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1. Phitayakorn R, McHenry CR: Hyperparathyroid crisis: use of bisphosphonates as a bridge to parathyroidectomy. J Am Coll Surg; 2008 Jun;206(6):1106-15
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  • STUDY DESIGN: The manifestations of hyperparathyroid crisis and outcomes of bisphosphonate-based therapy and delayed parathyroidectomy were determined and compared with cases from a review of the literature.
  • Laboratory indices and gland weights were compared with those from patients with primary hyperparathyroidism without crisis.
  • Hyperparathyroid crisis was manifested by vomiting, nausea, or both (n=6); abdominal pain (n=3); mental status changes (n=3); pancreatitis (n=2); bone pain, osteolytic lesions, or both (n=2); electrocardiogram changes (n=1); and an acute conversion disorder (n=1).
  • Isotonic sodium chloride and furosemide, in combination with a bisphosphonate drug in 7 of 8 patients, resulted in a calcium decline from 16.2+/-1.6 mg/dL to 11.8+/-1.6 mg/dL, with resolution of electrocardiogram and mental status changes, and pancreatitis before resection of an adenoma (n=7) or carcinoma (n=1).
  • Patients with hyperparathyroid crisis had higher parathyroid hormone levels (691.7 +/-662.4 pg/mL versus 172.6 +/-147.5 pg/mL; p=0.062), larger tumor weights (7.5 +/-8.4 g versus 1.6 +/-2.1 g; p=0.085), and lower postoperative calcium levels (7.3 +/-1.6 mg/dL versus 8.7+/-0.9 mg/dL; p=0.035) than patients without crisis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Rehydration, calciuresis, and bisphosphonate therapy are effective in correcting life-threatening manifestations of hyperparathyroid crisis, providing an effective bridge to parathyroidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Hypercalcemia / prevention & control. Hyperparathyroidism / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Drug Utilization. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Parathyroidectomy. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18501807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates
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2. Giessler GA, Beech DJ: Nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma. J Natl Med Assoc; 2001 Jul-Aug;93(7-8):251-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare entity accounting for 0.5% to 5% of parathyroid neoplasia.
  • Clinical detection of nonfunctioning parathyroid malignancies preoperatively is primarily based on symptoms of an expanding neck mass.
  • This ominous complaint is typically accompanied with an advanced stage of the disease at initial diagnosis.
  • Because there is a paucity of data in the literature regarding nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma, prognosis can not be readily assessed.
  • In both functional and nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma, early surgery has proven to be the only curative treatment approach whereas both chemotherapy and radiation therapy fail to produce systemic or regional benefit when used alone.
  • Hence, parathyroid cancer should be considered in every patient evaluated for a neck mass regardless of the blood calcium and blood parathormone level.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Parathyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 11491274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-4693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2594040
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3. Majid MA, Siddique MI: Major post-operative complications of thyroid surgery: preventable or not? Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull; 2008 Dec;34(3):99-103
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The most frequent procedure was bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy.
  • Reactionary hemorrhage occurred in 6 patients, all following bilateral procedures and among them 5 patients developed tension hematoma with respiratory obstruction despite the presence of a drain.
  • Temporary vocal cord palsy was observed in 7 patients whereas one patient subjected to total thyroidectomy with neck dissection for papillary carcinoma of thyroid developed permanent right vocal cord palsy.
  • Temporary parathyroid insufficiency was seen in 51 patients and one patient developed permanent hypoparathyroidism.
  • Incidence of parathyroid insufficiency was higher in bilateral procedures as compared to unilateral ones.
  • There was no operation related death in this series, but complications like hemorrhage, vocal cord palsy and parathyroid insufficiency following thyroid surgery are still a deep concern.
  • [MeSH-major] Postoperative Complications. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroidectomy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 19476256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-9238
  • [Journal-full-title] Bangladesh Medical Research Council bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
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4. Sekkach Y, Baizri H, Mounach J, Qacif H, El Omri N, Chahdi H, Rkiouak F, Belmejdoub G, Ghafir D, Ohayon V, Algayres JP: [An historical case of malignant hyperparathyroidism with unusual metastatic sites]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Mar;70(1):64-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] A propos d'une hyperparathyroïdie maligne historique à localisations métastatiques inhabituelles.
  • We report a historical case of hyperparathyroidism in a young patient hospitalized for an array of osteolytic foci and incomplete fracture associated with a swollen neck, revealing a very special form of a metastatic parathyroid carcinoma with unusual multiple locations and exceptional medullary flooding.
  • Carcinoma of the parathyroid gland produces a malignant hypersecreting tumor particularly difficult to diagnose.
  • Treatment of this rare tumor is primarily surgical.
  • Intraoperatively, the size of the tumor and its local extension to surrounding tissue are highly suggestive.
  • The diagnosis is strengthened in the presence of associated Schantz and Castelman criteria.
  • Chemotherapy alone or in combination with radiation has not demonstrated its effectiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18922512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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5. Cinacalcet: new drug. Secondary hyperparathyroidism: where are the clinical data? Prescrire Int; 2006 Jun;15(83):90-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cinacalcet: new drug. Secondary hyperparathyroidism: where are the clinical data?
  • Standard treatment consists of a phosphate chelator and vitamin D, along with the use of an appropriate calcium concentration in the dialysis bath, but is difficult to manage. (2) Parathyroid cancer is a rare malignancy frequently associated with hypercalcaemia. (3) Cinacalcet is a calcimimetic agent that reduces the parathormone level.
  • No impact on bone complications is mentioned in available reports. (5) The assessment of treatment of parathyroid cancer is limited to one ongoing non comparative trial involving 21 patients. (6) During clinical trials, 11% of dialysis patients had low parathormone levels, creating a risk of adynamic bone disease and fractures, but available data are sparse. (7) Two-thirds of patients receiving cinacalcet have episodes of hypocalcaemia, which may in part account for reports of seizures (1.4% of patients), nausea (31%) and vomiting (27%).
  • Cinacalcet is a powerful CYP 2D6 inhibitor and is also metabolised by isoenzymes CYP 3A4 and CYP 1A2, creating an increased risk of drug interactions. (8) In practice, treatment with cinacalcet seems difficult to manage and to provide only limited benefits.
  • Available assessment reports leave many questions unanswered, and this is a further reason not to use this product outside of clinical trials, either after failure of phosphate chelator and vitamin D therapy (especially as an alternative to surgery) or in parathyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Kidney Failure, Chronic / drug therapy. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / metabolism. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Phosphorus / metabolism. Renal Dialysis / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16764095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-7422
  • [Journal-full-title] Prescrire international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prescrire Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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6. Yong TY, Li JY: Mediastinal parathyroid carcinoma presenting with severe skeletal manifestations. J Bone Miner Metab; 2010 Sep;28(5):591-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mediastinal parathyroid carcinoma presenting with severe skeletal manifestations.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignancy, accounting for about 1% of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The patient underwent surgery, and histopathology revealed a low-grade parathyroid carcinoma.
  • After surgery, the patient developed severe hungry bone syndrome requiring intensive calcium, magnesium and active vitamin D supplementation.
  • A review of the literature was undertaken with regards to mediastinal parathyroid carcinoma, management of refractory hypercalcaemia in this setting and hungry bone syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone and Bones / pathology. Bone and Bones / physiopathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms. Parathyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / therapeutic use. Humans. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hypercalcemia / physiopathology. Magnesium / therapeutic use. Male. Radiography. Radiopharmaceuticals / metabolism. Syndrome. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi / metabolism. Vitamin D / therapeutic use. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20237944.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-5604
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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7. Padhi D, Harris R: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of cinacalcet hydrochloride. Clin Pharmacokinet; 2009;48(5):303-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cinacalcet hydrochloride (cinacalcet) is a calcimimetic approved for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) receiving dialysis and for the treatment of hypercalcaemia in patients with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The absolute bioavailability is 20-25%, and administration of cinacalcet with low- or high-fat meals increases exposure (area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity [AUC(infinity)]) 1.5- to 1.8-fold.
