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1. Bansal D, Marwaha RK, Trehan A, Rao KL, Gupta V: Profile and outcome of neuroblastoma with convertional chemotherapy in children older than one year: a 15-years experience. Indian Pediatr; 2008 Feb;45(2):135-9
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  • [Title] Profile and outcome of neuroblastoma with convertional chemotherapy in children older than one year: a 15-years experience.
  • 74 had Stage IV, 27 Stage III and one patient each had Stage I or II disease.
  • Treatment included chemotherapy followed by surgical resection/debulking.
  • Radiotherapy was administered to those with residual tumor.
  • Chemotherapy consisted of OPEC (vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and etoposide).
  • The caretakers of 54 (52.4%) children either did not opt for or defaulted therapy, whilst 3 patients died before chemotherapy could be initiated.
  • Of the remaining 46 patients, the tumor progressed during therapy in 19 (41.3%).
  • Majority of children presented with advanced disease and the outcome was dismal with conventional non-myloablative chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroblastoma / pathology


2. de Bont JM, Packer RJ, Michiels EM, den Boer ML, Pieters R: Biological background of pediatric medulloblastoma and ependymoma: a review from a translational research perspective. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Dec;10(6):1040-60
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  • [Title] Biological background of pediatric medulloblastoma and ependymoma: a review from a translational research perspective.
  • Survival rates of pediatric brain tumor patients have significantly improved over the years due to developments in diagnostic techniques, neurosurgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and supportive care.
  • However, brain tumors are still an important cause of cancer-related deaths in children.
  • Prognosis is still highly dependent on clinical characteristics, such as the age of the patient, tumor type, stage, and localization, but increased knowledge about the genetic and biological features of these tumors is being obtained and might be useful to further improve outcome for these patients.
  • It has become clear that the deregulation of signaling pathways essential in brain development, for example, sonic hedgehog (SHH), Wnt, and Notch pathways, plays an important role in pathogenesis and biological behavior, especially for medulloblastomas.
  • More recently, data have become available about the cells of origin of brain tumors and the possible existence of brain tumor stem cells.
  • Newly developed array-based techniques for studying gene expression, protein expression, copy number aberrations, and epigenetic events have led to the identification of other potentially important biological abnormalities in pediatric medulloblastomas and ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18676356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 246
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2719002
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3. Keir ST, Maris JM, Lock R, Kolb EA, Gorlick R, Carol H, Morton CL, Reynolds CP, Kang MH, Watkins A, Houghton PJ, Smith MA: Initial testing (stage 1) of the multi-targeted kinase inhibitor sorafenib by the pediatric preclinical testing program. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Dec 1;55(6):1126-33
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  • [Title] Initial testing (stage 1) of the multi-targeted kinase inhibitor sorafenib by the pediatric preclinical testing program.
  • BACKGROUND: Sorafenib is an inhibitor of multiple kinases (e.g., VEGF receptors, PDGFR, FLT3, RET, BRAF, KIT) and is approved by FDA for treatment of two adult cancers.
  • In vivo sorafenib induced significant differences in event-free survival (EFS) distribution compared to control in 27 of 36 (75%) of the evaluable solid tumor xenografts and in 1 of 8 (12.5%) of the evaluable ALL xenografts.
  • Sorafenib induced tumor growth inhibition meeting criteria for intermediate activity (EFS T/C) in 15 of 34 (44%) evaluable solid tumor xenografts.
  • The primary in vivo effect for sorafenib was tumor growth inhibition, which was observed across multiple histotypes.

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  • (PMID = 20672370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA108786; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108786; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N01 CM042216; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N01-CM-42216; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CM42216
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS214707; NLM/ PMC3823056
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4. Berg SL, Blaney SM, Sullivan J, Bernstein M, Dubowy R, Harris MB, Pediatric Oncology Group: Phase II trial of pyrazoloacridine in children with solid tumors: a Pediatric Oncology Group phase II study. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 Nov-Dec;22(6):506-9
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of pyrazoloacridine in children with solid tumors: a Pediatric Oncology Group phase II study.
  • PURPOSE: Pyrazoloacridine (PZA), a rationally synthesized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) binding agent that preferentially inhibits ribonucleic acid rather than DNA synthesis, is active against hypoxic and noncycling tumor cells and has greater in vitro activity against a broad range of human solid tumor lines than against the L1210 murine leukemia line.
  • The Pediatric Oncology Group conducted a phase II study to determine the activity of PZA administered as a 3-hour infusion.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The activity of PZA was evaluated in patients with a variety of childhood solid tumors including rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, neuroblastoma, osteogenic sarcoma, Wilms tumor, or other solid tumors (excluding brain tumors).
  • In addition to a standard three-stage design to test the drug's activity in each tumor type, a global stopping rule was used such that if no complete or partial responses (CR or PR) occurred in the first 35 patients (pooled across all strata except "other"), the study would be closed.
  • CONCLUSION: Use of the global stopping criterion permitted early identification of lack of activity of PZA against childhood solid tumors.

