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1. Sato I, Higuchi A, Yanagisawa T, Mukasa A, Ida K, Sawamura Y, Sugiyama K, Saito N, Kumabe T, Terasaki M, Nishikawa R, Ishida Y, Kamibeppu K: Development of the Japanese version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Brain Tumor Module. Health Qual Life Outcomes; 2010;8:38
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  • [Title] Development of the Japanese version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Brain Tumor Module.
  • BACKGROUND: The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) is a widely-used modular instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in children aged 2 to 18 years.
  • The PedsQL Brain Tumor Module is comprised of six scales: Cognitive Problems, Pain and Hurt, Movement and Balance, Procedural Anxiety, Nausea, and Worry.
  • In the present study, we developed the Japanese version of the PedsQL Brain Tumor Module and investigated its feasibility, reliability, and validity among Japanese children and their parents.
  • Participants were recruited from 6 hospitals in Japan and the Children's Cancer Association of Japan, and questionnaires were completed by 137 children with brain tumors and 166 parents.
  • Feasibility of the questionnaire was determined based on the amount of time required to complete the form and the percentage of missing values.
  • Known-groups validity was described with regard to whole brain irradiation, developmental impairment, infratentorial tumors, paresis, and concurrent chemotherapy.
  • Evaluation of known-groups validity confirmed that the Cognitive Problems scale was sensitive for developmental impairment, the Movement and Balance scale for infratentorial tumors or paresis, and the Nausea scale for a patient currently undergoing chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The Japanese version of the PedsQL Brain Tumor Module is suitable for assessing health-related quality of life in children with brain tumors in clinical trials and research studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Quality of Life. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 20398254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7525
  • [Journal-full-title] Health and quality of life outcomes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Health Qual Life Outcomes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2873593
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2. Baussard B, Di Rocco F, Garnett MR, Boddaert N, Lellouch-Tubiana A, Grill J, Puget S, Roujeau T, Zerah M, Sainte-Rose C: Pediatric infratentorial gangliogliomas: a retrospective series. J Neurosurg; 2007 Oct;107(4 Suppl):286-91
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  • [Title] Pediatric infratentorial gangliogliomas: a retrospective series.
  • OBJECT: The aim of this study was to retrospectively review the clinical presentation, the roles of surgery and adjuvant therapy, and the treatment-related morbidity in children with a ganglioglioma in the posterior fossa and to try and determine the prognostic factors.
  • RESULTS: The surgical procedure did not cause deterioration in the neurological condition in any of the children.
  • There was no recurrence in the child who underwent total macroscopic excision of the tumor, and there has been no tumor progression in three children, two of whom have had no evidence of enhancement of the postoperative residual tumor.
  • The tumor has progressed in six children, requiring further surgery in three, chemotherapy in four, and radiotherapy and second-line chemotherapy in one child to control the tumor.
  • The patients in whom it was possible to achieve a radical resection, aimed at removing at least the enhancing portion of the tumor, have not required further treatment.
  • A second excision, for progressive tumors, is an effective adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglioglioma / diagnosis. Ganglioglioma / therapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Infratentorial Neoplasms / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurosurgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cranial Fossa, Posterior. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retreatment. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17941492.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Cohen KJ, Broniscer A, Glod J: Pediatric glial tumors. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2001 Dec;2(6):529-36
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  • [Title] Pediatric glial tumors.
  • Glial neoplasms in children comprise many heterogeneous tumors that include pilocytic and fibrillary astrocytomas, ependymomas, and the diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas.
  • In contrast to adults, most of whom present with high-grade fibrillary neoplasms, alternate histologies represent most cases seen in the pediatric setting.
  • In addition, although most adult gliomas are supratentorial in location, in pediatrics infratentorial tumors (posterior fossa and brain stem) predominate.
  • We discuss three specific tumors: diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas; pilocytic astrocytomas; and ependymomas.
  • Maximal surgical resection is the mainstay of therapy for both pilocytic astrocytomas and ependymomas.
  • Failure to achieve an optimal resection often results in progression and the need for further therapy for patients with pilocytic astrocytomas, and is ultimately fatal in most children with subtotally resected ependymomas.