  • Cinacalcet has no significant interaction with calcium carbonate or sevelamer hydrochloride, phosphate binders commonly used in the treatment of patients with CKD receiving dialysis.
  • Cinacalcet is extensively metabolized by multiple hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (primarily 3A4, 2D6 and 1A2) with <1% of the parent drug excreted in the urine.
  • Dose adjustments of cinacalcet may be necessary, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum calcium concentrations should be closely monitored if a patient initiates or discontinues therapy with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor (e.g. ketoconazole, erythromycin, itraconazole).
  • Cinacalcet is a strong inhibitor of CYP2D6; therefore, dose adjustment of concomitant medications that are predominantly metabolized by CYP2D6 and have a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. flecainide, vinblastine, thioridazine and most tricyclic antidepressants) may be required.
  • [MeSH-major] Naphthalenes / pharmacokinetics. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Clinical Trials as Topic / methods. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / metabolism. Kidney Failure, Chronic / drug therapy. Kidney Failure, Chronic / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19566113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-1926
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical pharmacokinetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Pharmacokinet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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8. Barman Balfour JA, Scott LJ: Cinacalcet hydrochloride. Drugs; 2005;65(2):271-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Oral cinacalcet hydrochloride (HCl) [Sensipar, Mimpara] is the first in a new class of therapeutic agents, the calcimimetics, and has a novel mechanism of action.
  • It directly modulates the principal regulator of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, namely the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) on the chief cells in the parathyroid gland.
  • Cinacalcet HCl treatment also simultaneously lowered serum calcium and phosphorus, and calcium-phosphorous product levels.
  • Notably, cinacalcet HCl proved effective in a broad range of CKD patients on dialysis with uncontrolled secondary HPT, regardless of disease severity, duration of dialysis treatment, dialysis modality, race, age, gender, or concurrent phosphate binder or vitamin D sterol use.
  • Cinacalcet HCl (60-360 mg/day) also reduced elevated serum calcium levels by > or =1 mg/dL in 15 of 21 (71%) patients with parathyroid carcinoma in an open-label, multicentre, dose-titration trial.
  • Most treatment-emergent adverse events were mild to moderate in severity.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15631545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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9. Rodgers SE, Perrier ND: Parathyroid carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2006 Jan;18(1):16-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews current knowledge on the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Due to its rarity, research on the molecular etiology and treatment of parathyroid carcinoma has been slow.
  • Mutations of the tumor suppressor gene, HRPT2, and resultant loss of expression of its gene product have been found in the majority of parathyroid cancers studied.
  • Recent advances in the field have identified regions on several chromosomes that demonstrate loss of heterozygosity more commonly in parathyroid carcinoma than in benign parathyroid lesions.
  • This has provided clues to the location and identity of additional tumor suppressor genes associated with the development of this cancer.
  • SUMMARY: Parathyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism, accounting for fewer than 1% of cases.
  • The etiology of parathyroid cancer is largely unknown.
  • En bloc resection at the time of initial surgery appears to provide the best chance of cure.
  • Anecdotal experience with adjuvant chemotherapy has shown a modest and short-lived effect.
  • Bisphosphonates and a new class of drugs known as calcimimetics have been used effectively in some patients to control the symptoms of severe hypercalcemia in a palliative setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 16357559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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10. Sharretts JM, Kebebew E, Simonds WF: Parathyroid cancer. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):580-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid cancer.
  • Parathyroid cancer is an uncommon malignancy and rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) with a high morbidity and patient death in advanced cases usually resulting from intractable hypercalcemia.
  • Inactivation of the HRPT2/CDC73 gene, encoding the putative tumor-suppressor protein parafibromin and discovered in the context of the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome, is a common, somatic event in most parathyroid cancers.
  • Approximately 25% of patients with apparently sporadic parathyroid cancer carry germline HRPT2/CDC73 mutation.
  • Germline DNA analysis for HRPT2/CDC73 mutation is recommended in all patients with parathyroid cancer because of the potential benefit for first-degree relatives, who should nevertheless undergo serum calcium screening.
  • The histopathologic diagnosis of parathyroid cancer is nonspecific unless vascular, lymphatic, capsular, or soft tissue invasion is seen, or metastases are clinically evident.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of parathyroid tumors for loss of parafibromin expression offers promise as a diagnostic tool.
  • En bloc tumor resection offers the highest chance of cure in patients with suspected parathyroid carcinoma.
  • No adjuvant chemotherapy regimen has yet proven effective, and the role of local adjuvant radiotherapy is being evaluated.
  • Medical therapy with the calcimimetic cinacalcet and bisphosphonates can ameliorate hypercalcemia in patients with inoperable disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • (PMID = 21167377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 DK043012-06; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 DK043320-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS245489; NLM/ PMC3059245
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11. Grozinsky-Glasberg S, Grossman AB, Korbonits M: The role of somatostatin analogues in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2008 May 14;286(1-2):238-50
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  • [Title] The role of somatostatin analogues in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours.
  • Neuroendocrine tumours belong to a heterogeneous family of neoplasms, originating in endocrine glands (such as the pituitary, parathyroid or the neuroendocrine adrenal glands), in endocrine islets (within the thyroid or pancreas) as well as in endocrine cells dispersed between exocrine cells throughout the digestive or respiratory tracts.
  • The development of somatostatin analogues as important diagnostic and treatment tools have revolutionised the clinical management of patients with neuroendocrine tumours.
  • However, although symptomatic relief and stabilisation of tumour growth for various periods of time are observed in many patients treated with somatostatin analogues, tumour regression is rare.
  • Development of new somatostatin analogues and new drug combination therapies should further improve the clinical management of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paraganglioma / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18037561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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12. Strewler GJ: Medical approaches to primary hyperparathyroidism. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2000 Sep;29(3):523-39, vi
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  • Medical therapy is useful in cases of acute primary hyperparathyroidism, patients with recurrent disease, and parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Among the therapeutic agents that have been employed, oral phosphate, bisphosphonates, and estrogens have been successful.
  • The newly described calcimimetic agents directly block secretion of parathyroid hormone from the glands and offer an important new approach to medical therapy of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / physiology. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Estrogens / therapeutic use. Hyperparathyroidism / drug therapy. Phosphates / therapeutic use. Progestins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Molecular Mimicry. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11033759.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Phosphates; 0 / Progestins; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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13. Fassnacht M, Kreissl MC, Weismann D, Allolio B: New targets and therapeutic approaches for endocrine malignancies. Pharmacol Ther; 2009 Jul;123(1):117-41
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  • [Title] New targets and therapeutic approaches for endocrine malignancies.
  • In endocrine malignancies (thyroid carcinoma, parathyroid carcinoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, malignant pheochromocytoma) surgery is currently the treatment of choice, in case of differentiated thyroid carcinomas followed by 131-I-radioiodine administration.
  • This approach is often successful in early disease; however, treatment options for advanced endocrine malignancies remain unsatisfactory and prognosis is poor.
  • In particular, cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation therapy often show only limited and transient efficacy and are associated with significant toxicity.
  • Thus, new treatment options are urgently needed.
  • Advances in the understanding of the molecular pathology of endocrine malignancies has recently led to identification of key events in endocrine oncogenesis (e.g. oncogenic RET mutations in medullary thyroid carcinoma or RET/PTC rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma).
