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1. Kretschmar C, Kleinberg L, Greenberg M, Burger P, Holmes E, Wharam M: Pre-radiation chemotherapy with response-based radiation therapy in children with central nervous system germ cell tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Mar;48(3):285-91
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  • [Title] Pre-radiation chemotherapy with response-based radiation therapy in children with central nervous system germ cell tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • BACKGROUND: This Phase II study was designed to determine response to chemotherapy and survival after response-based radiation (RT) in children with CNS germ cell tumors.
  • PROCEDURE: Children with germinomas and normal markers received cisplatin 100 mg/m(2) + etoposide, alternating with vincristine + cyclophosphamide (CPM) 2 g/m(2)/d, for four cycles.
  • For germinoma patients in complete response (CR), RT was decreased from 50.4 to 30.6 Gy.
  • High-risk patients received neuraxis RT: 50.4 Gy local + 30.6 Gy neuraxis in CR; 54 Gy local + 36 Gy if less than CR.
  • RESULTS: Of 12 germinoma patients, 4 had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) 6.9-21 mIU/ml.
  • Four germinoma patients attained CR, six PR, one SD, one not evaluable after resection.
  • Eleven germinoma patients are PF at median 66 months; one patient in CR refused RT, had PD at 10 months, received RT, and was PF at 56 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Response (germinoma, 91%; nongerminomatous, 55%) and survival are encouraging after this regimen plus response-based RT.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 16598761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006973
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS582771; NLM/ PMC4086720
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2. Tsugu H, Oshiro S, Ueno Y, Abe H, Komatsu F, Sakamoto S, Matsumoto S, Nabeshima K, Fukushima T, Inoue T: Primary yolk sac tumor within the lateral ventricle. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2009 Nov;49(11):528-31
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  • [Title] Primary yolk sac tumor within the lateral ventricle.
  • A 13-year-old girl presented with an exceedingly rare case of primary yolk sac tumor located within the lateral ventricle, manifesting as headache, nausea, and diplopia.
  • The tumor was removed subtotally via left middle temporal corticotomy.
  • The histological and immunohistochemical diagnosis was pure yolk sac tumor.
  • The patient underwent radiotherapy (whole brain, 30 Gy; tumor bed, 21 Gy; whole spinal axis, 30 Gy) and chemotherapy (ifosfamide, cisplatin, etoposide).
  • After three treatment cycles, the serum AFP level had decreased to 4.5 ng/ml.
  • However, the tumor recurred with cerebrospinal fluid dissemination after nine cycles of chemotherapy.
  • The possibility of germ cell tumor should be considered in pediatric patients with brain tumors occurring outside the pineal or suprasellar region.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Lateral Ventricles / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Diplopia / etiology. Drug Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Headache / etiology. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Intracranial Hypertension / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Nausea / etiology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neurosurgical Procedures. Radiotherapy. Ventriculostomy. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19940403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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3. Echevarría ME, Fangusaro J, Goldman S: Pediatric central nervous system germ cell tumors: a review. Oncologist; 2008 Jun;13(6):690-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pediatric central nervous system germ cell tumors: a review.
  • Central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent approximately 3% of primary pediatric brain tumors and encompass a wide pathologic spectrum.
  • CNS GCTs are most commonly located in the pineal and suprasellar regions of the brain and can be divided into major groups including germinomas and nongerminomatous GCTs (NGGCTs), with teratomas often considered a separate category.
  • The clinical presentation varies by location and size, and it frequently includes endocrine abnormalities, visual changes, and signs of increased intracranial pressure.
  • The rare exceptions are the cases where characteristic elevations of tumor markers, including alpha-fetoprotein and/or beta-human chorionic gonadotropin are documented in the serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid.
  • In these cases, the imaging findings along with the tumor marker elevation may be diagnostic in themselves without the need for tissue confirmation.
  • Treatment and prognosis differ greatly between groups.
  • More recently, the use of chemotherapy in addition to radiation therapy has afforded the ability to decrease the dose and volume of radiation therapy without affecting survival rates.
  • NGGCTs are less radiosensitive than germinomas, but the use of adjuvant chemotherapy has improved survival rates in this group as well.
  • The standard management for CNS GCTs remains controversial.
  • Treatment regimens aimed to improve progression-free and overall survival times are ongoing.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18586924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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4. Geyer JR, Sposto R, Jennings M, Boyett JM, Axtell RA, Breiger D, Broxson E, Donahue B, Finlay JL, Goldwein JW, Heier LA, Johnson D, Mazewski C, Miller DC, Packer R, Puccetti D, Radcliffe J, Tao ML, Shiminski-Maher T, Children's Cancer Group: Multiagent chemotherapy and deferred radiotherapy in infants with malignant brain tumors: a report from the Children's Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Oct 20;23(30):7621-31
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  • [Title] Multiagent chemotherapy and deferred radiotherapy in infants with malignant brain tumors: a report from the Children's Cancer Group.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate response rate, event-free survival (EFS), and toxicity of two chemotherapeutic regimens for treatment of children younger than 36 months with malignant brain tumors and to estimate control intervals without irradiation in children with no residual tumor after initial surgery and induction chemotherapy and with delayed irradiation in patients with residual tumor or metastatic disease at diagnosis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to one of two regimens of induction chemotherapy (vincristine, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide v vincristine, carboplatin, ifosfamide, and etoposide).
  • Maintenance chemotherapy began after induction in children without progressive disease.
  • Children with no residual tumors after induction therapy and no metastatic disease at diagnosis were not to receive radiation therapy unless their tumors progressed.
  • Forty-two percent of patients responded to induction chemotherapy.
  • For medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor, ependymoma, and rhabdoid tumors, 5-year EFS rates were 32% +/- 5%, 17% +/- 6%, and 32% +/- 6%, and 14% +/- 7%, respectively.
  • Fifty-eight percent of patients who were alive 5 years after study entry had not received radiation therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Intensified induction chemotherapy resulted in a high response rate of malignant brain tumors in infants.