  • Surgical resection has no role in the treatment of pontine gliomas.
  • Focal radiation therapy is included routinely in the treatment of ependymomas, and it has been shown to improve event-free survival.
  • This therapy also is used in the treatment of pontine gliomas because radiation treatment appears to slow inevitable tumor progression.
  • Radiation therapy in pilocytic astrocytomas is generally reserved for patients who progress after an initial surgical resection or for those patients with midline tumors; these patients are poor candidates for aggressive surgical resection.
  • The role of chemotherapy in these tumors is in evolution.
  • Chemotherapy for pilocytic astrocytomas, particularly in young children (for whom radiation therapy is avoided), appears to be effective in the treatment of a subset of patients.
  • Up-front chemotherapy is generally reserved for the youngest children who present with ependymoma.
  • In the recurrence setting, chemotherapy has shown some activity, although this approach is never curative.
  • Despite the application of various chemotherapeutics and other biologic agents, none of these therapies has improved the prognosis for patients with the uniformly lethal pontine glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / therapy. Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Craniotomy. Disease Progression. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / therapy. Epidemiologic Methods. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Hydrocephalus / surgery. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Infratentorial Neoplasms / therapy. Palliative Care. Pons. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12057098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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4. Finkelstein-Shechter T, Gassas A, Mabbott D, Huang A, Bartels U, Tabori U, Janzen L, Hawkins C, Taylor M, Bouffet E: Atypical teratoid or rhabdoid tumors: improved outcome with high-dose chemotherapy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Jul;32(5):e182-6
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid or rhabdoid tumors: improved outcome with high-dose chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively review an institutional experience in managing atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) of the Central Nervous System with high-dose chemotherapy in infants and children less than 4 years old.
  • Tumor location was supratentorial in 3 cases, infratentorial in 3 cases, and multifocal in 2 patients.
  • Two of these patients did not receive any active therapy.
  • After surgery, the 6 remaining patients received induction therapy followed by sequential high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue.
  • RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 52 months, 4 patients are alive without evidence of tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This experience confirms that a subset of young AT/RT patients may achieve long-term survival with intensive and high-dose chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rhabdoid Tumor / drug therapy. Teratoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [ErratumIn] J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2011 Jul;33(5):400. Laura, Janzen [corrected to Janzen, Laura]
  • (PMID = 20495479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. Merchant TE, Kiehna EN, Li C, Shukla H, Sengupta S, Xiong X, Gajjar A, Mulhern RK: Modeling radiation dosimetry to predict cognitive outcomes in pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors including medulloblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 May 01;65(1):210-21
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  • [Title] Modeling radiation dosimetry to predict cognitive outcomes in pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors including medulloblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: Model the effects of radiation dosimetry on IQ among pediatric patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors (n = 39) were prospectively evaluated with serial cognitive testing, before and after treatment with postoperative, risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and conformal primary-site irradiation, followed by chemotherapy.
  • Differential dose-volume data for 5 brain volumes (total brain, supratentorial brain, infratentorial brain, and left and right temporal lobes) were correlated with IQ after surgery and at follow-up by use of linear regression.
  • For most models, each Gy of exposure had a similar effect on IQ decline, regardless of dose level.
  • Despite measures to reduce radiation dose and treatment volume, the volume that receives the highest dose continues to have the greatest effect, which supports current volume-reduction efforts.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Intelligence / radiation effects. Models, Psychological. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Cranial Irradiation / methods. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Humans. Intelligence Tests. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors / radiotherapy. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Rhabdoid Tumor / drug therapy. Rhabdoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Temporal Lobe / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 16472938.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA023944; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Miralbell R, Fitzgerald TJ, Laurie F, Kessel S, Glicksman A, Friedman HS, Urie M, Kepner JL, Zhou T, Chen Z, Barnes P, Kun L, Tarbell NJ: Radiotherapy in pediatric medulloblastoma: quality assessment of Pediatric Oncology Group Trial 9031. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Apr 1;64(5):1325-30
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy in pediatric medulloblastoma: quality assessment of Pediatric Oncology Group Trial 9031.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential influence of radiotherapy quality on survival in high-risk pediatric medulloblastoma patients.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Trial 9031 of the Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) aimed to study the relative benefit of cisplatin and etoposide randomization of high-risk patients with medulloblastoma to preradiotherapy vs. postradiotherapy treatment.