  • First results of "targeted therapies" in medullary and differentiated thyroid carcinoma are impressive: phase II trials targeting RET or VEGF receptor kinases led to objective tumor response in up to 50% of patients.
  • This review covers these recent molecular and clinical advances which most likely will dramatically alter the treatment of endocrine malignancies within the coming decade.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Drug Design. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19374919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-016X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 438
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14. Neal JM: Visual vignette. Parathyroid carcinoma. Endocr Pract; 2005 Jul-Aug;11(4):293
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  • [Title] Visual vignette. Parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hypercalcemia / pathology. Male. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16006293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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15. Pelizzo MR, Piotto A, Bergamasco A, Rubello D, Casara D: [Parathyroid carcinoma. Therapeutic strategies derived from 20 years of experience]. Minerva Endocrinol; 2001 Mar;26(1):23-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Parathyroid carcinoma. Therapeutic strategies derived from 20 years of experience].
  • [Transliterated title] Il carcinoma delle paratiroidi. Strategie terapeutiche derivate da 20 anni di esperienza.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of the parathyroid is a rare endocrine tumour which can be difficult to diagnose even for expert anatomopathologists.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out on all the cases of parathyroid pathology observed between January 1980 and October 2000: parathyroid carcinoma was diagnosed in 17 (3.59%) out of 478 patients treated for hyperparathyroidism.
  • We describe their clinical presentation, treatment and results obtained.
  • The patients included 9 women and 8 men, with a male/female ratio of 1.14 and a mean age at diagnosis of 56.9 years (range 30-83).
  • Initial surgery was restricted to simple parathyroidectomy in 4 cases; parathyroidectomy was extended to the entire gland in 3 patients with uremic syndrome and to the ipsilateral thyroid lobe in 7 cases.
  • RESULTS: Parathyroid carcinoma was correctly diagnosed during the first operation in 14 cases (this diagnosis was suspected in 10 cases following intraoperative frozen session), whereas the first diagnosis was of benign disease in 3 patients.
  • Two patients underwent radiotherapy after surgery and one received chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, high blood levels of calcium and PTH, a palpable mass at the neck, with recurrent nerve paralysis, aspects of local invasiveness should alert the surgeon and guide him towards surgery that includes resection of the parathyroid en bloc with the adjacent structures, although there is no proof that a more extensive surgery is correlated with a more favourable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastritis / etiology. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Italy / epidemiology. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Osteoporosis / etiology. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Urinary Calculi / etiology. Vocal Cord Paralysis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 11323564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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16. Schott M, Feldkamp J, Schattenberg D, Krueger T, Dotzenrath C, Seissler J, Scherbaum WA: Induction of cellular immunity in a parathyroid carcinoma treated with tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells. Eur J Endocrinol; 2000 Mar;142(3):300-6
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  • [Title] Induction of cellular immunity in a parathyroid carcinoma treated with tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells.
  • OBJECTIVE: To control the growth of a metastasized parathyroid carcinoma, by immunizing a patient with tumor lysate and parathyroid hormone-pulsed dendritic cells.
  • In vivo immune response was demonstrated by positive delayed-type hypersensitivity toward tumor lysate.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that dendritic cell vaccination can induce in vitro and in vivo responses in a highly malignant endocrine carcinoma.
  • Regardless of the clinical outcome of our patient, this approach might be generally applicable to other advanced, radio- and chemotherapy-resistant endocrine malignancies, such as adrenal carcinomas and metastasized medullary and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 10700726.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 9013-72-3 / Hemocyanin; FV4Y0JO2CX / keyhole-limpet hemocyanin
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17. Nowak Z, Laudański K: [Calcimimetics as a new chance for effective treatment of calcium metabolism disturbances]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2002 Nov;13(77):424-7
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  • [Title] [Calcimimetics as a new chance for effective treatment of calcium metabolism disturbances].
  • [Transliterated title] Kalcymimetyki jako nowa szansa na skuteczne leczenie zaburzeń gospodarki wapniowej.
  • Positive influence of type 1 and type 2 calcimimetics on calcium metabolism is discussed.
  • The clinical indications for calcimimetics, especially type 2, in the future, seem to be hypercalcemia in the course of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism as well as hypercalcemia in patients with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / agonists. Calcium / metabolism. Calcium-Binding Proteins. Receptors, Cell Surface / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Kidney / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing

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  • (PMID = 12621766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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18. Adam MA, Untch BR, Olson JA Jr: Parathyroid carcinoma: current understanding and new insights into gene expression and intraoperative parathyroid hormone kinetics. Oncologist; 2010;15(1):61-72
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma: current understanding and new insights into gene expression and intraoperative parathyroid hormone kinetics.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is an indolent but ultimately life-threatening malignancy.
  • Due to the lack of definitive diagnostic markers and overlapping clinical features of benign primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), this disease is often misdiagnosed as parathyroid adenoma.
  • Owing to the rarity of the disease, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Here, we review the literature to present current understanding of the disease and provide new information on gene expression and use of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) monitoring in the surgical management of this rare malignancy.
  • Specifically, using microarray transcriptome analysis of an unequivocal case of parathyroid carcinoma and a biopsy from the same patient's normal parathyroid gland, we identify APP, CDH1, KCNJ16, and UCHL1 as differentially expressed genes in parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Further, using case records from four cases of unequivocal parathyroid carcinoma, we compared intraoperative PTH kinetics of these patients to 475 patients with benign PHPT, and show that intraoperative PTH monitoring is accurate in predicting postoperative normocalcemia in initial en bloc operations for parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Intraoperative Care. Monitoring, Physiologic. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Diagnostic Imaging. Gene Expression. Humans. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Immunohistochemistry. Mutation. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroidectomy. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20051478.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK088188
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
  • [Number-of-references] 86
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3227890
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19. Wilkins BJ, Lewis JS Jr: Non-functional parathyroid carcinoma: a review of the literature and report of a case requiring extensive surgery. Head Neck Pathol; 2009 Jun;3(2):140-9
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  • [Title] Non-functional parathyroid carcinoma: a review of the literature and report of a case requiring extensive surgery.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignancy, and only accounts for 0.5-2% of cases of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Less than 10% of parathyroid carcinomas are non-functional, and as such, they have been rarely reported in the literature.
  • Importantly, margin status at resection is related to prognosis, and only a handful of case reports of non-functional carcinoma note this important parameter.
  • Here we report the first case of non-functional parathyroid carcinoma with negative margins, and review the literature on this rare entity.
  • Whether functional or non-functional, parathyroid carcinoma can often be difficult to differentiate from benign parathyroid adenoma.
  • While diagnosis has been based on clinical and histological criteria, recent data concerning the molecular underpinnings of parathyroid carcinoma may allow for improved accuracy in distinguishing benign and malignant parathyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Amlodipine / therapeutic use. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy. Esophagectomy. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Hypertension / drug therapy. Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Metformin / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 19644546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 1J444QC288 / Amlodipine; 9100L32L2N / Metformin
  • [Number-of-references] 41
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carcinoma / Non-functional / Parafibromin / Parathyroid
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20. Yoshida S: Intracranial metastatic parathyroid carcinoma: case report. Surg Neurol; 2006 Jan;65(1):81-3
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  • [Title] Intracranial metastatic parathyroid carcinoma: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Although parathyroid carcinoma is not frequent, it is a slowly progressive disease characterized by frequent recurrences.
  • A review of the literature revealed only 2 other cases of intracranial metastatic parathyroid carcinoma.
  • We present here the case of cerebral metastases from parathyroid carcinoma that could be treated successfully.
  • She had undergone a parathyroidectomy for parathyroid carcinoma 18 years earlier.
