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1. Kuroda N, Guo L, Toi M, Naruse K, Miyazaki E, Hayashi Y, Yoshikawa C, Ashida S, Shuin T, Enzan H: Paxillin: application of immunohistochemistry to the diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2001 Dec;9(4):315-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paxillin: application of immunohistochemistry to the diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma.
  • In this study, 91 renal tumors--65 conventional renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 14 papillary RCCs, 6 chromophobe RCCs, 4 collecting duct carcinomas, 2 oncocytomas--were investigated for the immunohistochemical expression of paxillin.
  • In a normal kidney, paxillin was predominantly expressed in the cytoplasm of distal tubules, loops of Henle, collecting ducts, and vascular smooth muscle cells.
  • In all of the chromophobe RCCs and oncocytomas, strong expression of paxillin was observed in the tumor cytoplasm.
  • In contrast to these tumors, conventional RCCs, papillary RCCs, and collecting duct carcinomas showed negative reactions for paxillin except for one case in each subgroup with weak reactivity.
  • An immunoblot analysis confirmed the presence of paxillin in healthy kidney, chromophobe RCC, and oncocytoma.
  • These data suggest that paxillin possibly plays a role in signal transductions as a focal adhesion intervening between tumor cells and the extracellular matrix in renal tumors with collecting duct phenotypes such as chromophobe RCCs and oncocytomas, but not in conventional RCCs.

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  • (PMID = 11759057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PXN protein, human; 0 / Paxillin; 0 / Phosphoproteins
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2. Aiba M, Fujibayashi M: Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):13-22
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  • [Title] Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A great majority of adrenocortical tumors are benign, and many adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are obviously malignant at presentation.
  • The histopathological diagnosis of ACC is occasionally difficult, particularly with stage I and stage II disease.
  • Surgery is the major treatment, with chemotherapy and radiotherapy being applicable to only restricted patients.
  • The Weiss criteria are useful in diagnosing the common adult type of ACC.
  • Histopathological prognostic factors of ACC have not been fully established because of the rarity of the disease.
  • In this article, we first describe the current histopathological diagnostic and prognostic factors of ACC, highlighting the special types of ACC to which Weiss's criteria are not fully applicable.
  • These special type tumors include pediatric adrenocortical tumors, oncocytomas, and aldosterone-producing tumors of pure zona glomerulosa type.
  • Then we present three cases with unusual small adrenocortical tumors.
  • One patient had an unequivocal ACC showing metastatic disease.
  • The third was a pediatric patient with a tumor showing a nodule-in-nodule pattern with insulin-like growth factor II expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aldosterone / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16000842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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3. Liu W, Tretiakova M, Kong J, Turkyilmaz M, Li YC, Krausz T: Expression of vitamin D3 receptor in kidney tumors. Hum Pathol; 2006 Oct;37(10):1268-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of vitamin D3 receptor in kidney tumors.
  • Our preliminary immunohistochemical study showed that vitamin D receptor (VDR) was highly expressed in renal distal tubules and collecting ducts, whereas the renal proximal tubules and glomeruli did not express VDR.
  • These observations led us to study the expression of VDR in various kidney tumors to determine the possible diagnostic utility of VDR.
  • Paraffin tissue microarray (TMA) blocks were constructed containing core cylinders from clear cell (52), papillary (35), chromophobe (20), sarcomatoid (20), and metastatic (59) renal cell carcinomas (RCCs).
  • Oncocytomas (20), normal adult kidneys (12), and normal adult adrenals (6) were also included.
  • In addition, 30 clear cell RCCs and 3 collecting duct carcinomas were also studied using conventional sections.
  • Furthermore, VDR messenger RNA and protein expression was also quantified using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis.
  • Vitamin D receptor was strongly positive in collecting duct carcinomas (100% [3/3], cytoplasmic), papillary RCCs (94% [33/35], cytoplasmic), chromophobe RCCs (85% [17/20], membranous), and oncocytomas (90% [18/20], cytoplasmic with perinuclear accentuation).
  • In contrast, VDR expression was focal/weak and present only in the peripheral regions of clear cell RCCs.