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  • (PMID = 11132217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-15525; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098413; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-03161; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-41573
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acridines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Pyrazoles; 99009-20-8 / NSC 366140
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS522396; NLM/ PMC4008246
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5. Gay AN, Chang S, Rutland L, Yu L, Byeseda S, Naik-Mathuria B, Cass DL, Russell H, Olutoye OO: Granulocyte colony stimulating factor alters the phenotype of neuroblastoma cells: implications for disease-free survival of high-risk patients. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 May;43(5):837-42
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  • INTRODUCTION: Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) is commonly used for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.
  • Despite high-dose intensive chemotherapy for advanced-stage neuroblastoma, the survival rate remains poor.
  • Granulocyte colony stimulating factor therapy is quite common in these children; thus, we questioned its effect on neuroblastoma cells.
  • Granulocyte colony stimulating factor treatment resulted in significantly increased proliferation of SK-N-SH, SK-N-AS, and SHSY-5Y cells.
  • Likewise, increased invasiveness of SK-N-SH cells was observed with GCSF treatment.
  • These findings suggest that GCSF may stimulate the growth of neuroblastoma cells in patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy with GCSF rescue and could have a significant impact on the ability to eradicate these tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18485949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K08 GM069912-02; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM069912-04; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K08 GM069912-04; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K08 GM069912-01; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM069912; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K08 GM069912; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM069912-01; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM069912-02; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K08 GM069912-03; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM069912-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS52930; NLM/ PMC2577882
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6. Furtwaengler R, Reinhard H, Leuschner I, Schenk JP, Goebel U, Claviez A, Kulozik A, Zoubek A, von Schweinitz D, Graf N, Gesellschaft fur Pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie (GPOH) Nephroblastoma Study Group: Mesoblastic nephroma--a report from the Gesellschaft fur Pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie (GPOH). Cancer; 2006 May 15;106(10):2275-83
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  • BACKGROUND: Surgery alone is the appropriate first-line treatment for patients with mesoblastic nephroma (MN).
  • The authors evaluated the outcome of patients with MN who were enrolled in either the International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) 93-01/GPOH or the SIOP 2001/GPOH Nephroblastoma Study and Trial.
  • Eleven patients were suspected antenatally of having a renal tumor.
  • The median observation time was 4.2 years.
  • Five patients older than 6 months received preoperative chemotherapy.
  • Nine patients had a Stage III MN, 5 of those patients had tumor ruptures, and 8 had positive surgical margins.
  • After they underwent nephrectomy, 40 patients received no further treatment.
  • Patients with a cellular MN, patients with age 3 months or older, and patients with Stage III MN had lower EFS.
  • Three patients developed recurrent disease, and 2 of those patients died.
  • Metastases to the brain, lung, and liver were observed in 1 patient.
  • Nonetheless, a subgroup of patients with MN (Stage III cellular MN in patients age 3 months or older) tends to develop recurrences more often.
  • Further prospective studies will be needed to verify this finding and should help determine whether these patients may benefit from adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Nephroma, Mesoblastic / diagnosis. Nephroma, Mesoblastic / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Germany. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Logistic Models. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy / methods. Pediatrics. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Societies, Medical. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 16596620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Khalil EM: Treatment results of adults and children with medulloblastoma NCI, Cairo University experience. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2008 Jun;20(2):175-86
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  • [Title] Treatment results of adults and children with medulloblastoma NCI, Cairo University experience.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate treatment outcome and prognostic factors of adults and pediatric medulloblastoma patients treated by adjuvant postoperative craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1997 and 2004, 67 patients were treated in the National cancer Institute- Cairo University; 51 pediatric patients with a median age of 7 years and 16 adult patients with a median age of 25 years.
  • According to the Chang staging system; 50%-35% , 37.5%-47% and 12.5%-18% had T2, T3 and T4 tumors of adults and pediatric patient's population respectively.
  • All patients underwent primary surgical resection; near total resection in 25% , Subtotal resection in 61% ; with tumor residual < 1.5cm(2) in 49% compared to 51% with > 1.5cm(2) residual tumor and 14% , had biopsy only.
  • All patients were treated by craniospinal radiotherapy (RT); with a median dose of 34Gy to the whole brain, 54Gy to the posterior fossa and 32Gy to the spinal axis.
  • The median interval between surgery and RT was 45 days and 38 days for the pediatric and adult groups respectively.
  • The median duration of RT was 54 days and 52 days for pediatric and adult patients respectively.
  • Thirty four pediatric patients (67% ) received concomitant chemotherapy, while 61% received adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy and 57% received sequential chemotherapy.
  • Only 33% of patients did not receive chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: For the pediatric and adult patients, the 5- and 7-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 89% & 78% vs. 84% & 56% and 80% & 68% vs. 79% & 52% respectively.
  • Fourteen patients (21% ) relapsed (10 pediatric and 4 adults) at a median time of 11 months vs. 23 months and a median follow-up period of 8 and 12 months respectively; Neuro-axis was the most common site of relapse (11 patients).
  • Ninety percent (9/10) of the pediatric relapses were of the high risk group (8 received no chemotherapy) and took place within 2 years; similarly all adult relapses were of the high risk group; three relapses took place after 2 years.
  • In univariate analysis, T stages, M stages, extent of surgery, CSF seedling and risk category were significant prognostic factors for disease free survival for the pediatric age group.
  • Patients who did not receive chemotherapy had a 69% 5-year DFS vs. 76% (p=0.286).
  • On multivaiate analysis only the risk category and the T-stage were significant prognostic factors for disease free survival for the pediatric age group (p=0.042 and 0.031).
  • CONCLUSION: Survival rates of medulloblastoma pediatric patients were better than the adult ones.
  • Neuro-axis relapse was the most common site of relapse for pediatric patients.
  • Late relapses, lateral tumor location and shorter median follow up were noted in adult patients.
  • Advanced tumor stage, metastases at presentation, limited tumor resection were powerful prognostic factors among the pediatric patients.
  • In addition, high risk category was shown to be a prognostic factor for both pediatric and adult patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Medulloblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20029474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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8. Johnston DL, Keene DL, Lafay-Cousin L, Steinbok P, Sung L, Carret AS, Crooks B, Strother D, Wilson B, Odame I, Eisenstat DD, Mpofu C, Zelcer S, Huang A, Bouffet E: Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors: a Canadian pediatric brain tumor consortium report. J Neurooncol; 2008 Jan;86(1):101-8
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  • [Title] Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors: a Canadian pediatric brain tumor consortium report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (SPNET) are rare tumors accounting for only 2.5% of childhood brain tumors.
  • The purpose of this study was to describe the range of treatment regimens used to treat pediatric SPNET in Canada and to identify prognostic factors for overall survival in this population.
  • A questionnaire was developed and distributed to all institutions in Canada who treat pediatric patients.
  • The stages of patients for whom complete data were provided were 80, 3, and 16% for metastatic stage M0, M1, and M2/3, respectively.
  • The best responses to therapy included complete response in 44%, partial response in 8%, still on therapy in 2%, progressive disease in 31%, toxic death in 2%, and no therapy given in 12%.
  • The factors associated with an increase in survival were the use of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, and age >2 years.
  • Overall survival was not affected by metastatic disease at diagnosis, tumor site, or degree of initial resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Survival is poor in SPNET patients but highest in those who received chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / epidemiology. Pediatrics. Supratentorial Neoplasms / epidemiology


