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1. Cherk MH, Moore M, Serpell J, Swain S, Topliss DJ: Metastatic colorectal cancer to a primary thyroid cancer. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:122
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  • [Title] Metastatic colorectal cancer to a primary thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic malignancy to the thyroid gland is generally uncommon due to an unfavourable local thyroid micro-environment which impairs the ability of metastatic cells to settle and thrive.
  • Metastases to the thyroid gland have however been reported to occur occasionally particularly if there has been disruption to normal thyroid tissue architecture.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a patient with a history of surgically resected rectal adenocarcinoma who presents with a rising serum CEA level and an 18F-FDG PET scan positive thyroid nodule which was subsequently confirmed at surgery to be a focus of metastatic rectal adenocarcinoma within a primary poorly differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma.Subsequent treatment involved right hemi-thyroidectomy, pulmonary wedge resection of oligometastatic metastatic colorectal cancer and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Metastatic rectal carcinoma to the thyroid gland and in particular to a primary thyroid malignancy is rare and unusual.
  • Prognosis is likely to be more dependent on underlying metastatic disease rather than the primary thyroid malignancy hence primary treatments should be tailored towards treating and controlling metastatic disease and less emphasis placed on the primary thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography


2. Kloos RT, Ringel MD, Knopp MV, Hall NC, King M, Stevens R, Liang J, Wakely PE Jr, Vasko VV, Saji M, Rittenberry J, Wei L, Arbogast D, Collamore M, Wright JJ, Grever M, Shah MH: Phase II trial of sorafenib in metastatic thyroid cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Apr 1;27(10):1675-84
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of sorafenib in metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Based on the pivotal role of Ras-Raf-MAP-ERK signaling and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), we conducted a phase II clinical trial of sorafenib targeting RAF and VEGF receptor kinases in PTC.
  • Using a Simon minimax two-stage design, 16 or 25 chemotherapy-naïve metastatic PTC patients were to be enrolled in arm A (accessible tumor for biopsy).
  • Arm B patients had other subtypes of thyroid carcinoma or prior chemotherapy, and did not require tumor biopsies.
  • Four of 10 paired tumor biopsies from PTC patients showed a reduction in levels of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor phosphorylation, ERK phosphorylation, and in VEGF expression during sorafenib therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Sorafenib is reasonably well-tolerated therapy with clinical and biologic antitumor activity in metastatic PTC.


3. Graf H, Paz-Filho G: [Recombinant human TSH use in differentiated thyroid cancer]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Jul;51(5):806-12
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  • [Title] [Recombinant human TSH use in differentiated thyroid cancer].
  • Traditionally, the immediate treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) after total thyroidectomy (TT) is thyroid remnant ablation (TRA) with 131I, during hypothyroidism.
  • Stimulated Tg with endogenous or exogenous TSH, 9 to 12 months after the initial treatment of DTC, associated with cervical US, is able to identify low-risk patients virtually cured of their disease, in whom TSH suppression does not need to be so strict, avoiding the heart and bone complications of prolonged exogenous thyrotoxicosis.
  • Finally, in spite of the absence of randomized studies designed to evaluate the role of rhTSH in metastatic DTC disease, results of the combined treatment of rhTSH and 131I show a clinical benefit in the majority of treated patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyrotropin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Recombinant Proteins / administration & dosage. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17891244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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4. Aslam SN, Daly RG: Use of recombinant human thyrotropin in a complicated case of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Endocr Pract; 2001 Mar-Apr;7(2):99-101
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  • [Title] Use of recombinant human thyrotropin in a complicated case of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a complicated case of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma and the use of recombinant human thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone) (rhTSH) in conjunction with treatment with radioactive iodine (131I).
  • RESULTS: A 62-year-old Filipino man with a history of incompletely treated papillary thyroid cancer sought medical assistance in the emergency department because of weakness of the right upper extremity.
  • A cervical lymph node biopsy revealed papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant.
  • Further imaging studies disclosed widely metastatic disease.
  • The patient subsequently had a complicated treatment course and received rhTSH in conjunction with 131I treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: This unusual case demonstrates possible complications of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma along with innovations in treatment options, including the use of rhTSH to stimulate the uptake of radioiodine by thyroid cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Muscle Weakness / complications. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroglobulin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11421553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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5. Soman AD, Collins JM, DePetris G, Decker GA, Silva A, Moss A, Greer W, Ashman J, Callister M, Borad MJ: Isolated supraclavicular lymph node metastasis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a report of three cases and review of the literature. JOP; 2010;11(6):604-9
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  • [Title] Isolated supraclavicular lymph node metastasis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a report of three cases and review of the literature.
