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1. Rohan S, Tu JJ, Kao J, Mukherjee P, Campagne F, Zhou XK, Hyjek E, Alonso MA, Chen YT: Gene expression profiling separates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma and identifies vesicular transport and cell junction proteins as differentially expressed genes. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Dec 1;12(23):6937-45
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling separates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma and identifies vesicular transport and cell junction proteins as differentially expressed genes.
  • PURPOSE: To compare gene expression profiles of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign oncocytoma, aiming at identifying differentially expressed genes.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Nine cases each of chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma were analyzed by oligonucleotide microarray.
  • Candidate genes that showed consistent differential expression were validated by reverse transcription-PCR using 25 fresh-frozen and 15 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples.
  • RESULTS: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering separated the chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma into two distinct groups.
  • By a combination of data analysis approaches, we identified 11 candidate genes showing consistent differential expression between chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma.
  • Five of these genes, AP1M2, MAL2, PROM2, PRSS8, and FLJ20171, were shown to effectively separate these two tumor groups by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR using fresh tissue samples, with similar trends seen on formalin-fixed tissues.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed selective expression of MAL2 and claudin 8 in distal renal tubules, with MAL2 antibody showing differential expression between chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma.
  • Functional analyses suggest that genes encoding tight junction proteins and vesicular membrane trafficking proteins, normally expressed in distal nephrons, are retained in chromophobe RCC and lost or consistently down-regulated in oncocytoma, indicating that these two tumor types, believed to be both derived from distal tubules, are likely distinctive in their histogenesis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We showed that chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma are distinguishable by mRNA expression profiles and a panel of gene products potentially useful as diagnostic markers were identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Vesicular Transport Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17145811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AP1M2 protein, human; 0 / Adaptor Protein Complex 1; 0 / Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits; 0 / FLJ20171 protein, human; 0 / MAL2 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Myelin and Lymphocyte-Associated Proteolipid Proteins; 0 / PROM2 protein, human; 0 / Proteolipids; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / prostasin
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2. Lopez-Penabad L, Chiu AC, Hoff AO, Schultz P, Gaztambide S, Ordoñez NG, Sherman SI: Prognostic factors in patients with Hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid. Cancer; 2003 Mar 1;97(5):1186-94
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors in patients with Hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Hürthle cell neoplasms, often considered a variant of follicular thyroid neoplasms, represent 3% of thyroid carcinomas.
  • Only a handful of publications have focused on the biologic behavior, prognostic factors, and treatment outcomes of Hürthle cell carcinoma.
  • The objective of the current study was to identify the clinical and pathologic features of Hürthle cell carcinomas that predict disease progression or death.
  • METHODS: The authors reviewed medical records of patients who were treated for Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) and Hürthle cell adenoma (HCA) at The University of Texas M. D.
  • RESULTS: The authors identified 127 patients with Hürthle cell neoplasms, 89 patients with HCC and 38 patients with HCA.
  • Seven patients with HCC had foci of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • The HCC group was significantly older (age 51.8 years vs. age 43.1. years) and had larger tumors (4.3 cm vs. 2.9 cm) compared with the HCA group.
  • Forty percent of patients in the HCC group died of thyroid carcinoma, whereas no patients in the HCA group died of the disease.
  • There has been no improvement in all-cause and disease specific mortality in the past 5 decades for patients with these neoplasms.
  • Univariate analysis identified older age, higher disease stage, tumor size, extraglandular invasion, multifocality, lymph node disease, distant metastasis, extensive surgery, external beam radiation therapy, and chemotherapy as factors that were associated with decreased survival.
  • Tumor encapsulation was associated with improved survival.
  • Although radioactive iodine treatment had no overall effect on survival, subgroup analysis showed that patients who received radioactive iodine for adjuvant ablation therapy had better outcomes compared either with patients who did not receive radioactive iodine or with patients who received radioactive iodine as treatment for residual disease.
  • Multivariate analysis indicated that older age and larger tumor size predicted worse survival through an association with worse behaving tumors (multifocal, less encapsulated, and with extraglandular invasion).
  • The association of extensive surgery, external beam radiation therapy, and chemotherapy with worse survival also disappeared once those factors were analyzed together with other prognostic factors, such as distant metastases.
  • Older age and larger tumor size predicted reduced survival.
  • Radioactive iodine therapy may confer a survival benefit when it is used for adjuvant ablation therapy, but not when residual disease is present.
  • The authors could not demonstrate a survival benefit for the use of extensive surgery, external beam radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Mortality. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12599224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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3. Palmedo H, Bucerius J, Joe A, Strunk H, Hortling N, Meyka S, Roedel R, Wolff M, Wardelmann E, Biersack HJ, Jaeger U: Integrated PET/CT in differentiated thyroid cancer: diagnostic accuracy and impact on patient management. J Nucl Med; 2006 Apr;47(4):616-24
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  • [Title] Integrated PET/CT in differentiated thyroid cancer: diagnostic accuracy and impact on patient management.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy and impact on patient management of the new integrated PET/CT modality in patients with suspected iodine-negative, differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • METHODS: Forty patients with DTC and a suggestion of iodine-negative tumor tissue underwent PET/CT examination (370 MBq (18)F-FDG, coregistered PET/CT whole-body images).
  • The imaging results were compared with histopathologic findings and the course of disease during further follow-up examinations.
  • In tumor-positive PET patients, PET/CT fusion by coregistration led to a change of therapy in 10 (48%) patients.
  • By precisely localizing tumor tissue, image fusion by integrated PET/CT is clearly superior to side-by-side interpretation of PET and CT images.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiography. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radiography. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radionuclide imaging. Adult. Aged. Disease Management. Drug Resistance. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroglobulin / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 16595495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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4. Sherman SI, Wirth LJ, Droz JP, Hofmann M, Bastholt L, Martins RG, Licitra L, Eschenberg MJ, Sun YN, Juan T, Stepan DE, Schlumberger MJ, Motesanib Thyroid Cancer Study Group: Motesanib diphosphate in progressive differentiated thyroid cancer. N Engl J Med; 2008 Jul 3;359(1):31-42
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  • [Title] Motesanib diphosphate in progressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is characteristic of differentiated thyroid cancer and is associated with aggressive tumor behavior and a poor clinical outcome.