  • Treatment volume (whole brain, spine, posterior fossa, and primary tumor bed) and dose prescription deviations were assessed for each patient.
  • A log-rank test was used to determine the significance of potential survival differences between patients with and without major deviations in the radiotherapy procedure.
  • RESULTS: Of 160 patients who were fully evaluable for all treatment quality parameters, 91 (57%) had 1 or more major deviations in their treatment schedule.
  • Major deviations by treatment site were brain (26%), spinal (7%), posterior fossa (40%), and primary tumor bed (17%).
  • Major treatment volume or total dose deviations did not significantly influence overall and event-free survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite major treatment deviations in more than half of fully evaluable patients, underdosage or treatment volume misses were not associated with a worse event-free or overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Spinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cranial Irradiation / methods. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Infratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Infratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Quality Assurance, Health Care. Radiotherapy / standards. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16413699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 29511
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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7. de León-Bojorge B, Rueda-Franco F, Anaya-Jara M: Central nervous system atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor: experience at the National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico City. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Mar;24(3):307-12
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  • [Title] Central nervous system atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor: experience at the National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico City.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to present our experience with ten cases of Central nervous system atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (CNS/ATRT).
  • The gender, age of presentation, clinical features, tumor localization, imaging studies, grade of tumor resection, complications, adjuvant therapy, and survival are presented.
  • The more common clinical presentation was intracranial hypertension with cranial nerve deficits; location was infratentorial in four patients and supratentorial in six.
  • There were two cases with longer survival (9 and 16 months), and their tumors were resected in total or subtotal manner and received adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy and chemotherapy).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results, show that in older children, we can improve their survival with the subtotal or total resection of the tumor and the addition of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Hydrocephalus / pathology. Infant. Male. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17876589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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8. Fangusaro JR, Jubran RF, Allen J, Gardner S, Dunkel IJ, Rosenblum M, Atlas MP, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Miller D, Finlay JL: Brainstem primitive neuroectodermal tumors (bstPNET): results of treatment with intensive induction chemotherapy followed by consolidative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):715-7
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  • [Title] Brainstem primitive neuroectodermal tumors (bstPNET): results of treatment with intensive induction chemotherapy followed by consolidative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue.
  • We have evaluated the response rate and survival utilizing intensified chemotherapy followed by myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR) and adjuvant radiation therapy in six young children with newly diagnosed brainstem primitive neuroectodermal tumors (bstPNET).
  • Following maximum surgical resection of the tumor, patients received high dose induction chemotherapy including vincristine, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide.
  • Eligible patients received a single cycle of myeloablative chemotherapy followed by AuHCR.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Brain Stem. Infratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Damage, Chronic / etiology. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Infant. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Mesna / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Transplantation, Autologous. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17009232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; NR7O1405Q9 / Mesna; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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9. Hurwitz CA, Strauss LC, Kepner J, Kretschmar C, Harris MB, Friedman H, Kun L, Kadota R: Paclitaxel for the treatment of progressive or recurrent childhood brain tumors: a pediatric oncology phase II study. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2001 Jun-Jul;23(5):277-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paclitaxel for the treatment of progressive or recurrent childhood brain tumors: a pediatric oncology phase II study.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and define the toxicity of paclitaxel given at a dosage of 350 mg/m2 every 3 weeks as a 24-hour continuous infusion to children with recurrent or progressive primary brain tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three eligible patients, ages 4 months to 19 years, with progressive or recurrent primary brain tumors were treated according to a Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) phase II protocol with paclitaxel (POG 9330).
  • Tumor histologic strata included: astrocytoma (n = 4), malignant glioma (n = 13), medulloblastoma (n = 16), brain stem glioma (n = 15), ependymoma (n = 13), and miscellaneous histologies (n = 12).
  • All patients had previous histologic confirmation of a primary intracranial or spinal cord tumor with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography documentation of unequivocally measurable progressive or recurrent disease.