  • CONTEXT: Supraclavicular lymph nodes represent a rare site of metastasis in pancreatic cancer.
  • We report three cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with metastases to supraclavicular lymph nodes.
  • CASE REPORT: A 51-year-old male was diagnosed with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma on computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • He was recommended neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation therapy.
  • However, positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans and subsequent fine needle aspiration cytology showed supraclavicular lymph node metastasis.
  • The patient received systemic chemotherapy for metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
  • The second patient, a 66-year-old female with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and was found to have peripancreatic lymph node involvement.
  • She received adjuvant chemotherapy and was followed-up with surveillance CT scans, which did not reveal any metastasis.
  • PET/CT scan and biopsy revealed supraclavicular lymph node metastasis from a pancreatic adenocarcinoma primary.
  • The third patient, a 79-year-old male with a past history of thyroid carcinoma who was treated with partial thyroidectomy, developed neck swelling 4 years after his surgery.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology was consistent with known papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Histopathology revealed grade 3 pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Excisional biopsy of a supraclavicular lymph node showed metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, supraclavicular lymph node metastasis represents an uncommon, but clinically significant finding that can lead to changes in treatment planning.
  • PET imaging represents a valuable tool in the detection and follow up of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Clavicle. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [CommentIn] JOP. 2011 Jan;12(1):66-7; author reply 70 [21206107.001]
  • (PMID = 21068495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8577
  • [Journal-full-title] JOP : Journal of the pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JOP
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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6. Ikeda M, Tanaka K, Sonoo H, Miyake A, Yamamoto Y, Shiiki S, Nakashima K, Kurebayashi J: [Docetaxel administration for radioiodine-resistant patients with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Jun;34(6):933-6
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  • [Title] [Docetaxel administration for radioiodine-resistant patients with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma].
  • We report three radioiodine-resistant patients with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma administered docetaxel.
  • Patient 1: Bi-weekly docetaxel was administered to a 67-year-old woman with clavicle, cervical lymph node and lung metastases that had progressed after external irradiation and radioiodine therapy.
  • Patient 2: Bi-weekly docetaxel was administered to a 72-year-old man with lung metastases that had progressed after radioiodine therapy.
  • Patient 3: Bi-weekly docetaxel was administered to a 58-year-old woman with lung metastases that had progressed after radioiodine therapy.
  • In all three patients, doubling time of tumor growth was revealed to be far prolonged after docetaxel administration without distinct adverse events.
  • Since no effective systemic treatment has been established for radioiodine-resistant patients with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma,docetaxel therapy was supposed to be a viable alternative for them.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17565260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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7. Sherman SI, Wirth LJ, Droz JP, Hofmann M, Bastholt L, Martins RG, Licitra L, Eschenberg MJ, Sun YN, Juan T, Stepan DE, Schlumberger MJ, Motesanib Thyroid Cancer Study Group: Motesanib diphosphate in progressive differentiated thyroid cancer. N Engl J Med; 2008 Jul 3;359(1):31-42
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  • [Title] Motesanib diphosphate in progressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is characteristic of differentiated thyroid cancer and is associated with aggressive tumor behavior and a poor clinical outcome.
  • METHODS: In an open-label, single-group, phase 2 study, we treated 93 patients who had progressive, locally advanced or metastatic, radioiodine-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer with 125 mg of motesanib diphosphate, administered orally once daily.
  • RESULTS: Of the 93 patients, 57 (61%) had papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Among the 75 patients in whom thyroglobulin analysis was performed, 81% had decreased serum thyroglobulin concentrations during treatment, as compared with baseline levels.
