEI and the MAHO study groups. Ann Oncol; 2000 Mar;11(3):263-71

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  • [Title] Germ-cell tumors in childhood and adolescence. GPOH MAKEI and the MAHO study groups.
  • In mature and immature teratoma the treatment is surgical.
  • The risk of recurrence can be estimated from the parameters primary site (with the coccygeal tumors being most at risk), histological grade of immaturity and completeness of the primary resection including the adjacent organ of origin (coccyx, ovary, testis etc.).
  • In case of a microscopically complete tumor resection there is no role for adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy irrespective of the histological grade of immaturity.
  • In patients with extensive tumor growth, metastatic disease or secreting intracranial tumors a delayed tumor resection after preoperative chemotherapy is preferable.
  • In these patients malignant non-seminomatous GCT may be diagnosed clinically due to the increased serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels of the tumor markers AFP and/or beta-HCG.
  • Current risk adapted treatment protocols containing cisplatinum allow long-term remissions in about 80% including patients with bulky or metastatic tumors.
  • In the cisplatinum era the prognostic factors like histology, primary site of the tumor and initial tumor stage have partly lost their former impressive significance in infants and children.
  • On the other hand the completeness of the primary tumor resection according to oncological standards has been established as the most powerful prognostic parameter superior to tumor marker levels or primary site of the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 10811491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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21. Lo Curto M, D'Angelo P, Cecchetto G, Klersy C, Dall'Igna P, Federico A, Siracusa F, Alaggio R, Bernini G, Conte M, De Laurentis T, Di Cataldo A, Inserra A, Santoro N, Tamaro P, Indolfi P: Mature and immature teratomas: results of the first paediatric Italian study. Pediatr Surg Int; 2007 Apr;23(4):315-22
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  • Teratoma is the most common germ cell tumour in childhood; mature (MT) and immature teratomas (IT) are benign tumours, but if they recur, they can be in some cases malignant.
  • Clinical data, treatment and results were all analysed.
  • Chemotherapy (CT) with Vinblastine, D: -actinomycin and cyclophosphamide was indicated for extra-testicular IT grade 2 or 3.
  • MT was diagnosed in 127 patients (93 F and 34 M, age 1-192 months, median 24): 58 patients had gonadic tumour (23 testicular, 35 ovaric), 69 extragonadic (45 sacrococcygeal, 11 mediastinic, 7 retroperitoneal, 6 in other sites).
  • The T grading was 1 in 14 cases, 2 in 26, 3 in 16; 28 had gonadic T (17 ovary, 11 testis), 28 extragonadic (sacrococcygeal 19, mediastinic 3, retroperitoneal 2, other sites 4).
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Teratoma / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies

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  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
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22. Mingo L, Seguel F, Rollán V: Intraabdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumour. Pediatr Surg Int; 2005 Apr;21(4):279-81

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Desmoplastic small round cell tumour (DSRCT) is an extremely rare neoplasm.
  • He was treated with chemotherapy but died of hepatic failure.
  • Several hard masses were palpated in the abdomen, and a right inguinal mass that compressed the right testis was observed.
  • After treatment with chemotherapy, two operations were carried out to resect different intraabdominal masses.
  • The first patient died due to the advanced stage of the disease, and the second died after chemotherapy, peripheral blood stem transplantation, and multiple operations.
  • The occurrence of this type of tumour in the paediatric age group as well as its high malignancy is noteworthy.
  • Until more effective forms of treatment are found, we recommend treatment with chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy, with close monitoring of the patient.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Liver Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
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23. Landau H, Lamanna N: Clinical manifestations and treatment of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults. Curr Hematol Malig Rep; 2006 Sep;1(3):171-9
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  • [Title] Clinical manifestations and treatment of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults.
  • The treatment of adults with ALL has evolved largely from the therapy developed for childhood ALL and, despite differences across regimens, can be broadly classified as including induction, consolidation, maintenance, and central nervous system prophylaxis.
  • Although there has been marked improvement in the outcomes for pediatric patients with ALL, the same success has not yet been realized for adult patients.
  • This article reviews the classification, prognostic features, current treatment programs, and new advances as applied to adult patients with newly diagnosed ALL.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Burkitt Lymphoma / classification. Burkitt Lymphoma / therapy. Central Nervous System / pathology. Child. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cranial Irradiation. Eye / pathology. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Incidence. Leukemic Infiltration / drug therapy. Leukemic Infiltration / prevention & control. Leukemic Infiltration / radiotherapy. Lymphocyte Subsets / pathology. Male. Neoplasm, Residual. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Testis / pathology. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 20425348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-822X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current hematologic malignancy reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Hematol Malig Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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24. Agarwal PK, Palmer JS: Testicular and paratesticular neoplasms in prepubertal males. J Urol; 2006 Sep;176(3):875-81
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Testicular Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Testicular and paratesticular neoplasms in prepubertal males.
  • PURPOSE: We reviewed the current diagnosis, staging and management of testicular and paratesticular neoplasms in prepubertal males.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a medical literature search in English using MEDLINE/PubMed that addressed testicular and/or paratesticular neoplasms in prepubertal males.
  • A palpable, nontender mass suggests the diagnosis and prompts scrotal ultrasound and tumor markers.
  • Although treatment for most primary tumors has historically been radical inguinal orchiectomy, most benign tumors can now be managed by testis sparing surgery.
  • The addition of radiation, chemotherapy and/or retroperitoneal lymph node dissection depends on tumor stage and histological type.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although it is rare in children, any solid scrotal mass in prepubertal males warrants evaluation for possible testicular or paratesticular neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16890643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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