  • All patients had received previous therapy including surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy, but no patient had been previously treated on more than one phase II trial.
  • Patients were allowed to continue therapy for a total of 18 cycles in the absence of progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity.
  • RESULTS: Seventy-five patients were enrolled onto the POG 9330 protocol; two ineligible patients were removed from the study before receiving any therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Paclitaxel is well tolerated in children with recurrent or progressive brain tumors at this dosage and schedule and may result in short-term disease stabilization in this patient population.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Drug Hypersensitivity / prevention & control. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Nausea / chemically induced. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 11464982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03161; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA07431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA15525; etc
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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10. Massimino M, Gandola L, Giangaspero F, Sandri A, Valagussa P, Perilongo G, Garrè ML, Ricardi U, Forni M, Genitori L, Scarzello G, Spreafico F, Barra S, Mascarin M, Pollo B, Gardiman M, Cama A, Navarria P, Brisigotti M, Collini P, Balter R, Fidani P, Stefanelli M, Burnelli R, Potepan P, Podda M, Sotti G, Madon E, AIEOP Pediatric Neuro-Oncology Group: Hyperfractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy for childhood ependymoma: final results of the first prospective AIEOP (Associazione Italiana di Ematologia-Oncologia Pediatrica) study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Apr 1;58(5):1336-45
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  • [Title] Hyperfractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy for childhood ependymoma: final results of the first prospective AIEOP (Associazione Italiana di Ematologia-Oncologia Pediatrica) study.
  • HFRT dose was 70.4 Gy (1.1 Gy/fraction b.i.d.
  • RESULTS: Sixty-three consecutive children were enrolled: 46 NED, 17 ED; the tumor was infratentorial in 47 and supratentorial in 16, with spinal metastasis in 1.
  • Of NED patients, 35 of 46 have been treated with HFRT; 8 received conventionally fractionated radiotherapy, and 3 received no treatment.
  • Of the 17 ED patients, 9 received VEC + HFRT; violations due to postsurgical morbidity were as follows: HFRT only (2), conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (3) + VEC (2), and no therapy (1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: HFRT, despite the high total dose adopted, did not change the prognosis of childhood ependymoma as compared to historical series: New radiotherapeutic approaches are needed to improve local control.
  • Future ependymoma strategies should consider grading when stratifying treatment indications.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dose Fractionation. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Feasibility Studies. Humans. Infratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Patient Compliance. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Supratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Survival Analysis. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15050308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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11. Klepstad P, Borchgrevink P, Hval B, Flaat S, Kaasa S: Long-term treatment with ketamine in a 12-year-old girl with severe neuropathic pain caused by a cervical spinal tumor. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2001 Dec;23(9):616-9
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  • [Title] Long-term treatment with ketamine in a 12-year-old girl with severe neuropathic pain caused by a cervical spinal tumor.
  • A 12-year-old girl presented with head and neck pain, myoclonic movements, and decreased strength in all extremities caused by a cervical spinal tumor (glioblastoma multiforme).
  • A partial resection of the tumor was performed.
  • For the last 29 days of life, the pain treatment regimen was successfully continued in her home (400-km distance from the hospital).
  • In conclusion, this case demonstrates that ketamine treatment may be effective in children with severe neuropathic pain not responsive to other analgesics.
  • This patient also demonstrates the feasibility of long-term ketamine treatment in pediatric oncology and that such treatment can be administered in a home care setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics / therapeutic use. Brain Stem. Cervical Vertebrae. Glioblastoma / complications. Hyperalgesia / drug therapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / complications. Ketamine / therapeutic use. Pain, Intractable / drug therapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Analgesia, Patient-Controlled. Child. Diazepam / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance. Fatal Outcome. Female. Home Care Services. Humans. Midazolam / therapeutic use. Morphine / therapeutic use. Palliative Care. Touch

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  • (PMID = 11902308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics; 690G0D6V8H / Ketamine; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; Q3JTX2Q7TU / Diazepam; R60L0SM5BC / Midazolam
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12. Merchant TE, Mulhern RK, Krasin MJ, Kun LE, Williams T, Li C, Xiong X, Khan RB, Lustig RH, Boop FA, Sanford RA: Preliminary results from a phase II trial of conformal radiation therapy and evaluation of radiation-related CNS effects for pediatric patients with localized ependymoma. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Aug 1;22(15):3156-62
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  • [Title] Preliminary results from a phase II trial of conformal radiation therapy and evaluation of radiation-related CNS effects for pediatric patients with localized ependymoma.