9. MacRae R, Grimard L, Hsu E, Nizalik E, Halton JM: Brain metastases in Wilms' tumor: case report and literature review. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2002 Feb;24(2):149-53
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  • [Title] Brain metastases in Wilms' tumor: case report and literature review.
  • A 2-year-old girl who had a stage 2, favorable-histology Wilms tumor diagnosed when she was age 10 months presented with multiple brain metastases at second recurrence.
  • She had been treated with combined radiotherapy, surgery, and chemotherapy; at 2 months after treatment, recurrent disease developed in the central nervous system and she died.
  • Brain metastases are rare in the natural history of Wilms tumor.
  • Although it does not appear that cerebral metastases are a barrier to tumor eradication and long-term survival if treated with combined modality therapy, treatment should be individualized.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Frontal Lobe. Kidney Neoplasms. Occipital Lobe. Parietal Lobe. Wilms Tumor / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniotomy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Infant. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Nephrectomy. Palliative Care. Paresis / etiology. Thoracotomy

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  • (PMID = 11990704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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10. Oberlin O, Brugières L, Patte C, Kalifa C, Vassal G, Valteau-Couanet D, Hartmann O: [What is new in pediatric oncology?]. Arch Pediatr; 2000 Aug;7(8):866-78
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  • [Title] [What is new in pediatric oncology?].
  • The significant progress made in pediatric oncology during recent years has been due to a major breakthrough in the field of molecular biology and the introduction of new therapeutic strategies that take into account both the quality and the duration of life.
  • Molecular biology has already been instrumental in more fully categorizing the 'small round-cell tumor' group, and in reclassifying the 'Ewing family' tumors.
  • 1) Burkitt's lymphoma, or an example of the successful de-intensification of treatment; and 2) brain tumors in young children, regarding which the desire to improve the quality of life has led to innovative attempts to replace radiotherapy by chemotherapy.
  • New anti-cancer agents and also chemo- and radiotherapy that spare healthy tissue are also being developed.
  • Gene therapy and molecular biology will play a major role in future therapeutic strategies; and are now at the preclinical trial stage.
  • This significant overall progress leads to a reconsideration of the organizational approach toward treatment of the pediatric patient population suffering from cancer, and a critical assessment of disease management, which should take into account not only the technical aspects of the disease but also familial and social considerations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy. Child. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Oncogenes. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 10985189.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-693X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] FRANCE
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11. Heij HA, Verschuur AC, Kaspers GJ, van Rijn RR, Adam JA, Aronson DC: Is aggressive local treatment necessary for diffuse liver involvement in patients with progression of stage 4s neuroblastoma to stage 4? J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Sep;43(9):1630-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is aggressive local treatment necessary for diffuse liver involvement in patients with progression of stage 4s neuroblastoma to stage 4?
  • Three patients with stage 4S neuroblastoma without MYC-N amplification who progressed to stage 4 with persistent liver involvement, were treated with iodine 131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery.
  • Successive histologic examination of the liver showed differentiation of the tumor in 2 patients and fibrosis in the third.
  • One patient died of brain metastases at the age of 30 months.
  • Diffuse liver involvement in patients with stage 4 progression of previous stage 4S without MYC-N amplification may differentiate after treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Neuroblastoma / therapy


12. Sidi-Fragandrea V, Hatzipantelis E, Panagopoulou P, Fragandrea I, Anastasiou A, Koliouskas DE: Isolated central nervous system recurrence in a child with stage IV neuroblastoma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Aug;27(5):387-92
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  • [Title] Isolated central nervous system recurrence in a child with stage IV neuroblastoma.
  • Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children.
  • Survival rates have improved due to advances in treatment with aggressive chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation.
  • Usual sites of recurrence include the site of primary tumor, residual gross disease, bone, bone narrow, liver, and lungs.
  • The authors describe a 16-month-old boy with stage IV extracerebral primary neuroblastoma who died because of an isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse.
  • High-risk patients should be followed-up with brain and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for timely detection of metastases and appropriate management.