  • METHODS: In an open-label, single-group, phase 2 study, we treated 93 patients who had progressive, locally advanced or metastatic, radioiodine-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer with 125 mg of motesanib diphosphate, administered orally once daily.
  • RESULTS: Of the 93 patients, 57 (61%) had papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Stable disease was achieved in 67% of the patients, and stable disease was maintained for 24 weeks or longer in 35%; 8% had progressive disease as the best response.
  • Among the 75 patients in whom thyroglobulin analysis was performed, 81% had decreased serum thyroglobulin concentrations during treatment, as compared with baseline levels.
  • The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea (in 59% of the patients), hypertension (56%), fatigue (46%), and weight loss (40%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Motesanib diphosphate can induce partial responses in patients with advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer that is progressive. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00121628. )
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Indoles / therapeutic use. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / drug therapy. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / secondary. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit. Survival Analysis. Thyroglobulin / blood

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  • [Copyright] 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society
  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2008 Dec 18;359(25):2727; author reply 2727 [19092161.001]
  • (PMID = 18596272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00121628
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; F60NE4XB53 / imetelstat
  • [Investigator] Lind P; Pirich C; Daumerie C; Baudin E; Bui BN; Conte-Devolx B; Rohmer V; Schvartz C; Szabolcs I; Racz K; Brandi ML; Pinchera A; Elisei R; Orlandi F; Pacini F; Jarzab B; Sowinski J; Jansson S; Lundell G; Hallqvist A; Meier C; Philippe J; Agarwala S; Ali H; Barrera J; Boccia R; Bukowski R; Burman K; Clark O; Davis T; Hoff A; Sarlis N; Jakub J; Mena R; Nahleh Z; Rosen L; Stephenson J; Srkalovic G; Tchekmedyian N
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5. Gupta D, Bronstein IB, Holden JA: Expression of DNA topoisomerase I in neoplasms of the kidney: correlation with histological grade, proliferation, and patient survival. Hum Pathol; 2000 Feb;31(2):214-9
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  • [Title] Expression of DNA topoisomerase I in neoplasms of the kidney: correlation with histological grade, proliferation, and patient survival.
  • Renal cell carcinoma is an inherently chemotherapeutically resistant neoplasm.
  • Because of this, new drugs targeting this tumor are needed.
  • One class of new anticancer drug targets the enzyme DNA topoisomerase I.
  • Laboratory data indicate that cells sensitive to topo I targeting drugs contain high topo I levels.
  • To determine whether some renal cell carcinomas contain elevated topo I and might therefore be targets of topo I active antitumor agents, we used a new immunohistochemical stain for topo I to determine the expression of the enzyme in 51 tumors of the kidney.
  • Increased topo I expression was found in 4 of 11 (36%) grade 3 renal cell carcinomas and in 8 of 8 (100%) grade 4 renal cell carcinomas.
  • Normal topo I expression was observed in all adenomas, oncocytomas, and grade 1 and grade 2 renal cell carcinomas.
  • Because topo I targeted anticancer drugs are S-phase specific, topo II-alpha and MIB-1 proliferation indices also were performed.
  • Of the 12 tumors with elevated topo I, only 3 had topo II-alpha proliferation indices greater than 40, indicating a tumor with elevated topo I expression and a large growth fraction.
  • We hypothesize that these tumors might be susceptible to topo I anticancer drug therapy.
  • In addition, we found that the average topo II-alpha proliferation index of tumors from patients who died of disease was 27.4 +/- 19.8, which was statistically different from the average topo II-alpha index of 5.8 +/- 6.5 observed in tumors from patients who remained alive during our follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Topoisomerases, Type I / analysis. Kidney Neoplasms / enzymology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / enzymology. Adenoma / mortality. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / enzymology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / mortality. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / enzymology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Cell Division. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma / enzymology. Sarcoma / mortality. Sarcoma / pathology. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 10685636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 5.99.1.2 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type I
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6. Dasanu CA, Alexandrescu DT: Bilateral perinephric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and synchronous renal oncocytoma. South Med J; 2008 Feb;101(2):196-8
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  • [Title] Bilateral perinephric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and synchronous renal oncocytoma.
  • An elderly patient who presented with bilateral perinephric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and concomitant oncocytoma of the same location is reported.
  • To our knowledge, the anatomic proximity of the two tumors at the level of kidneys has not been previously described.
  • Because of the patient's other medical conditions, systemic chemotherapy was not deemed feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18364624.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-8243
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Kuroda N, Guo L, Toi M, Naruse K, Miyazaki E, Hayashi Y, Yoshikawa C, Ashida S, Shuin T, Enzan H: Paxillin: application of immunohistochemistry to the diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2001 Dec;9(4):315-8
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  • [Title] Paxillin: application of immunohistochemistry to the diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma.
  • In this study, 91 renal tumors--65 conventional renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 14 papillary RCCs, 6 chromophobe RCCs, 4 collecting duct carcinomas, 2 oncocytomas--were investigated for the immunohistochemical expression of paxillin.
  • In a normal kidney, paxillin was predominantly expressed in the cytoplasm of distal tubules, loops of Henle, collecting ducts, and vascular smooth muscle cells.
  • In all of the chromophobe RCCs and oncocytomas, strong expression of paxillin was observed in the tumor cytoplasm.
  • In contrast to these tumors, conventional RCCs, papillary RCCs, and collecting duct carcinomas showed negative reactions for paxillin except for one case in each subgroup with weak reactivity.