  • PURPOSE: We conducted a phase II trial of conformal radiation therapy (CRT) for localized childhood ependymoma to determine whether the irradiated volume could be reduced to decrease CNS-related side effects without diminishing the rate of disease control.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between July 1997 and January 2003, 88 pediatric patients (median age, 2.85 +/- 4.5 years) received CRT in which doses (59.4 Gy to 73 patients or 54.0 Gy after gross-total resection to 15 patients younger than 18 months) were administered to the gross tumor volume and a margin of 10 mm.
  • Patients were categorized according to extent of resection (underwent gross total resection, n = 74; near-total resection, n = 6; subtotal resection, n = 8), prior chemotherapy (n = 16), tumor grade (anaplastic, n = 35), and tumor location (infratentorial, n = 68).
  • CONCLUSION: Limited-volume irradiation achieves high rates of disease control in pediatric patients with ependymoma and results in stable neurocognitive outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / radiation effects. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cognition / radiation effects. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Society of Clinical Onocology
  • (PMID = 15284268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Hilden JM, Meerbaum S, Burger P, Finlay J, Janss A, Scheithauer BW, Walter AW, Rorke LB, Biegel JA: Central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor: results of therapy in children enrolled in a registry. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14):2877-84
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  • [Title] Central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor: results of therapy in children enrolled in a registry.
  • PURPOSE: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) of the CNS is an extremely rare and aggressive tumor of early childhood.
  • The poor outcome with conventional infant brain tumor therapy has resulted in a lack of clear treatment guidelines.
  • A registry has been established to create an outcomes database and to facilitate biology studies for this tumor.
  • Sixteen tumors were infratentorial; 26 were supratentorial.
  • Primary therapy included chemotherapy in all patients, radiotherapy in 13 patients (31%), stem-cell rescue in 13 patients (31%), and intrathecal chemotherapy in 16 patients (38%).
  • CONCLUSION: Aggressive therapy has prolonged the natural history in a subset of children.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Registries. Rhabdoid Tumor / therapy. Teratoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15254056.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 46274
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Jaing TH, Wang HS, Tsay PK, Tseng CK, Jung SM, Lin KL, Lui TN: Multivariate analysis of clinical prognostic factors in children with intracranial ependymomas. J Neurooncol; 2004 Jul;68(3):255-61

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The optimal postoperative management of pediatric intracranial ependymomas is controversial.
  • Our retrospective series included 15 with supratentorial and 28 with infratentorial tumors.
  • Radiotherapy was done in 31 patients and chemotherapy in 13.
  • The median survival time was 30 months, and 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 53.9% and 45.9%, respectively.
  • By tumor site: supratentorial, 56.6% and 50.9%; infratentorial, 52.3% and 42.5%.
  • Only one of 15 patients with supratentorial tumors developed isolated spinal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / diagnosis. Infratentorial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Supratentorial Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15332330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Hong TS, Mehta MP, Boyett JM, Donahue B, Rorke LB, Zeltzer PM: Patterns of treatment failure in infants with primitive neuroectodermal tumors who were treated on CCG-921: a phase III combined modality study. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Oct 15;45(5):676-82
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  • [Title] Patterns of treatment failure in infants with primitive neuroectodermal tumors who were treated on CCG-921: a phase III combined modality study.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze patterns of treatment failure in infants with primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) who were treated primarily with chemotherapy in a large multi-institutional study.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five prospectively staged patients with PNET confirmed by central pathology review, who were 18 months or younger were treated on Children's Cancer Group Study 921 (CCG-921) primarily with chemotherapy.
  • Forty-six patients had posterior fossa (PF) primary tumors and 19 patients had supratentorial (ST) primaries.