  • Vitamin D receptor was weakly positive in sarcomatoid variant RCCs (88% [14/16]) regardless of the type of associated original RCC.
  • Overall, VDR is a discriminative marker for renal cell tumors.
  • The preferential expression of VDR in chromophobe RCCs, oncocytomas, and collecting duct carcinomas is in agreement with the concept that these tumors differentiate toward epithelium lining the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts.
  • Considering the different VDR expression patterns, VDR is a useful ancillary tool in distinguishing chromophobe RCCs from oncocytomas.
  • In addition, the focal and much weaker VDR expression in clear cell RCCs makes VDR valuable in distinguishing clear cell RCC from other types of RCCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Calcitriol / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16949927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol
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4. Kauffman EC, Barocas DA, Chen YT, Yang XJ, Scherr DS, Tu JJ: Differential expression of KAI1 metastasis suppressor protein in renal cell tumor histological subtypes. J Urol; 2009 May;181(5):2305-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential expression of KAI1 metastasis suppressor protein in renal cell tumor histological subtypes.
  • PURPOSE: The similar appearance of renal tumor histological subtypes can complicate differential diagnoses.
  • This problem is most notable for the chromophobe subtype of renal cell carcinoma, which can be histologically indistinguishable from oncocytoma with investigational molecular markers failing to provide reliable differentiation.
  • KAI1 is a metastasis suppressor gene whose expression correlates inversely with the metastatic potential of most solid tumor cancer types.
  • We tested the hypothesis that KAI1 is differentially expressed among renal tumor histological subtypes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for KAI1 protein was performed in 152 nephrectomy specimens, including 48 clear cell, 35 papillary and 31 chromophobe renal cell carcinoma samples, 28 oncocytomas and 10 tumor-free kidneys.
  • KAI1 mRNA levels were compared by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in an additional 22 chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma samples.
  • RESULTS: In all 10 tumor-free kidneys KAI1 protein was detected exclusively in distal tubule cell membranes.
  • Of the tumor specimens KAI1 protein was absent in all papillary renal cell carcinoma specimens.
  • It was present in only 1 of 48 clear cell renal cell carcinomas (2%) and 2 of 28 oncocytomas (7%) but only at low levels.
  • In contrast, 27 of 31 chromophobe renal cell carcinoma specimens (87%) expressed KAI1 protein, most at moderate or high levels.
  • The diagnostic accuracy of KAI1 immunostaining for discerning chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma was 90% with similar results observed at the RNA level.
  • CONCLUSIONS: KAI1 is an accurate biomarker for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma that may aid in the diagnostic differentiation of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma.
  • It remains to be determined whether KAI1 expression contributes to the low metastatic potential of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biopsy, Needle. Case-Control Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Nephrectomy. Prognosis. Reference Values. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19303095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / KAL1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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5. Dancer JY, Truong LD, Zhai Q, Shen SS: Expression of Galectin-3 in renal neoplasms: a diagnostic, possible prognostic marker. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Jan;134(1):90-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of Galectin-3 in renal neoplasms: a diagnostic, possible prognostic marker.
  • CONTEXT: Galectin-3, a member of the lectin family, was shown to be expressed in normal distal tubular cells and in renal cell carcinomas (RCC).
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the expression of Galectin-3 among different histologic subtypes of renal neoplasms and to determine their diagnostic and prognostic significances.
  • DESIGN: The expression of Galectin-3 was evaluated in 217 renal neoplasms by tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry with semiquantitative analysis.
  • RESULTS: Strong expression of Galectin-3 was observed in 92 of 217 of renal neoplasms (42.4%).
  • Although 22 of 23 oncocytomas (95.7%) and 19 of 21 chromophobe RCCs (90.5%) express Galectin-3, only 4 of 32 papillary RCCs (12.5%) and 47 of 137 clear cell RCCs (34.3%) express Galectin-3, suggesting that it may be used as a potential diagnostic marker.
  • Galectin-3 expression was seen in 55% of high-grade (Fuhrman nuclear grades 3 and 4) versus 21% low-grade (grades 1 and 2) clear cell RCCs (P < .001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that Galactin-3 is strongly overexpressed in renal cell neoplasms of distal tubular differentiation, that is, oncocytoma and chromophobe RCCs, suggesting it might be used as a possible differential diagnostic tool for renal cell neoplasm with oncocytic or granular cells.