  • The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea (in 59% of the patients), hypertension (56%), fatigue (46%), and weight loss (40%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Motesanib diphosphate can induce partial responses in patients with advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer that is progressive. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00121628. )
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Indoles / therapeutic use. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / drug therapy. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / secondary. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit. Survival Analysis. Thyroglobulin / blood

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  • [Copyright] 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society
  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2008 Dec 18;359(25):2727; author reply 2727 [19092161.001]
  • (PMID = 18596272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00121628
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; F60NE4XB53 / imetelstat
  • [Investigator] Lind P; Pirich C; Daumerie C; Baudin E; Bui BN; Conte-Devolx B; Rohmer V; Schvartz C; Szabolcs I; Racz K; Brandi ML; Pinchera A; Elisei R; Orlandi F; Pacini F; Jarzab B; Sowinski J; Jansson S; Lundell G; Hallqvist A; Meier C; Philippe J; Agarwala S; Ali H; Barrera J; Boccia R; Bukowski R; Burman K; Clark O; Davis T; Hoff A; Sarlis N; Jakub J; Mena R; Nahleh Z; Rosen L; Stephenson J; Srkalovic G; Tchekmedyian N
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8. Matuszczyk A, Petersenn S, Bockisch A, Gorges R, Sheu SY, Veit P, Mann K: Chemotherapy with doxorubicin in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium. Horm Metab Res; 2008 Mar;40(3):210-3
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy with doxorubicin in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium.
  • Twenty-two patients (mean age 61) with metastasizing, progressive, nonradioiodine-accumulating thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium were treated with doxorubicin between 2000 and 2005.
  • Tumors were histologically classified as follicular in 15 patients (68%) and papillary in 7 patients (32%).
  • In addition, nine patients (mean age 51 years) with medullary thyroid carcinoma were treated with doxorubicin between 1997 and 2005.
  • Treatment consisted of doxorubicin: either 8 cycles of 15 mg/m2 weekly or 3 cycles of 60 mg/m2 every 3 weeks, repeated once, depending on response and side effects.
  • The effect of therapy was evaluated by radiographic imaging, [18F] FDG-PET, and bone scans.
  • In patients with papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma, 5% had a partial regression over 6 months, 42% had stable disease for a median of 7 months (range: 1-22), and 53% had continuous progression established over 5 months (range: 1-11).
  • Three patients died before completing chemotherapy.
  • In patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma, 11% had a partial regression over 6 months followed by stable disease for 3 months, 11% had stable disease over 7 months, and 79% demonstrated progressive disease established over 5 months (range: 2-12).
  • Doxorubicin can be a valid chemotherapy option, especially for advanced or metastatic thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / radiography. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18348081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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9. Kaldrymides P, Kostoglou-Athanassiou I, Gkountouvas A, Veniou E, Ziras N: Partial remission of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma with sunitinib. Report of a case and review of the literature. Endocrine; 2010 Feb;37(1):6-10
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  • [Title] Partial remission of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma with sunitinib. Report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Tyrosine kinase receptors have been implicated in thyroid cancer.
  • Therefore, tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be used for the treatment of advanced metastatic thyroid carcinoma.
  • The aim is to present a case of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma responding to the administration of sunitinib, a multi-targeted protein kinase inhibitor.
  • A patient presented with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma and hyperthyroidism.
  • After euthyroidism was achieved the patient was treated by the administration of therapeutic radioiodine (131)I, radiotherapy and sunitinib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
  • The lesion in the pelvis was 12.5 × 9 cm before treatment decreasing thereafter and the patient improved clinically.
  • The administration of sunitinib resulted in partial disease response in a patient with progressive metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Protein kinase inhibitors may prove useful in the management of advanced metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Indoles / therapeutic use. Pelvic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 20963554.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrroles; V99T50803M / sunitinib
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10. Short SC, Suovuori A, Cook G, Vivian G, Harmer C: A phase II study using retinoids as redifferentiation agents to increase iodine uptake in metastatic thyroid cancer. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2004 Dec;16(8):569-74
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  • [Title] A phase II study using retinoids as redifferentiation agents to increase iodine uptake in metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • AIMS: Radio-iodine is effective in treating metastatic differentiated thyroid cancers.
  • In 20% of cases, however, these tumours fail to take up radio-iodine, and treatment options are then limited.
  • Retinoids redifferentiate a variety of cell types and increase iodine uptake in thyroid tumour cells in vitro.
  • The aim of this study was to assess whether oral isotretinoin could increase radio-iodine uptake in patients with iodine-uptake-negative metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: Patients who had iodine-uptake-negative metastatic papillary or follicular thyroid cancers were selected from the thyroid database at The Royal Marsden Hospital and enrolled to an open-label, non-randomised phase II trial.
  • Sites of metastatic disease were assessed using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and absence of iodine uptake was confirmed using a diagnostic radio-iodine scan before study entry.
  • Response was assessed within 2 weeks of completing treatment with repeat radio-iodine scan.