  • Lung metastasis was also detected 6 years earlier, and she has been dialyzed twice a month after chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case report supports aggressive surgical management to eliminate all parathyroid hormone-secreting malignant tissue and prevent metabolic complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16378868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Shoback D: Update in osteoporosis and metabolic bone disorders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Mar;92(3):747-53
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  • Attention is also shifting from the osteoclast as a target for new therapies to the osteoblast and the osteocyte, with its complex network within the depths of bone.
  • Clinical trial reports indicate that the calcimimetic cinacalcet can effectively treat PTH hypersecretion due to primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Calcinosis / etiology. Calcium / physiology. Humans. Models, Biological. Osteomalacia / etiology. Parathyroid Diseases / drug therapy. Phosphates / metabolism. Vitamin D / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17341572.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Phosphates; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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22. Brown EM: Clinical utility of calcimimetics targeting the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). Biochem Pharmacol; 2010 Aug 1;80(3):297-307
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  • Calcimimetics, which activate the extracellular calcium (Ca(o)(2+))-sensing receptor in the parathyroid and other tissues participating in Ca(o)(2+) homeostasis, were the first described allosteric activators of a G-protein-coupled receptor.
  • Cinacalcet, the only calcimimetic currently approved for human use, is used clinically for treating secondary hyperparathyroidism (e.g., overactivity of parathyroid glands) in patients being dialyzed for chronic kidney disease.
  • By sensitizing the parathyroids to Ca(o)(2+), cinacalcet lowers the circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) level.
  • The second approved use of cinacalcet is for treating hypercalcemia in patients with inoperable parathyroid carcinoma.
  • In this setting, it provides the first medical therapy chronically lowering serum calcium concentration in this condition, albeit not to normal in most patients.
  • "Off-label" administration of cinacalcet [i.e., not yet approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)] effectively lowers serum calcium and/or PTH in various other forms of hyperparathyroidism and increases serum phosphate in renal phosphate-wasting syndromes by reducing PTH-induced phosphaturia.
  • In the future, the drug could conceivably be utilized to modulate the activity of the CaSR in other tissues (i.e., kidney, colon) in therapeutically desirable ways.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomimetic Materials / metabolism. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Extracellular Fluid / metabolism. Naphthalenes / metabolism. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium / administration & dosage. Calcium / chemistry. Calcium / metabolism. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Humans. Kidney Diseases / drug therapy. Kidney Diseases / metabolism. Protein Structure, Secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20382129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2968
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK078331
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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23. Rubin MR, Bilezikian JP, Birken S, Silverberg SJ: Human chorionic gonadotropin measurements in parathyroid carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Oct;159(4):469-74
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  • [Title] Human chorionic gonadotropin measurements in parathyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Preoperatively, it is difficult to differentiate between parathyroid cancer (PtCa) and severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to a benign tumor.
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a tumor marker in trophoblastic and nontrophoblastic cancers and hyperglycosylated hCG is increased in hCG-secreting malignancies.
  • We investigated whether hCG can distinguish PtCa cancer from benign disease and add prognostic information.
  • Serum malignant hyperglycosylated hCG values in all of the cancer patients exceeded the maximal serum malignant hCG level of the PHPT subjects with benign disease (3.77 pmol/l).

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  • (PMID = 18625691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK074457-03; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK074457; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK32333; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA 98350; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK074457; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK074457-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA098350; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK032333
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS247354; NLM/ PMC2970867
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24. Krysiak R, Okopień B: [Parathyroid carcinoma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2007 Aug;23(134):145-50
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  • [Title] [Parathyroid carcinoma].
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine tumour accounting for only about one of every hundred cases of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The aetiology of this cancer remains obscure but the recent studies have identified that some gene mutations may be involved in its pathogenesis.
  • Most patients with parathyroid carcinoma suffer from symptoms related to marked hypercalcemia; the incidence of associated renal, bone, gastrointestinal, neuromuscular and psychological symptoms is much more frequent than in those with benign parathyroid adenomas.
  • The course of patients with parathyroid carcinoma is variable.
  • The treatment of parathyroid malignancy is predominantly surgical, comprising an initial en bloc resection of the tumour and adjacent neck structures.
  • Several studies have suggested the usefulness of pharmacotherapy in the palliative treatment of the debilitating symptoms of hypercalcemia.
  • The aim of this paper is to summarise the present state of knowledge on the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / blood. Humans. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hypercalcemia / physiopathology. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / physiopathology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / complications. Neoplasm Metastasis. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / secretion. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Prognosis. Radionuclide Imaging. Rare Diseases. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18044348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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25. Rubin MR, Silverberg SJ, D'Amour P, Brossard JH, Rousseau L, Sliney J Jr, Cantor T, Bilezikian JP: An N-terminal molecular form of parathyroid hormone (PTH) distinct from hPTH(1 84) is overproduced in parathyroid carcinoma. Clin Chem; 2007 Aug;53(8):1470-6
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  • [Title] An N-terminal molecular form of parathyroid hormone (PTH) distinct from hPTH(1 84) is overproduced in parathyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: A new parathyroid hormone (PTH) species, the N-terminal PTH form (N-PTH), is distinct from intact human PTH of 84 amino acid residues [hPTH(1-84)] and is recognized in a 3rd-generation assay of "whole" PTH (wPTH; the 1-2 epitope) but not in a 2nd-generation assay of "total" PTH (tPTH; the 12-18 epitope).
  • We investigated whether N-PTH is also overproduced in parathyroid cancer and whether N-PTH concentration is influenced by calcimimetic therapy.
  • METHODS: We studied 8 patients with parathyroid carcinoma before and at week 16 of cinacalcet therapy, 6 patients with PHPT, and 6 control individuals.
  • RESULTS: Half of parathyroid carcinoma patients had an increased wPTH:tPTH ratio [mean (SD), 1.35 (0.29)]; the others had a typical ratio [0.72 (0.12)].
  • Calcimimetic therapy appreciably reduced calcium concentrations in parathyroid carcinoma patients but had little influence on PTH concentration, the wPTH:tPTH ratio, or the PTH HPLC profile.
  • CONCLUSION: N-PTH is overproduced in some parathyroid cancer patients, but calcimimetic therapy does not influence its production.
  • The clinical implications of this finding in parathyroid carcinoma await additional studies with an emphasis on N-PTH's biological activity and with larger numbers of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Hormone / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Peptide Fragments / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17599957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9147
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK074457; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK074457; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK032333
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / amino-terminal parathyroid hormone; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
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26. Sillero Sánchez A, Atienza Iglesias MA: [Diagnostic-therapeutic management of parathyroid carcinoma]. An Med Interna; 2002 Dec;19(12):644-8
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic-therapeutic management of parathyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Manejo diagnóstico-terapéutico del carcinoma de paratiroides.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is an uncommon endocrine malignancy, with difficult diagnosis.
  • There are several presenting clinical and biochemical features that suggest it: much higher serum calcium and PTH levels than parathyroid adenomas, symptoms of severe hypercalcemia, the classical target organs affected and a palpable neck mass.
  • Pathologic findings, local invasion, lymph node and distant metastases prove the diagnosis.
  • Initial surgical therapy (en bloc dissection) is the only chance for cure it.
  • The management of recurrent and/or metastatic parathyroid carcinoma is also surgical, resulting in significant palliation from hypercalcemia, whereas radiation therapy and chemotherapy are not helpful.
  • Bisphosphonates (drugs that inhibit bone resorption) control acute and chronic hypercalcemia when surgery is not effective or possible.