  • Survival was comparable to that of previous studies, and most patients who survived did not receive radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / surgery. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Glioma / surgery. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive, Peripheral / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive, Peripheral / radiotherapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive, Peripheral / surgery. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16234523.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 10382
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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5. Khatua S, Dhall G, O'Neil S, Jubran R, Villablanca JG, Marachelian A, Nastia A, Lavey R, Olch AJ, Gonzalez I, Gilles F, Nelson M, Panigrahy A, McComb G, Krieger M, Fan J, Sposto R, Finlay JL: Treatment of primary CNS germinomatous germ cell tumors with chemotherapy prior to reduced dose whole ventricular and local boost irradiation. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Jul 15;55(1):42-6
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  • [Title] Treatment of primary CNS germinomatous germ cell tumors with chemotherapy prior to reduced dose whole ventricular and local boost irradiation.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a reduced irradiation dose strategy for newly diagnosed primary central nervous system (CNS) germinomas.
  • METHODS: Twenty patients with histologically diagnosed localized pure germinoma (n = 19) or germinoma with a mature teratoma component (n = 1) received four cycles of carboplatin and etoposide at 3-week intervals.
  • In 18 patients, chemotherapy was followed by whole ventricular irradiation to 21.6-25.5 Gy with a simultaneous integrated or sequential primary site boost to 30-30.6 Gy.
  • Initial tumor markers for beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCGbeta) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were evaluated in serum and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
  • Neurocognitive function was evaluated periodically following treatment.
  • RESULTS: Eighteen of 20 patients are without evidence of residual or recurrent tumor.
  • Both relapsing patients were subsequently determined to harbor malignant non-germinomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT).
  • CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy followed by reduced dose whole ventricular and local boost irradiation appears to be effective in patients with localized pure CNS germinoma with evidence of preservation of neurocognitive function.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Germinoma / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Etoposide / adverse effects. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20222020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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6. Calaminus G, Bamberg M, Jürgens H, Kortmann RD, Sörensen N, Wiestler OD, Göbel U: Impact of surgery, chemotherapy and irradiation on long term outcome of intracranial malignant non-germinomatous germ cell tumors: results of the German Cooperative Trial MAKEI 89. Klin Padiatr; 2004 May-Jun;216(3):141-9
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  • [Title] Impact of surgery, chemotherapy and irradiation on long term outcome of intracranial malignant non-germinomatous germ cell tumors: results of the German Cooperative Trial MAKEI 89.
  • Malignant non-germinomatous intracranial germ cell tumors (MNGGCTs) are a heterogenous group of neoplastic lesions.
  • Their treatment concept follows a multimodal concept that may include tumor resection for local tumor control, craniospinal irradiation to cover leptomenigeal tumor spread and chemotherapy to eliminate systemic tumor dissemination.
  • A Platinum-based chemotherapy proven to be highly effective in testicular and non-testicular malignant germ cell tumors in adults as well as in children has also been chosen for intracranial sites.
  • While therapeutic concepts have been thoroughly evaluated for children and adolescents with extracranial nongonadal GCTs, no such detailed long term follow-up data are available for intracranial MNGGCTs.
  • This paper reports on the long-term outcome of 41 patients with intracranial malignant non-germinomatous GCTs enrolled into the German prospective protocol MAKEI 89.
  • The analysis focuses on the impact of surgery, radio- and chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 1989 and January 1994, 41 patients with malignant intracranial non-germinomatous GCTs were registered.
  • Patients were compared in respect to protocol (n = 27) and non-protocol treatment (n = 14).
  • Estimated were with chi (2) and Fisher exact test the impact of surgery, chemotherapy and irradiation on outcome.
  • RESULTS: The estimated (Kaplan-Meier) 5-year event free survival (EFS) of patients treated according to protocol recommendations was 0.59 +/- 0.06 (n = 27), compared to an EFS of 0.37 +/- 0.33 for patients with different treatments (n = 14) (p = 0.70, log-rank).
  • The 5-year relapse-free survival rate (RFS) was 0.74 +/- 0.06 in protocol patients and 0.38 +/- 0.33 in non-protocol patients (median observation time of 112 months after diagnosis for surviving patients) (p = 0.14, log-rank).
  • CONCLUSION: Cisplatin chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation with tumor boost are of significant influence on long term survival in patients with MNGGCTs.
  • The exclusion of major surgery at diagnosis using modern advances in neurosurgery or related tumor resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy will allow a further reduction of treatment related mortality and long lasting morbidity.
  • The analysis reveals that, given effective treatment, intracranial malignant non-germinomatous GCTs should not longer carry a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cranial Irradiation. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Pinealoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15175958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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7. da Silva NS, Cappellano AM, Diez B, Cavalheiro S, Gardner S, Wisoff J, Kellie S, Parker R, Garvin J, Finlay J: Primary chemotherapy for intracranial germ cell tumors: results of the third international CNS germ cell tumor study. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Mar;54(3):377-83
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  • [Title] Primary chemotherapy for intracranial germ cell tumors: results of the third international CNS germ cell tumor study.
  • BACKGROUND: The treatment of central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCT) remains controversial.
  • The purpose of this study was to demonstrate efficacy of a chemotherapy only strategy, with less morbidity, when compared to regimens with irradiation.
  • METHODS: Between January 2001 and December 2004 newly diagnosed patients with CNS GCT were treated with one of two risk-tailored chemotherapy regimens.
  • Twenty-five patients aged 4 months to 24.5 years were stratified: Regimen A consisted of 4-6 cycles of carboplatin/etoposide alternating with cyclophosphamide/etoposide for low risk (LR) localized germinoma with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum tumor markers.
  • Regimen B consisted of 4-6 cycles of carboplatin/cyclophosphamide/etoposide for intermediate-risk (IR) germinoma with positive human chorionic gonadotrophin-beta (HCGbeta) and/or CSF HCGbeta <50 mIU/ml and high-risk (HR) biopsy-proven non-germinomatous malignant elements (MMGCT) or elevated serum/CSF alpha-fetoprotein and/or HCGbeta serum/CSF >50 mIU/ml.
  • Seventeen (68%) patients achieved complete radiographic and marker responses after two courses and 19 (76%) after four courses of chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: These intensive chemotherapy regimens proved less effective than irradiation containing regimens.