  • Furthermore, we observed a strong association of overexpression of Galectin-3 and high nuclear grade in clear cell RCC.
  • These results also suggest a possible pivotal role for Galectin-3 in the differentiation and prognosis of clear cell RCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Humans. Kidney / metabolism. Kidney / pathology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20073610.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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6. Toma V, Zuber C, Sata T, Komminoth P, Hailemariam S, Eble JN, Heitz PU, Roth J: Thomsen-Friedenreich glycotope is expressed in developing and normal kidney but not in renal neoplasms. Hum Pathol; 2000 Jun;31(6):647-55
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  • [Title] Thomsen-Friedenreich glycotope is expressed in developing and normal kidney but not in renal neoplasms.
  • The Thomsen-Friedenreich glycotope (TF) is considered a general carcinoma autoantigen and is therefore of importance in cancer diagnosis and immunotherapy.
  • We report the distribution of the TF glycotope in developing and adult human kidney and renal neoplasms.
  • In developing kidney, the TF was restricted to the loop of Henle, distal tubules, and peripheral collecting ducts, whereas its sialylated form was detectable in all epithelial differentiations derived from the 2 embryonic anlagen, the metanephrogenic blastema being unreactive.
  • The TF was exclusively expressed in the luminal cell surface and hence was inaccessible to immune reactions.
  • Analysis of a spectrum of renal neoplasms failed to detect the TF, with the exception of occasional staining of tubules in nephroblastoma.
  • Moreover, the sialylated TF was only detectable in oncocytoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, cystic nephroma, nephroblastoma, and nephroblastomatosis complex and occasionally in type 1 papillary renal cell carcinoma.
  • However, the TF does not seem to represent a tumor-associated glycotope in human kidney, nor does it appear to be of value in diagnosis and immunotherapy of renal neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate / analysis. Kidney / immunology. Kidney Neoplasms / immunology. Plant Lectins
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Coloring Agents. Gestational Age. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lectins. N-Acetylneuraminic Acid / analysis. Ribosome Inactivating Proteins. Wilms Tumor / immunology

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  • (PMID = 10872656.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Lectins; 0 / Plant Lectins; 0 / amaranthin protein, Amaranthus; 3554-90-3 / Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen; EC 3.2.2.22 / Ribosome Inactivating Proteins; GZP2782OP0 / N-Acetylneuraminic Acid
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7. Okoń K: Pathology of renal tumors in adults. Molecular biology, histopathological diagnosis and prognosis. Pol J Pathol; 2008;59(3):129-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathology of renal tumors in adults. Molecular biology, histopathological diagnosis and prognosis.
  • Malignant renal tumors constitute 3% of human cancers, although their frequency differs greatly in various areas.
  • Since the fifties, the incidence of renal cancers has been increasing, but at the some time the prognosis has been improving.
  • In particular, in the last years, several new treatment modalities have been introduced, relying on the understanding of renal cancer biology.
  • The identified etiological factors include smoking, increased body mass, dietary factors and chronic renal disease.
  • There are several renal tumor types differing in morphology, molecular genetics and biology.
  • Inactivation of the VHL gene leads to formation of the most frequent form in adults, namely clear cell carcinoma.
  • At least two types of papillary carcinomas exist, which have different morphology and prognosis.
  • The molecular biology of chromophobe carcinoma and oncocytoma is poorly understood.
  • Differential diagnosis of these tumors is particularly difficult and may require extensive immunohistochemical and molecular studies.
  • Collecting duct carcinoma and medullary carcinoma are extremely aggressive but rare tumors.
  • Some renal tumors have been described or recognized only relatively recently; these newer entities include multilocular cystic clear cell carcinoma, spindle cell papillary mucinous carcinoma, tubulocystic carcinoma, renal epithelial and stromal tumor, epithelioid and oncocytic angiomyolipoma.
  • Besides histological typing, the prognostic factors include tumor stage, grade and several immunohistochemical and molecular markers that are currently under elaboration.
