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1. McNally OM, Delaney E, Petty RD, Cruickshank ME, Hutcheon AW, Parkin DE: Is optimal first-line chemotherapy deliverable in all newly diagnosed ovarian cancers? A population-based study. Br J Cancer; 2003 Sep 15;89(6):966-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is optimal first-line chemotherapy deliverable in all newly diagnosed ovarian cancers? A population-based study.
  • NICE guidance recommends the use of paclitaxel and a platinum therapy for all cases of ovarian cancer.
  • We report our experience of treating 133 patients with ovarian cancer over a 3-year period.
  • Where indicated, 91% received chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / analogs & derivatives. Taxoids
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / diagnosis. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / drug therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / drug therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic / standards. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate

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  • [Cites] BMJ. 2002 Apr 6;324(7341):842-5 [11934781.001]
  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2002 Jan 1;20(1):173-8 [11773167.001]
  • [Cites] Lancet. 2002 Aug 17;360(9332):505-15 [12241653.001]
  • [CommentOn] Br J Cancer. 2003 Sep 15;89(6):957-8 [12966407.001]
  • (PMID = 12966409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2376968
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2. Katsumata N, Fujiwara Y, Kamura T, Nakanishi T, Hatae M, Aoki D, Tanaka K, Tsuda H, Kamiura S, Takehara K, Sugiyama T, Kigawa J, Fujiwara K, Ochiai K, Ishida R, Inagaki M, Noda K: Phase II clinical trial of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (JNS002) in Japanese patients with mullerian carcinoma (epithelial ovarian carcinoma, primary carcinoma of fallopian tube, peritoneal carcinoma) having a therapeutic history of platinum-based chemotherapy: a Phase II Study of the Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2008 Nov;38(11):777-85
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  • [Title] Phase II clinical trial of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (JNS002) in Japanese patients with mullerian carcinoma (epithelial ovarian carcinoma, primary carcinoma of fallopian tube, peritoneal carcinoma) having a therapeutic history of platinum-based chemotherapy: a Phase II Study of the Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in Japanese patients with Müllerian carcinoma having a therapeutic history of platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with Müllerian carcinoma (epithelial ovarian carcinoma, primary carcinoma of fallopian tube and peritoneal carcinoma) by histological examination and had received the initial platinum-based chemotherapy were included in the study.
  • The study drug was administered to the patients at 50 mg/m(2) every 4 weeks.
  • All patients had received platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line regimen and more than 90% of patients had also received taxanes.
  • The median time to progression was 166 days.
  • CONCLUSION: We confirmed that a 50 mg/m(2) every 4 weeks regimen of PLD was active in Japanese patients with Müllerian carcinoma having a therapeutic history of platinum-based chemotherapy and toxicity was manageable by dose modification of PLD or supportive care.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / drug therapy. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Platinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Polyethylene Glycols / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Japan. Liposomes. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18927230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Platinum Compounds; 0 / liposomal doxorubicin; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2572298
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3. Brown E, Stewart M, Rye T, Al-Nafussi A, Williams AR, Bradburn M, Smyth J, Gabra H: Carcinosarcoma of the ovary: 19 years of prospective data from a single center. Cancer; 2004 May 15;100(10):2148-53
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  • [Title] Carcinosarcoma of the ovary: 19 years of prospective data from a single center.
  • BACKGROUND: A review of clinicopathologic features and outcome in women with carcinosarcoma of the ovary (also known as malignant mixed mesodermal tumor [MMMT]) compared with a group of women with serous adenocarcinoma (SAC) of the ovary was conducted.
  • METHODS: Between 1984 and 2002, 1568 patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma and 70 patients with ovarian carcinosarcoma underwent treatment at the Edinburgh Cancer Centre.
  • Baseline variables were recorded prospectively and response to chemotherapy and progression-free and cause-specific survival between the groups were compared.
  • The objective response rate to platinum-based chemotherapy was found to be significantly lower in patients with carcinosarcoma (25% vs. 60%; P = 0.02).
  • Achieving optimal debulking at the time of initial surgery was found to be a highly significant factor in patients with carcinosarcoma with regard to determining outcome (median survival of 14.8 months for patients with optimally debulked International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage III disease vs. 3.1 months for patients with suboptimally/nondebulked Stage III disease; P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian carcinosarcoma is a distinct entity with a poor prognosis.
  • Patients with carcinosarcoma differ from those with SAC with regard to having an older mean age of onset, an inferior response to platinum-based chemotherapy, and worse progression-free and cause-specific survival.
  • The extent of benefit from chemotherapy is unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cystadenoma, Serous / drug therapy. Cystadenoma, Serous / mortality. Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15139057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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4. Pan Y, Huang X: Epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells-a review. Int J Clin Exp Med; 2008;1(3):260-6
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  • [Title] Epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells-a review.
  • Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths among women and the most common type of gynecologic malignancy.
  • Despite advances in surgery and chemotherapy, the survival rate of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer is still low.
  • Most ovarian cancer patients relapse and become drug-resistant.
