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1. Ray-Coquard I, Pautier P, Pujade-Lauraine E, Méeus P, Morice P, Treilleux I, Duvillard P, Alexandre J, Lhommé C, Selle F, Guastalla J: [Rare ovarian tumours: therapeutic strategies in 2010, national website observatory for rare ovarian cancers and delineation of referent centers in France]. Bull Cancer; 2010 Jan;97(1):123-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Rare ovarian tumours: therapeutic strategies in 2010, national website observatory for rare ovarian cancers and delineation of referent centers in France].
  • [Transliterated title] Les tumeurs rares de l'ovaire: stratégies thérapeutiques en 2010, Observatoire francophone des tumeurs rares de l'ovaire et émergence des centres de références.
  • Majorities of the rare ovarian cancers were represented by germ cell tumours and sex cords ovarian tumours with borderline tumours, clear cell carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma and are extremely rare malignant diseases of the ovaries.
  • Tumors of the stromal (Leydig cells) and/or sex cords (Sertoli cells) represent approximately 7% of ovarian cancers and develop from the conjunctive tissue (respectively, interstitial and nurse cells) of the ovaries.
  • All together, they represented less than 5% of the adult malignant and non malignant ovarian tumours.
  • Treatment of rare ovarian tumors is currently as follows.
  • Surgery is the same as that for ovarian adenocarcinoma, with one major difference: conservation of reproductive function in women of reproductive age is usual case for this type of tumor.
  • Chemotherapy for germ cell and sex cords tumors, based on data reported in the literature is the same as that prescribed for testicular germ-cell tumors.
  • Surgery, chemotherapy and possible surgical intervention for residual lesions are highly complex.
  • Too rare to be included in randomized studies, treatment of these tumors has benefited from the therapeutic advancements made against testicular germ-cell tumors or with publications using retrospective data.
  • Because of the rarity of these tumours a specialized website (www.ovaire-rare.org) was developed in France in 2002.
  • The other new scientific data concern surgical procedures for sex cords tumors, evidence for presence of FOXL2 mutation in adult granulosa cell tumors, the use of paclitaxel plus carboplatin for sex cords tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Care Facilities / organization & administration. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / therapy. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. France. Humans. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Rare Diseases / pathology. Rare Diseases / therapy. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20007069.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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2. Chen FY, Sheu BC, Lin MC, Chow SN, Lin HH: Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary. J Formos Med Assoc; 2004 May;103(5):388-91
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  • [Title] Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors of the ovary are rare diseases that occur primarily in young women.
  • To date, no standard therapy exists.
  • Here we report 4 cases of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors of the ovary.
  • One patient whose tumor was a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with mesenchymal heterologous elements received adjuvant chemotherapy postoperatively but died of disease 2.5 years after surgery.
  • Conservative surgery is an appropriate treatment for young patients with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors.
  • Those who have poor prognostic factors may need adjuvant chemotherapy with a combination of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin.

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  • (PMID = 15216408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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3. Panagiotou JP, Polychronopoulou S, Sofou K, Vanvliet-Constantinidou C, Papandreou E, Haidas S: Second and third malignant solid tumor in a girl with ovarian Sertoli-Leydig tumor. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 May 1;46(5):654-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Second and third malignant solid tumor in a girl with ovarian Sertoli-Leydig tumor.
  • We report a Sertoli-Leydig cell (SLC) tumor of the right ovary in a 10-year-old girl, which was dealt with surgical removal.
  • Chemotherapy, according to SIOP-? ? ?
  • Three years after completing treatment, the patient developed a painful swelling at her left upper arm.
  • The diagnosis was Ewing sarcoma of the humerus, which was confirmed by identification of the typical 11; 22 translocation on cytogenetic and molecular analysis of the tumor tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 16411221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. D'Souza L, Burgis JT, Bacon JL, Camps JI: A pure Sertoli cell tumor of the ovary in a 10-year-old female. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2007 Aug;20(4):257-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A pure Sertoli cell tumor of the ovary in a 10-year-old female.
  • STUDY OBJECTIVE: To document an unusual presentation of a pure Sertoli Cell tumor.