  • The improved prognosis in renal cancer depends on earlier detection, but also on refinement of therapeutic methods.
  • Small tumors may currently be treated by partial nephrectomy or radiofrequency ablation and larger ones by a laparoscopic approach.
  • Renal carcinoma is notorious for its low sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • For several years, immunological treatment with IL-2 and INF-alpha was the only adjuvant therapy method.
  • However, recently several new drugs have been introduced; they act on tyrosine-kinase receptors, VEGF, c-Met or mTOR pathway.
  • With this progress, perfect understanding of renal tumor biology and exact histological diagnosis have become of prime practical importance.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms


8. Alroy J, Ucci AA, Azabdoaftari G, Banner BF, Cheville JC: Expression of CD3 antigens in renal tubule epithelium and renal oncocytomas. Pathol Res Pract; 2005;201(12):803-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of CD3 antigens in renal tubule epithelium and renal oncocytomas.
  • The antibodies commonly used to recognize CD3 are directed against the epsilon-subunit of the T cell receptor.
  • This subunit has a role in signal transduction in T lymphocytes and possibly other types of cells.
  • We immunostained sections for CD3 from normal kidneys of several species, including humans, and from different primary human renal cortical neoplasms to determine if CD3 antigen is expressed in normal and in neoplastic tubular epithelium.
  • CD3 expression was strong in normal proximal and distal tubular epithelium in most species and in renal oncocytomas, weak in chromophobe carcinoma, and negative in clear cell carcinomas, in papillary renal cell carcinoma, and in a transitional cell carcinoma.
  • These findings suggest that this marker may be useful in the diagnostic workup and classification of renal cortical neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Antigens, CD3 / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Kidney Tubules / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16308105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3
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9. Kozakowski N, Soleiman A, Pammer J: BMI-1 expression is inversely correlated with the grading of renal clear cell carcinoma. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Mar;14(1):9-13
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  • [Title] BMI-1 expression is inversely correlated with the grading of renal clear cell carcinoma.
  • BMI-1 regulates cell proliferation and differentiation, is involved in stem cell maintenance and can act as an oncogene.
  • We investigated BMI-1 expression in healthy normal kidney and in 77 renal tumours by immunohistochemistry, and correlated it with tumour differentiation.
  • BMI-1 could regularly be demonstrated in distal tubules and in Bowman's capsule, whereas it was mostly lacking in proximal tubules, indicating that it may rather be a differentiation marker of different renal cell populations than a stem cell marker.
  • In contrast to previous studies demonstrating a correlation between BMI-1 expression and malignancy, we showed that its expression was inversely correlated with the differentiation grade of clear cell carcinoma.
  • Furthermore, despite their different biologies, BMI-1 was strongly expressed in both papillary carcinomas and oncocytomas.
  • Thus, in renal clear cell carcinomas BMI-1 is rather a differentiation marker lost in carcinomas with high malignancy than an oncogene involved in tumour progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Repressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney / metabolism. Kidney / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Polycomb Repressive Complex 1. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 18347933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMI1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 2.3.2.27 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 1
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10. Seveso M, Taverna G, Giusti G, Benetti A, Piccinelli A, Graziotti P: Nephron sparing surgery of parenchymal kidney tumours in solitary kidney. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2007 Mar;79(1):12-6
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  • [Title] Nephron sparing surgery of parenchymal kidney tumours in solitary kidney.
  • INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to assess the therapeutic efficacy of nephron sparing surgery (NSS) in our experience applied to patients with either bilateral renal cancer or patients with cancer in a solitary functioning kidney, from an oncological viewpoint as well as renal function.
  • Twenty-seven presented absolute indications with disease in functionally or anatomically solitary kidney.
  • Final histology showed 17 patients with clear cell renal carcinoma, six papillary cell carcinomas, one chromophobe carcinoma, one oncocytoma and two angiomyolipomas.
  • Two patients present secondary tumours (lung and liver), whereas one patient is being treated with chemotherapy for colon cancer Twenty-two patients are disease-free.
  • None of the 10 patients discharged with creatinine levels >2 mg/dL, were submitted to dialytic therapy during follow-up.
  • None of the patients discharged with normal renal function developed kidney failure.