  • Increasing evidence has suggested that tumor growth capability is dependent upon cancer stem cells (CSCs) that represent a small subset of cells within a variety of human tumors.
  • In immunocompromised mice, CSCs were assayed by their ability to initiate tumor growth.
  • Although still being explored, the ovarian CSCs, which have been found in several ovarian cancer cell lines, are within a mixed population of cells derived from the ascites of a patient with advanced ovarian cancer.
  • Hope may lie in killing of the ovarian CSCs.
  • They are also likely to be the therapeutic target in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • Thus, a thorough understanding of CSCs' biology, particularly of how they differ from ordinary cancer cells and normal stem cells, might lead to a more effective ovarian cancer therapeutic strategy involving the selective targeting and elimination of ovarian CSCs.

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  • (PMID = 19079661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-5901
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2592593
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Epithelial ovarian cancer / cancer stem cell / stem cell
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5. Zhang C, Li XP, Cui H, Shen DH, Wei LH: Advanced primary peritoneal carcinoma: clinicopathological and prognostic factor analyses. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2008 Jun;9(6):435-40
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  • RESULTS: There were 15 cases of primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma (PPSPC), 6 cases of mixed epithelial carcinoma (MEC) and 3 cases of malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (MMMT).
  • Among those receiving first-line chemotherapy, 13 patients received the TP regimen (paclitaxel-cisplatin or carboplatin) and 7 patients received the PAC regimen (cisplatin-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide).
  • The median overall survival of all patients was 42 months, while the breakdown for survival time for patients with PPSPC, MMT and MEC was 44, 13 and 19 months, respectively.
  • Another significant difference in the median progression-free survival (PFS) was identified between patients with positive p53 immunostaining and those with negative p53 immunostaining (15 months vs 47 months, P<0.05), whereas age, menopausal status, residual tumor size and the other molecular factors did not significantly impact survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with PPC should be treated with a comprehensive management plan including appropriate cytoreductive surgery and responsive chemotherapy.
  • The pathologic subtype, chemotherapy regimen and p53 overexpression were significant prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. China / epidemiology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / therapy. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Middle Aged. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / metabolism. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / mortality. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Prognosis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18543395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2408695
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6. Gibbs DD, Pyle L, Allen M, Vaughan M, Webb A, Johnston SR, Gore ME: A phase I dose-finding study of a combination of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil), carboplatin and paclitaxel in ovarian cancer. Br J Cancer; 2002 May 6;86(9):1379-84
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  • [Title] A phase I dose-finding study of a combination of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil), carboplatin and paclitaxel in ovarian cancer.
  • Standard chemotherapy for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer is a combination of platinum-paclitaxel.
  • One strategy to improve the outcome for patients is to add other agents to standard therapy.
  • A dose finding study of doxil-carboplatin-paclitaxel was therefore undertaken in women receiving first-line therapy.
  • Thirty-one women with epithelial ovarian cancer or mixed Mullerian tumours of the ovary were enrolled.
  • Schedules examined included treatment cycles of 21 and 28 days, and an alternating schedule of carboplatin-paclitaxel (q 21) with doxil being administered every other course (q 42).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Area Under Curve. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Carboplatin / pharmacokinetics. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / pharmacokinetics. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Liposomes. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects. Paclitaxel / pharmacokinetics. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Cancer Research UK
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  • (PMID = 11986767.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liposomes; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2375380
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7. Gütgemann I, Lehman NL, Jackson PK, Longacre TA: Emi1 protein accumulation implicates misregulation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome pathway in ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2008 Apr;21(4):445-54
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  • [Title] Emi1 protein accumulation implicates misregulation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome pathway in ovarian clear cell carcinoma.
  • Clear cell carcinoma is a clinically and pathologically distinct entity among surface epithelial ovarian neoplasms, recognized for its resistance to standard platinum-based chemotherapy at advanced stage disease and poor prognosis.
  • Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of other surface epithelial ovarian neoplasms, very little is known about the molecular genetic mechanisms that are involved in clear cell tumorigenesis.
  • We investigated Emi1 protein expression in ovarian neoplasms using a tissue microarray constructed from 339 primary ovarian surface epithelial (serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous) and peritoneal (serous) neoplasms, stromal and mesenchymal tumors, germ cell tumors, and normal ovarian tissue.
  • Significant overexpression of Emi1 protein was present in 82% (27/33) clear cell carcinoma, including one borderline tumor in a diffuse, granular cytoplasmic and perinuclear staining pattern, independent of patient age, presence of ovarian and/or pelvic endometriosis, and FIGO stage.
  • In contrast, only 10% (17/177) primary ovarian and primary peritoneal serous carcinomas, 0% (0/10) mucinous carcinomas, and 19% (6/32) endometrioid carcinomas exhibited significant Emi1 protein overexpression.
  • Emi1 protein expression was present in mixed endometrioid/clear cell tumors but absent in tumors with mixed serous/clear cell histology.
