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1. Silva RG, Dahmoush L, Gerke H: Pancreatic metastasis of an ovarian malignant mixed Mullerian tumor identified by EUS-guided fine needle aspiration and Trucut needle biopsy. JOP; 2006;7(1):66-9
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  • [Title] Pancreatic metastasis of an ovarian malignant mixed Mullerian tumor identified by EUS-guided fine needle aspiration and Trucut needle biopsy.
  • CONTEXT: Malignant mixed Mullerian tumors are rare ovarian neoplasms that account for less than 2% of ovarian malignancies.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of a malignant mixed Mullerian tumor with metastasis to the pancreas.
  • The metastatic tumor was identified by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and Trucut needle biopsy of the pancreas.
  • CASE REPORT: We describe a 69-year-old female with concomitant Duke's C adenocarcinoma of the colon and stage III-C malignant mixed Mullerian tumor that presented with malignant ascites, increasing abdominal girth and a pancreatic head mass.
  • EUS revealed an 11 cm cystic mass in the head of the pancreas that was characterized as a carcinosarcoma/malignant mesodermal mixed tumor by EUS-FNA and Trucut needle biopsy.
  • The tumor was morphologically identical to the surgical specimen of her ovarian mass.
  • The patient was treated with palliative chemotherapy and a three-month follow up CT scan did not reveal any new metastatic lesions.
  • Although ovarian adenocarcinoma has been reported as a primary site of pancreatic metastasis, it has not been previously described originating from a mixed Mullerian tumor of the ovary presenting as a cystic pancreatic head mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endosonography. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreas / pathology. Pancreas / radiography. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


2. Brown E, Stewart M, Rye T, Al-Nafussi A, Williams AR, Bradburn M, Smyth J, Gabra H: Carcinosarcoma of the ovary: 19 years of prospective data from a single center. Cancer; 2004 May 15;100(10):2148-53
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  • [Title] Carcinosarcoma of the ovary: 19 years of prospective data from a single center.
  • BACKGROUND: A review of clinicopathologic features and outcome in women with carcinosarcoma of the ovary (also known as malignant mixed mesodermal tumor [MMMT]) compared with a group of women with serous adenocarcinoma (SAC) of the ovary was conducted.
  • METHODS: Between 1984 and 2002, 1568 patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma and 70 patients with ovarian carcinosarcoma underwent treatment at the Edinburgh Cancer Centre.
  • Analysis was performed on 65 patients with MMMT, and 746 patients with SAC were selected as a group for comparison.
  • Baseline variables were recorded prospectively and response to chemotherapy and progression-free and cause-specific survival between the groups were compared.
  • RESULTS: Patients with carcinosarcoma had a mean age of 66.6 years, which is significantly older than those with SAC (62.0 years) (P < 0.001).
  • The objective response rate to platinum-based chemotherapy was found to be significantly lower in patients with carcinosarcoma (25% vs. 60%; P = 0.02).
  • Cause-specific survival in the carcinosarcoma group was poor and significantly shorter than that observed in the SAC group (median survival of 8.2 months vs. 20.7 months; P < 0.0001).
  • Progression-free survival in patients with carcinosarcoma also was found to be significantly shorter compared with patients with SAC (median progression-free survival of 6.4 months vs. 12.1 months; P < 0.001).
  • Achieving optimal debulking at the time of initial surgery was found to be a highly significant factor in patients with carcinosarcoma with regard to determining outcome (median survival of 14.8 months for patients with optimally debulked International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage III disease vs. 3.1 months for patients with suboptimally/nondebulked Stage III disease; P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian carcinosarcoma is a distinct entity with a poor prognosis.
  • Patients with carcinosarcoma differ from those with SAC with regard to having an older mean age of onset, an inferior response to platinum-based chemotherapy, and worse progression-free and cause-specific survival.
  • The extent of benefit from chemotherapy is unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cystadenoma, Serous / drug therapy. Cystadenoma, Serous / mortality. Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15139057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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3. Harris MA, Delap LM, Sengupta PS, Wilkinson PM, Welch RS, Swindell R, Shanks JH, Wilson G, Slade RJ, Reynolds K, Jayson GC: Carcinosarcoma of the ovary. Br J Cancer; 2003 Mar 10;88(5):654-7
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  • [Title] Carcinosarcoma of the ovary.
  • We report our experience in the management of patients with carcinosarcoma of the ovary, a rare but aggressive variant of ovarian cancer.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 65 years (range 45-86) and the median Karnofsky performance (KP) status was 70.
  • Twenty-four had heterologous and 14 homologous carcinosarcoma on review of histopathology, but there was no significant difference in survival between these groups (P=0.28).
  • Chemotherapy was given to 32 patients (80%) of whom 26 (81%) received platinum-based regimens.