  • Our results indicate that, at the present time, standard treatment for CNS GCT continues to include irradiation either alone or combined with chemotherapy for pure germinomas and with chemotherapy for those with MMGCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20063410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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8. Matsutani M, Japanese Pediatric Brain Tumor Study Group: Combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy for CNS germ cell tumors--the Japanese experience. J Neurooncol; 2001 Sep;54(3):311-6
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  • [Title] Combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy for CNS germ cell tumors--the Japanese experience.
  • Among intracranial germ cell tumors, nongerminomatous tumors have proved refractory to conventional treatment with surgery and irradiation.
  • Since 1983, chemotherapy has been delivered in Japan as an adjuvant therapy in patients with intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • Based on our clinical experience, we undertook a multi-institutional phase II study to establish post-surgical combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy for primary germ cell tumors in the brain.
  • We adopted carboplatin-etoposide (CARB-VP) or cisplatin-etoposide (PE) combination chemotherapy for patients with germinomas and those with tumors that placed them in the intermediate prognosis group, and ifosphamide-cisplatin-etoposide (ICE) for patients with tumors that placed them in the poor prognosis group.
  • Among patients with germinoma (n = 75), the rate or complete remission after combination therapy was 92.0%; it was 67.8% for patients in the intermediate prognosis group (n = 28).
  • Tumor recurrence was noted in 9 patients with germinoma and 2 patients in the intermediate prognosis group.
  • Of 9 patients with a poor prognosis, 4 experienced disease progression during treatment and died within 10 months.
  • There were no serious complications attributable to the combination therapy.
  • Our treatment protocols are effective for patients with germinomas and those with an intermediate prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Germinoma / drug therapy. Germinoma / radiotherapy. Postoperative Care. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 11767296.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Shim KW, Kim DS, Choi JU: Mixed or metachronous germ-cell tumor? Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Jun;23(6):713-8
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  • [Title] Mixed or metachronous germ-cell tumor?
  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We report the extremely rare occurrence of a second germ-cell tumor at a different site and with different histological types long after total resolution of a pineal germinoma.
  • Neuroradiological studies revealed a tumor in the pineal region.
  • The tumor was biopsied with endoscope, and third ventriculostomy was performed.
  • Histologically, the tumor proved to be a germinoma.
  • The patient received 3 cycles of combination chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin and etoposide with radiotherapy.
  • The tumor was totally resolute.
  • Neuroradiological studies showed a tumor in the right temporal lobe.
  • INTERVENTION: The second tumor was totally removed.
  • Histologically, the tumor proved to be a mixed germ-cell tumor, which consisted a yolk-sac tumor and a germinoma.
  • After the second course of chemotherapy, magnetic resonance image studies revealed no evidence of the tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: The second tumor was considered to be a metachronous neoplasm rather than a recurrence of the original mixed germ-cell tumor, which consisted a yolk-sac tumor and a germinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Germinoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pinealoma / pathology. Temporal Lobe / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17187270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. Zissiadis Y, Dutton S, Kieran M, Goumnerova L, Scott RM, Kooy HM, Tarbell NJ: Stereotactic radiotherapy for pediatric intracranial germ cell tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2001 Sep 1;51(1):108-12
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  • [Title] Stereotactic radiotherapy for pediatric intracranial germ cell tumors.
  • PURPOSE: Intracranial germ cell tumors are rare, radiosensitive tumors seen most commonly in the second and third decades of life.
  • Radiotherapy alone has been the primary treatment modality for germinomas, and is used with chemotherapy for nongerminomatous tumors.
  • Stereotactic radiotherapy techniques minimize the volume of surrounding normal tissue irradiated and, hence, the late radiation morbidity.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between December 1992 and December 1998, 18 patients with intracranial germ cell tumors were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy.
  • Thirteen patients had a histologic diagnosis of germinoma, and 5 patients had germinoma with nongerminomatous elements.
  • Of those patients with a histologic diagnosis of germinoma, 5 had multiple midline tumors.
  • RESULTS: A boost using stereotactic radiotherapy was delivered to 19 tumors following whole-brain radiation in 8 cases and craniospinal radiation in 11 cases.
  • Three tumors were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy to the tumor volume alone following chemotherapy, and 1 tumor received a boost using stereotactic radiosurgery following craniospinal radiation.
  • A median dose of 2520 cGy (range, 1500-3600) cGy was given to the whole brain, and a median dose of 2160 (range, 2100-2600) cGy was given to the spinal field.
  • The median boost dose to the tumor was 2600 (range, 2160-3600) cGy, given by stereotactic radiotherapy delivered to the 95% isodose line.
  • At a median follow-up time of 40 (range, 12-73) months, no local or marginal recurrences were reported in patients with germinoma.
  • One had elevation of tumor markers only at 37 months following treatment, and the other had persistent disease following chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • Four patients (22%) developed newly diagnosed diabetes insipidus following surgery.
  • Three patients (17%) received antidepressant medication at follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Germinoma / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11516859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Kanamori M, Kumabe T, Saito R, Yamashita Y, Sonoda Y, Ariga H, Takai Y, Tominaga T: Optimal treatment strategy for intracranial germ cell tumors: a single institution analysis. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Dec;4(6):506-14
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  • [Title] Optimal treatment strategy for intracranial germ cell tumors: a single institution analysis.
  • OBJECT: This study retrospectively analyzed the long-term outcomes of 108 consecutive patients to establish the classification and optimal treatment strategy for each subgroup of newly diagnosed germ cell tumors (GCTs).
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records from the authors' department between April 1989 and March 2007 identified 108 patients with newly diagnosed intracranial GCT.
  • The diagnoses were germinoma in 83 patients, and nongerminomatous GCT (NGGCT) in 25 patients.
  • RESULTS: In patients with germinoma, the 10-year overall and progression-free survival (PFS) rates at a median follow-up period of 99 months were 86 and 74%, respectively.
  • Recurrences developed during a range of 6 to 153 months (median 26 months) after starting the initial therapy.