  • These findings represent a potentially important insight into the molecular pathway underlying ovarian carcinogenesis and provide a possible cell cycle model for the development and progression of ovarian clear cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. F-Box Proteins / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. Cyclin E / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18204430.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / F-Box Proteins; 0 / FBXO5 protein, human; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; EC 6.3.2.19 / Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes
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8. Duska LR, Garrett A, Eltabbakh GH, Oliva E, Penson R, Fuller AF: Paclitaxel and platinum chemotherapy for malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 Jun;85(3):459-63
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  • [Title] Paclitaxel and platinum chemotherapy for malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the ovary.
  • OBJECTIVE: Malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) of the ovary is a rare tumor with a dismal prognosis.
  • The most effective therapy is unknown.
  • The current study was undertaken to characterize a group of patients treated as if they had aggressive epithelial ovarian tumors, with cytoreductive surgery and combination paclitaxel/platinum chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data obtained from tumor registry and hospital records of cases of malignant mixed müllerian tumor between January 1, 1992 and January 1, 2000 treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and University of Vermont was performed.
  • Only patients treated with combination paclitaxel and platinum therapy were included in the analysis.
  • Data were collected regarding cytoreduction, response to chemotherapy, disease-free interval, and survival.
  • Twenty-eight patients with a clearly ovarian primary had received treatment with combination paclitaxel and platinum.
  • Paclitaxel and carboplatin was given as second-line therapy in 2 patients who had chemoresponsive but incurable disease; the remaining patients were treated with paclitaxel and platinum therapy as first-line therapy.
  • Treatment was generally well tolerated.
  • Sixteen patients of 26 treated with paclitaxel and platinum as first-line therapy achieved a complete clinical response (55%) and 6 patients achieved partial response for a total response rate of 72%.
  • Optimal cytoreduction was associated with increased time to recurrence (P = 0.001) but not with survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Although treatment fails many patients, a minority of patients with MMMT in this highly selected population do unexpectedly well.
  • An aggressive approach with surgery and combination paclitaxel-platinum chemotherapy appears to offer very effective therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12051874.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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9. Topuz E, Eralp Y, Aydiner A, Saip P, Taş F, Yavuz E, Salihoğlu Y: The role of chemotherapy in malignant mixed mullerian tumors of the female genital tract. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2001;22(6):469-72
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  • [Title] The role of chemotherapy in malignant mixed mullerian tumors of the female genital tract.
  • Thirteen patients with malignant mixed mullerian tumor of the female genital tract, treated and followed in our clinic from 1989 to 1999 were retrospectively evaluated.
  • Seven patients (53.8%) with advanced disease or postoperative residual tumor were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 64 years (range: 26-79).
  • One patient with endometrial carcinosarcoma had a simultaneous second primary ovarian epithelial carcinoma.
  • Six patients received cisplatinum-based chemotherapy (4 had doxorubicin including combinations), while one patient was treated with a doxorubicin+ifosphamide combination.
  • Five patients (71.4%) had a complete response (CR) to chemotherapy.
  • After a median follow-up period of 20 months (3-115 months), six patients have died, five are being followed-up with no evidence of disease, one is alive with metastatic disease and one patient is under treatment.
  • Malignant mixed mullerian tumor of the female genital tract is highly responsive to multimodality treatment strategies.
  • Further prospective studies are required to identify distinct prognostic groups that may benefit from various treatment modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / drug therapy. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11874086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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10. Athavale R, Thomakos N, Godfrey K, Kew F, Cross P, de Barros Lopes A, Hatem MH, Naik R: The effect of epithelial and stromal tumor components on FIGO stages III and IV ovarian carcinosarcomas treated with primary surgery and chemotherapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 Sep-Oct;17(5):1025-30
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  • [Title] The effect of epithelial and stromal tumor components on FIGO stages III and IV ovarian carcinosarcomas treated with primary surgery and chemotherapy.
  • The aim of this study is to assess the effect of epithelial and stromal tumor components on survival outcomes in FIGO stage III or IV ovarian carcinosarcomas (OCS) treated with primary surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy at the Northern Gynaecological Oncology Centre (NGOC), Gateshead.
  • Age, FIGO stage, details of histology, treatment, and overall survival were recorded.
  • Of 34 cases (1994-2006, all FIGO stages), 17 were treated with primary surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for FIGO stage III or IV.
  • Epithelial predominant (EP) or stromal predominant (SP) tumor (defined as >50% of either component in the primary tumor) was noted in 12 and 5 cases, respectively.
  • Epithelial types included serous (n= 9), endometrioid (n= 5), and mixed types (n= 3).
  • On univariate analysis, survival was not affected by optimal/suboptimal debulking, platinum/doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy, or homologous/heterologous stromal components.
  • Stromal components (>25%) adversely affected survival (P= 0.02), and there was a trend to worse survival with serous compared with nonserous epithelial components (P= 0.07).
  • Cox regression (multivariate analysis) showed that SP tumors (P= 0.04), suboptimal debulking (P= 0.01), age (P= 0.01), and tumors with serous epithelial component (P= 0.05) were adverse independent prognostic factors.