  • Surgical exploration revealed a metastatic pure Sertoli Cell tumor, which was treated with resection and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Sertoli cell tumors are rare occurrences and should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a prepubescent girl with an abdominal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17673140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-3188
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Lenhard M, Kuemper C, Ditsch N, Diebold J, Stieber P, Friese K, Burges A: Use of novel serum markers in clinical follow-up of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours. Clin Chem Lab Med; 2007;45(5):657-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Use of novel serum markers in clinical follow-up of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours of the ovary account for only 0.2% of malignant ovarian tumours.
  • Diagnostic imaging was suspicious for an ovarian cancer.
  • The standard tumour marker for ovarian cancer (CA 125) was elevated to 984 U/mL.
  • The final histological report described a malignant sex-cord stroma tumour, a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour, emanating from both ovaries.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy and regional hyperthermia were performed due to the malignant potential and incomplete resection of the tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Undifferentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours show a poor clinical course.

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  • (PMID = 17484630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-6621
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / antigen CYFRA21.1; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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6. Nicoletto MO, Caltarossa E, Donach M, Nardelli GB, Parenti A, Ambrosini A: Sertoli cell tumor: a rare case in an elderly patient. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(1):86-7
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  • [Title] Sertoli cell tumor: a rare case in an elderly patient.
  • Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors constitute < 1% of ovarian tumors, mostly in young women with virilization; however, not all present endocrine manifestations.
  • The pathologic diagnosis was poorly-differentiated sex cord-stromal tumor with Sertoli cells.
  • No adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation was administered.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Sertoli Cell Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy / methods. Rare Diseases. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16550978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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7. Engohan-Aloghe C, Aubain Sommerhausen Nde S, Noël JC: Ovarian involvement by desmoplastic small round cell tumor with leydig cell hyperplasia showing an unusual immunophenotype (cytokeratin negative, calretinin and inhibin positive) mimicking poorly differentiated sertoli leydig cell tumor. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Nov;28(6):579-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ovarian involvement by desmoplastic small round cell tumor with leydig cell hyperplasia showing an unusual immunophenotype (cytokeratin negative, calretinin and inhibin positive) mimicking poorly differentiated sertoli leydig cell tumor.
  • Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare aggressive tumor primarily involving serosal surfaces in adolescents and young men.
  • We report here a variant of DSRCT involving the ovaries that mimics the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor in a 21-year-old woman complaining of abdominal pain.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a right adnexal mass.
  • Frozen section examination identified the right ovarian mass as a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor.
  • The surgically resected tumor and left ovary and omentum implants found during laparoscopy were diagnosed as DSRCT with Leydig cell hyperplasia.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were negative for epithelial markers but were positive for calretinin and inhibin.
  • The patient is still undergoing chemotherapy at 8 months after initial presentation with partial response.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Leydig Cells / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents. Calbindin 2. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Inhibins / biosynthesis. Male. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / metabolism. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19851210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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8. Watanabe T, Yamada H, Morimura Y, Abe M, Motoyama T, Sato A: Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous gastrointestinal epithelium as a source of alpha-fetoprotein: a case report. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2008 Jun;34(3):418-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous gastrointestinal epithelium as a source of alpha-fetoprotein: a case report.
  • Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCT) are rare sex cord stromal neoplasms.
  • To date there have been approximately 25 case reports of ovarian SLCT expressing alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).
  • In such cases, AFP was immunohistochemically detected in the Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, or hepatocytes.
  • A right ovarian tumor was detected and the patient's serum AFP was elevated.
  • On microscopic examination, the tumor was composed of a fibrosarcoma-like area and a poorly differentiated SLCT area with heterologous gastrointestinal epithelium.
  • A recurrent tumor was discovered in the omentum after adjuvant chemotherapy, but serum AFP remained normal.
  • A second laparotomy was performed and the recurrent tumor showed only fibrosarcoma-like features.
  • The patient received second line chemotherapy and is currently in remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Tract / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Epithelial Cells / chemistry. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Humans. Omentum / pathology. Omentum / surgery. Ovariectomy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 18588618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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9. Li B, Wu LY, Zhang WH, Li L, Ma SK, Liu LY: [Clinical analysis of 11 cases of ovarian Setoli-Leydig cell tumor]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2004 May;39(5):334-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 11 cases of ovarian Setoli-Leydig cell tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognostic factors of ovarian Setoli-Leydig cell tumor.