  • Patients treated only with chemotherapy demonstrated a shorter PFS rate, and patients treated with chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose radiation therapy to the whole ventricle, whole brain, or craniospinal axis showed significantly better PFS than patients treated with only radiation or reduced-dose radiation therapy to the focal field.
  • Nongerminomatous GCTs were divided into good, intermediate, and poor prognosis groups as proposed by the Japanese Pediatric Brain Tumor Study Group.
  • All patients with NGGCTs, in whom the lesions on MR imaging disappeared after combination therapies consisting of resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, remained alive.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose radiation therapy covering the whole ventricle improves the prognosis for patients with germinoma.
  • Combined therapy of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and radical resection as an initial or salvage treatment achieved excellent tumor control in the intermediate prognosis NGGCT group.
  • The outcomes were still dismal in the poor prognosis NGGCT group, so initial therapy should target complete disappearance of all lesions on MR imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Germinoma / drug therapy. Germinoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Longitudinal Studies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Radiation Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19951035.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Göbel U, Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Haas RJ, Schmidt P, Harms D: Germ-cell tumors in childhood and adolescence. GPOH MAKEI and the MAHO study groups. Ann Oncol; 2000 Mar;11(3):263-71

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Germ-cell tumors in childhood and adolescence. GPOH MAKEI and the MAHO study groups.
  • In mature and immature teratoma the treatment is surgical.
  • In case of a microscopically complete tumor resection there is no role for adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy irrespective of the histological grade of immaturity.
  • Malignant germ-cell tumors (GCT) account for 2.9% of all malignant tumors of children younger than 15 years of age.
  • More than half of the tumors occur at extragonadal sites such as the ovaries (26%), the coccygeal region (24%), the testes (18%) and the brain (18%) represent then primary sites.
  • In patients with extensive tumor growth, metastatic disease or secreting intracranial tumors a delayed tumor resection after preoperative chemotherapy is preferable.
  • In these patients malignant non-seminomatous GCT may be diagnosed clinically due to the increased serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels of the tumor markers AFP and/or beta-HCG.
  • Current risk adapted treatment protocols containing cisplatinum allow long-term remissions in about 80% including patients with bulky or metastatic tumors.
  • In the cisplatinum era the prognostic factors like histology, primary site of the tumor and initial tumor stage have partly lost their former impressive significance in infants and children.
  • On the other hand the completeness of the primary tumor resection according to oncological standards has been established as the most powerful prognostic parameter superior to tumor marker levels or primary site of the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 10811491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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13. Souweidane MM, Krieger MD, Weiner HL, Finlay JL: Surgical management of primary central nervous system germ cell tumors: proceedings from the Second International Symposium on Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Aug;6(2):125-30
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  • [Title] Surgical management of primary central nervous system germ cell tumors: proceedings from the Second International Symposium on Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors.
  • The successful treatment of children with a primary CNS germ cell tumor can be greatly influenced by the neurosurgeon involved in the diagnostic and therapeutic care of these children.
  • Variability in surgical philosophies no doubt exists due to the relatively infrequent incidence of these tumors, a lack of consensus regarding diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, and the advent of recent surgical innovations.
  • Many of these issues were discussed at the Second International Symposium on Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors through presented abstracts and invited presentations.
  • The neurosurgical aspects of these proceedings are summarized here in an effort to present the agreed-upon and debated issues that may confront the pediatric neurosurgeon.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / cerebrospinal fluid. Biopsy. Brain / pathology. Brain / surgery. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Endoscopy / methods. Female. Germinoma / drug therapy. Germinoma / pathology. Germinoma / radiotherapy. Germinoma / surgery. Humans. Male. Microsurgery. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neuronavigation. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 20672932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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14. Gardner SL: Application of stem cell transplant for brain tumors. Pediatr Transplant; 2004 Jun;8 Suppl 5:28-32
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  • [Title] Application of stem cell transplant for brain tumors.
  • Brain tumors are the second most common malignancy in children and the most common solid tumor.
  • The majority of children are treated with surgery alone or in combination with radiation and/or chemotherapy.
  • Recently investigators have used high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR) in patients with malignant brain tumors.
  • This approach has been most successful in chemosensitive tumors including medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (SPNET) and central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNS GCT).
  • In addition, the use of high dose chemotherapy has enabled the reduction and in many cases elimination of radiation therapy to very young children.
  • To date there have been no prospective randomized studies comparing high dose chemotherapy and ASCR with conventional therapy.
  • Radiation therapy is often not an option for patients with recurrent disease and conventional dose chemotherapy rarely if ever results in long-term survival.
  • Unfortunately, the majority of studies using conventional therapy in order to delay irradiation in young children newly diagnosed with malignant brain tumors have been unsuccessful.
  • Although the numbers are small, preliminary data suggest that not only is survival but also quality of life is superior with the use of high dose chemotherapy.
  • In addition, through the use of peripheral blood stem cells and improvements in supportive care, multiple courses of high dose chemotherapy can be administered.
  • High dose chemotherapy with ASCR is a foundation upon which many different types of therapies can be built.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Pediatrics

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  • (PMID = 15125703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1397-3142
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Transplant
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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15. Koh EJ, Phi JH, Park SH, Kim IO, Cheon JE, Wang KC, Cho BK, Kim SK: Mixed germ cell tumor of the midbrain. Case Report. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Aug;4(2):137-42

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  • [Title] Mixed germ cell tumor of the midbrain. Case Report.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was of a mixed germ cell tumor (GCT) comprising mature teratoma and germinoma cells with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells.
  • The patient underwent postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and no tumor progression was found during 1 year of follow-up.
  • Intracranial GCTs arise mainly in the pineal and the suprasellar area.
  • Germ cell tumors in the brainstem are rare, with only 12 reported cases.
  • To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a mixed GCT in the midbrain combining mature teratoma and germinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Stem Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19645547.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0707
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Kim A, Ji L, Balmaceda C, Diez B, Kellie SJ, Dunkel IJ, Gardner SL, Sposto R, Finlay JL: The prognostic value of tumor markers in newly diagnosed patients with primary central nervous system germ cell tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Dec;51(6):768-73
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  • [Title] The prognostic value of tumor markers in newly diagnosed patients with primary central nervous system germ cell tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: To determine the impact of diagnostic serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (b-HCG) elevations on survival in newly diagnosed patients with central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNS GCT) treated with chemotherapy with the intent to avoid irradiation.