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  • (PMID = 20469973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Bowers DC, Gargan L, Weprin BE, Mulne AF, Elterman RD, Munoz L, Giller CA, Winick NJ: Impact of site of tumor recurrence upon survival for children with recurrent or progressive medulloblastoma. J Neurosurg; 2007 Jul;107(1 Suppl):5-10
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  • [Title] Impact of site of tumor recurrence upon survival for children with recurrent or progressive medulloblastoma.
  • METHODS: Postprogression survival and patient, tumor, and treatment factors were examined in 46 cases of recurrent medulloblastoma (mean age of patients at diagnosis 6.5 years, mean age at progression 8.4 years).
  • Forty-one patients received salvage therapy and five patients received hospice care only.
  • Log-rank analysis showed an association between prolonged patient survival and recurrence limited to the primary site (p = 0.008), initial therapy including the Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) regimen for the treatment of brain tumors in infants ("Baby POG;" p = 0.037), and treatment with radiation therapy (RT) following initial progression (p = 0.015).
  • Cox regression analysis showed a significant association between prolonged survival and only one variable--tumor recurrence restricted to the primary site (p = 0.037).
  • There was no significant association between prolonged survival and any other variables, including patient sex, age at progression, interval from tumor diagnosis to progression, initial tumor stage, and salvage treatment with chemotherapy.
  • Subgroup analysis revealed that site of tumor progression was also prognostic for survival among the subgroup of patients older than 3 years of age at diagnosis who were initially treated with RT and chemotherapy (p = 0.017, log-rank test).
  • Patients whose tumors recur at only the primary tumor site have an increased chance of prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 17644914.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Gutenberg A, Schulten HJ, Gunawan B, Ludwig HC, Brück W, Larsen J, Rohde V: CNS tumor 22 years after spinal neuroblastoma IV: diagnostic dilemma between recurrence and secondary malignancy. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2009;45(1):61-8
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  • [Title] CNS tumor 22 years after spinal neuroblastoma IV: diagnostic dilemma between recurrence and secondary malignancy.
  • We present the very unusual case of a young woman suffering from a brain tumor 22 years after a stage IV spinal neuroblastoma as an infant, demonstrating the difficulties of differentiating late neuroblastoma relapse from secondary supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET).
  • Lacking specific immunohistochemical features, the first cerebral tumor at the age of 21 was regarded as sPNET, and we pursued a therapeutic approach consisting of neurosurgical resection as well as irradiation and high-dose alkylator-based chemotherapy according to the HIT2000 protocol.
  • Moreover, the lack of PNET-specific translocations (EWS/FLI1 gene fusion) in both brain tumors as well as the development of hepatic metastases was more compatible with the diagnosis of a very late relapse 22 years after initial stage IV spinal neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genetic Markers. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19258732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Genetic Markers
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15. Sahdev I, James-Herry A, Scimeca P, Parker R: Concordant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney in a set of identical twins with discordant outcomes. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2003 Jun;25(6):491-4
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  • [Title] Concordant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney in a set of identical twins with discordant outcomes.
  • We report identical twin boys who each had stage IV rhabdoid tumor of the left kidney at the age of 5 months and 2 years, respectively.
  • The 5-month-old boy, despite receiving chemotherapy, died of progressive disease at the age of 12 months.
  • Following resection of the tumor, his twin brother was treated with 6 cycles of combination chemotherapy consisting of cisplatinum, doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and actinomycin-D alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide.
  • After complete regression of lung and brain metastases, he received high-dose thiotepa, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide, followed by autologous peripheral stem cell rescue.
  • High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplant may be an effective front-line therapeutic approach for patients with metastatic rhabdoid tumor of the kidney.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diseases in Twins. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Infant. Male. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome. Twins, Monozygotic

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  • (PMID = 12794530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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16. Starzyk J, Starzyk B, Bartnik-Mikuta A, Urbanowicz W, Dziatkowiak H: Gonadotropin releasing hormone-independent precocious puberty in a 5 year-old girl with suprasellar germ cell tumor secreting beta-hCG and alpha-fetoprotein. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2001 Jun;14(6):789-96
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  • [Title] Gonadotropin releasing hormone-independent precocious puberty in a 5 year-old girl with suprasellar germ cell tumor secreting beta-hCG and alpha-fetoprotein.
  • A 5 year-old girl presented with typical features of isosexual precocity with breast and pubic hair development (Tanner stage 3) and menarche, following a few months history of hirsutism of the back and thighs.
  • Tumor markers beta-hCG and AFP were markedly elevated and a 2.5 x 1.5 cm suprasellar germ cell tumor (GCT) was visualized by MRI.
  • Combined chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy resulted in normalization of pubertal features along with estrogen and marker levels.
  • Our observations support the possibility of hCG-dependent precocious puberty (PP) in girls caused by suprasellar hCG-secreting tumor.
  • We hypothesize that the rarity of isosexual PP in girls with hCG-secreting suprasellar GCT results not only from the lower occurrence of these tumors in girls than in boys, but above all from a rare simultaneous concomitant incidence of both high tumor aromatase activity and hCG secreting potency.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / secretion. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / secretion. Germinoma / complications. Germinoma / secretion. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / physiology. Puberty, Precocious / etiology. alpha-Fetoproteins / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Sella Turcica