  • Preoperative localization studies (cervical ultrasound, CT scan, MRI and sestamibi scan) are useful in patients with recurrent or persistent parathyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Calcium / blood. Humans. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 12593036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-7199
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de medicina interna (Madrid, Spain : 1984)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Med Interna
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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27. Moore AF, Wexler TL, Yung RL, Kish J, Larvie M, Lauter K, Arnold A, Finkelstein JS, Burnett-Bowie SM: An unusual case of primary hyperparathyroidism with profoundly elevated parathyroid hormone levels. Endocr Pract; 2008 Oct;14(7):892-7
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  • [Title] An unusual case of primary hyperparathyroidism with profoundly elevated parathyroid hormone levels.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a man who presented with profoundly elevated parathyroid hormone levels in the setting of hypercalcemia, a palpable neck mass, renal disease, and metabolic bone disease.
  • RESULTS: A 28-year-old man with a history of childhood abdominal neuroblastoma treated with chemotherapy and field radiation therapy presented with a 2-week history of persistent left scapular pain and swelling.
  • Parathyroid hormone concentration at hospital admission was 1127 pg/mL.
  • Single-photon emission computed tomography after intravenous administration of technetium Tc 99m-labeled sestamibi revealed an intense focus of abnormal radiotracer uptake on early and delayed images in the right anterior inferior neck.
  • Computed tomography imaging of the chest and neck revealed a 1.9-cm, smooth, calcified nodule posterior to the right lobe of the thyroid gland and diffusely osteopenic bones with trabecular resorption and numerous scattered lucent regions consistent with brown tumors.
  • On bilateral neck exploration, a right inferior parathyroid mass and the left superior parathyroid gland were excised.
  • The remaining 2 parathyroid glands were identified intraoperatively and appeared normal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the overlap between the clinical findings seen in primary hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Enhanced understanding of the genetic and molecular bases of primary hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid carcinoma should aid in the diagnosis of these diseases and the care of affected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18996820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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28. Busaidy NL, Jimenez C, Habra MA, Schultz PN, El-Naggar AK, Clayman GL, Asper JA, Diaz EM Jr, Evans DB, Gagel RF, Garden A, Hoff AO, Lee JE, Morrison WH, Rosenthal DI, Sherman SI, Sturgis EM, Waguespack SG, Weber RS, Wirfel K, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R: Parathyroid carcinoma: a 22-year experience. Head Neck; 2004 Aug;26(8):716-26
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma: a 22-year experience.
  • PURPOSE: Because parathyroid carcinoma is rare, clear consensus is not available regarding the optimal management of patients with this condition.
  • Treatment strategies generally derive from clinical and anecdotal experiences.
  • METHODS: We included all patients with parathyroid carcinoma seen at The University of Texas M. D.
  • Anderson Cancer Center since January 1, 1980.
  • Anderson Cancer Center with parathyroid carcinoma and a minimum follow-up of 2 years.
  • The age at initial diagnosis (mean +/- SD) was 46.7 +/- 15.3 years.
  • Parathyroid cancer was treated with complete surgical excision with curative intent in 18 patients.
  • In the other nine patients, who had clinical and/or radiographic evidence of soft tissue extension, the tumor was treated by comprehensive "en bloc" soft tissue resection.
  • Five patients died of parathyroid carcinoma; all deaths were hypercalcemia related.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Parathyroid carcinoma can be an indolent disease with morbidity and mortality related to hypercalcemia.
  • A comprehensive multidisciplinary approach with surgery, radiation therapy, and medical treatment for hypercalcemia is needed to optimize patient outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Parathyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15287039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Nakanishi S, Fukagawa M: [Therapeutic agents for disorders of bone and calcium metabolism. The calcimimetic cinacalcet HCl]. Clin Calcium; 2007 Jan;17(1):88-92
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  • [Title] [Therapeutic agents for disorders of bone and calcium metabolism. The calcimimetic cinacalcet HCl].
  • Calcimimetics drug such as cinacalcet suppress the secretion of parathyroid hormone by sensitizing parathyroid calcium receptors to extracellular ionized calcium.
  • Standard treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism is associated with the risk of hypercalcemia, but cinacalcet don't induce elevation of serum calcium.
  • And some studies were reported the use of cinacalcet not only to manage primary hyperparathyroidism, but also secondary hyperparathyroidism in nondialyzed stage, renal transplant patients and parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Naphthalenes / pharmacology. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / agonists
  • [MeSH-minor] Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / drug therapy. Kidney Failure, Chronic / drug therapy. Kidney Transplantation. Mutation. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17211098.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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30. Eurelings M, Frijns CJ, Jeurissen FJ: Painful ophthalmoplegia from metastatic nonproducing parathyroid carcinoma: case study and review of the literature. Neuro Oncol; 2002 01;4(1):44-8
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  • [Title] Painful ophthalmoplegia from metastatic nonproducing parathyroid carcinoma: case study and review of the literature.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy.
  • Of the fewer than 400 cases reported, most have been cases of producing parathyroid carcinoma with accompanying hypercalcemia.
  • Only 13 patients with nonproducing parathyroid carcinoma have been described.
  • We report a patient with i.c. metastasis.
  • Distal metastases of producing parathyroid carcinoma are treated surgically to prolong survival and prevent complications of hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia.
  • One half of the patients with producing parathyroid carcinoma die within 5 years, mostly because of the complications of hypercalcemia.
  • Nonproducing parathyroid carcinoma compares unfavorably with producing parathyroid carcinoma in terms of tumor progression and prognosis.
  • Few data on choice of therapy in nonproducing parathyroid carcinoma are available.
  • We treated our patient with a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • Treatment was followed by an unexpectedly prolonged survival of 31 months after diagnosis of metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma / secondary. Ophthalmoplegia / etiology. Ophthalmoplegia / physiopathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pain / physiopathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11772432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 27
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1920631
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31. Schott M, Scherbaum WA, Feldkamp J: [Drug therapy of endocrine neoplasms. Part I: Thyroid neoplasms, adrenal neoplasms and parathyroid neoplasms]. Med Klin (Munich); 2000 Jan 15;95(1):20-5
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  • [Title] [Drug therapy of endocrine neoplasms. Part I: Thyroid neoplasms, adrenal neoplasms and parathyroid neoplasms].
  • [Transliterated title] Medikamentöse Therapie endokriner Karzinome. Teil I: Schilddrüsenkarzinome, Nebennierenkarzinome und Nebenschilddrüsenkarzinome.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of endocrine carcinomas is about 5.3 persons per 100,000 population.
  • Most frequent are malignancies of the thyroid gland (about 89%).
  • THERAPY: Because of low incidences and missing prospective studies as well as radiotherapy and chemotherapy resistance, general accepted therapy guidelines for endocrine carcinomas are still missing.
  • Surgery and radionucleotide treatment is generally the first-line therapy.
  • Hormonal active carcinomas can be additionally treated with special substances such as octreotide and mitotane.
  • Chemotherapy is frequently not effective.
  • This first part of the review will present medical therapies of thyroid carcinomas, adrenal carcinomas and parathyroid carcinomas.
  • The second part in one of the next issues will focus on less frequent endocrine carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 10668340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0723-5003
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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32. Shimane T, Mori T, Ono T, Egawa S, Furuta A, Ikeda K, Kamakazu K, Kobayashi S, Sanbe T, Suzaki H: [Three cases of adenocarcinoma of the head and neck maintaining QOL by administration of docetaxel]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Dec;37(13):2897-900
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  • [Title] [Three cases of adenocarcinoma of the head and neck maintaining QOL by administration of docetaxel].
  • A primary head and neck adenocarcinoma is a comparatively rare disease, and surgical resection has been the first choice for its treatment.