  • An immunoblot analysis confirmed the presence of paxillin in healthy kidney, chromophobe RCC, and oncocytoma.
  • These data suggest that paxillin possibly plays a role in signal transductions as a focal adhesion intervening between tumor cells and the extracellular matrix in renal tumors with collecting duct phenotypes such as chromophobe RCCs and oncocytomas, but not in conventional RCCs.

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  • (PMID = 11759057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PXN protein, human; 0 / Paxillin; 0 / Phosphoproteins
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8. Pan CC, Chen PC, Ho DM: The diagnostic utility of MOC31, BerEP4, RCC marker and CD10 in the classification of renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma: an immunohistochemical analysis of 328 cases. Histopathology; 2004 Nov;45(5):452-9
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  • [Title] The diagnostic utility of MOC31, BerEP4, RCC marker and CD10 in the classification of renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma: an immunohistochemical analysis of 328 cases.
  • AIMS: To demonstrate the diagnostic utility of MOC31, BerEP4, renal cell carcinoma marker (RCC Ma) and CD10 in the classification of RCC and renal oncocytoma, based upon a comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on 328 samples consisting of 256 clear cell/conventional, 27 papillary, 28 chromophobe, five collecting duct, five unclassified RCCs and seven renal oncocytomas using antibodies MOC31, BerEP4 and antibodies against cytokeratins (KL-1, CAM5.2, 34betaE12, cytokeratin 7), RCC Ma, epithelial membrane antigen, E-cadherin, CD10, CD15 and vimentin.
  • MOC31 and BerEP4 chiefly labelled distal tubules of normal kidney while RCC Ma and CD10 labelled the proximal tubules.
  • Twenty-three chromophobe RCCs (82%) were reactive for MOC31, while only four clear cell RCCs and three papillary RCCs were positive for this marker.
  • Clear cell RCCs were characterized by a high positive rate for CD10 (82%) and a low positive rate for BerEP4 (27%).
  • All renal oncocytomas were negative for MOC31 and CD10.
  • The CD10+/BerEP4- profile and RCC Ma+/BerEP4+ profile achieve moderate sensitivity and good specificity for clear cell RCC and papillary RCC, respectively.
  • The non-reactivity for both MOC31 and CD10 is helpful in distinguishing renal oncocytoma from RCC.
  • When properly selected, antibodies have immunohistochemical diagnostic utility for the classification of renal cortical epithelial tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases. Neprilysin
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm. Biomarkers. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 15500648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125; EC 2.7.11.22 / MOK protein, human; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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9. Matyja G, Dziekan T, Dobrzycki W: [Rare neck tumors: diagnosis and treatment]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2000;54 Suppl 31:87-9
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  • [Title] [Rare neck tumors: diagnosis and treatment].
  • A group of 14 patients is presented which has been treated at the ENT Clinic PAM between 1989-1998, due to rare tumours of the neck.
  • Among them were: paraganglioma--3 cases, neurilemmoma--3 cases, actinomycosis--2 cases and 1 case of plasmocytoma, ganglioneuroma, oncocytoma, lipoma, toxoplasmosis and cystic tumour of salivary gland origin.
  • For diagnosis FNB, USG, radiological and laboratory examinations, adenectomy, excision of the tumour for diagnosis and explorative cervicotomy were carried out.
  • Beside surgery antibiotics, chemotherapy and RTG therapy were applied, depending on the kind of the tumour.
  • Satisfactory results were obtained (12/14 patients are alive, 1 after removal of oncocytoma died due to cardio-vascular cause).
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10974852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] POLAND
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10. Kauffman EC, Barocas DA, Chen YT, Yang XJ, Scherr DS, Tu JJ: Differential expression of KAI1 metastasis suppressor protein in renal cell tumor histological subtypes. J Urol; 2009 May;181(5):2305-11
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  • [Title] Differential expression of KAI1 metastasis suppressor protein in renal cell tumor histological subtypes.
  • PURPOSE: The similar appearance of renal tumor histological subtypes can complicate differential diagnoses.
  • This problem is most notable for the chromophobe subtype of renal cell carcinoma, which can be histologically indistinguishable from oncocytoma with investigational molecular markers failing to provide reliable differentiation.
  • KAI1 is a metastasis suppressor gene whose expression correlates inversely with the metastatic potential of most solid tumor cancer types.
  • We tested the hypothesis that KAI1 is differentially expressed among renal tumor histological subtypes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for KAI1 protein was performed in 152 nephrectomy specimens, including 48 clear cell, 35 papillary and 31 chromophobe renal cell carcinoma samples, 28 oncocytomas and 10 tumor-free kidneys.
  • KAI1 mRNA levels were compared by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in an additional 22 chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma samples.
  • RESULTS: In all 10 tumor-free kidneys KAI1 protein was detected exclusively in distal tubule cell membranes.
  • Of the tumor specimens KAI1 protein was absent in all papillary renal cell carcinoma specimens.
  • It was present in only 1 of 48 clear cell renal cell carcinomas (2%) and 2 of 28 oncocytomas (7%) but only at low levels.
  • In contrast, 27 of 31 chromophobe renal cell carcinoma specimens (87%) expressed KAI1 protein, most at moderate or high levels.
  • The diagnostic accuracy of KAI1 immunostaining for discerning chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma was 90% with similar results observed at the RNA level.
  • CONCLUSIONS: KAI1 is an accurate biomarker for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma that may aid in the diagnostic differentiation of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma.
  • It remains to be determined whether KAI1 expression contributes to the low metastatic potential of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biopsy, Needle. Case-Control Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Nephrectomy. Prognosis. Reference Values. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19303095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / KAL1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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11. Toma V, Zuber C, Sata T, Komminoth P, Hailemariam S, Eble JN, Heitz PU, Roth J: Thomsen-Friedenreich glycotope is expressed in developing and normal kidney but not in renal neoplasms. Hum Pathol; 2000 Jun;31(6):647-55
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  • [Title] Thomsen-Friedenreich glycotope is expressed in developing and normal kidney but not in renal neoplasms.