  • All patients were reviewed every 2 weeks during treatment for assessment of toxicity.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen patients were treated with isotretinoin between January 2001 and July 2002: nine with metastatic papillary thyroid cancer, five with metastatic follicular cancer and two with Hurthle cell carcinoma.
  • In one patient, radio-iodine uptake increased after retinoid administration; however, this was not large enough to permit a significant dose of iodine to be given to sites of metastatic disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment with isotretinoin does not reliably increase radio-iodine uptake in patients with metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • This treatment alone does not enable radio-iodine to be used for further treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Isotretinoin / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 15630851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; EH28UP18IF / Isotretinoin
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11. Bernet VJ: Reversible renal insufficiency attributable to thyroid hormone withdrawal in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract; 2004 Jul-Aug;10(4):339-44
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reversible renal insufficiency attributable to thyroid hormone withdrawal in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma and the need for follow-up surveillance in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus who was being treated with metformin.
  • A discussion addresses the importance of monitoring renal function during thyroid hormone withdrawal for scintigraphic imaging with use of radioactive iodine.
  • RESULTS: A 60-year-old man with type 2 diabetes was diagnosed with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma, and renal insufficiency developed during withdrawal from thyroid hormone for surveillance 131 I whole-body scanning.
  • An increase in thyroglobulin attributable to recombinant human thyrotropin stimulation led to detection of persistent cancer, and thyroid hormone withdrawal was begun in preparation for further 131 I treatment.
  • Therapy with metformin was immediately discontinued.
  • Levothyroxine therapy was resumed approximately 72 hours after 131 I therapy, and blood tests 2 weeks thereafter revealed a Cr of 1.1 mg/dL and a CrCl of 105 mL/min.
  • The metformin treatment was then reinitiated without any complications.
  • In patients with diabetes taking metformin who have hypothyroidism for any reason including thyroid hormone withdrawal, serum Cr levels should be monitored until thyroid hormone levels normalize.
  • Metformin therapy should be discontinued in patients with significant renal impairment, defined as either a serum Cr level of 1.5 mg/dL or more in men and 1.4 mg/dL or more in women or a CrCl of less than 60 mL/min.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Renal Insufficiency / etiology. Thyroid Hormones / adverse effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Withholding Treatment
  • [MeSH-minor] Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy. Diagnostic Techniques, Radioisotope. Humans. Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Male. Metformin / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Thyroid Function Tests / methods. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 15760778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 9100L32L2N / Metformin
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12. Karavitaki N, Vlassopoulou V, Tzanela M, Tzavara I, Thalassinos N: Recurrent and/or metastatic thyroid cancer: therapeutic options. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2002 Jul;3(7):939-47
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ALL-TRANS-RETINOIC ACID .

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  • [Title] Recurrent and/or metastatic thyroid cancer: therapeutic options.
  • Thyroid cancer is relatively rare, accounting for 0.5 - 10 cases per 100,000 individuals per year.
  • Despite their generally favourable prognosis, patients with differentiated thyroid cancer are at risk of tumour recurrence for decades after diagnosis.
  • Therapeutic interventions in recurrent and metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer depend on the type of initial treatment, the site and the extent of disease.
  • Chemotherapy has not provided consistently successful results.
  • Various therapeutic approaches for anaplastic carcinoma give poor results, making the development of novel treatments necessary.
  • Innovative strategies, including recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone, retinoic acid redifferentiation therapy and gene therapy, may lead to further improvement in the management of thyroid cancer arising from follicular cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. General Surgery. Genetic Therapy. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12083993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-6566
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 84
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13. de Keizer B, Brans B, Hoekstra A, Zelissen PM, Koppeschaar HP, Lips CJ, van Rijk PP, Dierckx RA, de Klerk JM: Tumour dosimetry and response in patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer using recombinant human thyrotropin before radioiodine therapy. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2003 Mar;30(3):367-73
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  • [Title] Tumour dosimetry and response in patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer using recombinant human thyrotropin before radioiodine therapy.
  • The development of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) has given clinicians new options for diagnostic follow-up and treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
  • This paper evaluates the tumour dosimetry and response following -iodine-131 treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer patients after rhTSH stimulation instead of classical hormone withdrawal-induced hypothyroidism.
  • Nineteen consecutive (131)I treatments in 16 patients were performed after rhTSH stimulation.
  • They all suffered from metastatic or recurrent disease showing tumoral (131)I uptake on previous post-treatment scintigraphy.