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  • (PMID = 17484397.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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11. Maiuri F, Gangemi M, Giamundo A, Mariniello G, Colella A, Vergara P, Del Basso De Caro ML: Intracranial extension of salivary gland tumors. Clin Neuropathol; 2010 Jan-Feb;29(1):9-13
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  • [Title] Intracranial extension of salivary gland tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report is to describe 3 cases of salivary gland tumors with intracranial extension associated to an extracerebral mass lesion, and to discuss the frequence, pathology and treatment of these very rare localizations.
  • The primary tumors were an adenocarcinoma and a malignant oncocytoma of the parotid gland and an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the submandibular gland.
  • The location of the intradural extra-axial tumor was the middle fossa and temporal region in 2 cases and the cerebellopontine angle in 1.
  • Surgical treatment consisted in the seemingly complete removal of 2 tumors with middle fossa localization and partial removal of the cerebellopontine angle lesion.
  • Radiotherapy was administered in all 3 cases and chemotherapy in 2.
  • RESULTS: 1 patient is alive and free of recurrence 32 months after removal of the intracranial tumor; 2 other patients died 28 months and 12 months postoperatively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The intracranial extension of salivary gland tumors is a very rare event.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brain / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20040327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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12. Mete O, Asa SL: Aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenoma with oncocytic change and cytoplasmic eosinophilic globular inclusions. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(3):182-5
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  • [Title] Aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenoma with oncocytic change and cytoplasmic eosinophilic globular inclusions.
  • The laparoscopic left adrenalectomy specimen revealed an adrenal cortical adenoma composed of varying proportions of oncocytic and clear cells, predominantly showing central oncocytic change.
  • Oncocytes also exhibited numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globular inclusions, which are not commonly observed in aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenomas.
  • Ultrastructural study revealed that the inclusions originated in degenerating mitochondria, explaining their association with the oncocytic phenotype of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Aldosterone / secretion. Inclusion Bodies / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension / drug therapy. Hypertension / etiology. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission

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  • (PMID = 19462261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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13. Rohan S, Tu JJ, Kao J, Mukherjee P, Campagne F, Zhou XK, Hyjek E, Alonso MA, Chen YT: Gene expression profiling separates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma and identifies vesicular transport and cell junction proteins as differentially expressed genes. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Dec 1;12(23):6937-45
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling separates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma and identifies vesicular transport and cell junction proteins as differentially expressed genes.
  • PURPOSE: To compare gene expression profiles of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign oncocytoma, aiming at identifying differentially expressed genes.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Nine cases each of chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma were analyzed by oligonucleotide microarray.
  • Candidate genes that showed consistent differential expression were validated by reverse transcription-PCR using 25 fresh-frozen and 15 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples.
  • RESULTS: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering separated the chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma into two distinct groups.
  • By a combination of data analysis approaches, we identified 11 candidate genes showing consistent differential expression between chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma.
  • Five of these genes, AP1M2, MAL2, PROM2, PRSS8, and FLJ20171, were shown to effectively separate these two tumor groups by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR using fresh tissue samples, with similar trends seen on formalin-fixed tissues.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed selective expression of MAL2 and claudin 8 in distal renal tubules, with MAL2 antibody showing differential expression between chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma.
  • Functional analyses suggest that genes encoding tight junction proteins and vesicular membrane trafficking proteins, normally expressed in distal nephrons, are retained in chromophobe RCC and lost or consistently down-regulated in oncocytoma, indicating that these two tumor types, believed to be both derived from distal tubules, are likely distinctive in their histogenesis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We showed that chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma are distinguishable by mRNA expression profiles and a panel of gene products potentially useful as diagnostic markers were identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Vesicular Transport Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17145811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AP1M2 protein, human; 0 / Adaptor Protein Complex 1; 0 / Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits; 0 / FLJ20171 protein, human; 0 / MAL2 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Myelin and Lymphocyte-Associated Proteolipid Proteins; 0 / PROM2 protein, human; 0 / Proteolipids; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / prostasin
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14. Zhou CX, Shi DY, Ma DQ, Zhang JG, Yu GY, Gao Y: Primary oncocytic carcinoma of the salivary glands: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases. Oral Oncol; 2010 Oct;46(10):773-8
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  • [Title] Primary oncocytic carcinoma of the salivary glands: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases.