  • PROCEDURE: Seventy-five patients with newly diagnosed CNS GCT enrolled in two sequential internationally conducted clinical trials with serum and CSF AFP and b-HCG levels available from initial diagnosis were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Subjects received platinum based chemotherapy and were followed with serial imaging and tumor marker evaluations.
  • RESULTS: The 5-year overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) for patients with normal tumor markers compared with those with elevated markers at diagnosis was 78% (95% CI 51-91%) versus 60% (95% CI 46-72%) (P = 0.08) and 22% (95% CI 7-43%) versus 28% (95% CI 16-40%) (P = 0.68).
  • The hazard ratio of death for patients with elevated markers was 1.9 times as high as that for those with normal markers (95% CI 0.58-6.5) after adjusting for other baseline characteristics.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with elevated tumor markers appear to have poorer OS independent of tumor histology, although these differences do not reach statistical significance (P < or = 0.05).
  • No differences were observed in EFS between groups likely due to the poor response of chemotherapy only approach to patients with normal markers. b-HCG elevations in biopsy proven germinomas do not seem to alter a patient's prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / cerebrospinal fluid. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis. alpha-Fetoproteins / cerebrospinal fluid

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  • (PMID = 18802946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AFP protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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17. Bi WL, Bannykh SI, Baehring J: The growing teratoma syndrome after subtotal resection of an intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumor in an adult: case report. Neurosurgery; 2005;56(1):188
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  • [Title] The growing teratoma syndrome after subtotal resection of an intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumor in an adult: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We report a rare complication after resection of a recurrent intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumor in an adult.
  • The growing teratoma syndrome, as originally described with pediatric germ cell neoplasms, represents tumor recurrence, often cystic, that sometimes is observed after partial response to multimodality therapy and despite decreasing tumor serum markers.
  • The enlarging tumor consists of elements of a mature teratoma that presumably are refractory to chemotherapy or radiation.
  • To our knowledge, this is only the third case of the growing teratoma syndrome in an adult patient with nongerminomatous germ cell tumor.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old man had signs of recurrent obstructive hydrocephalus 6 months after multimodality treatment of a diencephalic yolk sac tumor and endoscopic third ventriculostomy.
  • Imaging studies revealed large multilocular cystic masses originating from the tumor bed and partially obstructing the ventriculostomy.
  • INTERVENTION: Near total tumor resection and fenestration was performed.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgical resection, if feasible, is the treatment of choice for the growing teratoma syndrome to establish the correct diagnosis and prevent complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15617603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Hale GA, Greenwood MF, Geil JD, Moscow JA: Langerhans cell histiocytosis after therapy for a malignant germ cell tumor of the central nervous system. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 Jul-Aug;22(4):355-7
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  • [Title] Langerhans cell histiocytosis after therapy for a malignant germ cell tumor of the central nervous system.
  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal neoplastic disorder that results in a spectrum of clinical manifestations.
  • Known to be associated with a variety of malignant diseases, LCH may precede, coincide with, or develop after the diagnosis of cancer.
  • A child with a malignant germ cell tumor of the brain who subsequently experienced LCH is reported.
  • The 8-year-old boy was treated for an immature teratoma of the posterior fossa with gross total resection and craniospinal irradiation preceding bleomycin, etoposide, and vinblastine chemotherapy for four cycles.
  • Seven months after completion of therapy, he experienced multifocal bone disease with LCH.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Teratoma / pathology


19. Merchant TE, Kiehna EN, Li C, Shukla H, Sengupta S, Xiong X, Gajjar A, Mulhern RK: Modeling radiation dosimetry to predict cognitive outcomes in pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors including medulloblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 May 01;65(1):210-21
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  • [Title] Modeling radiation dosimetry to predict cognitive outcomes in pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors including medulloblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: Model the effects of radiation dosimetry on IQ among pediatric patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors (n = 39) were prospectively evaluated with serial cognitive testing, before and after treatment with postoperative, risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and conformal primary-site irradiation, followed by chemotherapy.
  • Differential dose-volume data for 5 brain volumes (total brain, supratentorial brain, infratentorial brain, and left and right temporal lobes) were correlated with IQ after surgery and at follow-up by use of linear regression.
  • RESULTS: When the dose distribution was partitioned into 2 levels, both had a significantly negative effect on longitudinal IQ across all 5 brain volumes.
  • When the dose distribution was partitioned into 3 levels (low, medium, and high), exposure to the supratentorial brain appeared to have the most significant impact.
  • For most models, each Gy of exposure had a similar effect on IQ decline, regardless of dose level.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that radiation dosimetry data from 5 brain volumes can be used to predict decline in longitudinal IQ.
  • Despite measures to reduce radiation dose and treatment volume, the volume that receives the highest dose continues to have the greatest effect, which supports current volume-reduction efforts.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Intelligence / radiation effects. Models, Psychological. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Cranial Irradiation / methods. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Humans. Intelligence Tests. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors / radiotherapy. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Rhabdoid Tumor / drug therapy. Rhabdoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Temporal Lobe / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 16472938.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA023944; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Kebudi R, Ayan I, Görgün O, Ağaoğlu FY, Vural S, Darendeliler E: Brain metastasis in pediatric extracranial solid tumors: survey and literature review. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jan;71(1):43-8
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  • [Title] Brain metastasis in pediatric extracranial solid tumors: survey and literature review.
  • OBJECTIVES: Brain is a rare site of metastasis in most extracranial pediatric solid tumors.
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence, treatment, prognosis of brain metastasis in extracranial pediatric malignant tumors in a single institution and to review the literature.
  • METHODS: From September 1989 to December 2002, 1100 children <or=16 years of age with extracranial solid tumors including lymphomas were diagnosed and treated in the Division of Pediatric Oncology, Oncology Institute, Istanbul University.
  • Patients with parenchymal metastases in the brain were assessed.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen (10 female, 6 male) of 1100 patients (1.45%) with extracranial solid tumors developed brain metastases.
