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1. Naguib SF: Oncoplastic resection of retroareolar breast cancer: central quadrantectomy and reconstruction by local skin-glandular flap. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2006 Dec;18(4):334-47
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  • [Title] Oncoplastic resection of retroareolar breast cancer: central quadrantectomy and reconstruction by local skin-glandular flap.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with central breast neoplasms account for 5 to 20% of breast cancer cases and, for a long time, they have been denied Breast Conservation Surgery (BCS) and conventionally treated with mastectomy.
  • The high incidence of Nipple-Areola-Complex (NAC) involvement usually associated with these tumors necessitates nipple and areolar resection together with an adequate safety margin around the tumor, which yields an unacceptable cosmetic result.
  • In this study central quadrantectomy and breast reconstruction by an infero-laterally based pedicled flap were evaluated.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study comprised 23 women with central breast tumors treated at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University and at the Aswan Cancer Center, Egyptian Ministry of Health.
  • Twenty-two had a palpable mass, while only 1 had Paget's disease of the nipple without mass.
  • Only 9 women showed clinical suspicion of NAC involvement in the form of nipple retraction.
  • All patients underwent central quadrantectomy with NAC resection removing a cylinder of breast tissue reaching down to the pectoral muscle together with axillary dissection.
  • All patients received adjuvant radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy or hormonal therapy.
  • RESULTS: Fourteen patients showed pathological evidence of nipple infiltration (60.8%).
  • The procedure lasted a mean time of 195+/-12.7 minutes and blood loss was estimated at a mean of 225+/-64.8 mL.
  • The procedure did not delay the start of adjuvant treatment nor did it hamper clinical and mammographic follow-up.
  • Central quadrantectomy with repair by a skin-glandular flap is a relatively simple procedure that yields very satisfactory cosmetic results with minimal complications and it may be considered as one of the noteworthy therapeutic options for patients with central breast tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal / surgery. Carcinoma, Lobular / surgery. Mammaplasty / methods. Mastectomy, Segmental / methods. Skin Transplantation. Surgical Flaps
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nipples / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18301457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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2. Sato T, Muto I, Hasegawa M, Aono T, Okada T, Tamura T, Sakai T: A rare case of invasive ductal carcinoma with hyperprolactinemia. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(3):302-6
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  • We report here a rare form of invasive ductal carcinoma composed of a mass protruding from the tip of the nipple in a 43-year-old woman with hyperprolactinemia.
  • She presented with a mass on the left nipple that had been growing for 6 months.
  • Morphologically, the mass resembled adenoma of the nipple.
  • Histopathologically, the tumor of the nipple was invasive ductal carcinoma, which had extended intraductally from another invasive ductal carcinoma in the subareolar region, and had infiltrated the epidermis of the nipple (Paget's disease).
  • The patient was treated with bromocriptine mesilate, in addition to adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, and the plasma prolactin level has since normalized.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Hyperprolactinemia / etiology. Nipples / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mammography

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  • (PMID = 17690509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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3. Drake MT, Clarke BL, Khosla S: Bisphosphonates: mechanism of action and role in clinical practice. Mayo Clin Proc; 2008 Sep;83(9):1032-45
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  • Bisphosphonates are primary agents in the current pharmacological arsenal against osteoclast-mediated bone loss due to osteoporosis, Paget disease of bone, malignancies metastatic to bone, multiple myeloma, and hypercalcemia of malignancy.
  • In addition to currently approved uses, bisphosphonates are commonly prescribed for prevention and treatment of a variety of other skeletal conditions, such as low bone density and osteogenesis imperfecta.
  • However, the recent recognition that bisphosphonate use is associated with pathologic conditions including osteonecrosis of the jaw has sharpened the level of scrutiny of the current widespread use of bisphosphonate therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density Conservation Agents / pharmacology. Diphosphonates / pharmacology. Osteitis Deformans / drug therapy. Osteoclasts / drug effects. Osteoporosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Resorption / drug therapy. Bone and Bones / drug effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18775204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-5546
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR027065; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR027065-29
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 142
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS100526; NLM/ PMC2667901
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4. Seetharam S, Fentiman IS: Paget's disease of the nipple. Womens Health (Lond); 2009 Jul;5(4):397-402
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  • [Title] Paget's disease of the nipple.