  • Type of chemotherapy and homologous/heterologous components (P= 0.24) did not affect overall survival.
  • Tumors with serous epithelial components adversely affected the survival compared with nonserous components.
  • Larger studies are required to confirm these effects and to identify the optimum chemotherapy regimen for OCS.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Stromal Cells / pathology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17466043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Chew I, Soslow RA, Park KJ: Morphologic changes in ovarian carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: report of a case showing extensive clear cell changes mimicking clear cell carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Sep;28(5):442-6
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  • [Title] Morphologic changes in ovarian carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: report of a case showing extensive clear cell changes mimicking clear cell carcinoma.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking has become an alternative treatment option for patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer.
  • The effects of chemotherapy on the histologic features of the tumor have not been well described for ovarian carcinoma, especially related to changes that significantly alter the appearance of the tumor.
  • In this study, we describe a case of ovarian serous carcinoma status-post neoadjuvant chemotherapy that showed exuberant clear cell/foamy change.
  • This unusual morphology raised the possibility of a mixed epithelial carcinoma or a secondary malignancy.
  • Immunohistochemical stains were performed to help distinguish whether the tumor was a serous carcinoma with chemotherapy-induced clear cell change or a distinct clear cell carcinoma of ovarian or extraovarian origin.
  • Although there was a slight discrepancy in the staining patterns, given the lack of other typical histologic features of clear cell carcinoma, the unusual clear cell morphology was most likely the result of chemotherapy-induced changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypercholesterolemia / complications. Hypertension / complications. Immunohistochemistry. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19696613.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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12. Wei CF, Hwang SH, Ho CM, Shih BY, Chien TY: Malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the ovary. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei); 2000 Apr;63(4):344-8
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  • [Title] Malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the ovary.
  • Malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (MMMT) of the ovary is very rare, and to the best of our knowledge, only a few cases have been reported in the literature from Taiwan.
  • We report two recent cases of ovarian MMMT at our hospital.
  • Case 1 was a 59-year-old female with stage IIIC MMMT of the ovary, with a tumor having carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements.
  • The carcinomatous component was composed of a high-grade epithelial malignancy including serous, endometrioid, clear cell and undifferentiated carcinoma elements.
  • Case 2 was a 42-year-old female with ovarian stage IIC MMMT.
  • These two patients both underwent hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy and both received platinum-based chemotherapy after debulking surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 10820916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1337
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi = Chinese medical journal; Free China ed
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] CHINA
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13. Camci C, Sevinc A, Aslan Y, Kalender ME, Buyukberber S: Complete remission of platinium refractory ovarian cancer with second line tegafur with uracil monotherapy: a case report. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2009 Mar;63(4):745-8
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  • [Title] Complete remission of platinium refractory ovarian cancer with second line tegafur with uracil monotherapy: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer remains one of the most lethal of all gynecologic malignancies, accounting for more deaths than cervical and uterine cancer combined.
  • Advanced ovarian cancer is a chemosensitive tumor and most patients initially respond to platinum-based combination chemotherapy with response rates of about 70%, including a high proportion of complete responses.
  • However, despite aggressive surgery and chemotherapy, more than 80% of patients will relapse and will then be treated with second line chemotherapy with objective responses in about 20% of patients and even lower percentages of complete responses.
  • CASE: We observed a 42-months of complete response with administration of 1-[2-tetrahydrofuryl]-5-fluorouracil mixed with uracil (UFT) in patient with platinium refractory ovarian cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: We report a complete remission of platinium refractory epithelial ovarian cancer with UFT monotherapy that was not reported previously.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / secondary. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / surgery. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Uracil / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18504578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0843
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil
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14. Ochiai K, Kuramoto H, Yamashita K, Tanaka KI, Saito T, Hiura M, Mizutani K, Hoshiai H, Teramukai S, Tada H: The impact of therapeutic modalities on the outcome of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated in Japan. A JMTO study. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):5097

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The impact of therapeutic modalities on the outcome of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated in Japan. A JMTO study.
  • : 5097 Background: The basic treatment strategy of advanced epitherial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients is the combination of maximal surgical debulking and platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of treatment modalities on the outcome of stage III and IV EOC patients treated in Japan between 1994 and 2000.
  • The histopathology and number of patients were serous 433, mucinous 55, endometrioid 89, clear cell 60, mixed 16, others 35 and unknown 7, respectively.
  • Clear cell and mucinous types were significantly worse than other histological cell types on OS (p=0.006) but not on PFS (p=0.192).
  • Residual tumor size after primary surgery was also a strong prognostic factor for OS (p=0.0001) and PFS (p=0.0001).
  • Five year survival rates (5YSR) according to the first-line chemotherapy were as follows: CAP (cyclophosphamide + doxorubicin + cisplatin) (n=190): 50.1%, CP or CJ(C + carboplatin) (n=71): 43.7%, TP or TJ (taxol + P or J) (N=193): 44.4%, and there were no significant impact on OS and PFS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical debulking of intra-abdominal tumor mass is the most important procedure to improve the prognosis of advanced EOC patients.