  • Dosimetric calculations were performed using (131)I tumour uptake measurements from post-treatment (131)I scintigrams and tumour volume estimations from radiological images.
  • Response was assessed by comparing pre-treatment serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level with the Tg level 3 months post treatment.
  • In 18 out of 19 treatments, uptake of (131)I in metastatic or recurrent lesions was seen.
  • The median tumour radiation dose was 26.3 Gy (range 1.3-368 Gy), and the median effective half-life was 2.7 days (range 0.5-6.5 days).
  • Eleven of 19 treatments (10/16 patients) were evaluable for response after 3 months. (131)I therapy with rhTSH resulted in a biochemical partial response in 3/11 or 27% of treatments (two patients), biochemical stable disease in 2/11 or 18% of treatments and biochemical progressive disease in 6/11 or 55% of treatments.
  • Our study showed that although tumour doses in DTC patients treated with (131)I after rhTSH were highly variable, 45% of treatments led to disease stabilisation or partial remission when using rhTSH in conjunction with (131)I therapy, without serious side-effects and with minimal impact on quality of life.
  • RhTSH is therefore adequately satisfactory as an adjuvant tool in therapeutic settings and is especially suitable in advanced recurrent or metastatic DTC patients who may be intolerant to TSH stimulation by levothyroxine withdrawal.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Radiometry. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Skull Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skull Neoplasms / metabolism. Skull Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12634964.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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14. Dawson SJ, Conus NM, Toner GC, Raleigh JM, Hicks RJ, McArthur G, Rischin D: Sustained clinical responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in thyroid carcinoma. Anticancer Drugs; 2008 Jun;19(5):547-52
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  • [Title] Sustained clinical responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in thyroid carcinoma.
  • The limited therapeutic options available for patients with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) necessitates the development of novel therapies.
  • Identification of somatic rearrangements of the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET gene in PTC have improved our understanding of thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • Its role in the treatment of patients with thyroid carcinoma has yet to be evaluated in clinical trials.
  • Two patients with progressive metastatic thyroid carcinoma (case 1: PTC, and case 2: FTC) were enroled in a phase I clinical trial to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) in the monitoring of response to sunitinib.
  • IHC staining of the tumour showed low total phosphorylated tyrosine staining at baseline which did not change after treatment.
  • These case studies highlight potential activity of sunitinib in patients with metastatic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Sunitinib seems to be a promising agent in the treatment of thyroid cancers and this requires validation in future clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Indoles / therapeutic use. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Blotting, Western. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18418222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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15. Ralli M, Cohan P, Lee K: Successful use of recombinant human thyrotropin in the therapy of pediatric well-differentiated thyroid cancer. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Mar;28(3):270-3
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  • [Title] Successful use of recombinant human thyrotropin in the therapy of pediatric well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) is increasingly employed in stimulating radioiodine (131I) uptake in adults with well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) for diagnostic scanning, and preliminary evidence suggests that it may have a role in radioactive iodine therapy as well.
  • We report a case of a 13-yr-old boy presenting with metastatic papillary thyroid cancer.
  • A diagnostic whole body scan (WBS) demonstrated multiple foci of uptake in the neck, thyroid bed and chest.
  • His serum TSH only increased to 14.2 microU/ml (0.3-4.7) upon thyroid hormone withdrawal.
  • This treatment effectively reduced his tumor load with his most recent (10 months after the second ablation) serum Tg measuring 19.3 ng/ml.
  • This case highlights the safety and effectiveness of rhTSH stimulated radioablation in pediatric WDTC, and proposes to invite controlled studies to further investigate pediatric rhTSH use, particularly in patients in whom thyroid hormone withdrawal is not a viable option.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroidectomy. Whole-Body Irradiation

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  • (PMID = 15952413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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16. David A, Blotta A, Rossi R, Zatelli MC, Bondanelli M, Roti E, Braverman LE, Busutti L, degli Uberti EC: Clinical value of different responses of serum thyroglobulin to recombinant human thyrotropin in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2005 Feb;15(2):158-64
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. THYROGLOBULIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical value of different responses of serum thyroglobulin to recombinant human thyrotropin in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • In the present study, we examined the clinical value of a differential response of thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) stimulation (rhTSH Tg testing) and its correlation with (131)I uptake and whole body scanning (rhTSH-WBS) in 104 patients who had previously undergone near total thyroidectomy and (131)I ablation for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • Imaging techniques (CT, MRI, FDG-PET) documented metastatic disease in 22.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Hypothyroidism / drug therapy. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / radionuclide imaging. Postoperative Complications / drug therapy. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Thyroidectomy

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  • [CommentIn] Thyroid. 2006 May;16(5):517-9 [16756477.001]
  • (PMID = 15753676.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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17. Zimmermann-Belsing T, Christensen L, Hansen HS, Kirkegaard J, Blichert-Toft M, Feldt-Rasmussen U: A case of sarcoidosis and sarcoid granuloma, papillary carcinoma, and Graves' disease in the thyroid gland. Thyroid; 2000 Mar;10(3):275-8
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  • [Title] A case of sarcoidosis and sarcoid granuloma, papillary carcinoma, and Graves' disease in the thyroid gland.