  • Paget's disease of the nipple is an unusual epidermal presentation of underlying breast cancer.
  • It presents as eczematous change or erythematous ulceration, but may also be an incidental histological finding in a mastectomy specimen.
  • Routine clinical and mammographic assessment may significantly underestimate the extent of disease, but MRI may increase the sensitivity in detecting occult malignancy.
  • Mastectomy maximizes local control; however, selected cases can be treated by nipple conisation with radiotherapy.
  • Almost all invasive cases overexpress human EGF receptor-2 and, therefore, are likely to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy and herceptin.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nipples / pathology. Paget's Disease, Mammary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla / pathology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19586431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-5065
  • [Journal-full-title] Women's health (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Womens Health (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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5. Caliskan M, Gatti G, Sosnovskikh I, Rotmensz N, Botteri E, Musmeci S, Rosali dos Santos G, Viale G, Luini A: Paget's disease of the breast: the experience of the European Institute of Oncology and review of the literature. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2008 Dec;112(3):513-21
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  • [Title] Paget's disease of the breast: the experience of the European Institute of Oncology and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Paget's disease of the breast is an uncommon presentation of breast malignancy, accounting for 1-3% of all the breast tumors and presents in different histopathologic patterns: in association with an underlying invasive or non invasive carcinoma, or without any underlying neoplasia.
  • In the literature, different methods are used for the treatment.
  • Mastectomy with or without axillary dissection has been considered as the standard treatment procedure for many years.
  • Several studies have already shown that breast conservation with radiation therapy is an oncologically safe option.
  • Regarding the axillary approach, several studies have documented the presence of positive sentinel lymph node even in Paget's disease alone.
  • The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze outcome of patients affected by Paget's breast disease and to define our institutional experience.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between May 1996 and February 2003, 114 patients with confirmed Paget's disease of the breast were retrieved and underwent surgery at the European Institute of Oncology of Milan, Italy.
  • The median age of the patients was 54 years at the time of the diagnosis.
  • In our study, the histopathological examination of the operated specimen revealed one hundred seven patients with Paget's disease associated with an underlying invasive or non invasive carcinoma, and seven patients without underlying carcinoma.
  • Patients underwent either conservative breast surgery or mastectomy, with or without sentinel lymph node biopsy and/or axillary surgery.
  • Each patient was evaluated after surgery at a multidisciplinary meeting to selecting systemic therapy.
  • RESULTS: Seven patients had "pure" Paget's disease of the breast and one hundred seven had the disease associated with an underlying carcinoma.
  • As surgical techniques 71 mastectomies and 43 breast conserving surgeries have been performed.
  • Adjuvant systemic therapies were based on the final tumor, node and metastasis stage: thirty patients received adjuvant chemotherapy alone, fourteen received endocrine treatment alone, twenty-six patients were evaluated to receive both chemo and endocrine therapy.
  • Five patients developed local recurrence, one had regional recurrence, another two had loco-regional recurrences and fourteen had distant metastasis as a first event.
  • Breast conserving surgery combined with breast irradiation for patients with invasive and non invasive breast carcinoma has become the treatment of first choice.
  • All surgical conservative approaches should include the complete nipple-areolar complex and margins of resected specimen free of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Paget's Disease, Mammary / diagnosis. Paget's Disease, Mammary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18240020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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6. Takahagi S, Noda H, Kamegashira A, Madokoro N, Hori I, Shindo H, Mihara S, Hide M: Metastatic extramammary Paget's disease treated with paclitaxel and trastuzumab combination chemotherapy. J Dermatol; 2009 Aug;36(8):457-61
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  • [Title] Metastatic extramammary Paget's disease treated with paclitaxel and trastuzumab combination chemotherapy.