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  • (PMID = 28015325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Matsuura Y, Kitajima M, Hachisuga T, Tanimoto A, Okura N, Kihara I: Malignant mixed müllerian tumor with malignant neuroectodermal components (teratoid carcinosarcoma) of the ovary: Report of a case with clinicopathologic findings. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Aug;36(4):907-11
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  • [Title] Malignant mixed müllerian tumor with malignant neuroectodermal components (teratoid carcinosarcoma) of the ovary: Report of a case with clinicopathologic findings.
  • Malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) or carcinosarcoma of the female genital tract is a rare neoplasm.
  • Malignant ovarian tumor composed of müllerian epithelial tumor and malignant germ cell tumor is also rare, with most cases composed of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and yolk sac tumor.
  • Ovarian MMMT with malignant neuroectodermal components resembling immature teratoma is extremely rare.
  • We report a case of teratoid carcinosarcoma of the ovary occurring in a 40-year-old female.
  • The resected tumor measuring over 20 cm in diameter consisted of cystic and solid components and was very fragile.
  • Microscopic examination showed a heterogenous mixed tumor composed of malignant epithelial, malignant mesodermal and malignant neuroectodermal components.
  • There was no tumor immunoreactivity to alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin, and inhibin.
  • In spite of aggressive combination chemotherapy and three times of laparotomy, the patient died of disease 3 years 10 months after the initial treatment.
  • This quite rare ovarian tumor closely resembled nasopharyngeal tumors described as 'teratoid carcinosarcoma' is biologically aggressive.
  • We report the fourth case of ovarian teratoid carcinosarcoma.
  • Further cases need to be accumulated to make diagnosis and to determine a successful treatment modality.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Ovary / pathology. Ovary / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20666968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1447-0756
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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16. Le T, Adolph A, Krepart GV, Lotocki R, Heywood MS: The benefits of comprehensive surgical staging in the management of early-stage epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 May;85(2):351-5
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  • [Title] The benefits of comprehensive surgical staging in the management of early-stage epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The management of understaged patients with apparent clinically early ovarian cancer is difficult.
  • Options include offering chemotherapy based on histopathologic factors or reoperation to obtain the necessary information needed to assign an accurate surgical stage.
  • Patients not having surgical staging procedures were offered platinum-based chemotherapy based on high tumor grades, dense adhesions, and presence of surface excrescences or large necrotic areas.
  • Patients with surgically proven stage I disease were treated with no further therapy regardless of histopathologic factors.
  • RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-eight patients presented with tumor macroscopically confined to the ovary at the time of laparotomy.
  • The histology distribution was serous tumor in 28.3%, mucinous in 26.1%, endometrioid in 23.2%, clear cell in 14.5%, anaplastic in 2.2%, and mixed types in 5.8%.
  • Sixty-eight percent of the patients had a comprehensive surgical staging procedure initially.
  • Thirty-six percent of these patients were found to have extraovarian metastases and were subsequently treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Forty-three percent of those not having staging laparotomy were offered chemotherapy based on high risk factors only.
  • In terms of progression-free interval, only age (OR 1.027, P = 0.048) and tumor grade (OR 3.62, P = 0.05) are significant predictors.
  • CONCLUSION: Absence of surgical pathologic high-risk factors is inferior to comprehensive staging laparotomy findings in guiding recommendations for subsequent adjuvant therapy.
  • Patients who have not been properly staged stand a significant risk of recurrent disease despite more frequent use of chemotherapy.
  • All clinically early-stage ovarian cancer patients should be considered for comprehensive staging surgery prior to further treatment recommendations.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Laparotomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
  • (PMID = 11972399.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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17. Navarini R, Pineda RL: Malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the ovary. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Feb;18(1):20-3
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  • [Title] Malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the ovary.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Müllerian mixed malignant tumors of the ovary constitute an infrequently encountered group of malignant ovarian neoplasms, which are highly aggressive and respond poorly to treatment.
  • The relatively low number of reported cases and the difficulty of preoperative diagnosis make it difficult to ascertain the biology of these tumors.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: These are mixed, mostly monoclonal tumors, and the predominance of the stromal component aggravates the prognosis.
  • The clinical presentation of these tumors is similar to that of epithelial ovarian tumors, although they tend to manifest themselves at later stages of disease.
  • There are no useful biochemical markers: imaging diagnostic methods (ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) do not provide specific data.
  • The staging and primary treatment are always surgical.
  • Chemotherapy (platinum) can prolong survival, but there are no effective second-line treatments.
  • In order to improve therapeutic results, it will be necessary to design multicenter, cooperative studies including larger numbers of patients.
  • SUMMARY: In clinical practice, treatment options for these tumors are few; a rapid downhill course is the rule rather than the exception.