  • The diagnosis was sarcomas in 12 patients: 5 osteosarcomas, 4 Ewing's sarcoma family tumors, 1 rhabdomyosarcoma, 1 clear cell sarcoma of the soft tissue, 1 alveolar soft part sarcoma.
  • Two patients had Wilms' tumor and two had germ cell tumors.
  • Four patients (25%) had brain metastasis at diagnosis.
  • Twelve (75%) developed brain metastasis during therapy or relapse at a median duration of 16 (1-70) months from initial diagnosis.
  • All patients had metastases to various sites, mostly lung, at the time the brain metastases were detected.
  • Treatment included surgery, followed by postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) in 1, S and RT in 1, S in 1, RT and CT in 6, RT in 1, CT in 1 and no treatment in 5.
  • Only one patient with alveolar soft part sarcoma is alive with disease 20 months from diagnosis of brain metastasis.
  • All other patients died at a median time of 2 months (2 days-6 months) from the time of brain metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Children with metastatic cancer who develop headaches or any other neurologic symptom should be investigated for possible brain metastasis.
  • Although, the outcome for these patients is dismal in this series and in the literature; reports of long term survival in a few cases with Wilms' tumor, osteosarcoma and alveolar soft part sarcoma who had isolated brain metastasis, suggest that a subset of patients may benefit from therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Sarcoma / epidemiology. Sarcoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / epidemiology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis. Wilms Tumor / epidemiology. Wilms Tumor / secondary. Wilms Tumor / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15719274.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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21. Hasegawa T, Kondziolka D, Hadjipanayis CG, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: Stereotactic radiosurgery for CNS nongerminomatous germ cell tumors. Report of four cases. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2003 Jun;38(6):329-33
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  • [Title] Stereotactic radiosurgery for CNS nongerminomatous germ cell tumors. Report of four cases.
  • In this study, we evaluated the results in four patients with nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCT) of the pineal region.
  • All underwent radiosurgery in conjunction with surgical resection, fractionated radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • One patient was diagnosed by serum and CSF tumor markers.
  • The mean tumor volume was 10.5 cm(3).
  • Radiosurgery was performed with mean maximum and marginal doses of 28 and 14 Gy, respectively.
  • In the case of prepubertal patients, radiosurgery may play an important role by reducing the radiation dose to the surrounding normal brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / surgery. Germinoma / surgery. Pinealoma / surgery. Radiosurgery / instrumentation

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 12759512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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22. Smith AA, Weng E, Handler M, Foreman NK: Intracranial germ cell tumors: a single institution experience and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2004 Jun;68(2):153-9
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  • [Title] Intracranial germ cell tumors: a single institution experience and review of the literature.
  • There is little literature to guide therapy in children and young adults with intracranial germ cell tumors.
  • We present 17 consecutively diagnosed intracranial germ cell tumors at The Children's Hospital, Denver, from 1995 to 2001.
  • Seven had germinoma, three were metastatic at diagnosis.
  • Ten had non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCT), 5/10 were alpha feto-protein (AFP) positive only, one beta-human chorionic growth (betaHCG) factor positive only, 3 positive for AFP and betaHCG, and 1 malignant teratoma.
  • Therapy for metastatic patients consisted of chemotherapy followed by craniospinal radiation (CSI).
  • Patients with localized disease received chemotherapy followed by focal radiation.
  • Two patients received chemotherapy only, one because she died of sepsis while receiving chemotherapy and one because of neurologic injury incurred during surgery parents elected for no therapy.
  • Three patients have died, one of tumor recurrence, one from a remote complication of surgery and one of sepsis.
  • All five children with only AFP positivity, treated with chemotherapy and focal radiation are alive without evidence of disease at 10, 16, 22, 41 and 41 months.
  • Thus, there is little evidence that CSI is necessary in non-metastatic germinomas and AFP positive NGGCTs when combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy is used.
  • However, complications of delayed diagnosis, surgery and chemotherapy are important causes of mortality, with only one patient dying of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Germinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15218952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Nakamura H, Takeshima H, Makino K, Kuratsu J: Evaluation of residual tissues after adjuvant therapy in germ cell tumors. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2007;43(2):82-91
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  • [Title] Evaluation of residual tissues after adjuvant therapy in germ cell tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: Germ cell tumors are the tumors sensitive for adjuvant therapy such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • We evaluated the pathological findings of these heterogeneous tumors to determine the persistence of residual viable tumor cells after adjuvant therapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1988 and 2005, we treated 31 patients with germinoma or germinoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells (STGC) and 15 patients with non-germinomatous malignant germ cell tumors (NGMGCTs).
  • RESULTS: Post-treatment, 3 group 1 and 12 group 2 patients manifested residual tumors.
  • The pathological diagnosis in group 1 patients was mature teratoma, pineal cyst, and fibrous tissue with calcification; in group 2 it was yolk sac tumor (n = 1), immature teratoma (n = 3), mature teratoma (n = 4), and necrosis or fibrous tissue (n = 4).
  • While no group 1 patients manifested tumor cells, MIB-1-positive viable tumor cells were present in resected tissues from one-third of the group 2 patients (3 immature teratomas and 1 yolk sac tumor).
  • CONCLUSION: The absence of viable tumor cells in residual tissue indicates that the combination of cisplatin-based chemo- and radiotherapy was effective in our germinoma patients.
  • On the other hand, in patients with NGMGCTs, these cells persisted despite this combination therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Protocols. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Giant Cells / pathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Trophoblasts / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17337917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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24. Cuccia V, Alderete D: Suprasellar/pineal bifocal germ cell tumors. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Aug;26(8):1043-9
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  • [Title] Suprasellar/pineal bifocal germ cell tumors.
  • PURPOSE: Intracranial germ cell tumors (GCT) arise from embryonal rests of germinal cells.
  • We named this group as suprasellar/pineal bifocal germ cell tumors (SPBT).
  • RESULTS: The series includes four pure germinomas and one germinal non-germinoma.
  • Endocrine, ocular, and increased intracranial pressure syndromes were identified and related to the size of the tumors.