  • In the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, trastuzumab, a recombinant monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), is effective when tumor cells overexpress HER2 protein.
  • Although some cases of extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) also express HER2 protein, no case of EMPD has been reported to be treated with trastuzumab.
  • We administered paclitaxel and trastuzumab according to a protocol for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancers.
  • The skin metastasis dramatically decreased during the regimen and a histopathological examination showed that most of HER2-positive tumor cells diminished.
  • Trastuzumab and paclitaxel-combination with the assessment of central nervous system lesions should be considered as an option for the treatment of HER2-positive EMPD.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Paget Disease, Extramammary / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Central Nervous System / pathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary. Genital Neoplasms, Male / drug therapy. Genital Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Male / surgery. Humans. Male. Skin / pathology. Trastuzumab

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  • (PMID = 19691751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-8138
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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7. Ohanaka CE, Ollu-Eddo AN: Paget's disease of the nipple-areola complex as seen in Benin City, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract; 2006 Dec;9(2):179-82
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  • [Title] Paget's disease of the nipple-areola complex as seen in Benin City, Nigeria.
  • Out of a total of 240 patients who were managed at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, for breast cancer over a ten year period (January 1995-December 2004, 8 (3.3%) were found to have Paget's disease of the nipple-areolar complex.
  • The left breast was more affected than the right.
  • They all presented with itching, excoriation and ulceration of the nipple and diagnosis was by wedge biopsy of the nipple in early cases and by incisional biopsy in late cases.
  • Most presented with advanced disease.
  • They all had chemotherapy and tamoxifen.
  • Paget's disease, though rare, requires a high index of suspicion for proper diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Nipples / pathology. Paget's Disease, Mammary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17319355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1119-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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8. Plunkett TA, Hanby AM, Miles DW, Rubens RD: Metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma: response to docetaxel (Taxotere) chemotherapy. Ann Oncol; 2001 Mar;12(3):411-4
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  • [Title] Metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma: response to docetaxel (Taxotere) chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case of eccrine porocarcinoma in a female renal transplant patient aged 45 years is described with a review of pertinent literature.
  • In places large and small cells merged and focally the former component infiltrated the epidermis in a manner akin to Paget's disease of the breast.
  • The majority of the tumour was high grade; using the modified Bloom and Richardson grading system, usually applied to mammary ductal carcinomas, the tumour graded as 3.
  • Metastatic disease developed nine months following primary surgical treatment.
  • The metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma was resistant to epirubicin but responded to docetaxel chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There are no data to support the use of adjuvant therapy in the management of eccrine porocarcinoma.
  • The use of the modified Bloom and Richardson grading system may define cases at high risk of relapse in which adjuvant therapy might be considered.
  • We report the first use of docetaxel in the management of this disease.
  • The treatment was well tolerated and resulted in marked symptomatic and radiological responses.
  • Treatment with docetaxel should be considered in future cases of this rare tumour.

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  • (PMID = 11332156.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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9. Mirer E, El Sayed F, Ammoury A, Lamant L, Messer L, Bazex J: Treatment of mammary and extramammary Paget's skin disease with topical imiquimod. J Dermatolog Treat; 2006;17(3):167-71
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  • [Title] Treatment of mammary and extramammary Paget's skin disease with topical imiquimod.
  • BACKGROUND: Paget's disease is an uncommon epidermal cancer, affecting all skin regions wherever apocrine glands are present.
  • It is divided into extramammary (EMPD) and mammary Paget's disease (MPD).
  • The diagnosis is confirmed by skin biopsy and the treatment depends on characteristics of the underlying cancer.
  • Surgery is the first-line treatment.
  • Imiquimod, a topical immunomodulator, approved its efficiency in several skin neoplasms and has been shown as a safe treatment for EMPD.
  • However, it has never been reported for the treatment of MPD.
  • CONCLUSION: This non-surgical method may be considered as a primary treatment when Paget's disease is not associated with an underlying malignancy.