  • METHODS: During 1962 - 2002, a total of 11 patients with Setoli-Leydig cell tumor were retrospectively analyzed.
  • And 5 patients with poorly differentiated or stage II-III tumors were subjected to postoperational chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian Setoli-Leydig cell tumor has good prognosis.
  • Surgery alone is a currently acceptable treatment for patients with well-differentiated early stage tumors.
  • For patients with poorly differentiated or advanced tumors, postoperational chemotherapy seems to be necessary.
  • Conservative surgery should be the treatment of choice in young patients who need future fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15196418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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10. Ye L, Wu XL, Xu L, Huang Q, Sun L, He Y, Yang KX: [Ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified: a clinicopathologic study]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Aug;36(8):516-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified: a clinicopathologic study].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis and treatment options of ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified (NOS).
  • METHODS: Light microscopy and immunohistochemical study was carried out in 8 cases of ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS.
  • RESULTS: The 7 cases of benign ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS were composed mainly of polygonal cells with granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and larger cells with vacuolated cytoplasm.
  • They resembled the architecture of normal adrenal gland, with formation of cell nests and trabeculae.
  • The single case of malignant ovarian steroid cell tumor had evidence of significant cellular pleomorphism, haemorrhage and coagulative tumor necrosis.
  • Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells expressed calretinin and alpha-inhibin.
  • Differential diagnosis included oxyphilic granulosa cell tumor, thecoma, Sertoli cell tumor and clear cell carcinoma.
  • The treatment options of benign ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS was local excision or ipsilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, while the malignant counterpart should be treated with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, including administration of GnRH agonist.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS, is the most common type of ovarian steroid cell tumors.
  • The treatment options of ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS depend on its malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Inhibins / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovary / pathology. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Calbindin 2. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Ovariectomy / methods. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Thecoma / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17980097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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11. Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Wessalowski R, Pathmanathan R, Harms D, Göbel U: Therapy of advanced ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumors. Klin Padiatr; 2002 Jul-Aug;214(4):173-8
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  • [Title] Therapy of advanced ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors are rare tumors that develop from the gonadal non-germ cell component such as granulosa, Sertoli or Leydig cells.
  • Among these, juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT) constitute the largest subgroup of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors during childhood and adolescence.
  • In local disease (FIGO stage I), the beneficial role of tumor-ovarectomy is well established.
  • In contrast, life expectancy in patients with advanced JGCT (FIGO stage >/= II) is short even after complete tumor resection.
  • The current literature provides only limited and inconclusive data regarding the value of adjuvant chemotherapy in such patients with advanced disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Therefore, we analyzed the patients with FIGO stage >/= II JGCT who were prospectively documented as follow-up patients of the German MAKEI trials for non-testicular germ cell tumors and received the recommended cisplatin-based chemotherapy in an adjuvant setting.
  • Two patients received laparoscopic tumor resection, which was incomplete in both.
  • All patients received 4 or 6 cycles of adjuvant cisplatin-based three-agent chemotherapy in analogy to the current therapeutic concept applied in malignant germ cell tumors.
  • One patient with a large tumor and multiple peritoneal metastases additionally received 40 Gy abdominal irradiation.
  • RESULTS: All patients achieved complete clinical remission after initial surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • One patient developed a metachronous tumor of the contralateral ovary after 126 months follow-up and is still alive but currently in therapy of another recurrence.
  • Another patient suffered a tumor recurrence after 12 months but achieved a second complete remission with cisplatin chemotherapy after a follow-up of currently 4 months.
  • One patient achieved complete clinical remission but suffered a diffuse peritoneal tumor recurrence with massive ascites and finally died as a result of tumor progression.
  • In summary, at the time of this report 6 of 7 patients are alive after a median of 47 (15 - 138) months.
  • CONCLUSION: This analysis clearly demonstrates that advanced JGCT can be successfully treated with surgery followed by adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Therefore, this study reveals encouraging therapeutic perspectives in these otherwise fatal tumors that merit further investigation in a prospective cooperative trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12165898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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12. Schneider DT, Jänig U, Calaminus G, Göbel U, Harms D: Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors--a clinicopathological study of 72 cases from the Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry. Virchows Arch; 2003 Oct;443(4):549-60
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  • [Title] Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors--a clinicopathological study of 72 cases from the Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry.