  • The disease was first described in the thyroid gland in 1938.
  • Our patient, a 27-year-old male with known sarcoidosis, was referred to the National University Hospital for acute symptoms of thyrotoxicosis (weight loss of 6 kg, tremor, thyroid enlargement, and tachycardia).
  • During the next 18 months of antithyroid treatment (thiamazole, Thycapzol) hyperthyroidism was difficult to control, the thyroid gland gradually enlarged, and surgery was recommended.
  • During the 36-month period of antithyroid drug treatment TSH was suppressed (<0.01 mU/L) and T3 often elevated despite high doses of thiamazole.
  • Total thyroidectomy was performed, and histologic examination of the removed thyroid tissue confirmed the diagnosis of Graves' disease and also the presence of sarcoid granuloma and metastatic papillary adenocarcinoma with spread to neck lymph nodes.
  • Four months later, a modified radical neck dissection was performed with removal of neck lymph nodes followed by external radiation therapy (2 Gy x 32 fractions to the neck).
  • The concomitant presence of sarcoidosis, papillary carcinoma, and Graves' disease in a thyroid gland, to our knowledge, has not previously been described in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Granuloma / diagnosis. Graves Disease / diagnosis. Sarcoidosis / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Methimazole / therapeutic use. Thyrotropin / blood. Thyroxine / blood. Triiodothyronine / blood


18. Giatromanolaki A, Lyberakidis G, Lyratzopoulos N, Koukourakis MI, Sivridis E, Manolas C: Angiogenesis and angiogenic factor expression in thyroid cancer. J BUON; 2010 Apr-Jun;15(2):357-61
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  • [Title] Angiogenesis and angiogenic factor expression in thyroid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Increased expression of angiogenic factors and high vascular density characterize tumors with increased invasive and metastatic capability.
  • Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies have shown an important potentiation of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in experimental and clinical studies.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether it could be possible to identify a subgroup of thyroid cancer patients with high angiogenic activity.
  • METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 25 papillary and 18 follicular thyroid carcinomas were assessed immunohistochemically for angiogenic activity, i.e. vascular density (VD) and expression of VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increased angiogenic activity is a common feature of thyroid carcinomas, particularly in follicular tumors and larger carcinomas.
  • These results support the testing of anti-VEGF therapies in combination with radiotherapy and chemotherapy in advanced thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inducing Agents / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Thyroidectomy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20658735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents
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19. Gow KW, Lensing S, Hill DA, Krasin MJ, McCarville MB, Rai SN, Zacher M, Spunt SL, Strickland DK, Hudson MM: Thyroid carcinoma presenting in childhood or after treatment of childhood malignancies: An institutional experience and review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg; 2003 Nov;38(11):1574-80
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  • [Title] Thyroid carcinoma presenting in childhood or after treatment of childhood malignancies: An institutional experience and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Thyroid carcinomas can occur as a primary malignancy (PTM) or secondary after another malignancy (STM).
  • The authors sought to compare the clinical characteristics, course, and outcomes of patients with primary or secondary thyroid malignancies.
  • METHODS: The authors reviewed the medical records of 8 children with PTM and 17 children with STM referred to St Jude Children's Research Hospital between February 1962 and February 2002 for evaluation and treatment of malignant thyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The 8 children who had primary thyroid carcinoma had it diagnosed at a median age of 12.5 years (range, 7.3 to 16.3 years).
  • Seven patients had papillary carcinoma, and 1 patient had follicular carcinoma.
  • Three of the 8 (37.5%) had metastatic disease involving regional lymph nodes; 2 patients (25.0%) had lung metastases.