  • The good prognosis with a long-term survival, the anatomic localization and the poor general condition of elderly people may favor imiquimod as an alternative treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paget Disease, Extramammary / drug therapy. Paget's Disease, Mammary / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Groin. Humans

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  • [CommentIn] J Dermatolog Treat. 2007;18(3):191-2 [17538811.001]
  • (PMID = 16854759.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-6634
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatological treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatolog Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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10. Tulchinsky H, Zmora O, Brazowski E, Goldman G, Rabau M: Extramammary Paget's disease of the perianal region. Colorectal Dis; 2004 May;6(3):206-9
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  • [Title] Extramammary Paget's disease of the perianal region.
  • OBJECTIVE: Perianal Paget's disease (PPD) is a rare entity.
  • The standard treatment for either in situ or invasive extra mammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is surgical excision.
  • The aim of this article is to review our experience with PPD and question the currently preferred treatment approaches in light of its histopathology and therapeutic outcome.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A chart review of our patients with PPD from 1996 to 2002 was carried out to determine their outcome after treatment.
  • RESULTS: Five patients with in situ disease (four females, median age 68 years) were diagnosed as having PPD.
  • A complete surgical excision was attempted in 4 patients and the fifth was treated by photodynamic therapy.
  • At present, all patients are alive, two are free of disease, one has persistent disease and two have local recurrence.
  • CONCLUSION: Considering the significant rate of recurrence even after wide local excision, the extent of surgery needed and the good prognosis with long-term survival, we question whether nonsurgical modalities should be considered in place of surgery as primary treatment for noninvasive PPD, with radical surgery being reserved for failures or invasive disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Paget Disease, Extramammary / drug therapy. Paget Disease, Extramammary / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15109389.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents
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11. Sueta A, Yamamoto Y, Arase K, Iizaka M, Kuriwaki K, Inoue K: [A case of mammary Paget's disease with early systemic recurrence after operation]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Jul;37(7):1329-32
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  • [Title] [A case of mammary Paget's disease with early systemic recurrence after operation].
  • A 66-year-old woman visited our hospital because of redness and erosion of her right breast, and was diagnosed with mammary Paget's disease by histological examination of erosive skin.
  • The pathological diagnosis was mammary Paget's disease (8x7.5 cm) showing intraductal spread.
  • Incisional biopsy on the chest mass revealed a local recurrence of mammary Paget's disease.
  • In addition, she had carcinomatous lymphangiosis in the bilateral lung, nodal metastases in the ipsilateral axillary and mediastinal space, and contralateral breast metastases on CT.
  • A complete response was obtained eleven months after initiation of chemotherapy.
  • A rare case of early systemic recurrence of mammary Paget's disease after curative operation is reported with a review of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Paget's Disease, Mammary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Recurrence. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Trastuzumab

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  • (PMID = 20647720.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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12. Takahashi A, Yamamoto A: [Diagnosis and treatment of extramammary Paget's disease]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2004 Mar;31(3):356-9
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of extramammary Paget's disease].
  • Extramammary Paget's disease is a malignant tumor with the characteristic bright large atypical cells called Paget's cells, which proliferate within an intraepidermal lesion outside the breast.
  • Extramammary Paget's disease is commonly an intraepidermal neoplasm.
  • Surgery with wide local excision is the first choice of treatment, and the prognosis is comparatively favorable in the early stages.
  • However, when tumor cells infiltrate into the dermis and advance to Paget's carcinoma, it is referred to as adenocarcinoma of the skin and has a poor prognosis.
  • We report an effective treatment of extramammary Paget's disease in advanced stages' including our case.
  • No standard treatment with a significant effect has yet been established.
  • There are few reports of cases responsive to chemotherapy, and treatment in advanced stages is extremely difficult at present.
  • [MeSH-major] Paget Disease, Extramammary. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Diagnosis, Differential. Genitalia, Male. Humans. Male. Perineum. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 15045940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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13. Brummer O, Stegner HE, Böhmer G, Kühnle H, Petry KU: HER-2/neu expression in Paget disease of the vulva and the female breast. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 Nov;95(2):336-40
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  • [Title] HER-2/neu expression in Paget disease of the vulva and the female breast.