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were performed in all SPBT.
  • Prognosis for bifocal groups was similar to unifocal tumors of the same histological type.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SPBT seem to be an entity defined by a) one tumor in the suprasellar and another in the pineal region, b) GCT with predominance of PG, but not exclusively, and c) MRI and endoscopy without any dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Pineal Gland / pathology. Pinealoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20221609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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25. Blaney SM, Boyett J, Friedman H, Gajjar A, Geyer R, Horowtiz M, Hunt D, Kieran M, Kun L, Packer R, Phillips P, Pollack IF, Prados M, Heideman R: Phase I clinical trial of mafosfamide in infants and children aged 3 years or younger with newly diagnosed embryonal tumors: a pediatric brain tumor consortium study (PBTC-001). J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jan 20;23(3):525-31
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  • [Title] Phase I clinical trial of mafosfamide in infants and children aged 3 years or younger with newly diagnosed embryonal tumors: a pediatric brain tumor consortium study (PBTC-001).
  • PURPOSE: A phase I trial of intrathecal (IT) mafosfamide was performed to determine the optimal dose, dose-limiting toxicities, and incidence and severity of other toxicities when administered in association with concomitant multiagent systemic chemotherapy to children younger than 3 years with newly diagnosed embryonal tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: The maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase II dose of IT mafosfamide in patients younger than 3 years with newly diagnosed embryonal CNS tumors is 14 mg.
  • A trial to assess the efficacy of regional therapy with IT mafosfamide administered with intensive systemic chemotherapy in children younger than 3 years with primary intracranial embryonal tumors is now in progress.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cyclophosphamide / analogs & derivatives. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15659498.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 98007
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 5970HH9923 / mafosfamide; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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26. Eom KS, Kim JM, Kim TY: Mixed germ cell tumors in septum pellucidum after radiochemotherapy of suprasellar germinoma: de novo metachronous or recurrent neoplasms? Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Nov;24(11):1355-9
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  • [Title] Mixed germ cell tumors in septum pellucidum after radiochemotherapy of suprasellar germinoma: de novo metachronous or recurrent neoplasms?
  • INTRODUCTION: Mixed germ cell tumors (GCTs) consisting of a germinoma and a mature teratoma in the septum pellucidum have never been described previously; the patient we present here is the first reported example.
  • Five years ago, he received five cycles of chemotherapy using cisplatin and ectoposide and 24G of local radiotherapy for clinical diagnosis of suprasellar germinoma in another hospital.
  • The tumor was then completely resolute.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging in our hospital revealed a large fatty mass located primarily in the septum pellucidum and some portions of the corpus callosum; a heterogeneous enhancing tumor was observed in the surrounding area.
  • The second tumor was completely removed.
  • The histological diagnosis was mixed GCTs containing the component of a germinoma and a mature teratoma.
  • CONCLUSION: This case is characterized by a second GCT occurring at a different site and with a different histological type, long after complete resolution of suprasellar germinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Germinoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Septum Pellucidum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18560841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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27. Isaacs H Jr: Perinatal (fetal and neonatal) germ cell tumors. J Pediatr Surg; 2004 Jul;39(7):1003-13
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  • [Title] Perinatal (fetal and neonatal) germ cell tumors.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Germ cell tumors are relatively common in the fetus and neonate and are the leading neoplasms in some perinatal reviews.
  • The purpose of this study is to focus on the fetus and neonate in an attempt to determine the various ways germ cell tumors differ clinically and morphologically from those occurring in the older child and adult and to show that certain types of tumors have a better prognosis than others.
  • METHODS: The author conducted a retrospective review of perinatal teratomas and other germ cell tumors reported in the literature and of patients treated and followed up at Children's Hospital San Diego and Children's Hospital Los Angeles.
  • The incidence of teratoma with yolk sac tumor either at presentation or at recurrence was 5.8%, and the survival rate was 39%.
  • Sacrococcygeal teratomas had the highest incidence of yolk sac tumor at 10%.
  • Recurrent disease in the form of either teratoma or yolk sac tumor developed in 5% of patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Some germ cell tumors of the fetus and neonate have a better prognosis than others.
  • Neonates with gastric teratomas have the best survival rates, and those with intracranial germ cell tumors the worst.
  • Fetuses with teratomas detected antenatally have 3 times the mortality rate compared with postnatally diagnosed neonates.
  • Surgical resection alone may be adequate therapy for teratomas with nonmetastatic, microscopic foci of yolk sac tumor.
  • In the nonteratoma group, patients with pure yolk sac tumor and gonadoblastoma have a much better outcome than those with choriocarcinoma, which has a very low survival of rate of 12%.
  • Currently, the use of platinum-based combination chemotherapy has significantly improved the survival rate of infants with advanced malignant germ cell tumor disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple / epidemiology. Fetal Diseases / classification. Fetal Diseases / epidemiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / classification. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Comorbidity. Digestive System Neoplasms / epidemiology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Los Angeles / epidemiology. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Sacrococcygeal Region. Spinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Survival Rate. Teratoma / epidemiology. Ultrasonography, Prenatal

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  • (PMID = 15213888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Calaminus G, Göbel U, Schrum J, Wittkugel O, Westphal M, Timmermann B: Proton beam therapy for loco-regional control of a recurrent mixed malignant germ cell tumor of the skull in a 22-month-old girl. Klin Padiatr; 2010 May;222(3):175-9
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  • [Title] Proton beam therapy for loco-regional control of a recurrent mixed malignant germ cell tumor of the skull in a 22-month-old girl.
  • BACKGROUND: Germ cell tumors (GCT) situated in the head and neck region are very rare and occur predominantely in newborns or young infants.
  • Recurrent CTs are often resectable only by mutilating surgery and the need for alternative treatment strategies is obvious.
  • In this situation radiation therapy is the most important treatment option for loco-regional tumor control, but bear in this area the risk of possible impairment of brain function and face deformation as long term effects.
  • CASE REPORT: In a girl with a connatal expansive growing teratoma of the skull the tumor recurred in spite of repeated surgery as mixed malignant GCT at the age of 15 months.