  • Patterns of sites of initial treatment failure were analyzed and compared to failure patterns of 180 older children who had PF-PNETs, and 44 older children with ST-PNETs who were treated on the same protocol.
  • Cumulative 5-year relapse incidence (+/-SE) for younger patients with PF-PNETs was 64.5 +/- 8.9% for patients without metastases (M0) compared to 71.4 +/- 13.4% for patients with metastases (M+).
  • The overall treatment failure rate was significantly higher for younger compared to older patients with PF-PNET and ST-PNET.
  • There was no statistically significant difference in relapse patterns between patients with PF primary tumors and ST primaries when stratified by stage.
  • All patients had a high risk of recurrence at primary tumor site.
  • Younger patients who had PF primary tumors without metastasis at presentation were significantly more likely to relapse in PF than older patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite aggressive chemotherapy, younger children with PNETs have high rates of treatment failure and fare worse than high-risk, older patients with PF-PNETs, indicating the need to maximize local, regional, and systemic therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Supratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16007595.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. López-Aguilar E, Sepúlveda-Vildósola AC, Rivera-Márquez H, Cerecedo-Díaz F, Hernández-Contreras I, Ramón-García G, Diegopérez-Ramírez J, Santacruz-Castillo E: Preirradiation ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide for the treatment of anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastoma multiforme: a phase II study. Arch Med Res; 2000 Mar-Apr;31(2):186-90
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  • [Title] Preirradiation ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide for the treatment of anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastoma multiforme: a phase II study.
  • BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the second most common pediatric tumors.
  • Astrocytomas represent 35% of all CNS tumors in children.
  • Traditional treatment of anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma multiforme (GM) consisting of surgery-radiotherapy-chemotherapy with nitrosoureas has resulted in a survival rate of 26% at 1 year.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has proven good results in the treatment of other solid tumors.
  • Chemotherapy with ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) permits synergism among the different drugs and sensitizes the tumor to radiotherapy.
  • Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy, security, and survival rate of postoperative chemotherapy with ICE in pediatric patients with AA or GM.
  • We evaluated 11 children with AA or GM who had received no prior treatment.
  • A magnetic resonance image (MRI) study of the tumor was made after surgery to evaluate residual tumor and routine laboratory analysis.
  • Chemotherapy with carboplatin, ifosfamide and etoposide was given every 3 weeks for four courses.
  • Each patient then received hyperfractionated radiotherapy and a final MRI was done at the end of the treatment.
  • Supratentorial and infratentorial tumors had a good response to chemotherapy.
  • Brainstem tumors had an initial response after two courses and then increased in size.
  • AA was the tumor with the greatest reduction of residual tumor after treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative chemotherapy with ICE reduces the tumor size and increases the survival rate of pediatric patients with malignant astrocytomas with minimal toxicity.
  • Brainstem responded poorly to treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Premedication. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Life Tables. Male. Mesna / administration & dosage. Prospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10880725.001).
  • [ISSN] 0188-4409
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] MEXICO
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; NR7O1405Q9 / Mesna; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; ICE protocol 5
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17. Aarsen FK, Paquier PF, Arts WF, Van Veelen ML, Michiels E, Lequin M, Catsman-Berrevoets CE: Cognitive deficits and predictors 3 years after diagnosis of a pilocytic astrocytoma in childhood. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Jul 20;27(21):3526-32
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  • [Title] Cognitive deficits and predictors 3 years after diagnosis of a pilocytic astrocytoma in childhood.
  • PURPOSE To prospectively study cognitive deficits and predictors 3 years after diagnosis in a large series of pediatric patients treated for pilocytic astrocytoma (PA).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS Sixty-one of 67 children were grouped according to infratentorial, supratentorial midline, and supratentorial hemispheric site.
  • Included predictors were sex, age, relapse, diagnosis-assessment interval, hydrocephalus, kind of treatment, and tumor variables.
  • In the infratentorial group, there also were deficits in verbal intelligence, visual-spatial memory, executive functioning, and naming.
  • Verbal intelligence and verbal memory problems occurred in the brainstem tumor group.
  • The supratentorial hemispheric tumor group had additional problems with selective attention and executive functioning, and the supratentorial midline tumor group displayed no extra impairments.