  • OBJECTIVES: Paget disease of the vulva is a rare lesion that accounts for <1% of vulva neoplasms.
  • A 12% prevalence of invasive Paget carcinoma and a 4% prevalence of associated adenocarcinomas are described.
  • Furthermore, a high recurrence rate of 30% after surgical therapy is observed.
  • This study aims to search for therapeutic strategies for recurrent Paget disease, which are less mutilating and less aggressive than reexcision, x-ray therapy, or chemotherapy.
  • FDA for the treatment of patients with HER-2/neu-positive metastatic breast carcinomas.
  • The results of recent studies indicate that HER-2/neu oncoprotein may play a role in the pathogenesis of extramammary Paget disease.
  • METHODS: Using HercepTest, we analyzed HER-2/neu overexpression in seven noninvasive Paget lesions, two invasive lesions, and one Paget disease of the vulva with underlying adenocarcinoma.
  • In addition, we investigated five mammary Paget diseases.
  • RESULTS: Overexpression of HER-2/neu oncoprotein labeling exclusively the membranes of Paget cells was demonstrated in 8 out of 10 cases.
  • Overexpression of HER-2/neu was demonstrated in all five cases of mammary Paget disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Using HercepTest as a standardized detection system, overexpression of HER-2/neu can be demonstrated in a majority of both noninvasive and invasive Paget disease of the vulva.
  • The use of Trastuzumab should be considered for the treatment of patients with recurrent Paget disease of the vulva with overexpression of HER-2/neu.
  • [MeSH-major] Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Paget's Disease, Mammary / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Vulvar Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15491754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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14. Sanchez-Carpintero I, Martínez MI, Mihm MC Jr: Clinical and histopathologic observations of the action of imiquimod in an epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and Paget's mammary disease. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 Jul;55(1):75-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and histopathologic observations of the action of imiquimod in an epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and Paget's mammary disease.
  • An epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and Paget's disease of the breast were treated with topical imiquimod 5% cream with very impressive results.
  • In this article, in addition to describing the treatment approach, the findings in biopsy specimens of the epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and the Paget's disease before, during, and after therapy will be described.
  • The histologic findings show ample evidence that there is both a lymphocytic T helper 1-like and T helper 2-like response from imiquimod.
  • We considered it important to describe these findings because of their possible use in developing strategies for the application of imiquimod in the treatment of other tumors in human beings.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / drug therapy. Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / pathology. Paget's Disease, Mammary / drug therapy. Paget's Disease, Mammary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16781296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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15. Xu S, Wang X, Xu W, Xia Y, Zhang C: Evaluation of photodynamic therapy of skin cancers with partial differential alpha-aminolevulinic acid. Chin Med J (Engl); 2002 Aug;115(8):1141-5
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  • [Title] Evaluation of photodynamic therapy of skin cancers with partial differential alpha-aminolevulinic acid.
  • OBJECTIVE: To use partial differential -aminolevulinic acid induced photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) increasingly in treating skin cancers and other diseases in many countries and to explore the efficacy of ALA-PDT for skin cancers in China.
  • METHODS: Eighty-eight patients, including 34 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 32 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), two cases of basal-squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC), one case of verrucuous carcinoma, nine cases of Bowen disease, two cases Paget disease of the nipple and eight cases of extramammary Paget disease, were treated by the partial differential alpha-aminolevulinic acid induced photodynamic therapy first in China from 1997 to 2000.
  • RESULTS: All BCC, including 11 cases of superficial lesions and 29 solid lesions, achieved complete reaction (CR) by 1-4 times of the ALA-PDT.
  • Except one patient with adenoid SCC (grade III), all SCC (grade I and grade II) patients achieved complete remission by 3-6 times of ALA-PDT.
  • All Bowen diseases achieved complete reaction by 1-4 times.
  • Although for Paget diseases it could not cure the disease simply by ALA-PDT, it could control the symptoms.