  • [MeSH-major] Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / diagnosis. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16493255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-656X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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18. Nagai Y, Kishimoto T, Nikaido T, Nishihara K, Matsumoto T, Suzuki C, Ogishima T, Kuwahara Y, Hurukata Y, Mizunuma M, Nakata Y, Ishikura H: Squamous predominance in mixed-epithelial papillary cystadenomas of borderline malignancy of mullerian type arising in endometriotic cysts: a study of four cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2003 Feb;27(2):242-7
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  • [Title] Squamous predominance in mixed-epithelial papillary cystadenomas of borderline malignancy of mullerian type arising in endometriotic cysts: a study of four cases.
  • Mixed-epithelial papillary cystadenoma of borderline malignancy of mullerian type (MEBMM) is composed of a mixture of mullerian epithelial types, such as mucinous, serous, endometrioid, and squamous.
  • The clinical stages were Ia (two cases), Ic (one case), and IV based on the presence of tumor cells in pleural fluid (one case).
  • In one of those three cases, there was no recurrence after undergoing surgery only; in the other two of those three cases, there was no recurrence after undergoing surgery and receiving postoperative chemotherapy.
  • The tumors were mainly composed of a proliferation of squamous-type epithelium, with minor foci containing a mixture of other mullerian-type epithelia, especially mucinous.
  • The differential diagnosis of MEBMMSO includes proliferating Brenner tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Papillary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 12548172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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19. Lee KR, Nucci MR: Ovarian mucinous and mixed epithelial carcinomas of mullerian (endocervical-like) type: a clinicopathologic analysis of four cases of an uncommon variant associated with endometriosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2003 Jan;22(1):42-51
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  • [Title] Ovarian mucinous and mixed epithelial carcinomas of mullerian (endocervical-like) type: a clinicopathologic analysis of four cases of an uncommon variant associated with endometriosis.
  • The epithelial cells of ovarian mucinous carcinomas may sometimes appear similar to those of gastrointestinal or endocervical mucinous carcinomas, but most are composed of cells that do not suggest any particular derivation.
  • We report four cases of mucinous ovarian carcinoma in which the cells were entirely or almost entirely endocervical-like.
  • Two patients had bilateral tumors confined to the ovaries at initial staging; both also had synchronous endometrial carcinomas of the mucinous type.
  • In one of the latter cases a mullerian (endocervical-like) mucinous borderline tumor (MMBT) of the opposite ovary had been removed 5 years earlier, and in this case and two other cases the ovarian carcinomas had foci resembling MMBT, suggesting that they may be an invasive counterpart to these tumors.
  • The epithelial cells were well differentiated with infrequent mitoses and most were tall with mucinous cytoplasm resembling normal endocervical glandular cells.
  • One tumor had a focally infiltrative growth pattern with a desmoplastic stromal reaction; the remaining five tumors had an exclusively confluent (expansile) pattern of invasion.
  • Endometriosis was present in residual ovarian tissue adjacent to four tumors in three patients and had marked epithelial proliferation in three.
  • All patients were treated postoperatively with chemotherapy and were without clinical recurrence with follow-up intervals of 8 months, 1.2 years, 2.9 years, and 3.8 years.
  • By immunohistochemical analysis the neoplastic epithelium was positive for estrogen and progesterone receptor proteins, vimentin, and cytokeratin 7, and negative or only focally positive for carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratin 20, a profile that differs from that of the usual mucinous ovarian carcinoma and is supportive of a mullerian derivation.
  • To better understand their clinicopathologic features and pathogenesis, this uncommon variant should be separated from the usual type in future studies of mucinous carcinomas of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometriosis / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12496697.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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20. Abe A, Furumoto H, Yoshida K, Nishimura M, Irahara M, Kudo E, Sano T: A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with a yolk sac tumor component. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Jan-Feb;18(1):168-72
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  • [Title] A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with a yolk sac tumor component.
  • Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary coexists very rarely with yolk sac tumor (YST).
  • This unusual mixed tumor is thought to be a rare variant of endometrioid ovarian carcinoma because of its aggressive behavior, lack of response to chemotherapy, and unfavorable prognosis.
  • We report a case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with a YST component in a postmenopausal woman.
  • She has been clinically free of tumor for 20 months.
  • Cytokeratin7 and epithelial membrane antigen were negative in YST, but positive in endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bridged Compounds / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Platinum / administration & dosage. Taxoids / administration & dosage. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17466041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bridged Compounds; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 1605-68-1 / taxane; 49DFR088MY / Platinum; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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21. Kommoss F, Kommoss S, Eichhorn J, Schmidt D: [Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Morphological and clinical features]. Pathologe; 2007 May;28(3):209-14
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  • [Title] [Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Morphological and clinical features].
  • Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary (TCC-O) is a less common type of malignant surface epithelial-stromal tumor of the ovary, still with uncertain incidence.
  • Histologically, TCC-O resembles urothelial carcinoma of the urinary system, and by definition does not contain a Brenner tumor component.
  • TCC-O may not be a bona fide urothelial neoplasm, however, but rather a lesion of the Müllerian type derived from the ovarian surface epithelium.
  • This notion is supported by the existence of mixed tumors consisting of TCC-O and other histological types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as the observation that TCC-O has a Müllerian type but not a urothelial-like immunohistochemical profile.