  • We analyzed 72 patients with ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (OSCST) registered at the German Pediatric Tumor Registry in Kiel over a 20-year period.
  • Juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT, n=48) were the most frequent histological subtype.
  • In addition, there were 14 Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, 5 sclerosing stromal tumors, 2 sex cord tumors with annular tubules, 2 thecomas and 1 steroid cell tumor.
  • Compared with adult granulosa cell tumors, JGCT showed pronounced mitotic activity [mean 9.8 mitoses/10 high power field (HPF)], which was significantly higher than in other histological subtypes (2.7/10 HPF, P=0.001).
  • Of patients, 12 with Ic or higher stage tumors received adjuvant cisplatinum-based chemotherapy.
  • In conclusion, this analysis confirms that the majority of patients with OSCST present at low tumor stage and that prognosis in these patients is excellent.
  • Therefore, histopathological evaluation substantially contributes to risk assessment in patients with OSCST and might be useful for therapy stratification in prospective therapeutic protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12910419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Tash JS, Chakrasali R, Jakkaraj SR, Hughes J, Smith SK, Hornbaker K, Heckert LL, Ozturk SB, Hadden MK, Kinzy TG, Blagg BS, Georg GI: Gamendazole, an orally active indazole carboxylic acid male contraceptive agent, targets HSP90AB1 (HSP90BETA) and EEF1A1 (eEF1A), and stimulates Il1a transcription in rat Sertoli cells. Biol Reprod; 2008 Jun;78(6):1139-52
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  • [Title] Gamendazole, an orally active indazole carboxylic acid male contraceptive agent, targets HSP90AB1 (HSP90BETA) and EEF1A1 (eEF1A), and stimulates Il1a transcription in rat Sertoli cells.
  • Both HSP90AB1 (previously known as HSP90beta [heat shock 90-kDa protein 1, beta]) and EEF1A1 (previously known as eEF1A [eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1]) were identified as binding targets by biotinylated gamendazole (BT-GMZ) affinity purification from testis, Sertoli cells, and ID8 ovarian cancer cells; identification was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis.
  • Gamendazole binding to purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae HSP82 inhibited luciferase refolding and was not competed by the HSP90 drugs geldanamycin or novobiocin analogue, KU-1.
  • A spike in II1a transcription was confirmed by RT-PCR in primary Sertoli cells 60 min after exposure to 100 nM gamendazole, demonstrating that Sertoli cells are a target.
  • AKT1, NFKB, and interleukin 1 are known regulators of the Sertoli cell-spermatid junctional complexes.
  • [MeSH-major] HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Indazoles / pharmacology. Interleukin-1alpha / genetics. Peptide Elongation Factor 1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Sertoli Cells / drug effects. Sertoli Cells / metabolism. Spermatogenesis-Blocking Agents / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Binding Sites. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Male. Models, Biological. Molecular Sequence Data. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Rats. Testis / drug effects. Testis / metabolism. Transcription, Genetic / drug effects


14. Loeffen JL, Wijnen M, Schijf CP, van Wieringen P: [Ovarian tumour in a girl with chronic abdominal pain and distension]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2006 Mar 25;150(12):677-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Ovarian tumour in a girl with chronic abdominal pain and distension].
  • The cause was a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour originating in the left ovary.
  • Ovarian tumours are rarely seen in children.
  • Two of the most frequently observed sex cord-stromal tumours are the juvenile granulosa cell tumour and the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour.
  • Patients with advanced disease may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Chronic abdominal pain is frequently observed in children and, in some rare cases, may be caused by ovarian tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sertoli Cell Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16613252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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15. La Marca A, Volpe A: The Anti-Mullerian hormone and ovarian cancer. Hum Reprod Update; 2007 May-Jun;13(3):265-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The Anti-Mullerian hormone and ovarian cancer.
  • The Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), which is produced by fetal Sertoli cells, is responsible for regression of Mullerian ducts, the anlagen for uterus and Fallopian tubes, during male sex differentiation.