  • More specifically, the dorsal supratentorial midline tumor group displayed problems with language and verbal memory.
  • Predictors for lower cognitive functioning were hydrocephalus, radiotherapy, residual tumor size, and age; predictors for better functioning were chemotherapy or treatment of hydrocephalus.
  • Adequate treatment of hydrocephalus is important for a more favorable long-term cognitive outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Cerebellar Neoplasms / complications. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Hydrocephalus / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19433687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Agaoglu FY, Ayan I, Dizdar Y, Kebudi R, Gorgun O, Darendeliler E: Ependymal tumors in childhood. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Sep;45(3):298-303
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  • [Title] Ependymal tumors in childhood.
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymal tumors are classified as ependymoma (benign or low grade) versus anaplastic ependymoma (malignant or high grade).
  • Ependymomas represent 5-10% of intracranial neoplasm in children.
  • In this study, demographic data and the treatment results of pediatric patients with ependymal tumors, treated in a single institute, is reported.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1989 and 2001, 40 (22 M/18 F) previously untreated patients with a median age of 5.5 years (3 months-15 years), of histologically proven ependymal tumors (except ependymoblastomas) were referred to the Institute of Oncology, University of Istanbul.
  • The localization was supratentorial in 18, infratentorial in 20, both supra and infratentorial in two patients.
  • Total tumor resection was performed in 20 patients (50%), subtotal in 18 patients (45%), and biopsy only in 2 patients (5%).
  • Postoperative treatment consisted of regional (8 patients) or craniospinal (CSI) (9 patients) radiotherapy (RT) in patients with ependymoma; regional (7 patients) or CSI RT (14 patients) with chemotherapy (ChT) in patients with anaplastic ependymoma; ChT only (1 patient) in patients less than 3 years of age.
  • The standard technique for posterior fossa irradiation was parallel-opposed lateral fields and total dose was 45-54 Gy.
  • Median time for progression or relapse was 24.3 months and there were 19 patients (43.6%) with relapse or progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The majority of complete responders were patients who had total tumor removal.
  • Treatment failure occurred mainly within the first 2 years, and outcome was dismal for patients who relapsed or had progressive disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Ependymoma

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15770637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Rivera-Luna R, Zapata-Tarrés M, Medina-Sansón A, López-Aguilar E, Niembro-Zúñiga A, Amador Zarco J, Marhx-Bracho A, Rueda-Franco F, Bornstein-Quevedo L: Long-term survival in children under 3 years of age with low-grade astrocytoma. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 May;23(5):543-7
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  • Thirty-one (72.1%) children had incomplete surgical tumor resection and 12 (27.9%) had a complete tumor resection.
  • Twelve (27.9%) patients had cranial radiotherapy and 17 (39.5%) received chemotherapy.
  • DFS for the supratentorial group was 60% at 250 months, whereas, for the infratentorial, it was 22% at 120 months (p = 0.008).
  • Radiotherapy and chemotherapy did not alter the outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17226033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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20. Nejat F, Kazmi SS, Ardakani SB: Congenital brain tumors in a series of seven patients. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2008;44(1):1-8
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  • [Title] Congenital brain tumors in a series of seven patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Congenital brain tumors are very rare.
  • We review these tumors in patients younger than 2 months diagnosed in our Department.
  • METHODS: Seven congenital brain tumors were diagnosed during 5 years.
  • All neuroimaging studies revealed nonhomogenous tumors with cystic and solid components, except for the case with choroid plexus papilloma (CPP).
  • Most were infratentorial lesions.
  • There were three teratomas, one primitive neuroectodermal tumor, one ependymoblastoma and one CPP.
  • One patient died due to complications of chemotherapy and another one due to tumor recurrence 1 year after surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Today, the availability of noninvasive imaging procedures such as computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging has improved the diagnosis of congenital brain tumors.
  • In spite of development in prenatal diagnosis, appropriate pre- and postoperative management, the mortality associated with these tumors still remains high.
  • CPP is accompanied by the best prognosis, whereas teratoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors have the worst prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fetal Diseases / diagnosis. Prenatal Diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18097184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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