  • The Thomsen-Friedenreich glycotope (TF) is considered a general carcinoma autoantigen and is therefore of importance in cancer diagnosis and immunotherapy.
  • We report the distribution of the TF glycotope in developing and adult human kidney and renal neoplasms.
  • In developing kidney, the TF was restricted to the loop of Henle, distal tubules, and peripheral collecting ducts, whereas its sialylated form was detectable in all epithelial differentiations derived from the 2 embryonic anlagen, the metanephrogenic blastema being unreactive.
  • The TF was exclusively expressed in the luminal cell surface and hence was inaccessible to immune reactions.
  • Analysis of a spectrum of renal neoplasms failed to detect the TF, with the exception of occasional staining of tubules in nephroblastoma.
  • Moreover, the sialylated TF was only detectable in oncocytoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, cystic nephroma, nephroblastoma, and nephroblastomatosis complex and occasionally in type 1 papillary renal cell carcinoma.
  • However, the TF does not seem to represent a tumor-associated glycotope in human kidney, nor does it appear to be of value in diagnosis and immunotherapy of renal neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate / analysis. Kidney / immunology. Kidney Neoplasms / immunology. Plant Lectins
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Coloring Agents. Gestational Age. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lectins. N-Acetylneuraminic Acid / analysis. Ribosome Inactivating Proteins. Wilms Tumor / immunology

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  • (PMID = 10872656.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Lectins; 0 / Plant Lectins; 0 / amaranthin protein, Amaranthus; 3554-90-3 / Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen; EC 3.2.2.22 / Ribosome Inactivating Proteins; GZP2782OP0 / N-Acetylneuraminic Acid
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12. Mete O, Asa SL: Aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenoma with oncocytic change and cytoplasmic eosinophilic globular inclusions. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(3):182-5
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  • [Title] Aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenoma with oncocytic change and cytoplasmic eosinophilic globular inclusions.
  • The laparoscopic left adrenalectomy specimen revealed an adrenal cortical adenoma composed of varying proportions of oncocytic and clear cells, predominantly showing central oncocytic change.
  • Oncocytes also exhibited numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globular inclusions, which are not commonly observed in aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenomas.
  • Ultrastructural study revealed that the inclusions originated in degenerating mitochondria, explaining their association with the oncocytic phenotype of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Aldosterone / secretion. Inclusion Bodies / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension / drug therapy. Hypertension / etiology. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission

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  • (PMID = 19462261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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13. Maiuri F, Gangemi M, Giamundo A, Mariniello G, Colella A, Vergara P, Del Basso De Caro ML: Intracranial extension of salivary gland tumors. Clin Neuropathol; 2010 Jan-Feb;29(1):9-13
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  • [Title] Intracranial extension of salivary gland tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report is to describe 3 cases of salivary gland tumors with intracranial extension associated to an extracerebral mass lesion, and to discuss the frequence, pathology and treatment of these very rare localizations.
  • The primary tumors were an adenocarcinoma and a malignant oncocytoma of the parotid gland and an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the submandibular gland.
  • The location of the intradural extra-axial tumor was the middle fossa and temporal region in 2 cases and the cerebellopontine angle in 1.
  • Surgical treatment consisted in the seemingly complete removal of 2 tumors with middle fossa localization and partial removal of the cerebellopontine angle lesion.
  • Radiotherapy was administered in all 3 cases and chemotherapy in 2.
  • RESULTS: 1 patient is alive and free of recurrence 32 months after removal of the intracranial tumor; 2 other patients died 28 months and 12 months postoperatively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The intracranial extension of salivary gland tumors is a very rare event.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brain / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20040327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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14. Seveso M, Taverna G, Giusti G, Benetti A, Piccinelli A, Graziotti P: Nephron sparing surgery of parenchymal kidney tumours in solitary kidney. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2007 Mar;79(1):12-6
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  • [Title] Nephron sparing surgery of parenchymal kidney tumours in solitary kidney.
  • INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to assess the therapeutic efficacy of nephron sparing surgery (NSS) in our experience applied to patients with either bilateral renal cancer or patients with cancer in a solitary functioning kidney, from an oncological viewpoint as well as renal function.
  • Twenty-seven presented absolute indications with disease in functionally or anatomically solitary kidney.
  • Final histology showed 17 patients with clear cell renal carcinoma, six papillary cell carcinomas, one chromophobe carcinoma, one oncocytoma and two angiomyolipomas.
  • Two patients present secondary tumours (lung and liver), whereas one patient is being treated with chemotherapy for colon cancer Twenty-two patients are disease-free.
  • None of the 10 patients discharged with creatinine levels >2 mg/dL, were submitted to dialytic therapy during follow-up.
  • None of the patients discharged with normal renal function developed kidney failure.

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  • (PMID = 17484397.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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15. Prager GW, Poettler M, Schmidinger M, Mazal PR, Susani M, Zielinski CC, Haitel A: CD98hc (SLC3A2), a novel marker in renal cell cancer. Eur J Clin Invest; 2009 Apr;39(4):304-10
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  • [Title] CD98hc (SLC3A2), a novel marker in renal cell cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: In a variety of malignant diseases, molecular targeting represents a therapeutic option, whereby, when compared with chemotherapy, fewer side effects are thought to be expected.
  • Especially in renal cell cancer (RCC), tyrosine kinase-inhibitors have been established as useful and highly effective therapy.
  • However, tyrosine kinase-inhibitors currently approved for RCC treatment lack single molecule specificity and bear a variety of side effects of the gastro-intestinal tract, skin, heart and haematopoietic system.