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  • (PMID = 11453531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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17. Wagner S, Csatary CM, Gosztonyi G, Koch HC, Hartmann C, Peters O, Hernáiz-Driever P, Théallier-Janko A, Zintl F, Längler A, Wolff JE, Csatary LK: Combined treatment of pediatric high-grade glioma with the oncolytic viral strain MTH-68/H and oral valproic acid. APMIS; 2006 Oct;114(10):731-43
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  • [Title] Combined treatment of pediatric high-grade glioma with the oncolytic viral strain MTH-68/H and oral valproic acid.
  • Postoperative irradiation and chemotherapy could not repress tumor progression; therefore, treatment was undertaken with an oncolytic virus, MTH-68/H, an attenuated strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic drug, which also has antineoplastic properties.
  • This treatment resulted in a far-reaching regression of the thalamic glioma, but 4 months later a new tumor manifestation, an extension of the thalamic tumor, appeared in the wall of the IVth ventricle, which required a second neurosurgical intervention.
  • Under continuous MTH-68/H - VPA administration the thalamic tumor remained under control, but the rhombencephalic one progressed relentlessly and led to the fatal outcome.
  • In the final stage, a third tumor manifestation appeared in the left temporal lobe.
  • The possible reasons for the antagonistic behavior of the three manifestations of the same type of glioma to the initially most successful therapy are discussed.
  • The comparative histological study of the thalamic and rhombencephalic tumor manifestations revealed that MTH-68/H treatment induces, similar to in vitro observations, a massive apoptotic tumor cell decline.
  • In the rhombencephalic tumor, in and around the declining tumor cells, NDV antigen could be demonstrated immunohistochemically, and virus particles have been found in the cytoplasm of tumor cells at electron microscopic investigation.
  • These findings document that the oncolytic effect of MTH-68/H treatment is the direct consequence of virus presence and replication in the neoplastic cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Valproic Acid / therapeutic use. Viral Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Antigens, Viral / analysis. Antigens, Viral / metabolism. Brain / virology. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytoplasm / virology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Newcastle disease virus / immunology. Recurrence. Thalamus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17004977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Newcastle disease virus vaccine MTH-68-H; 0 / Viral Vaccines; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid
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18. Massimino M, Gandola L, Giangaspero F, Sandri A, Valagussa P, Perilongo G, Garrè ML, Ricardi U, Forni M, Genitori L, Scarzello G, Spreafico F, Barra S, Mascarin M, Pollo B, Gardiman M, Cama A, Navarria P, Brisigotti M, Collini P, Balter R, Fidani P, Stefanelli M, Burnelli R, Potepan P, Podda M, Sotti G, Madon E, AIEOP Pediatric Neuro-Oncology Group: Hyperfractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy for childhood ependymoma: final results of the first prospective AIEOP (Associazione Italiana di Ematologia-Oncologia Pediatrica) study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Apr 1;58(5):1336-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hyperfractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy for childhood ependymoma: final results of the first prospective AIEOP (Associazione Italiana di Ematologia-Oncologia Pediatrica) study.
  • PURPOSE: A postsurgical "stage-based" protocol for ependymoma was designed.
  • HFRT dose was 70.4 Gy (1.1 Gy/fraction b.i.d.
  • RESULTS: Sixty-three consecutive children were enrolled: 46 NED, 17 ED; the tumor was infratentorial in 47 and supratentorial in 16, with spinal metastasis in 1.
  • Of NED patients, 35 of 46 have been treated with HFRT; 8 received conventionally fractionated radiotherapy, and 3 received no treatment.
  • Of the 17 ED patients, 9 received VEC + HFRT; violations due to postsurgical morbidity were as follows: HFRT only (2), conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (3) + VEC (2), and no therapy (1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: HFRT, despite the high total dose adopted, did not change the prognosis of childhood ependymoma as compared to historical series: New radiotherapeutic approaches are needed to improve local control.
  • Future ependymoma strategies should consider grading when stratifying treatment indications.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dose Fractionation. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Feasibility Studies. Humans. Infratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Patient Compliance. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Supratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Survival Analysis. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15050308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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19. Oruckaptan HH, Ozisik P, Akalan N: Prolonged cerebral salt wasting syndrome associated with the intraventricular dissemination of brain tumors. Report of two cases and review of the literature. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2000 Jul;33(1):16-20
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  • [Title] Prolonged cerebral salt wasting syndrome associated with the intraventricular dissemination of brain tumors. Report of two cases and review of the literature.
  • In this article, we report on 2 cases of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor with prolonged CSWS manifested during the intraventricular dissemination of primary disease and the high catabolic stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases, Metabolic / diagnosis. Brain Diseases, Metabolic / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Inappropriate ADH Syndrome / diagnosis. Inappropriate ADH Syndrome / metabolism. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / diagnosis. Sodium Chloride / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Humans. Hydrocephalus / complications. Hydrocephalus / diagnosis. Hyponatremia / drug therapy. Hyponatremia / etiology. Hyponatremia / metabolism. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 11025417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride
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20. Göbel U, Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Haas RJ, Schmidt P, Harms D: Germ-cell tumors in childhood and adolescence. GPOH MAKEI and the MAHO study groups. Ann Oncol; 2000 Mar;11(3):263-71