  • Tumor control could not be achieved with chemotherapy and additional surgery seemed not promising.
  • Therefore high dose proton beam therapy (PT) (54 Gy) has been administered to the child at the age of 22 months and led to local tumor control with only mild side effects.
  • CONCLUSION: PT treatment may be an option for specific clinical conditions in germ cell tumors where local tumor control cannot be achieved by chemotherapy and/or surgery and long lasting side effects of conventional radiotherapy due to tumor localization and age have to be considered.
  • However, PT should be implemented in treatment protocols for specific situations to guarantee supervised application, central documentation and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Orbital Neoplasms / congenital. Orbital Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Protons / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Skull Base Neoplasms / congenital. Skull Base Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Teratoma / congenital. Teratoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Blepharoptosis / etiology. Child, Preschool. Craniotomy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 20514623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3824
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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29. Starzyk J, Starzyk B, Bartnik-Mikuta A, Urbanowicz W, Dziatkowiak H: Gonadotropin releasing hormone-independent precocious puberty in a 5 year-old girl with suprasellar germ cell tumor secreting beta-hCG and alpha-fetoprotein. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2001 Jun;14(6):789-96
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  • [Title] Gonadotropin releasing hormone-independent precocious puberty in a 5 year-old girl with suprasellar germ cell tumor secreting beta-hCG and alpha-fetoprotein.
  • Tumor markers beta-hCG and AFP were markedly elevated and a 2.5 x 1.5 cm suprasellar germ cell tumor (GCT) was visualized by MRI.
  • Combined chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy resulted in normalization of pubertal features along with estrogen and marker levels.
  • Our observations support the possibility of hCG-dependent precocious puberty (PP) in girls caused by suprasellar hCG-secreting tumor.
  • We hypothesize that the rarity of isosexual PP in girls with hCG-secreting suprasellar GCT results not only from the lower occurrence of these tumors in girls than in boys, but above all from a rare simultaneous concomitant incidence of both high tumor aromatase activity and hCG secreting potency.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / secretion. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / secretion. Germinoma / complications. Germinoma / secretion. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / physiology. Puberty, Precocious / etiology. alpha-Fetoproteins / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Sella Turcica

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  • (PMID = 11453531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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30. Wong ST, Yuen SC, Fong D: Pathophysiological mechanism of ipsilateral cerebral and brainstem hemiatrophy in basal ganglia germ cell tumors: case report. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Jun;25(6):693-9
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  • [Title] Pathophysiological mechanism of ipsilateral cerebral and brainstem hemiatrophy in basal ganglia germ cell tumors: case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: The basal ganglia is an uncommon location for germ cell tumors.
  • It has been reported that basal ganglia germinomas and mixed germ cell tumors are associated with ipsilateral cerebral and brainstem hemiatrophy on presentation.
  • Several pathophysiological mechanisms including autoimmune process and direct tumor infiltration of the thalamus or the internal capsule have been postulated to explain this association.
  • CASE REPORTS: The authors report two boys, aged 7 and 10, with basal ganglia germ cell tumors.
  • They underwent chemotherapy followed by reduced dose radiotherapy with good response.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem / pathology. Cerebrum / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Atrophy. Cerebral Angiography. Child. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Functional Laterality. Gadolinium. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • (PMID = 19139902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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31. Hale GA: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for pediatric solid tumors. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2005 Oct;5(5):835-46
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  • [Title] Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for pediatric solid tumors.
  • While advances in the treatment of pediatric cancers have increased cure rates, children with metastatic or recurrent solid tumors have a dismal prognosis despite initial transient responses to therapy.
  • Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation takes advantage of the steep dose-response relationship observed with many chemotherapeutic agents.
  • While clearly demonstrated to improve outcomes in patients with metastatic neuroblastoma, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is also frequently used to treat patients with other high-risk diseases such as Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms' tumor, retinoblastoma, germ cell tumors, lymphomas and brain tumors.
  • Most published experience consists of retrospective, single-arm studies; randomized clinical trials are lacking, due in part to the rarity of pediatric cancers treatable by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
  • These published literature demonstrate that autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation results in most cases in equivalent or superior outcomes when compared with conventional therapies.
  • Since the inception of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, regimen-related toxicity has markedly decreased and the vast majority of treatment failures are now due to disease recurrence.
  • Prospective clinical trials are needed to identify specific high-risk patient populations, with randomization (when possible) to compare outcomes of patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with those receiving standard therapy.
  • In addition, investigators need to better define the role of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in these solid tumors, particularly in combination with other therapeutic modalities such as immunotherapy and novel cell processing methodologies.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Neoplasms / therapy. Patient Selection. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Factors. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16221053.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 109
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32. Benesch M, Siegler N, Hoff Kv, Lassay L, Kropshofer G, Müller H, Sommer C, Rutkowski S, Fleischhack G, Urban C: Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study. Anticancer Drugs; 2009 Oct;20(9):794-9
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  • [Title] Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study.
  • This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with refractory or recurrent brain tumors.
  • Nineteen heavily pretreated patients (males, n = 14; females, n = 5; median age at diagnosis 8.5 years; range, 1.4-22 years) were given intrathecal liposomal cytarabine on a compassionate use basis for recurrent refractory medulloblastoma (n = 12), mixed germ cell tumor (n = 2), central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pons (n = 1), anaplastic ependymoma (n = 1), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 1), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (n = 1), or rhabdoid papillary meningioma (n = 1).
  • Duration of treatment ranged from (1/2) to 10 months.
  • Eleven patients (57.9%) did not show any side effects, whereas eight patients (42.1%) developed side effects related to either chemical arachnoiditis (n = 4) or neurological progression (n = 2).
  • Less typical treatment-related symptoms (e.g. lethargy, ataxia, and slurred speech) were observed in two patients.
  • Treatment with intrathecal liposomal cytarabine was discontinued twice because of side effects.
  • In conclusion, although intrathecal liposomal cytarabine was generally well tolerated, it should be used cautiously and only with dexamethasone prophylaxis in extensively pretreated patients with recurrent brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Compassionate Use Trials. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Injections, Spinal. Liposomes / administration & dosage. Male. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19617818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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