  • Besides metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract, the other types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as sex cord-stromal tumors such as adult granulosa cell tumors, have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of TCC-O.
  • A recent analysis of a large series of advanced ovarian carcinomas treated by radical surgery and postoperative chemotherapy confirms studies that had suggested that TCC-O has a better prognosis (with current treatment) than that of the other histological types of ovarian carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • [Cites] Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Apr;168(4):1178-85; discussion 1185-7 [8475964.001]
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  • (PMID = 17447068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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22. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • [Title] Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.
  • Nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NSCNEC) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumor commonly associated with other surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasms.
  • In 8 cases, NSCNEC was associated with other epithelial neoplasms, including mucinous neoplasms of low malignant potential, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, mixed endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma, and a high-grade carcinoma, not otherwise specified.
  • In 2 cases, the tumor was associated with a mature cystic teratoma; one of them also containing an invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • A single case was associated with a benign ovarian cyst.
  • The latter case had a dermoid cyst in the contralateral ovary.
  • NSCNEC represented anywhere from 10% to 90% of the ovarian tumor.
  • Seven patients were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • One patient had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with omentectomy and appendectomy followed by chemotherapy; 1 patient had a total abdominal hysterectomy with right salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy; one had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy, and one had a right salpingo-oophorectomy with appendectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • In summary, ovarian NSCNEC is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to present at advanced stage and cause death within a mean of 17 months after diagnosis; however, some patients, particularly those with stage I disease and/or those who have received platinum-based therapy, may have a more favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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23. Horejsí J, Rob L: [Malignant tumors of the female genitalia in childhood--yesterday, today and tomorrow]. Cas Lek Cesk; 2003 Feb;142(2):84-7
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  • In children and in young adolescents non-epithelial gynaecological tumors predominate, while carcinomas are rare and their incidence rises with the age of girls.
  • Malignant tumors of the external genital are very rare (sarcomas of the soft tissues).
  • Malignancies of vagina are represented by the embryogenic rabdomyosarcoma, yolk sack tumor and tumor of pale cells or vaginal adenocarcinoma.
  • Cytostatics are used as the basic therapy and only later the less radical surgery is recommended.
  • Ovarian tumors represent about 1.5% of all tumors in childhood and adolescence and about 95% of all gynaecologic tumors.
  • They differ in types from those of adults: Epithelial tumors (carcinomas) do not occur in childhood, germinal and gonadal stromal tumors are typical in this age.
  • Mature differentiated teratomas are usually benign and the less differentiated they are, the worse biological effect they have (not mature or mixed teratomas).
  • It seems that nowadays the proportion of immature and mixed teratomas has been rising.
  • Beside ovarectomy, also lymphadenectomy at the affected side is performed and the treatment proceeds with chemotherapy.
  • In order to preserve fertility of the young girl with ovarian tumors, uterus should be spared as well as the macroscopically healthy contra-lateral ovarium.
  • To protect gonad from the adverse effects of oncological treatment, pharmacologically induced regression to premenarcheal stadium has been tested.
  • Complex treatment of gonadal malignancies in childhood in future will be aimed not only at the lifesaving but also at the preservation of the highest possible quality of life, including the motherhood.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Female. Humans. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 12698534.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-7335
  • [Journal-full-title] Casopís lékar̆ů c̆eských
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cas. Lek. Cesk.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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24. Chura JC, Ryu HS, Simard M, Poirier D, Tremblay Y, Brooker DC, Blomquist CH, Argenta PA: Steroid-converting enzymes in human ovarian carcinomas. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 25;301(1-2):51-8
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  • [Title] Steroid-converting enzymes in human ovarian carcinomas.
  • Anti-estrogen therapies for treating ovarian carcinoma have had mixed outcomes suggesting some tumors may be estrogen-dependent.
  • We assayed the activity levels of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD), 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD/3-KSR) and estrone sulfatase in a series of ovarian epithelial carcinomas.
  • A 17beta-HSD type 1 inhibition pattern was observed in 23% of the samples and a type 2 pattern in 25%.
  • 17beta-HSD type 1, type 2 and type 5 mRNA was detected in matched primary tumor and metastases.
  • Evaluation of 17beta-HSD and sulfatase activity levels, activity ratios and inhibition patterns may help predict tumor response to endocrine therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / metabolism. 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / enzymology. Sulfatases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Estradiol / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / drug effects. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Substrate Specificity / drug effects. Testosterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18723074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / estrogen receptor alpha, human; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; EC 1.1.- / 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.51 / 3 (or 17)-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; EC 3.1.6.- / Sulfatases; EC 3.1.6.- / estrone sulfatase
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25. Mikuz G: [WHO classification of testicular tumors]. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol; 2002;86:67-75
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  • Such atypical cells appear in the tubules adjacent to the germ cell tumors, in some few cases (6%) also in the contra lateral healthy gonad and rarely in infertile men (1%).
  • The precursor lesion can progress to franc germ cell tumor starting probably with seminoma, which still maintain the capability of differentiation (pluripotente cells) in all other types of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • This is a harmless name for an extremely dangerous tumor in which one tissue overgrows the other and gives rise to somatic type sarcomas or carcinomas.