  • Therefore, the identification of novel cell surface markers is sought, which might lead to novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Paraffin-embedded RCCs from a well characterized tissue bank were immunohistochemically quantified for embryonic transmembrane antigen CD98hc (SLC3A2) expression and semi-quantitative analyses were correlated with subtype or grade of differentiation.
  • RESULTS: We found increased CD98hc expression in different types of malign RCCs, among them clear cell (cc)RCC, papillary (p)RCC and chromophobe (ch)RCC, but lack of expression in the benign renal oncocytoma.
  • Furthermore, the more malignant type II pRCC significantly higher expressed CD98hc than the less malignant and more differentiated type I pRCC (type II 83.34%, type I 4.76% CD98hc positive, P < 0.00001; n = 51).
  • The established marker for type I pRCC, Cytokreatin 7, showed 95.24% expression in type I and 26.67% expression in type II pRCC (P < 0.00001, n = 51).
  • In pRCCs, CD98hc might represent a novel and reliable marker for type II pRCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19292886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2362
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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16. Okoń K: Pathology of renal tumors in adults. Molecular biology, histopathological diagnosis and prognosis. Pol J Pathol; 2008;59(3):129-76
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  • [Title] Pathology of renal tumors in adults. Molecular biology, histopathological diagnosis and prognosis.
  • Malignant renal tumors constitute 3% of human cancers, although their frequency differs greatly in various areas.
  • Since the fifties, the incidence of renal cancers has been increasing, but at the some time the prognosis has been improving.
  • In particular, in the last years, several new treatment modalities have been introduced, relying on the understanding of renal cancer biology.
  • The identified etiological factors include smoking, increased body mass, dietary factors and chronic renal disease.
  • There are several renal tumor types differing in morphology, molecular genetics and biology.
  • Inactivation of the VHL gene leads to formation of the most frequent form in adults, namely clear cell carcinoma.
  • At least two types of papillary carcinomas exist, which have different morphology and prognosis.
  • The molecular biology of chromophobe carcinoma and oncocytoma is poorly understood.
  • Differential diagnosis of these tumors is particularly difficult and may require extensive immunohistochemical and molecular studies.
  • Collecting duct carcinoma and medullary carcinoma are extremely aggressive but rare tumors.
  • Some renal tumors have been described or recognized only relatively recently; these newer entities include multilocular cystic clear cell carcinoma, spindle cell papillary mucinous carcinoma, tubulocystic carcinoma, renal epithelial and stromal tumor, epithelioid and oncocytic angiomyolipoma.
  • Besides histological typing, the prognostic factors include tumor stage, grade and several immunohistochemical and molecular markers that are currently under elaboration.
  • The improved prognosis in renal cancer depends on earlier detection, but also on refinement of therapeutic methods.
  • Small tumors may currently be treated by partial nephrectomy or radiofrequency ablation and larger ones by a laparoscopic approach.
  • Renal carcinoma is notorious for its low sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • For several years, immunological treatment with IL-2 and INF-alpha was the only adjuvant therapy method.
  • However, recently several new drugs have been introduced; they act on tyrosine-kinase receptors, VEGF, c-Met or mTOR pathway.
  • With this progress, perfect understanding of renal tumor biology and exact histological diagnosis have become of prime practical importance.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms


17. Besic N, Hocevar M, Zgajnar J, Petric R, Pilko G: Aggressiveness of therapy and prognosis of patients with Hürthle cell papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2006 Jan;16(1):67-72
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  • [Title] Aggressiveness of therapy and prognosis of patients with Hürthle cell papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Hürthle cell papillary thyroid carcinoma (HCPTC) has been studied separately from other types of thyroid carcinoma in relatively few studies.
  • A total of 1552 patients with thyroid carcinoma were seen at our institute during the period of 1976-2003; of them, 42 patients (33 females, 9 males; age 10-85 years, median 56.5 years) had histopathologically verified HCPTC.
  • The data on the patients' gender, age, disease history, extent of disease, morphologic characteristics, therapy, locoregional control, disease-free interval, and survival were collected.
  • The statistical correlation between possible prognostic factors and the disease-free interval and survival was analyzed by chi2 test and log rank analysis.
  • The tumor diameter ranged from 1 to 9 cm (median, 3 cm).
  • Extrathyroid tumor growth was found in 19 patients, lymph node metastases in 13 patients, and distant metastases in 2 patients.
  • Primary treatment consisted of total or near-total thyroidectomy (39 patients), lobectomy (2 patients), radioiodine ablation of the thyroid remnant (37 patients), external irradiation (14 patients), and chemotherapy (3 patients).
  • Three patients died of thyroid carcinoma during the follow-up period.
  • The 5-year and 10-year disease-free intervals were 93% and 81%, respectively.
  • The factors correlated with the survival were: age, extrathyroid tumor growth, primary tumor stage, and regional and distant metastases.
  • Although extrathyroidal tumor growth was found in 45% of the patients with HCPTC, our patients had a favorable prognosis.
  • Long-term survival and locoregional control of disease are likely after the radical tumor resection, radioiodine ablation of the thyroid remnant, and external irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytoplasm / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Iodine / deficiency. Iodine Radioisotopes. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Slovenia / epidemiology. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16487016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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18. Cozzi DA, Schiavetti A, Morini F, Castello MA, Cozzi F: Nephron-sparing surgery for unilateral primary renal tumor in children. J Pediatr Surg; 2001 Feb;36(2):362-5
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  • [Title] Nephron-sparing surgery for unilateral primary renal tumor in children.
  • PURPOSE: Definition of the role of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) in the treatment of children with primary unilateral renal tumor (URT).
  • Preoperative 2-drug chemotherapy was given to all patients more than 6 months of age.
  • Between 1992 and 1995, 3-drug chemotherapy was used after NSS.
  • Thereafter, following NSS, 2-drug chemotherapy was given if no microscopic residual disease was found on final histologic examination.
  • Enucleation of 6 tumors (1 metachronous) was performed in 5 patients.