  • The recurrence rates were 11% (4/34) for BCC, and 22% (7/32) for SCC by following up 1-3 years after the therapy.
  • The continuous therapy is still effective.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ALA-PDT is an effective, non-traumatic treatment for patients with BCC, SCC, Bowen and Paget diseases.
  • It is especially suitable for older and weaker patients or those who are not tolerable to other therapies.
  • It is a new alternative modality for skin cancer therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Photochemotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 12215278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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16. Crandall C: Risedronate: a clinical review. Arch Intern Med; 2001 Feb 12;161(3):353-60
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  • BACKGROUND: Risedronate sodium has recently been approved for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal and corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis.
  • In patients who experienced breast cancer and who have chemotherapy-induced menopause, risedronate preserves bone.
  • Risedronate prevents vertebral bone loss in patients beginning long-term corticosteroid therapy.
  • Risedronate induces normalization of biochemical abnormalities and may be more effective than etidronate disodium for Paget disease.
  • Adverse effects in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, breast cancer, and Paget disease and in those taking corticosteroids are similar to those of patients taking placebo, and do not include notable upper gastrointestinal tract adverse event rates or serious adverse events.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Risedronate prevents postmenopausal bone loss, decreases fracture in those with established postmenopausal osteoporosis, effectively treats Paget disease, and prevents corticosteroid-induced bone loss.
  • Also undefined are optimal duration of therapy, potential for use in combination with other agents, and direct comparison with other bisphosphonates used for osteoporosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone and Bones / drug effects. Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacology. Calcium Channel Blockers / therapeutic use. Etidronic Acid / pharmacology. Etidronic Acid / therapeutic use. Osteoporosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Density / drug effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Female. Glucocorticoids / pharmacology. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Osteitis Deformans / drug therapy. Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / drug therapy. Risedronate Sodium

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  • (PMID = 11176760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9926
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Glucocorticoids; M2F465ROXU / Etidronic Acid; OFG5EXG60L / Risedronate Sodium
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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17. Mikhaimer NC, Kähler KC, Schwarz T, Mundhenke C, Hauschild A: Giant basal cell carcinoma of the breast mimicking paget's disease: complete remission after photodynamic therapy. Onkologie; 2010;33(11):613-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant basal cell carcinoma of the breast mimicking paget's disease: complete remission after photodynamic therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the nipple area is extremely rare and can be mistaken for Paget's disease.
  • CASE REPORT: A 47-year-old woman complained of a slowly growing, scaly erythematous plaque around her right nipple which had developed over several years.
  • Paget's disease of the breast was suspected.
  • Considering the superficial character of the tumor, photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a non-invasive approach was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Amino Acids, Neutral / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Paget's Disease, Mammary / diagnosis. Paget's Disease, Mammary / therapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20975308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids, Neutral; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 660-88-8 / 5-aminovaleric acid
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18. Hatch KD, Davis JR: Complete resolution of Paget disease of the vulva with imiquimod cream. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2008 Apr;12(2):90-4
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  • [Title] Complete resolution of Paget disease of the vulva with imiquimod cream.
  • Extra mammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a neoplastic disease of apocrine gland bearing skin.
  • We report on 2 women with vulva EMPD who achieved biopsy-confirmed resolution of their disease after topical application of imiquimod 5% cream.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Paget Disease, Extramammary / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18369301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ointments; 0 / Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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19. Khosravi Shahi P, Díaz Muñoz de la Espada V: [Biphosphonates in oncology]. An Med Interna; 2005 Nov;22(11):544-7
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  • Biophosphonates are used for the treatment of Paget s disease of bone, the prevention of osteoporosis, and in another clinical scenarios as the prevention of bone disease after organ transplantation.
  • In clinical oncology biophosphonates are used for the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy, prevention and treatment of bone events related to bone metastases, and in the prevention of osteoporosis related to breast cancer.