  • Such tumors do not respond like germ cell tumors to the usual chemotherapy.
  • Treatment should be tailored according to that used in standard management of the respective sarcoma or carcinoma.
  • In the comments it is mentioned that the testis carcinoid could be a part of teratoma, but the diagnosis is listed in the group of "miscellaneous" tumors together with tumors of ovarian epithelial type.
  • This is a very questionable decision because the normal testis does not contain neuroendocrine cells from which carcinoids would have to be able to develop.
  • "Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumour" has been recently described and can be sporadic or inherited.
  • This morphologically peculiar tumor can be part of the Swiss syndrome also called Carney's complex.
  • The patients have cardiac myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation, hormone active nodular hyperplasia of the adrenals and soft tissue myxomas.
  • The newly appearing "mixed germ cell--sex cord/gonadal stromal tumours, unclassified" has a histology similar to the well known gonadoblastomas.
  • For the therapy of germ cell tumor an assessment of risk factors found by the pathologists is extremely important.
  • The most important independent predictors of relapse are tumor invasion of blood or lymph-vessels, absence of yolk sac elements and the presence of an embryonal carcinoma component.
  • In the absence of such predictors a surveillance policy allows some patients to forgo chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 12647353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0070-4113
  • [Journal-full-title] Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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26. Hu YJ, Ip PP, Chan KK, Tam KF, Ngan HY: Ovarian clear cell carcinoma with choriocarcinomatous differentiation: report of a rare and aggressive tumor. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Nov;29(6):539-45
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  • [Title] Ovarian clear cell carcinoma with choriocarcinomatous differentiation: report of a rare and aggressive tumor.
  • Ovarian epithelial tumors of nongerm cell origin with true choriocarcinomatous differentiation are rare.
  • In the reported cases, the epithelial component was of mixed cell types or of mucinous differentiation.
  • To the best of our knowledge, an ovarian carcinoma exclusively of clear cell differentiation coexisting with a pure choriocarcinoma has not been reported earlier.
  • She received 6 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy that included 3 cycles of etoposide/cisplatin and 3 cycles of paclitaxel/etoposide-paclitaxel/carboplatin (TE/TP) with partial response.
  • Pathologic examination showed an ovarian clear cell carcinoma with a second component of choriocarcinoma in which the bilaminar growth pattern of cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblasts was striking.
  • Despite additional therapy, which included 2 cycles of TE/TP and 2 cycles of gemcitabine/taxotere, the disease progressed and the patient died 11 months postoperatively.
  • This report showed that ovarian clear cell carcinoma with choriocarcinomatous differentiation is a highly aggressive tumor and has a very poor prognosis.
  • Nonetheless, there may be a role for neoadjuvant chemotherapy that targets both the clear cell and the choriocarcinoma components to reduce the volume of the disease before debulking surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20881859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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27. Schilder JM, Thompson AM, DePriest PD, Ueland FR, Cibull ML, Kryscio RJ, Modesitt SC, Lu KH, Geisler JP, Higgins RV, Magtibay PM, Cohn DE, Powell MA, Chu C, Stehman FB, van Nagell J: Outcome of reproductive age women with stage IA or IC invasive epithelial ovarian cancer treated with fertility-sparing therapy. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 Oct;87(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Outcome of reproductive age women with stage IA or IC invasive epithelial ovarian cancer treated with fertility-sparing therapy.
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the recurrence rate, survival, and pregnancy outcome in patients with Stage IA and Stage IC invasive epithelial ovarian cancer treated with unilateral adnexectomy.
  • METHODS: A multi-institutional retrospective investigation was undertaken to identify patients with Stage IA and IC epithelial ovarian cancer who were treated with fertility-sparing surgery.
  • All patients with ovarian tumors of borderline malignancy were excluded.
  • Long-term follow-up was obtained through tumor registries and telephone interviews.
  • The time and sites of tumor recurrence, patient survival, and pregnancy outcomes were recorded for every patient.
  • RESULTS: Fifty two patients with Stage I epithelial ovarian cancer treated from 1965 to 2000 at 8 participating institutions were identified.
  • Cell type was distributed as follows: mucinous, 25; serous, 10; endometrioid, 10; clear cell, 5; and mixed, 2.
  • Twenty patients received adjuvant chemotherapy (mean 6 courses, range 3-12 courses).
  • Five patients developed tumor recurrence 8-78 months after initial surgery.
  • Sites of recurrence were as follows: contralateral ovary, 3; peritoneum, 1; and lung, 1.
  • At present, 50 patients are alive without evidence of disease and 2 have died of disease 13 and 97 months after initial treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: The long-term survival of patients with Stage IA and IC epithelial ovarian cancer treated with unilateral adnexectomy is excellent.
  • Fertility-sparing surgery should be considered as a treatment option in women with Stage I epithelial ovarian cancer who desire further childbearing.
  • [MeSH-major] Fertility. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy / methods. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Pregnancy Outcome. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome






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