  • Seven children had standard histology nephroblastoma, 1 highly differentiated epithelial type nephroblastoma, 1 oncocytoma, and 1 cystic nephroma.
  • All children are alive and disease free with good functioning of the affected kidney after NSS, at a mean follow-up of 40.7 months (range, 2 to 100 months).
  • CONCLUSION: NSS should be considered in selected children with URT, especially in patients with increased risk for metachronous tumor or renal disease, and in patients with benign or low-grade malignant URT.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Eligibility Determination. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Life Expectancy. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 11172435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3468
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Aiba M, Fujibayashi M: Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):13-22
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  • [Title] Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A great majority of adrenocortical tumors are benign, and many adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are obviously malignant at presentation.
  • The histopathological diagnosis of ACC is occasionally difficult, particularly with stage I and stage II disease.
  • Surgery is the major treatment, with chemotherapy and radiotherapy being applicable to only restricted patients.
  • The Weiss criteria are useful in diagnosing the common adult type of ACC.
  • Histopathological prognostic factors of ACC have not been fully established because of the rarity of the disease.
  • In this article, we first describe the current histopathological diagnostic and prognostic factors of ACC, highlighting the special types of ACC to which Weiss's criteria are not fully applicable.
  • These special type tumors include pediatric adrenocortical tumors, oncocytomas, and aldosterone-producing tumors of pure zona glomerulosa type.
  • Then we present three cases with unusual small adrenocortical tumors.
  • One patient had an unequivocal ACC showing metastatic disease.
  • The third was a pediatric patient with a tumor showing a nodule-in-nodule pattern with insulin-like growth factor II expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aldosterone / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16000842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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20. Cimmino A, Giangaspero F, Pennella A, Serio G, De Tomasi A, Colamaria A, Ricco R: [Oncocytic meningioma. Case report]. Pathologica; 2000 Apr;92(2):82-5
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  • [Title] [Oncocytic meningioma. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Meningioma oncocitario. Descrizione di un caso.
  • Among the histological variants of meningiomas the oncocytic subtype is rarely observed.
  • Up-today, only six cases of oncocytic meningioma are described.
  • We describe a case of oncocytic meningioma in a 78-years-old woman.
  • The patient had a history of breast cancer diagnosed 9 years before the brain biopsy; bilateral mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy was performed.
  • She had a right frontal tumour measuring 3 cm in diameter.
  • The tumour was composed by large polygonal neoplastic cells with finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm.
  • Oncocytic differentiation was demonstrated by conventional histology and immunohistochemistry.
  • The rarity of oncocytic meningiomas is underlined with only six cases described in the world literature.
  • The immunophenotypic profile and the differential diagnosis of the neoplasm is discussed and the concept of oncocytic meningioma as a distinct entity of tumour is emphasized.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Edema / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Medullary. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Second Primary

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  • (PMID = 10838873.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ITALY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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21. Kozakowski N, Soleiman A, Pammer J: BMI-1 expression is inversely correlated with the grading of renal clear cell carcinoma. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Mar;14(1):9-13
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  • [Title] BMI-1 expression is inversely correlated with the grading of renal clear cell carcinoma.
  • BMI-1 regulates cell proliferation and differentiation, is involved in stem cell maintenance and can act as an oncogene.
  • We investigated BMI-1 expression in healthy normal kidney and in 77 renal tumours by immunohistochemistry, and correlated it with tumour differentiation.
  • BMI-1 could regularly be demonstrated in distal tubules and in Bowman's capsule, whereas it was mostly lacking in proximal tubules, indicating that it may rather be a differentiation marker of different renal cell populations than a stem cell marker.
  • In contrast to previous studies demonstrating a correlation between BMI-1 expression and malignancy, we showed that its expression was inversely correlated with the differentiation grade of clear cell carcinoma.
  • Furthermore, despite their different biologies, BMI-1 was strongly expressed in both papillary carcinomas and oncocytomas.
  • Thus, in renal clear cell carcinomas BMI-1 is rather a differentiation marker lost in carcinomas with high malignancy than an oncogene involved in tumour progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Repressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney / metabolism. Kidney / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Polycomb Repressive Complex 1. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 18347933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMI1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 2.3.2.27 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 1
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22. Zhang J, Kang SK, Wang L, Touijer A, Hricak H: Distribution of renal tumor growth rates determined by using serial volumetric CT measurements. Radiology; 2009 Jan;250(1):137-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Distribution of renal tumor growth rates determined by using serial volumetric CT measurements.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively determine the distribution of growth rates across different sizes and subtypes of renal cortical tumors by assessing tumor volume and maximum tumor diameter at serial volumetric computed tomographic (CT) examinations.
  • Fifty-three of 2304 patients (34 men, 19 women; mean age, 67 years +/- 10 [standard deviation; range, 39-88 years) who underwent nephrectomy from 1989 to 2006 did not receive preoperative chemotherapy or radiation therapy and underwent at least two preoperative contrast material-enhanced CT examinations (at least 3 months apart) with identical section thickness that was no more than one-fifth of longitudinal tumor diameter.
  • Tumor volume and maximum diameter were measured on CT scans.
  • Reciprocal of doubling time (DT) (RDT) was calculated.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-two clear cell carcinomas, 10 papillary carcinomas, six chromophobe carcinomas, four oncocytomas, and one angiomyolipoma were analyzed.
  • Median tumor size was 2.9 cm (range, 1-12 cm).
  • Seven tumors did not increase in volume.
  • DT ranged from -78476.54 to 18057.43 days (mean, -1230.73 days; median, 590.51 days).
  • Faster-growing tumors were more likely to be clear cell carcinomas, those of higher grade had higher growth rates.
  • No significant correlation was found between RDT and tumor initial volume, subtype, or grade.
  • Small renal tumors (<or=3.5 cm) were similar to larger tumors in subtype and growth rate.
  • Age at diagnosis correlated negatively with renal tumor growth rate (P = .03).