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Germ-cell tumors in childhood and adolescence. GPOH MAKEI and the MAHO study groups.
  • In mature and immature teratoma the treatment is surgical.
  • In case of a microscopically complete tumor resection there is no role for adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy irrespective of the histological grade of immaturity.
  • More than half of the tumors occur at extragonadal sites such as the ovaries (26%), the coccygeal region (24%), the testes (18%) and the brain (18%) represent then primary sites.
  • In patients with extensive tumor growth, metastatic disease or secreting intracranial tumors a delayed tumor resection after preoperative chemotherapy is preferable.
  • In these patients malignant non-seminomatous GCT may be diagnosed clinically due to the increased serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels of the tumor markers AFP and/or beta-HCG.
  • Current risk adapted treatment protocols containing cisplatinum allow long-term remissions in about 80% including patients with bulky or metastatic tumors.
  • In the cisplatinum era the prognostic factors like histology, primary site of the tumor and initial tumor stage have partly lost their former impressive significance in infants and children.
  • On the other hand the completeness of the primary tumor resection according to oncological standards has been established as the most powerful prognostic parameter superior to tumor marker levels or primary site of the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 10811491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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21. Padovani L, André N, Carrie C, Muracciole X: [Childhood and adult medulloblastoma: what difference?]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Oct;13(6-7):530-5
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  • [Title] [Childhood and adult medulloblastoma: what difference?].
  • Medulloblastoma is the most frequent childhood brain tumor (30%) but account only for less than 1% of adult brain tumor.
  • The overall survival increased significantly during the last two decades with 80% of long survivors at five years whatever the stage.
  • All children are included in national and international prospective studies which propose risk-adapted radiation therapy and chemotherapy after surgery.
  • Risks of late toxicity should be taken into account at the time of the treatment.
  • Adult medulloblastoma is a therapeutic challenge and their therapeutic strategies are similar to pediatric protocols.
  • In order to improve the understanding of adult disease and to homogenize the treatment, National Cancer Institute (INCa) stimulated the creation of web conference to discuss each case prospectively and to propose a protocol of treatment.
  • A better comprehension of biological processes and abnormal cellular signalling pathways involved in medulloblastoma pathogenesis had led toward a new prognostic classification to adapt the therapeutic strategy and gives hope of new therapeutic tools.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Child. Cognition Disorders / epidemiology. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Combined Modality Therapy. France / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Molecular Biology / methods. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy / methods. Surgical Procedures, Operative

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  • (PMID = 19713143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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22. Helton KJ, Gajjar A, Hill DA, Boop FA, Kun LE, Langston JW: Medulloblastoma metastatic to the suprasellar region at diagnosis: a report of six cases with clinicopathologic correlation. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2002 Sep;37(3):111-7
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  • In the present study, anatomic distribution and the signal characteristics and enhancement patterns of subtle anterior third ventricular recess metastases were compared with those of the original tumor; medical records were reviewed for clinical presentation, surgical stage, treatment and long-term outcomes.
  • All foci were clinically occult; 5 out of 6 had negative cerebrospinal fluid cytology, and in 4 out of 6, the only evidence of metastatic disease was documented suprasellar disease that resolved or significantly improved following irradiation and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Third Ventricle / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Stem / pathology. Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Thoracic Vertebrae