  • In the present study, we performed chemotherapy with weekly administration of docetaxel in 3 cases with unresectable or recurrent adenocarcinoma of the head and neck on an outpatient basis, resulting in long-term maintenance of the patients' QOL.
  • Each case had submandibular gland carcinoma, parotid gland carcinoma, or parathyroid gland carcinoma.
  • The present results might suggest that it is possible to treat patients with adenocarcinoma in the head and neck without decreasing patients' QOL.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Taxoids / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 21160265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
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33. Krebs LJ: Calcimimetics and hyperparathyroidism. Curr Opin Investig Drugs; 2004 Oct;5(10):1080-5
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  • The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a key regulator of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and parathyroid proliferation.
  • This review discusses the role of the CaSR in hyperparathyroidism (HPT), and the exploitation of the CaSR as a therapeutic target for the treatment of HPT.
  • Calcimimetics act as CaSR agonists or allosteric activators and thereby potentiate the effects of extracellular Ca2+ on parathyroid cell function.
  • Results from clinical trials using calcimimetics to treat primary and secondary HPT, as well as primary HPT from parathyroid carcinoma, suggest that calcimimetic compounds could provide an effective alternative or additional therapeutic approach for various forms of HPT.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / metabolism. Hyperparathyroidism / drug therapy. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / agonists
  • [MeSH-minor] Aniline Compounds / pharmacology. Aniline Compounds / therapeutic use. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 15535429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4472
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England : 2000)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Investig Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aniline Compounds; 0 / N-(2-chlorophenylpropyl)-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethylamine; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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34. Kebebew E: Parathyroid carcinoma. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2001 Aug;2(4):347-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Although parathyroid neoplasms are common and cause primary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid carcinoma is a rare entity.
  • At times it can be difficult to diagnose.
  • Patients with parathyroid carcinoma usually present with profound symptoms of hyperparathyroidism and highly elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels.
  • At the time of neck exploration, a large, gray-white, locally invasive tumor is commonly encountered.
  • The course of patients with parathyroid carcinoma is variable; unfortunately, more than 50% have persistent or recurrent disease due to regional or distant disease.
  • Surgical resection is the principal treatment for patients with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The optimal surgical treatment is en bloc tumor resection with ipsilateral thyroid lobectomy when the diagnosis is suspected and until it is proven otherwise.
  • Patients who have persistent or recurrent parathyroid carcinoma should have localizing studies to identify loco-regional or distant tumor sites.
  • Reoperation in patients with localized parathyroid carcinoma is recommended because it relieves symptoms of hypercalcemia, and it normalizes serum calcium and PTH levels in most patients.
  • For patients who have unresectable parathyroid carcinoma, a protocol-based treatment with chemotherapy and external radiotherapy should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Combined Modality Therapy. Diuretics / therapeutic use. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Fluid Therapy. Furosemide / therapeutic use. Humans. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / secretion. Parathyroidectomy. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 12057115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diuretics; 7LXU5N7ZO5 / Furosemide
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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35. Tilling L, Colin Forfar J: Cinacalcet-associated cardiogenic shock in a patient with cardiomyopathy. Clin Ther; 2007 Feb;29(2):352-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: Cinacalcet is a calcimimtic agent used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis or hypercalcemia related to parathyroid carcinoma.
  • His serum calcium concentration was 3.15 micromol/L and was refractory to bisphosphonate therapy.
  • Therapy with cinacalcet 30 mg/d was reinitiated, resulting in a reduction in serum calcium concentration and greatly increased heart failure requiring inotropic drug therapy and hemofiltration.
  • After 13 days of treatment, cinacalcet was withdrawn, and the patient's condition unproved.
  • DISCUSSION: Based on a score of 7 on the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale, cinacalcet was the probable cause of cardiogenic shock in this patient.
  • Caution should be exercised when considering treatment with cinacalcet in patients with heart failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiomyopathies / complications. Cardiotonic Agents / adverse effects. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Naphthalenes / adverse effects. Shock, Cardiogenic / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / blood. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Drug Administration Schedule. Heart Failure / chemically induced. Hemofiltration. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / etiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Probability

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  • (PMID = 17472827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0149-2918
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cardiotonic Agents; 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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36. Dong BJ: Cinacalcet: An oral calcimimetic agent for the management of hyperparathyroidism. Clin Ther; 2005 Nov;27(11):1725-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Traditional medical therapy (eg, vitamin D sterols, calcium, phosphate binders) has been inadequate for the management of HPT and its vascular and skeletal complications.
  • OBJECTIVE: : The goal of this article was to review the efficacy and safety profile of cinacalcet, a second-generation calcimimetic, in the management of HPT secondary to CKD, primary HPT, and parathyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Compared with placebo, cinacalcet significantly reduced parathyroid hormone levels within 2 to 4 hours after administration (P < 0.05).
  • In Phase III trials involving 1136 patients with secondary HPT, 56% of those who received cinacalcet achieved the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative target of a reduction in parathyroid hormone to <300 pg/mL, 65% achieved a calcium-phosphorus product <55 mg2/dL2, and a respective 49% and 46% achieved normalized serum calcium and phosphorus levels (P < 0.001).
  • Cinacalcet's effects were similar regardless of patients' demographic characteristics, duration or mode of dialysis, severity of HPT, or use of concomitant medical therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on the available evidence, cinacalcet is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of secondary HPT and refractory parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Area Under Curve. Calcium / blood. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Drug Interactions. Half-Life. Humans. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Kidney Transplantation. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphorus / blood. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 16368445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0149-2918
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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37. Nacamuli R, Rumore GJ, Clark G: Parathyroid carcinosarcoma: a previously unreported entity. Am Surg; 2002 Oct;68(10):900-3
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinosarcoma: a previously unreported entity.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease.
  • The first report of parathyroid carcinoma with sarcomatous differentiation is presented.
  • A parathyroid mass measuring 6 x 8 x 9 cm was surgically excised from the left side of the neck in a 54-year-old man who had mild hypercalcemia.
  • Light microscopic examination of the mass showed carcinoma with areas of rhabdomyosarcoma and chondrosarcoma.
  • Resolution of hypercalcemia followed excision of the mass, but multiple pulmonary and adrenal masses subsequently developed and led to the patient's death despite aggressive trials of chemotherapy with doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and cisplatin.
  • The sarcomatous elements of the mass excised from this patient are presumed to represent aberrant cellular differentiation previously described in uterine and other tissue but not in parathyroid glands.
  • Sarcomatous differentiation itself appears to be a poor prognostic factor in parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma. Parathyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 12412721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Björklund P, Svedlund J, Olsson AK, Akerström G, Westin G: The internally truncated LRP5 receptor presents a therapeutic target in breast cancer. PLoS One; 2009;4(1):e4243
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  • [Title] The internally truncated LRP5 receptor presents a therapeutic target in breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a common malignant disease, which may be caused by a number of genes deregulated by genomic or epigenomic events.
  • An aberrantly spliced internally truncated LRP5 receptor (LRP5Delta666-809, LRP5Delta) was shown recently to be resistant to DKK1 inhibition, and was required for beta-catenin accumulation in hyperparathyroid tumors and parathyroid tumor growth.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show, by reverse transcription PCR and Western blot analysis, that LRP5Delta is frequently expressed in breast tumors of different cancer stage (58-100%), including carcinoma in situ and metastatic carcinoma.
  • LRP5Delta was required in MCF7 breast cancer cells for the non-phosphorylated active beta-catenin level, transcription activity of beta-catenin, cell growth in vitro, and breast tumor growth in a xenograft SCID mouse model.