  • CONCLUSION: Growth rates in renal tumors of different sizes, subtypes, and grades represent a wide range and overlap substantially.
  • Small renal tumors appear to be similar to larger ones in nature.
  • [MeSH-major] Cone-Beam Computed Tomography / methods. Kidney Cortex / radiography. Kidney Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radiography. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / radiography. Angiomyolipoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Mathematical Computing. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2013 Dec;269(3):949-50 [24261507.001]
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2009 Jul;252(1):314; author reply 314-5 [19561267.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Radiology. 2013 Dec;269(3):950
  • [ErratumIn] Radiology. 2009 Jul;252(1):318
  • (PMID = 19092093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Cao Y, Karsten U, Zerban H, Bannasch P: Expression of MUC1, Thomsen-Friedenreich-related antigens, and cytokeratin 19 in human renal cell carcinomas and tubular clear cell lesions. Virchows Arch; 2000 Feb;436(2):119-26
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  • [Title] Expression of MUC1, Thomsen-Friedenreich-related antigens, and cytokeratin 19 in human renal cell carcinomas and tubular clear cell lesions.
  • The expression of MUC1, MUC2, mucin-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich-related antigens (TF, sialosyl-TF, Tn, and sialosyl-Tn), and cytokeratin 19 (CK19) was systematically investigated in situ in 58 resected human kidney tumours, surrounding tissue of normal appearance, and two normal kidneys obtained at autopsy, using monoclonal antibodies.
  • In kidney tissues of normal appearance, TF, s-TF, MUC1 and CK19 were positive in distal tubules and collecting ducts but negative in proximal tubules.
  • Almost all renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) showed strong immunoreactivity for MUC1, but all were negative for MUC2.
  • In addition, the immunomorphological characteristics of the majority of clear-cell RCCs and clear/granular RCCs with anti-MUC1 and anti-CK 19 closely resembled those of the collecting duct and the distal tubule rather than the proximal tubule.
  • In the renal tissue of otherwise normal appearance adjacent to clear-cell RCCs and clear/granular RCCs, clear cells with excessive storage of glycogen were often found in the collecting duct system, but only rarely in the proximal tubules.
  • These results suggest that the majority of clear-cell RCCs and clear/granular RCCs may originate from the collecting duct system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Kidney Tubules, Collecting / metabolism. Kidney Tubules, Distal / metabolism. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Peptide Fragments / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 10755601.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MUC1 tandem repeat peptide; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 3554-90-3 / Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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24. Okoń K, Wierzchowski W, Jabłońska E, Wójcik P, Steczko A: Anaplastic, sarcomatoid carcinoma of the thyroid originating from a Hürthle cell tumor. Pol J Pathol; 2003;54(4):277-81
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  • [Title] Anaplastic, sarcomatoid carcinoma of the thyroid originating from a Hürthle cell tumor.
  • The case of a 43-year old female with neck tumor is presented.
  • Sections of the tumor revealed a poorly differentiated malignant neoplasm.
  • Clinically, the tumor was characterized by a very high growth rate.
  • An attempt at chemotherapy was made, but the patient died two months after the onset of the disease.
  • At autopsy the tumor was extensively sampled.
  • The histology revealed an anaplastic, sarcomatoid component, as well as a Hürthle cell carcinoma.
  • The presented case is an excellent illustration of diagnostic difficulties that may be encountered in differential diagnosis of anaplastic, sarcomatoid thyroid carcinomas and true sarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Sarcoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 14998298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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25. Liu W, Tretiakova M, Kong J, Turkyilmaz M, Li YC, Krausz T: Expression of vitamin D3 receptor in kidney tumors. Hum Pathol; 2006 Oct;37(10):1268-78
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  • [Title] Expression of vitamin D3 receptor in kidney tumors.
  • Our preliminary immunohistochemical study showed that vitamin D receptor (VDR) was highly expressed in renal distal tubules and collecting ducts, whereas the renal proximal tubules and glomeruli did not express VDR.
  • These observations led us to study the expression of VDR in various kidney tumors to determine the possible diagnostic utility of VDR.
  • Paraffin tissue microarray (TMA) blocks were constructed containing core cylinders from clear cell (52), papillary (35), chromophobe (20), sarcomatoid (20), and metastatic (59) renal cell carcinomas (RCCs).
  • Oncocytomas (20), normal adult kidneys (12), and normal adult adrenals (6) were also included.
  • In addition, 30 clear cell RCCs and 3 collecting duct carcinomas were also studied using conventional sections.
  • Furthermore, VDR messenger RNA and protein expression was also quantified using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis.
  • Vitamin D receptor was strongly positive in collecting duct carcinomas (100% [3/3], cytoplasmic), papillary RCCs (94% [33/35], cytoplasmic), chromophobe RCCs (85% [17/20], membranous), and oncocytomas (90% [18/20], cytoplasmic with perinuclear accentuation).
  • In contrast, VDR expression was focal/weak and present only in the peripheral regions of clear cell RCCs.
  • Vitamin D receptor was weakly positive in sarcomatoid variant RCCs (88% [14/16]) regardless of the type of associated original RCC.
  • Overall, VDR is a discriminative marker for renal cell tumors.
  • The preferential expression of VDR in chromophobe RCCs, oncocytomas, and collecting duct carcinomas is in agreement with the concept that these tumors differentiate toward epithelium lining the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts.
  • Considering the different VDR expression patterns, VDR is a useful ancillary tool in distinguishing chromophobe RCCs from oncocytomas.
  • In addition, the focal and much weaker VDR expression in clear cell RCCs makes VDR valuable in distinguishing clear cell RCC from other types of RCCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Calcitriol / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16949927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol
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26. Lewiński A, Karbownik M, Gesing A, Brzeziński J, Zieliński Z, Rode W: Increased thymidine kinase activity in human thyroid toxic adenomas: effects of exposure to epidermal growth factor in vitro. Endocr Res; 2004 Feb;30(1):37-46
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  • [Title] Increased thymidine kinase activity in human thyroid toxic adenomas: effects of exposure to epidermal growth factor in vitro.