  • Oncocytic carcinoma (OC) of salivary gland origin is an extremely rare proliferation of malignant oncocytes with adenocarcinomatous architectural phenotypes, including infiltrative qualities.
  • To help clarify the clinicopathologic and prognostic features of this tumor group, herein, we report 12 OC cases arising from the salivary glands, together with follow-up data and immunohistochemical observations.
  • Most occurred in the parotid gland (10/12) with one in the palate and one in the retromolar gland.
  • The tumors were unencapsulated and often invaded into the nearby gland, lymphatic tissues and nerves.
  • Five-year disease-specific survivals were 54.9%.
  • In summary, OC of salivary gland origin is a high-grade tumor, often with local recurrence, regional or distant metastasis, diagnosis of which based on a combination of clinical and histopathological features.
  • Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice while the role of radiotherapy or chemotherapy is controversial, and careful follow-up is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mitochondria / ultrastructure. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20843731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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15. Matyja G, Dziekan T, Dobrzycki W: [Rare neck tumors: diagnosis and treatment]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2000;54 Suppl 31:87-9
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  • [Title] [Rare neck tumors: diagnosis and treatment].
  • A group of 14 patients is presented which has been treated at the ENT Clinic PAM between 1989-1998, due to rare tumours of the neck.
  • Among them were: paraganglioma--3 cases, neurilemmoma--3 cases, actinomycosis--2 cases and 1 case of plasmocytoma, ganglioneuroma, oncocytoma, lipoma, toxoplasmosis and cystic tumour of salivary gland origin.
  • For diagnosis FNB, USG, radiological and laboratory examinations, adenectomy, excision of the tumour for diagnosis and explorative cervicotomy were carried out.
  • Beside surgery antibiotics, chemotherapy and RTG therapy were applied, depending on the kind of the tumour.
  • Satisfactory results were obtained (12/14 patients are alive, 1 after removal of oncocytoma died due to cardio-vascular cause).
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10974852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] POLAND
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16. Dasanu CA, Alexandrescu DT: Bilateral perinephric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and synchronous renal oncocytoma. South Med J; 2008 Feb;101(2):196-8
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  • [Title] Bilateral perinephric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and synchronous renal oncocytoma.
  • An elderly patient who presented with bilateral perinephric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and concomitant oncocytoma of the same location is reported.
  • To our knowledge, the anatomic proximity of the two tumors at the level of kidneys has not been previously described.
  • Because of the patient's other medical conditions, systemic chemotherapy was not deemed feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


17. Prager GW, Poettler M, Schmidinger M, Mazal PR, Susani M, Zielinski CC, Haitel A: CD98hc (SLC3A2), a novel marker in renal cell cancer. Eur J Clin Invest; 2009 Apr;39(4):304-10
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  • [Title] CD98hc (SLC3A2), a novel marker in renal cell cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: In a variety of malignant diseases, molecular targeting represents a therapeutic option, whereby, when compared with chemotherapy, fewer side effects are thought to be expected.
  • Especially in renal cell cancer (RCC), tyrosine kinase-inhibitors have been established as useful and highly effective therapy.
  • However, tyrosine kinase-inhibitors currently approved for RCC treatment lack single molecule specificity and bear a variety of side effects of the gastro-intestinal tract, skin, heart and haematopoietic system.
  • Therefore, the identification of novel cell surface markers is sought, which might lead to novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Paraffin-embedded RCCs from a well characterized tissue bank were immunohistochemically quantified for embryonic transmembrane antigen CD98hc (SLC3A2) expression and semi-quantitative analyses were correlated with subtype or grade of differentiation.
  • RESULTS: We found increased CD98hc expression in different types of malign RCCs, among them clear cell (cc)RCC, papillary (p)RCC and chromophobe (ch)RCC, but lack of expression in the benign renal oncocytoma.
  • Furthermore, the more malignant type II pRCC significantly higher expressed CD98hc than the less malignant and more differentiated type I pRCC (type II 83.34%, type I 4.76% CD98hc positive, P < 0.00001; n = 51).