  • Ovarian granulosa cells also secrete AMH from late in fetal life.
  • The patterns of expression of AMH and its type II receptor in the post-natal ovary indicate that AMH may play an important role in ovarian folliculogenesis.
  • Recent advances in the physiological role of AMH has stimulated interest in the significance of AMH as a diagnostic marker and therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer.
  • Currently, AMH has been shown to be a circulating marker specifically for granulosa cell tumour (GCT).
  • Based on the physiological inhibitory role of AMH in the Mullerian ducts, it has been proposed that AMH may inhibit epithelial ovarian cancer cell both in vitro and in vivo.
  • These observations will be the basis for future research aiming to investigate the possible clinical role of AMH as neo-adjuvant, or most probably adjuvant, therapy for ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Glycoproteins / physiology. Glycoproteins / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / physiopathology. Testicular Hormones / physiology. Testicular Hormones / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Mullerian Hormone. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17213257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-4786
  • [Journal-full-title] Human reproduction update
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Reprod. Update
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Testicular Hormones; 80497-65-0 / Anti-Mullerian Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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16. Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Harms D, Göbel U, German Maligne Keimzelltumoren Study Group: Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors in children and adolescents. J Reprod Med; 2005 Jun;50(6):439-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors in children and adolescents.
  • Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (OSCSTs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that develop from the gonadal non-germ-cell component.
  • Despite recent advances in the clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of OSCSTs, a high degree of uncertainty remains with regard to adequate therapy, particularly in patients presenting with microscopic or macroscopic tumor spread.
  • In addition, we summarize the data from our clinical, histopathologic and genetic analyses of patients that were prospectively reported to the German MAKEI protocols for treatment of nontesticular malignant germ cell tumors.
  • Among these patients, juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs) constitute the most frequent histologic subtype, followed by Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) and sclerosing stromal tumors.
  • Patients with JGCT and SLCT show greater mitotic activity than do all those with other histologic types.
  • In addition, prognosis correlates with tumor stage according to the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
  • Nevertheless, we observed a favorable response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in the majority of stage II and III tumors.
  • This analysis confirmed that most OSCSTs present at a low tumor stage and that prognosis in these patients is excellent.
  • Most important, patients at high risk can be identified through clinical and histopathologic analysis, and the majority can be treated successfully with adjuvant cisplatinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Germany. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16050568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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17. Iwamoto I, Yanazume S, Fujino T, Yoshioka T, Douchi T: Leydig cell tumor in an elderly patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Mar;96(3):870-2
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  • [Title] Leydig cell tumor in an elderly patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.
  • Testicular tumors often develop in patients with AIS, Sertoli cell tumor and seminoma being the most common types.
  • Leydig cell tumor in AIS is extremely rare.
  • CASE: A large abdominal tumor developed in a 73-year-old female patient.
  • The patient underwent the extirpation of bilateral gonads including the tumor, pelvic lymph nodes, omentum and appendix vermiformis.
  • The pathological diagnosis was malignant Leydig cell tumor of the left testis.
  • There was no adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy performed.
  • CONCLUSION: We reported an extremely rare case of malignant Leydig cell tumor developing in an elderly AIS patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome / complications. Leydig Cell Tumor / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications


18. Cass DL, Hawkins E, Brandt ML, Chintagumpala M, Bloss RS, Milewicz AL, Minifee PK, Wesson DE, Nuchtern JG: Surgery for ovarian masses in infants, children, and adolescents: 102 consecutive patients treated in a 15-year period. J Pediatr Surg; 2001 May;36(5):693-9
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  • [Title] Surgery for ovarian masses in infants, children, and adolescents: 102 consecutive patients treated in a 15-year period.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Ovarian pathology, although rare in children, must be included in the differential diagnosis of all girls who present with abdominal pain, an abdominal mass, or precocious puberty.
  • METHODS: To improve clinical appreciation of these lesions, the authors reviewed the presentation, evaluation, and outcome of all patients with ovarian pathology surgically treated at their institution since 1985.
  • RESULTS: One hundred two girls (aged 9.8 +/- 5.5 years; range, 2 days to 20 years) underwent 106 separate ovarian operations (43 salpingo-oophorectomies, 21 oophorectomies, 33 ovarian cystectomies, and 9 ovarian biopsies).