  • The aim of the study was to measure TK activity in homogenates of human thyroid tissue of the following types: non-toxic nodular goiter (NTNG)--macroscopically unchanged tissue, non-toxic adenoma (NTA), and toxic adenoma (TA) (obtained from patients, who--before the surgery--had been treated with thyrostatic drugs for thyrotoxicosis).
  • Thyroid tissue was obtained from female patients subjected to subtotal thyroidectomy at the Department of Endocrine Surgery, Medical University of Lódź.
  • Thyroid homogenates were incubated in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF), used in five different concentrations (0.1 ng/ml, 1 ng/ml, 10 ng/ml, 100 ng/ml, 1000 ng/ml).
  • 1) We did not observe any significant difference between TK activity in the homogenates of the thyroid tissue collected from NTNG and NTA; TK activity was clearly higher in the homogenates of adenomatous tissue, collected from the patients with TA;.
  • 2) EGF increased TK activity in the homogenates of the macroscopically unchanged tissue, collected--during surgery--from the patients with NTNG, as well as in homogenates of thyroid tissue from NTA;.
  • 3) In case of hyperactive thyroid tissue, obtained from TA, EGF tended to increase TK activity, however, without any statistical differences.
  • Our results confirm TK increased activity in hyperactive thyroid tissue.
  • At the same time, the obtained data suggest a certain role of EGF in goiter formation in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / enzymology. Thymidine Kinase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Epidermal Growth Factor / pharmacology. Female. Goiter, Nodular / enzymology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15098918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0743-5800
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.1.21 / Thymidine Kinase
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27. Zhou CX, Shi DY, Ma DQ, Zhang JG, Yu GY, Gao Y: Primary oncocytic carcinoma of the salivary glands: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases. Oral Oncol; 2010 Oct;46(10):773-8
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  • [Title] Primary oncocytic carcinoma of the salivary glands: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases.
  • Oncocytic carcinoma (OC) of salivary gland origin is an extremely rare proliferation of malignant oncocytes with adenocarcinomatous architectural phenotypes, including infiltrative qualities.
  • To help clarify the clinicopathologic and prognostic features of this tumor group, herein, we report 12 OC cases arising from the salivary glands, together with follow-up data and immunohistochemical observations.
  • Most occurred in the parotid gland (10/12) with one in the palate and one in the retromolar gland.
  • The tumors were unencapsulated and often invaded into the nearby gland, lymphatic tissues and nerves.
  • Five-year disease-specific survivals were 54.9%.
  • In summary, OC of salivary gland origin is a high-grade tumor, often with local recurrence, regional or distant metastasis, diagnosis of which based on a combination of clinical and histopathological features.
  • Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice while the role of radiotherapy or chemotherapy is controversial, and careful follow-up is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mitochondria / ultrastructure. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20843731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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28. Schroeder M, Aul C: [Anti-angiogenic therapy of a renal angiomyolipoma in a seriously disabled patient suffering from multiple sclerosis]. Aktuelle Urol; 2005 Sep;36(5):430-2
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  • [Title] [Anti-angiogenic therapy of a renal angiomyolipoma in a seriously disabled patient suffering from multiple sclerosis].
  • [Transliterated title] Antiangiogenetische Therapie eines Nieren-Angiomyolipoms bei einer schwerstbehinderten Patientin mit Multipler Sklerose.
  • INTRODUCTION: Angiomyolipoma, although rare, belong together with oncocytomas to the most common benign renal neoplasms.
  • Although angiomyolipoma is usually a non-invasive tumor that does not metastasize, chirurgical intervention, especially in case of large or enlarging tumors, is recommended due to their capacity to cause haemorrhage and other significant clinical complications.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The use of EGFR inhibitors, whose anti-proliferative activity in renal cell tumors derives not only from direct inhibition of cell proliferation, but also from the inhibition of angiogenesis, requires further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Angiomyolipoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Multiple Sclerosis / complications. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Quinazolines / therapeutic use. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16163606.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7868
  • [Journal-full-title] Aktuelle Urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aktuelle Urol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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29. Pennell NA, Daniels GH, Haddad RI, Ross DS, Evans T, Wirth LJ, Fidias PH, Temel JS, Gurubhagavatula S, Heist RS, Clark JR, Lynch TJ: A phase II study of gefitinib in patients with advanced thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2008 Mar;18(3):317-23
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  • [Title] A phase II study of gefitinib in patients with advanced thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of gefitinib in patients with advanced thyroid cancer.
  • DESIGN: In this open-label phase II trial, 27 patients with radioiodine-refractory, locally advanced, or metastatic thyroid cancer were treated with 250 mg of daily gefitinib.
  • Histologic subtypes included papillary (41%), follicular (22%), anaplastic (19%), medullary (15%), and Hürthle cell carcinomas (4%).
  • After 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment, 48%, 24%, and 12% of patients had stable disease (SD), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although gefitinib therapy did not result in any tumor responses, 32% of patients had reductions in tumor volume that did not meet criteria for partial response rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Quinazolines / administration & dosage. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / drug therapy. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Severity of Illness Index. Thyroglobulin / blood. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Thyroid. 2008 Mar;18(3):279-80 [18341374.001]
  • (PMID = 17985985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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30. Sideras K, Menefee ME, Burton JK, Erlichman C, Bible KC, Ivy SP: Profound hair and skin hypopigmentation in an African American woman treated with the multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor pazopanib. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jul 1;28(19):e312-3
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  • [Title] Profound hair and skin hypopigmentation in an African American woman treated with the multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor pazopanib.

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  • (PMID = 20516434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N01 CM062205; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA15083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / CM62205
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Sulfonamides; 7RN5DR86CK / pazopanib
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