  • The established marker for type I pRCC, Cytokreatin 7, showed 95.24% expression in type I and 26.67% expression in type II pRCC (P < 0.00001, n = 51).
  • In pRCCs, CD98hc might represent a novel and reliable marker for type II pRCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19292886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2362
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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18. Gupta D, Bronstein IB, Holden JA: Expression of DNA topoisomerase I in neoplasms of the kidney: correlation with histological grade, proliferation, and patient survival. Hum Pathol; 2000 Feb;31(2):214-9
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  • [Title] Expression of DNA topoisomerase I in neoplasms of the kidney: correlation with histological grade, proliferation, and patient survival.
  • Renal cell carcinoma is an inherently chemotherapeutically resistant neoplasm.
  • Because of this, new drugs targeting this tumor are needed.
  • One class of new anticancer drug targets the enzyme DNA topoisomerase I.
  • Laboratory data indicate that cells sensitive to topo I targeting drugs contain high topo I levels.
  • To determine whether some renal cell carcinomas contain elevated topo I and might therefore be targets of topo I active antitumor agents, we used a new immunohistochemical stain for topo I to determine the expression of the enzyme in 51 tumors of the kidney.
  • Increased topo I expression was found in 4 of 11 (36%) grade 3 renal cell carcinomas and in 8 of 8 (100%) grade 4 renal cell carcinomas.
  • Normal topo I expression was observed in all adenomas, oncocytomas, and grade 1 and grade 2 renal cell carcinomas.
  • Because topo I targeted anticancer drugs are S-phase specific, topo II-alpha and MIB-1 proliferation indices also were performed.
  • Of the 12 tumors with elevated topo I, only 3 had topo II-alpha proliferation indices greater than 40, indicating a tumor with elevated topo I expression and a large growth fraction.
  • We hypothesize that these tumors might be susceptible to topo I anticancer drug therapy.
  • In addition, we found that the average topo II-alpha proliferation index of tumors from patients who died of disease was 27.4 +/- 19.8, which was statistically different from the average topo II-alpha index of 5.8 +/- 6.5 observed in tumors from patients who remained alive during our follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Topoisomerases, Type I / analysis. Kidney Neoplasms / enzymology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / enzymology. Adenoma / mortality. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / enzymology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / mortality. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / enzymology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Cell Division. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma / enzymology. Sarcoma / mortality. Sarcoma / pathology. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 10685636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 5.99.1.2 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type I
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19. Cozzi DA, Schiavetti A, Morini F, Castello MA, Cozzi F: Nephron-sparing surgery for unilateral primary renal tumor in children. J Pediatr Surg; 2001 Feb;36(2):362-5
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  • [Title] Nephron-sparing surgery for unilateral primary renal tumor in children.
  • PURPOSE: Definition of the role of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) in the treatment of children with primary unilateral renal tumor (URT).
  • Preoperative 2-drug chemotherapy was given to all patients more than 6 months of age.
  • Between 1992 and 1995, 3-drug chemotherapy was used after NSS.
  • Thereafter, following NSS, 2-drug chemotherapy was given if no microscopic residual disease was found on final histologic examination.
  • Enucleation of 6 tumors (1 metachronous) was performed in 5 patients.
  • Seven children had standard histology nephroblastoma, 1 highly differentiated epithelial type nephroblastoma, 1 oncocytoma, and 1 cystic nephroma.
  • All children are alive and disease free with good functioning of the affected kidney after NSS, at a mean follow-up of 40.7 months (range, 2 to 100 months).
  • CONCLUSION: NSS should be considered in selected children with URT, especially in patients with increased risk for metachronous tumor or renal disease, and in patients with benign or low-grade malignant URT.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Eligibility Determination. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Life Expectancy. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 11172435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3468
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Zhang J, Kang SK, Wang L, Touijer A, Hricak H: Distribution of renal tumor growth rates determined by using serial volumetric CT measurements. Radiology; 2009 Jan;250(1):137-44
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  • [Title] Distribution of renal tumor growth rates determined by using serial volumetric CT measurements.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively determine the distribution of growth rates across different sizes and subtypes of renal cortical tumors by assessing tumor volume and maximum tumor diameter at serial volumetric computed tomographic (CT) examinations.