  • Of those presenting with acute abdominal pain (n = 59), 25 (42%) had ovarian torsion (14 associated with a mature teratoma), and only 1 (2%) had a malignant tumor.
  • Nine children had 10 operations for presumed malignant tumors (3 dysgerminomas, 2 immature teratomas with foci of yolk sac tumor, 2 juvenile granulosa cell tumors, 1 yolk sac tumor, and 1 Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor).
  • These patients all had unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, 4 had chemotherapy, and all are now disease free at 8.4 +/- 4.1 years follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: Ovarian pathology remains a rare indication for surgery in girls less than 20 years of age.
  • Because most of these lesions are benign, ovarian-preserving operations should be performed whenever feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Ovariectomy / methods. Ovariectomy / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Age Factors. Age of Onset. Biopsy. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hospitals, Pediatric. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Omentum / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.
  • (PMID = 11329568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3468
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Chan JK, Zhang M, Kaleb V, Loizzi V, Benjamin J, Vasilev S, Osann K, Disaia PJ: Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary--a multivariate analysis. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jan;96(1):204-9
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  • METHODS: Cases were identified from tumor registry databases at three academic institutions between 1975 and 2003.
  • Patient characteristics, surgical treatment, adjuvant therapy, pathologic and follow-up information were collected from hospital charts and clinic records.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-three women (median age: 49 years) with SCST of the ovary, including 73 with granulosa and 10 with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors were identified.
  • Furthermore, age <50 (P = 0.003), premenopausal status (P = 0.013), tumor size < 10 cm (P = 0.003), lack of lymph node invasion (P < 0.0005), and absence of residual disease (P = 0.002) were all significant predictors for improved survival.
  • Of the patients who received adjuvant treatment, chemotherapy did not impact survival (P = 0.11).
  • In multivariate analysis, age <50, smaller tumor size, and absence of residual disease remained as independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Age <50, smaller tumor size, and absence of residual disease are important predictors for improved survival in patients with SCST of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / mortality

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  • (PMID = 15589602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Mikuz G: [WHO classification of testicular tumors]. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol; 2002;86:67-75
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  • The most important is obviously the precursor lesion of germ cell tumors, which has been called "intratubular malignant germ cells".
  • Such atypical cells appear in the tubules adjacent to the germ cell tumors, in some few cases (6%) also in the contra lateral healthy gonad and rarely in infertile men (1%).
  • The precursor lesion can progress to franc germ cell tumor starting probably with seminoma, which still maintain the capability of differentiation (pluripotente cells) in all other types of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • This lesion is missed in germ cell tumors of childhood and in spermatocytic seminomas, both seem to have a histogenetic history rather different from the other germ cell in adults.
  • This is a harmless name for an extremely dangerous tumor in which one tissue overgrows the other and gives rise to somatic type sarcomas or carcinomas.
  • Such tumors do not respond like germ cell tumors to the usual chemotherapy.
  • Treatment should be tailored according to that used in standard management of the respective sarcoma or carcinoma.
  • In the comments it is mentioned that the testis carcinoid could be a part of teratoma, but the diagnosis is listed in the group of "miscellaneous" tumors together with tumors of ovarian epithelial type.
  • This is a very questionable decision because the normal testis does not contain neuroendocrine cells from which carcinoids would have to be able to develop.
  • "Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumour" has been recently described and can be sporadic or inherited.
  • This morphologically peculiar tumor can be part of the Swiss syndrome also called Carney's complex.
  • The patients have cardiac myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation, hormone active nodular hyperplasia of the adrenals and soft tissue myxomas.
  • The newly appearing "mixed germ cell--sex cord/gonadal stromal tumours, unclassified" has a histology similar to the well known gonadoblastomas.
  • For the therapy of germ cell tumor an assessment of risk factors found by the pathologists is extremely important.
  • The most important independent predictors of relapse are tumor invasion of blood or lymph-vessels, absence of yolk sac elements and the presence of an embryonal carcinoma component.
  • In the absence of such predictors a surveillance policy allows some patients to forgo chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 12647353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0070-4113
  • [Journal-full-title] Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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