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 12187055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA 23009; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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23. Hong TS, Mehta MP, Boyett JM, Donahue B, Rorke LB, Zeltzer PM: Patterns of treatment failure in infants with primitive neuroectodermal tumors who were treated on CCG-921: a phase III combined modality study. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Oct 15;45(5):676-82
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  • [Title] Patterns of treatment failure in infants with primitive neuroectodermal tumors who were treated on CCG-921: a phase III combined modality study.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze patterns of treatment failure in infants with primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) who were treated primarily with chemotherapy in a large multi-institutional study.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five prospectively staged patients with PNET confirmed by central pathology review, who were 18 months or younger were treated on Children's Cancer Group Study 921 (CCG-921) primarily with chemotherapy.
  • Patterns of sites of initial treatment failure were analyzed and compared to failure patterns of 180 older children who had PF-PNETs, and 44 older children with ST-PNETs who were treated on the same protocol.
  • Cumulative 5-year relapse incidence (+/-SE) for younger patients with PF-PNETs was 64.5 +/- 8.9% for patients without metastases (M0) compared to 71.4 +/- 13.4% for patients with metastases (M+).
  • The overall treatment failure rate was significantly higher for younger compared to older patients with PF-PNET and ST-PNET.
  • There was no statistically significant difference in relapse patterns between patients with PF primary tumors and ST primaries when stratified by stage.
  • All patients had a high risk of recurrence at primary tumor site.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite aggressive chemotherapy, younger children with PNETs have high rates of treatment failure and fare worse than high-risk, older patients with PF-PNETs, indicating the need to maximize local, regional, and systemic therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Supratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16007595.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Pederiva F, Andres A, Sastre A, Alves J, Martinez L, Tovar JA: Bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma is different. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2007 Dec;17(6):393-6
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  • Staging is confusing in these patients and treatment guidelines are difficult to set.
  • The present study examines the clinical, biological and therapeutic features of bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma.
  • We studied the clinicopathological findings and biological features, including MYCN amplification, and analyzed the treatment strategies and results.
  • All underwent chemotherapy prior to operation.
  • Both had MYCN gene amplification and died of widespread (brain and bone) metastases some weeks later.
  • In the remaining two patients adrenalectomy was performed on the side of the larger tumor with tumor enucleation on the other side to preserve hormonal function followed by 2 courses of mild chemotherapy in one patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral adrenal neuroblastomas fit neither into stage 4 s nor into stage 4.
  • Mortality is higher than in regular stage 4 s cases.
  • This particular group of neuroblastomas required individually tailored therapeutic strategies based on the size, extent and prognostic markers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18072022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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25. Radford IR: Gd-Tex Pharmacyclics Inc. Curr Opin Investig Drugs; 2000 Dec;1(4):524-8
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  • Pharmacyclics is developing Gd-Tex (gadolinium texaphyrin) as a radiosensitizer for the potential treatment of various cancers including brain metastases and primary brain tumors, pancreatic tumors, lung tumors and pediatric cancers [196711], [348919].
  • The compound entered phase III pivotal trials for brain metastases in September 1998 [323929].
  • Phase I clinical trials for the treatment of primary brain tumors and pancreatic cancer have been initiated while several trials in other cancer types are in the planning stages [367716].
  • In September 1998, Pharmacyclics announced the initiation of a pivotal phase III trial for the treatment of patients with brain metastases.
  • The first was to determine the safety of two different dosing regimens of the drug during preoperative radiotherapy after induction chemotherapy in patients with stage IIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • The second would examine the use of Gd-Tex in combination with stereotactic Gamma Knife radiosurgery in patients with primary brain tumors known as glioblastoma multiforme [381561].
  • A phase Ib/II trial, for brain metastases, was conducted in America and France, and involved over 100 patients.
  • At the ASCO 1998 meeting, interim tumor response data were presented for 37 patients.
  • The overall tumor response rate (complete plus partial response rate) was 73%.
  • Full results were announced in October 1998 at the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology.
  • Following ten daily injections followed by whole brain radiation, 77.7% of patients demonstrated a tumor response defined as greater than 50% reduction in tumor volume.
  • Death due to tumor progression was seen in 15% of the Gd-Tex group as opposed to 35% in the control group [302872].
  • In March 1997 the Decision Network of the NCI voted to sponsor additional clinical indications including adult and pediatric brain tumors, as well as cancers involving the lung, head & neck, pancreas and prostrate.
  • Two phase I trials of Gd-Tex for the treatment of primary brain tumors commenced in August 1998 under a CRADA with the NCI [237538], [295592], [348919].
  • Pharmacyclics is collaborating with the NCI under a CRADA in phase I trials in primary brain tumors and pancreatic tumors [323929], [323952], [346596].
  • [MeSH-major] Drugs, Investigational / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / therapy. Organometallic Compounds / therapeutic use. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11249709.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4472
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England : 2000)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Investig Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drugs, Investigational; 0 / Gd-Tex complex; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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26. Scrigni A, Nastri M, Rodríguez de Schiavi S, Czornyj L, Felice M, Mantese B: Leptomeningeal lymphoma in a child with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Neuropediatrics; 2006 Jun;37(3):121-5
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  • Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the central nervous system is rare in pediatric AIDS patients.
  • We report a seven-year-old HIV-infected boy, in stage C3 of the disease, who developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the central nervous system with a leptomeningeal location.
  • The diagnosis was based on brain biopsy, immunophenotypic studies of B cells, and Epstein-Barr virus serology of the cerebrospinal fluid.
  • The boy was treated with intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy.
  • Fifteen months after diagnosis he had clinically improved, but he then relapsed with a thalamic tumor.
  • In the present article, we discuss diagnostic difficulties, evolution, treatment, and the association of this neoplasm with the Epstein-Barr virus.