  • Furthermore, an anti-LRP5 antibody attenuated beta-catenin activity, inhibited cell growth, and induced apoptosis in LRP5Delta-positive MCF7 and T-47D breast cancer cells, but not in control cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the LRP5Delta receptor is strongly implicated in mammary gland tumorigenesis and that its aberrant expression present an early event during disease progression.
  • LRP5 antibody therapy may have a significant role in the treatment of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. LDL-Receptor Related Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-5. Mice. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Transplantation. Receptors, LDL / metabolism. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. Wnt3 Protein. Wnt3A Protein. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19158955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / LDL-Receptor Related Proteins; 0 / LRP5 protein, human; 0 / Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-5; 0 / Lrp4 protein, mouse; 0 / Lrp5 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, LDL; 0 / WNT3 protein, human; 0 / WNT3A protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / Wnt3 Protein; 0 / Wnt3 protein, mouse; 0 / Wnt3A Protein; 0 / Wnt3a protein, mouse; 0 / beta Catenin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627768
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39. Antoniades C, Tousoulis D, Marinou K, Papageorgiou N, Bosinakou E, Tsioufis C, Stefanadi E, Latsios G, Tentolouris C, Siasos G, Stefanadis C: Effects of insulin dependence on inflammatory process, thrombotic mechanisms and endothelial function, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary atherosclerosis. Clin Cardiol; 2007 Jun;30(6):295-300
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of insulin dependence on inflammatory process, thrombotic mechanisms and endothelial function, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary atherosclerosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, increased thrombogenicity and abnormal inflammatory response.
  • However, TNF-alpha was negatively correlated with protein C (PrtC) only in INS (r = - 0.726, p = 0.01) but not in TABL group (r = - 0.066, p = 0.738).
  • Similarly, sVCAM-1 was correlated with PrtC only among INS patients (r = - 0.451, p = 0.046) but not in TABL (r = 0.069, p = 0.727).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Insulin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus affects the expression of inflammatory cytokines and subsequently modifies the thrombotic mechanisms in patients with coronary atherosclerosis, independently from the duration of diabetes and the extend of coronary artery disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biguanides / therapeutic use. Coronary Artery Disease / etiology. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy. Endothelium, Vascular / drug effects. Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use. Inflammation / etiology. Insulin / therapeutic use. Sulfonylurea Compounds / therapeutic use. Thrombosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Blood Coagulation Factors / metabolism. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Forearm / blood supply. Humans. Interleukin-6 / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Protein C / metabolism. Regional Blood Flow / drug effects. Registries. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / blood. Vasodilation / drug effects


40. Arcidiacono MV, Sato T, Alvarez-Hernandez D, Yang J, Tokumoto M, Gonzalez-Suarez I, Lu Y, Tominaga Y, Cannata-Andia J, Slatopolsky E, Dusso AS: EGFR activation increases parathyroid hyperplasia and calcitriol resistance in kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol; 2008 Feb;19(2):310-20
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  • [Title] EGFR activation increases parathyroid hyperplasia and calcitriol resistance in kidney disease.
  • Calcitriol, acting through vitamin D receptors (VDR) in the parathyroid, suppresses parathyroid hormone synthesis and cell proliferation.
  • In a rat model of SH, activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) by TGF-alpha is required for the development of parathyroid hyperplasia, but the relationship between EGFR activation and reduced VDR content is unknown.
  • With the use of the same rat model, it was found that pharmacologic inhibition of EGFR activation with erlotinib prevented the upregulation of parathyroid TGF-alpha, the progression of growth, and the reduction of VDR.
  • Increased TGF-alpha/EGFR activation induced the synthesis of liver-enriched inhibitory protein, a potent mitogen and the dominant negative isoform of the transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta, in human hyperplastic parathyroid glands and in the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431, which mimics hyperplastic parathyroid cells.
  • Similarly, in nodular hyperplasia, which is the most severe form of SH and the most resistant to calcitriol therapy, higher TGF-alpha activation of the EGFR was associated with an 80% reduction in VDR mRNA levels.
  • Thus, in SH, EGFR activation is the cause of both hyperplastic growth and VDR reduction and therefore influences the efficacy of therapy with calcitriol.

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  • (PMID = 18216322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-3450
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK062713; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK062713
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor alpha; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2396751
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41. Karner I, Hrgović Z, Sijanović S, Buković D, Klobucar A, Usadel KH, Fassbender WJ: Bone mineral density changes and bone turnover in thyroid carcinoma patients treated with supraphysiologic doses of thyroxine. Eur J Med Res; 2005 Nov 16;10(11):480-8
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  • [Title] Bone mineral density changes and bone turnover in thyroid carcinoma patients treated with supraphysiologic doses of thyroxine.
  • The aim of this one-year prospective study was to determine whether longterm thyroxine treatment is a risk factor for elevated bone turnover, loss of bone mass and subsequent development of osteoporosis.
  • Premenopausal women (N = 19), and men (N = 9) suffering from differentiated thyroid gland carcinoma in the mean age of 39.0 +/- 8.0 years and 41.8 +/- 10.0 years were investigated.
  • All of them had undergone a total thyroidectomy and subsequent thyroxine therapy.
  • The duration of the TSH-suppressive therapy prior to the the beginning of our study was 9.4 +/- 6.4 years in the female and 8.1 +/- 6.0 years in the male group.
  • The prospective observation was performed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the spine and the femoral neck and by single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) at the distal radius.
  • Statistically significant loss of bone mass was observed only on the distal radius in males (p<0.05).
  • The results are a proof that accelerated bone turnover and subsequent bone loss occurs during TSH-suppressive thyroxine therapy.
  • In future prospective studies a prolonged time of observation will be necessary, as well as to increase the number of studied patients, in order to better assess the relative risk of osteoporosis in patients undergoing TSH-suppressive treatment more precisely.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density / drug effects. Bone and Bones / metabolism. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroxine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Absorptiometry, Photon. Adult. Biomarkers / blood. Calcium / blood. Calcium / urine. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphates / urine. Premenopause / blood. Premenopause / drug effects. Premenopause / metabolism. Premenopause / urine. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Thyroid Hormones / blood. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16354602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2321
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Phosphates; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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42. Kaltsas GA, Besser GM, Grossman AB: The diagnosis and medical management of advanced neuroendocrine tumors. Endocr Rev; 2004 Jun;25(3):458-511
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  • [Title] The diagnosis and medical management of advanced neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that originate from endocrine glands such as the pituitary, the parathyroids, and the (neuroendocrine) adrenal, as well as endocrine islets within glandular tissue (thyroid or pancreatic) and cells dispersed between exocrine cells, such as endocrine cells of the digestive (gastroenteropancreatic) and respiratory tracts.
  • Assessment of specific or general tumor markers offers high sensitivity in establishing the diagnosis and can also have prognostic significance.
  • Imaging modalities include endoscopic ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and particularly, scintigraphy with somatostatin analogs and metaiodobenzylguanidine.
  • Successful treatment of disseminated NETs requires a multimodal approach; radical tumor surgery may be curative but is rarely possible.
  • Well-differentiated and slow-growing gastroenteropancreatic tumors should be treated with somatostatin analogs or alpha-interferon, with chemotherapy being reserved for poorly differentiated and progressive tumors.
  • Therapy with radionuclides may be used for tumors exhibiting uptake to a diagnostic scan, either after surgery to eradicate microscopic residual disease or later if conventional treatment or biotherapy fails.
  • [MeSH-major] Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Animals. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15180952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-769X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 620
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43. Tominaga Y: [Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and bone. The clinical perspective of parathyroid interventional therapy for advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism in the era of cinacalcet HCl]. Clin Calcium; 2009 Apr;19(4):545-50
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  • [Title] [Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and bone. The clinical perspective of parathyroid interventional therapy for advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism in the era of cinacalcet HCl].
  • Advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) due to chronic kidney disease refractory to medical treatment should be indicated for parathyroid interventional therapy (parathyroidectomy [PTX] and percutaneous ethanol injection therapy [PEIT] ect).
  • Japanese Society of Dialysis Therapy (JSDT) guideline recommends performing PTX at relatively early stage of SHPT in order to improve patient's mortality.
  • Cinacalcet HCl should influence the treatment of SHPT in our country.
  • Because PTX can dramatically control SHPT and majority of Japanese dialysis patients have to continue hemodialysis for long-term, PTX should be performed in patients in whom SHPT is refractory to vitamin D therapy, moreover and Cinacalcet HCl and can not tolerate to continue Cinacalcet HCl due to side effects.
  • However surgeons hesitate the operation for patients who belong to high risk group and have the possibility of severe complications, suffer from parathyroid carcinoma or parathyromatosis.
  • SHPT can be managed for long-term by PEIT, provided that only one parathyroid gland is enlarged.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / therapy. Naphthalenes / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Chronic Disease. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Drug Therapy, Combination. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Humans. Injections, Intralesional. Kidney Diseases / complications. Parathyroidectomy. Renal Dialysis. Vitamin D / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19329834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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44. Ybarra J, Moisés J, Torregrosa JV, Madhun ZT, Schumacher OP: [Effects of octreotide on serum and urine electrolytes in a patient with parathyroid carcinoma: clinical case]. Nefrologia; 2001 Jul-Aug;21(4):406-10
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  • [Title] [Effects of octreotide on serum and urine electrolytes in a patient with parathyroid carcinoma: clinical case].
  • [Transliterated title] Efectos del octreotide sobre los electrolitos en suero y orina de un paciente con carcinoma de paratiroides: caso clínico.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare endocrine tumor whose management is difficult whenever surgery does not achieve complete en bloc resection or recurrence is detected.
  • Later on, continuous subcutaneous octreotide administration kept urinary calcium excretion at low levels and this effect was completely reversible/reinducible upon discontinuation/reintroduction of the drug.
  • The lack of clear-cut therapeutic effects make this findings a pure clinical observation.
  • Thus, octreotide cannot be recommended for the treatment of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Calcium / urine. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Phosphorus / urine
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy. Glipizide / therapeutic use. Humans. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Hypertension / complications. Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use. Injections, Subcutaneous. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Male. Metformin / therapeutic use. Parathyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 11816519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0211-6995
  • [Journal-full-title] Nefrología : publicación oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nefrologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; 9100L32L2N / Metformin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium; X7WDT95N5C / Glipizide
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45. Shahapuni I, Monge M, Oprisiu R, Mazouz H, Westeel PF, Morinière P, Massy Z, Choukroun G, Fournier A: Drug Insight: renal indications of calcimimetics. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol; 2006 Jun;2(6):316-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Drug Insight: renal indications of calcimimetics.
  • Calcimimetics suppress the secretion of parathyroid hormone by sensitizing the parathyroid calcium receptor to serum calcium.
  • Cinacalcet (Sensipar/Mimpara), Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA), the first-in-class calcimimetic agent approved for treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in dialysis patients, is, in association with higher dose of a calcium-based oral phosphate binder, a well-tolerated and effective alternative to standard treatments such as vitamin D derivatives in association with a non-calcium-based oral phosphate binder.
  • We extend our discussion to encompass other indications for calcimimetics -- secondary hyperparathyroidism in predialysis chronic kidney disease patients, hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism in renal transplant recipients, primary hyperparathyroidism, and hypercalcemia associated with parathyroid carcinoma -- as well as providing guidance on optimal usage of this drug.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Naphthalenes / pharmacology. Renal Dialysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / blood. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / blood. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Kidney Transplantation. Parathyroid Neoplasms / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16932453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8323
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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46. Ou HY, Hung CJ, Hsu WH, Yu EH, Wu TJ: Variability of clinical presentations in three cases of parathyroid carcinoma. J Formos Med Assoc; 2003 Apr;102(4):266-9
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  • [Title] Variability of clinical presentations in three cases of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma accounts for 0.5 to 4.0% of cases of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The prognosis depends largely on the extent of successful resection at the time of initial operation.
  • Therefore, early diagnosis before surgery is important.
  • The first patient, a 20-year-old uremic female, had refractory hypercalcemia after 5 years of hemodialysis treatment.
  • Pathology revealed diffuse hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands with focal adenomatous changes.
  • Pathology disclosed typical features of parathyroid carcinoma with adjacent lymph node metastasis.
  • He underwent resection of the parathyroid tumor.
  • All three patients were relatively young and had extremely high intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level (15 to 31 times the upper limit of normal).
  • The first patient died of hypercalcemia and respiratory failure and the other 2 were treated successfully with surgical excision and, in case 2, combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Our experience with these cases suggests that the combination of the following characteristics are highly suggestive of parathyroid carcinoma: young age, palpable neck mass, concomitant renal and skeletal disease, and extremely high iPTH level in patients with PTH-dependent hypercalcemia.

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  • (PMID = 12833192.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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47. Witteveen JE, Haak HR, Kievit J, Morreau H, Romijn JA, Hamdy NA: Challenges and pitfalls in the management of parathyroid carcinoma: 17-year follow-up of a case and review of the literature. Horm Cancer; 2010 Aug;1(4):205-14
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  • [Title] Challenges and pitfalls in the management of parathyroid carcinoma: 17-year follow-up of a case and review of the literature.
  • He was severely hypercalcaemic with 10-fold increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations.
  • A diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism was established and the patient was referred for parathyroidectomy.
  • At neck exploration, an enlarged parathyroid gland with invasive growth into the thyroid gland was found and removed, lymph nodes were cleared and hemithyroidectomy was performed.
  • A suspected diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was confirmed histologically.
  • Over the following 17 years, control of hypercalcaemia represented the most difficult challenge despite variable success achieved with repeated surgical interventions, embolisations, radiofrequency ablation of metastases and treatment with calcimimetics, bisphosphonates and haemodialysis using low-dialysate calcium.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypercalcemia / blood. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hypercalcemia / surgery. Male. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 21258429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-8500
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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48. Frazão JM, Martins P, Coburn JW: The calcimimetic agents: perspectives for treatment. Kidney Int Suppl; 2002 May;(80):149-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The calcimimetic agents: perspectives for treatment.
  • The biology of the low affinity, G-protein-coupled CaR and the effects of its activation in various tissues are reviewed.
  • Physiological roles include regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion by small changes in ionized calcium (Ca++), and control of urinary calcium excretion with small changes in blood Ca++.
  • Calcimimetic drugs, which amplify the sensitivity of the CaR to Ca++, can suppress PTH levels with a resultant fall in blood Ca++.
  • Experiences with R-568 in patients with secondary and primary hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid carcinoma are summarized.
  • The second generation calcimimetic, AMG 073, with a better pharmacokinetic profile appears to be an effective and safe treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism, producing suppression of PTH levels with a simultaneous reduction in serum phosphorus levels and the calcium X phosphorus product.
  • Treatment trials have been relatively short-term except for one patient treated with R-568 for more than 600 days for parathyroid carcinoma; nonetheless the drug had no major side effects and appeared to be safe.
  • [MeSH-major] Receptors, Cell Surface / drug effects. Receptors, Cell Surface / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium-Binding Proteins. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Kidney / physiology. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing

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  • (PMID = 11982829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-6577
  • [Journal-full-title] Kidney international. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kidney Int. Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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