  • Fifty-three of 2304 patients (34 men, 19 women; mean age, 67 years +/- 10 [standard deviation; range, 39-88 years) who underwent nephrectomy from 1989 to 2006 did not receive preoperative chemotherapy or radiation therapy and underwent at least two preoperative contrast material-enhanced CT examinations (at least 3 months apart) with identical section thickness that was no more than one-fifth of longitudinal tumor diameter.
  • Tumor volume and maximum diameter were measured on CT scans.
  • Reciprocal of doubling time (DT) (RDT) was calculated.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-two clear cell carcinomas, 10 papillary carcinomas, six chromophobe carcinomas, four oncocytomas, and one angiomyolipoma were analyzed.
  • Median tumor size was 2.9 cm (range, 1-12 cm).
  • Seven tumors did not increase in volume.
  • DT ranged from -78476.54 to 18057.43 days (mean, -1230.73 days; median, 590.51 days).
  • Faster-growing tumors were more likely to be clear cell carcinomas, those of higher grade had higher growth rates.
  • No significant correlation was found between RDT and tumor initial volume, subtype, or grade.
  • Small renal tumors (<or=3.5 cm) were similar to larger tumors in subtype and growth rate.
  • Age at diagnosis correlated negatively with renal tumor growth rate (P = .03).
  • CONCLUSION: Growth rates in renal tumors of different sizes, subtypes, and grades represent a wide range and overlap substantially.
  • Small renal tumors appear to be similar to larger ones in nature.
  • [MeSH-major] Cone-Beam Computed Tomography / methods. Kidney Cortex / radiography. Kidney Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radiography. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / radiography. Angiomyolipoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Mathematical Computing. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2013 Dec;269(3):949-50 [24261507.001]
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2009 Jul;252(1):314; author reply 314-5 [19561267.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Radiology. 2013 Dec;269(3):950
  • [ErratumIn] Radiology. 2009 Jul;252(1):318
  • (PMID = 19092093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Pan CC, Chen PC, Ho DM: The diagnostic utility of MOC31, BerEP4, RCC marker and CD10 in the classification of renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma: an immunohistochemical analysis of 328 cases. Histopathology; 2004 Nov;45(5):452-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The diagnostic utility of MOC31, BerEP4, RCC marker and CD10 in the classification of renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma: an immunohistochemical analysis of 328 cases.
  • AIMS: To demonstrate the diagnostic utility of MOC31, BerEP4, renal cell carcinoma marker (RCC Ma) and CD10 in the classification of RCC and renal oncocytoma, based upon a comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on 328 samples consisting of 256 clear cell/conventional, 27 papillary, 28 chromophobe, five collecting duct, five unclassified RCCs and seven renal oncocytomas using antibodies MOC31, BerEP4 and antibodies against cytokeratins (KL-1, CAM5.2, 34betaE12, cytokeratin 7), RCC Ma, epithelial membrane antigen, E-cadherin, CD10, CD15 and vimentin.
  • MOC31 and BerEP4 chiefly labelled distal tubules of normal kidney while RCC Ma and CD10 labelled the proximal tubules.
  • Twenty-three chromophobe RCCs (82%) were reactive for MOC31, while only four clear cell RCCs and three papillary RCCs were positive for this marker.
  • Clear cell RCCs were characterized by a high positive rate for CD10 (82%) and a low positive rate for BerEP4 (27%).
  • All renal oncocytomas were negative for MOC31 and CD10.
  • The CD10+/BerEP4- profile and RCC Ma+/BerEP4+ profile achieve moderate sensitivity and good specificity for clear cell RCC and papillary RCC, respectively.
  • The non-reactivity for both MOC31 and CD10 is helpful in distinguishing renal oncocytoma from RCC.
  • When properly selected, antibodies have immunohistochemical diagnostic utility for the classification of renal cortical epithelial tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases. Neprilysin
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm. Biomarkers. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 15500648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125; EC 2.7.11.22 / MOK protein, human; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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