27. Binder G, Weber S, Ehrismann M, Zaiser N, Meisner C, Ranke MB, Maier L, Wudy SA, Hartmann MF, Heinrich U, Bettendorf M, Doerr HG, Pfaeffle RW, Keller E, South German Working Group for Pediatric Endocrinology: Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone therapy on pubic hair growth and psychological well-being in adolescent girls and young women with central adrenal insufficiency: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;94(4):1182-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone therapy on pubic hair growth and psychological well-being in adolescent girls and young women with central adrenal insufficiency: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial.
  • CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of oral dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the treatment of atrichia pubis and psychological distress in young females with central adrenal insufficiency is unknown.
  • Our study aimed to evaluate this therapy.
  • Inclusion criteria were ACTH deficiency plus two or more additional pituitary deficiencies, serum DHEA less than 400 ng/ml, and pubertal stage more than B2.
  • Exclusion criteria were cerebral radiation with more than 30 Gy, tumor remission less than 1 yr, amaurosis, hypothalamic obesity, psychiatric disorders, and unstable hormone medication.
  • INTERVENTION: Patients were randomized to placebo (n = 12) or 25 mg HPLC-purified DHEA/d (n = 11) orally for 12 months after stratification into a nontumor (n = 7) and a tumor group (n = 16).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical scoring of pubic hair stage was performed at 0, 6, and 12 months (primary endpoint), and psychometrical evaluation (Symptom Check-List-90-R and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale) at 0 and 12 months (secondary endpoint).
  • RESULTS: In the placebo group, four patients dropped out because of recurrence of craniopharyngioma, manifestation of type 1 diabetes, and change of residence (n = 2); in the DHEA group, one patient dropped out because of recurrent anxiety attacks.
  • DHEA substitution resulted in normalization of DHEA sulfate and androstanediol glucuronide morning serum levels 2 h after drug intake (P < 0.006), and of its 24 h urinary metabolite levels (P < 0.0001), placebo had no effect.
  • The DHEA group exhibited significant progress in pubic hair growth from Tanner stage I-III to II-V (mean: +1.5 stages), whereas the placebo group did not (relative risk 0.138; 95% confidence interval 0.021-0.914; P = 0.0046).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Insufficiency / drug therapy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / deficiency. Dehydroepiandrosterone / therapeutic use. Hair / growth & development. Hypopituitarism / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Blood Pressure / physiology. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Double-Blind Method. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Obesity / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19126625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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28. Greenfield JP, Cobb WS, Lyden D: Resisting arrest: a switch from angiogenesis to vasculogenesis in recurrent malignant gliomas. J Clin Invest; 2010 Mar;120(3):663-7
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  • The treatment modalities designed to promote its demise are all ultimately ineffective, leading to disease progression.
  • In this issue of the JCI, Kioi et al. demonstrate that vasculogenesis and angiogenesis potentially play distinct roles in the etiology of primary and recurrent malignant gliomas, suggesting that patient therapy should perhaps be tailored specifically against the predominant vasculature pathway at a given specific stage of gliomagenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioblastoma / therapy. Heterocyclic Compounds / pharmacology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neovascularization, Pathologic / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anti-HIV Agents. Antibodies, Neutralizing. Antigens, CD11b / metabolism. Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Movement / radiation effects. Chemokine CXCL12 / antagonists & inhibitors. Chemokine CXCL12 / metabolism. Humans. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Nude. Monocytes / metabolism. Monocytes / pathology. Neoplasm Transplantation. Receptors, CXCR4 / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, CXCR4 / metabolism. Transplantation, Heterologous. Whole-Body Irradiation

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  • (PMID = 20179347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-8238
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Neutralizing; 0 / Antigens, CD11b; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / CXCR4 protein, mouse; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Cxcl12 protein, mouse; 0 / Heterocyclic Compounds; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1; 0 / ITGAM protein, human; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; 155148-31-5 / JM 3100
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2827970
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29. Chintagumpala M, Chevez-Barrios P, Paysse EA, Plon SE, Hurwitz R: Retinoblastoma: review of current management. Oncologist; 2007 Oct;12(10):1237-46
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  • Subsequent appropriate diagnostic studies and care provided by a multidisciplinary team, including an ophthalmologist, a pediatric oncologist, a radiation oncologist, and a geneticist, among others, often result in optimal short-term and long-term care.
  • The best initial and subsequent treatments are based on whether the child has unilateral or bilateral disease, the stage of the disease, and the age of the child.
  • Enucleation, chemotherapy, and various forms of radiation therapy along with local ophthalmic therapies can be used in the treatment of retinoblastoma.
  • Cure rates are high in children when the tumor is confined to the eye and has not spread systemically or into the orbit or brain.
  • Exciting discoveries using animal models are providing new insights into the development of this disease and opening new avenues for targeted therapies that may lead to high cure rates with minimal toxicities.
  • [MeSH-major] Retinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17962617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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30. Buonsenso D, Serranti D, Valentini P: Management of central nervous system tuberculosis in children: light and shade. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci; 2010 Oct;14(10):845-53
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  • BACKGROUND: Pediatric tuberculosis of the central nervous system (CNS-TB) is a severe form of extrapulmonary TB.
  • In both situations, brain damage results from a cytokine-mediated inflammatory response, which causes vasculitis, obstructive hydrocephalus and cranial nerve palsy.
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is an important cytokine in this response.
  • The prognosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) correlates most closely with the clinical stage of illness at the time treatment is started.
  • Most patients in the 1st stage have a good outcome, whereas the management of patients in the 2nd and 3rd stage is still a clinical challenge, and the few patients who survive have permanent severe disabilities.
  • Nevertheless, not all patients show a good response to standard anti-inflammatory treatment.
  • Thalidomide is a drug with pleiotropic effects: it appears to downregulate production of TNF-alpha and other proinflammatory cytokines.
  • Due to its anti-inflammatory effects, thalidomide has been evaluated as an adjunctive drug in the management of difficult-to-treat CNS-TB.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature review was carried out based on MEDLINE/pubmed database (1997/2010) searching for the following descriptors: corticosteroids and tuberculous meningitis (limits: review, all child); thalidomide and tuberculosis treatment; and tuberculous meningitis; and CNS-TB; and brain abscess; and TB clinical trial.
  • AIMS: Literature review on the use of corticosteroids and thalidomide in the treatment of CNS-TB.
  • Regarding the use of thalidomide, a randomized controlled trial published in 2004 do not support the use of adjunctive high-dose thalidomide therapy in the treatment of TBM in children, but results from four case reports, one clinical trial and one placebo-controlled trial suggest the use of thalidomide in CNS-TB not responding to standard therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: "Adjuvant" treatment with dexamethasone improves survival in patients with TBM but probably does not prevent disability.
  • Thalidomide should not be used for the routine treatment, but it may be helpful as a "salvage therapy" in patients with TBM and tuberculomas not responding to anti-TB drugs and high dose corticosteroids.
  • [MeSH-major] Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Thalidomide / therapeutic use. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / physiology

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  • (PMID = 21222370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1128-3602
  • [Journal-full-title] European review for medical and pharmacological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antitubercular Agents; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
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