  • Six patients required radioactive iodine (I 131) ablation for residual or metastatic disease after surgical resection.
  • Seventeen patients had thyroid carcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 6), Hodgkin's disease (n = 5), central nervous system tumor (n = 2), Wilms' tumor (n = 1), retinoblastoma (n = 1), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 1), or neuroblastoma (n = 1).
  • Patients with secondary thyroid carcinoma presented at a median age of 21.5 years (range, 15.3 to 42.6 years), a median of 16.2 years (range, 0.9 to 29.2 years) after diagnosis of the primary cancer.
  • Twelve of the 17 patients (70.6%) had received radiation to the thyroid gland during therapy for the primary cancer.
  • Four patients (23.5%) had metastatic disease involving regional lymph nodes.
  • Six patients (35.3%) required I(131) ablation for residual or metastatic disease after thyroidectomy.
  • At the time of this report, all 17 patients are alive and in continue to be free of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and responds well to current therapy.
  • Given the limited period of follow-up of our cohort of secondary malignant thyroid tumors that arise after childhood cancer, these lesions appear to have similar presentations and outcomes when compared with primary carcinomas and can therefore be managed in the same manner.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Tennessee / epidemiology. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14614703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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20. Pennell NA, Daniels GH, Haddad RI, Ross DS, Evans T, Wirth LJ, Fidias PH, Temel JS, Gurubhagavatula S, Heist RS, Clark JR, Lynch TJ: A phase II study of gefitinib in patients with advanced thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2008 Mar;18(3):317-23
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  • [Title] A phase II study of gefitinib in patients with advanced thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of gefitinib in patients with advanced thyroid cancer.
  • DESIGN: In this open-label phase II trial, 27 patients with radioiodine-refractory, locally advanced, or metastatic thyroid cancer were treated with 250 mg of daily gefitinib.
  • Histologic subtypes included papillary (41%), follicular (22%), anaplastic (19%), medullary (15%), and Hürthle cell carcinomas (4%).
  • After 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment, 48%, 24%, and 12% of patients had stable disease (SD), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although gefitinib therapy did not result in any tumor responses, 32% of patients had reductions in tumor volume that did not meet criteria for partial response rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Quinazolines / administration & dosage. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / drug therapy. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Severity of Illness Index. Thyroglobulin / blood. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Thyroid. 2008 Mar;18(3):279-80 [18341374.001]
  • (PMID = 17985985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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21. Sheahan P, Hafidh M, Toner M, Timon C: Unexpected findings in neck dissection for squamous cell carcinoma: incidence and implications. Head Neck; 2005 Jan;27(1):28-35
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  • [Title] Unexpected findings in neck dissection for squamous cell carcinoma: incidence and implications.
  • These pathologic findings may simulate malignant disease and/or have implications on the already complicated management of patients with head and neck cancer.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 202 consecutive patients with a preoperative diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), who underwent 307 neck dissections performed by a single surgeon and examined by a single pathologist.
  • These included metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma, leukemia, lymphoma, Warthin's tumor, and tuberculosis.
  • Two of three patients with benign-appearing thyroid tissue within lymph nodes received no further treatment, and both remained well beyond 6 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Neck Dissection
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenolymphoma / pathology. Adenolymphoma / therapy. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Cricoid Cartilage / pathology. Female. Humans. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / pathology. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / drug therapy. Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15459919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Lee EJ, Deavers MT, Hughes JI, Lee JH, Kavanagh JJ: Metastasis to sigmoid colon mucosa and submucosa from serous borderline ovarian tumor: response to hormone therapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:295-9
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  • [Title] Metastasis to sigmoid colon mucosa and submucosa from serous borderline ovarian tumor: response to hormone therapy.
  • The metastatic lesion was detected incidentally by screening colonoscopy 7 years after the patient was treated for the primary tumor.
  • The metastatic lesion responded well to treatment with oral Arimidex 1 mg/day.
  • A follow-up colonoscopy with biopsy and imaging studies after 3 months of treatment revealed no evidence of disease in the sigmoid colon.
  • This case showed that the sigmoid colon mucosa and submucosa should be considered as one of distant metastatic sites of a serous borderline ovarian tumor and the favorable response to Arimidex provides support the use of hormone therapy in women with serous borderline ovarian tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Sigmoid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Triazoles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Colonoscopy. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Pelvic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Pelvic Neoplasms / surgery. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16515607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 2Z07MYW1AZ / anastrozole; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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