  • According to American Society of Clinical Oncology (ACO) guidelines, biophosphonates should be used in hypercalcemia of malignancy and bone events related to metastases of breast cancer and multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Neoplasms / complications. Osteoporosis / drug therapy. Osteoporosis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16454591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-7199
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de medicina interna (Madrid, Spain : 1984)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Med Interna
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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20. Rayman S, Almas K, Dincer E: Bisphosphonate-related jaw necrosis: a team approach management and prevention. Int J Dent Hyg; 2009 May;7(2):90-5
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  • Bisphosphonates (BPs) are becoming recognized increasingly as having a significant impact on dental treatments.
  • BPs are the most widely used class of anti-resorptive drugs.
  • They prevent bone resorption through osteoclast inhibition and are considered the standard of care for the management of metastatic bone disease.
  • BPs are used for the treatment of skeletal disorders such as osteoporosis, hypercalcaemia of malignancy, osteolytic lesions arising from solid tumours and Paget's disease, breast cancer or prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density Conservation Agents / adverse effects. Diphosphonates / adverse effects. Jaw Diseases / chemically induced. Osteonecrosis / chemically induced. Patient Care Team
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Diseases / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Dental Hygienists. Dentists. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Osteoclasts / drug effects

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Dent Hyg. 2010 May;8(2):154 [20522142.001]
  • (PMID = 19422147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1601-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dental hygiene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Dent Hyg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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21. Santini D, Fratto ME, Vincenzi B, La Cesa A, Dianzani C, Tonini G: Bisphosphonate effects in cancer and inflammatory diseases: in vitro and in vivo modulation of cytokine activities. BioDrugs; 2004;18(4):269-78
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  • [Title] Bisphosphonate effects in cancer and inflammatory diseases: in vitro and in vivo modulation of cytokine activities.
  • They are indicated in non-neoplastic diseases including osteoporosis, corticosteroid-induced bone loss, Paget disease, and in cancer-related diseases such as neoplastic hypercalcemia, multiple myeloma and bone metastases secondary to breast and prostate cancer.
  • Several in vivo studies have demonstrated an acute-phase reaction after the first administration of aminobisphosphonates, with a significant increase in the main pro-inflammatory cytokines.
  • This activity suggests the use of non-aminobisphosphonates in several inflammatory diseases characterized by macrophage-mediated production of acute-phase cytokines, as prevention of erosions in rheumatoid arthritis, and of loosening of joint prostheses, as well as possibly in osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, myelofibrosis, and hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Inflammation / drug therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cytokines / blood. Cytokines / drug effects. Humans. Structure-Activity Relationship

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  • (PMID = 15244502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1173-8804
  • [Journal-full-title] BioDrugs : clinical immunotherapeutics, biopharmaceuticals and gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BioDrugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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22. Devogelaer JP: Treatment of bone diseases with bisphosphonates, excluding osteoporosis. Curr Opin Rheumatol; 2000 Jul;12(4):331-5
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  • [Title] Treatment of bone diseases with bisphosphonates, excluding osteoporosis.
  • The main biologic action of bisphosphonates consists of the inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption, and, at least, for the drugs introduced after etidronate, without any significant inhibition of bone mineralization.
  • Potentially crippling conditions such as symptomatic Paget disease of bone remain a major therapeutic challenge for bisphosphonates, but the prevention of the major complications such as sarcoma has still to be proven.
  • The availability of more potent bisphosphonates, less toxic for bones, has certainly widened the therapeutic interventions to asymptomatic patients, bearing in mind the various potential troublesome complications.
  • Fibrous dysplasia resembles, in certain aspects, Paget disease; it is therefore not surprising that bisphosphonate therapy has been proposed in this indication.
  • For those with a bone metastatic propensity or malignant hematologic condition, such as multiple myeloma, the most recent generation of more potent bisphosphonates may bring more comfort to crippled patients and even, hopefully, have a direct antitumoral activity, if used synergistically with the armamentarium already available to the clinician.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Abnormalities, Drug-Induced. Adult. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Child. Female. Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Osteitis Deformans / drug therapy. Osteogenesis Imperfecta / drug therapy. Osteoporosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 10910187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8711
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Rheumatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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