  • Of the 19 patients who had a CR, PR or stable disease after chemotherapy or were unevaluable (stage Ic), the median survival was 29.6 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinosarcoma / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12618869.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2376340
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4. Mok JE, Kim YM, Jung MH, Kim KR, Kim DY, Kim JH, Kim YT, Nam JH: Malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the ovary: experience with cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based combination chemotherapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16(1):101-5
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  • [Title] Malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the ovary: experience with cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based combination chemotherapy.
  • This study reviews the clinical outcome and prognosis of patients with malignant mixed müllerian tumors (MMMTs) of the ovary treated with optimal cytoreductive surgery, leaving no residual disease, and platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • Ten patients diagnosed with MMMT of the ovary after complete surgical staging from February 1993 to February 2004 at Asan Medical Center in Korea were studied retrospectively.
  • Seven patients received ifosfamide/cisplatin chemotherapy, and the remaining three patients received other platinum-based combination chemotherapy.
  • Demographic data, pathologic findings, treatments, and survival time were reviewed.
  • The median survival time of all ten patients was 46 months.
  • Platinum-based combination chemotherapy after optimal cytoreductive surgery may be effective in the treatment of ovarian MMMT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / drug therapy. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy / methods. Probability. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16445618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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5. Mullamitha SA, Ton NC, Parker GJ, Jackson A, Julyan PJ, Roberts C, Buonaccorsi GA, Watson Y, Davies K, Cheung S, Hope L, Valle JW, Radford JA, Lawrance J, Saunders MP, Munteanu MC, Nakada MT, Nemeth JA, Davis HM, Jiao Q, Prabhakar U, Lang Z, Corringham RE, Beckman RA, Jayson GC: Phase I evaluation of a fully human anti-alphav integrin monoclonal antibody (CNTO 95) in patients with advanced solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Apr 01;13(7):2128-35
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  • PURPOSE: A fully human monoclonal antibody to anti-alpha(v) integrins (CNTO 95) has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth in preclinical studies.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this phase I trial, CNTO 95 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 10.0 mg/kg) was infused on days 0, 28, 35, and 42, and clinical assessments, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), and [(18)F]-2-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) were done.
  • Pre- and post-treatment lesion biopsies confirmed tumor cell alpha(v) integrin expression, as well as CNTO 95 penetration of the tumor and localization to tumor cells in association with reduced bcl-2 expression.
  • A lesion in one patient (10.0 mg/kg) with stable ovarian carcinosarcoma was no longer detectable by FDG-PET by day 49.
  • Six patients received extended therapy, including one patient with a prolonged response.
  • Biopsy data confirmed tumor localization and pharmacodynamic activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Integrin alphaV / metabolism. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17404096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0601746
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Integrin alphaV
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6. Zhang C, Li XP, Cui H, Shen DH, Wei LH: Advanced primary peritoneal carcinoma: clinicopathological and prognostic factor analyses. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2008 Jun;9(6):435-40
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  • RESULTS: There were 15 cases of primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma (PPSPC), 6 cases of mixed epithelial carcinoma (MEC) and 3 cases of malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (MMMT).
  • Among those receiving first-line chemotherapy, 13 patients received the TP regimen (paclitaxel-cisplatin or carboplatin) and 7 patients received the PAC regimen (cisplatin-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide).
  • The median overall survival of all patients was 42 months, while the breakdown for survival time for patients with PPSPC, MMT and MEC was 44, 13 and 19 months, respectively.
  • There were significant differences in the median survival between patients with PPSPC and those with MMMT (44 months vs 13 months, P<0.05), also between patients receiving TP combination and those receiving the PAC regimen (75 months vs 28 months, P<0.05).
  • Another significant difference in the median progression-free survival (PFS) was identified between patients with positive p53 immunostaining and those with negative p53 immunostaining (15 months vs 47 months, P<0.05), whereas age, menopausal status, residual tumor size and the other molecular factors did not significantly impact survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with PPC should be treated with a comprehensive management plan including appropriate cytoreductive surgery and responsive chemotherapy.
  • The pathologic subtype, chemotherapy regimen and p53 overexpression were significant prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. China / epidemiology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / therapy. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Middle Aged. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / metabolism. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / mortality. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Prognosis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18543395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2408695
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7. Muller M, Dupre PF, Lucas B, Simon H, Malhaire JP, Guillemet C, Dessogne P, Pradier O: [Carcinosarcoma of the ovary]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2007 Jun;36(4):399-402
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  • [Title] [Carcinosarcoma of the ovary].
  • [Transliterated title] Le carcinosarcome ovarien.
  • Ovarian carcinosarcoma, also called malignant mixed mesodermal tumour, is a rare ovarian tumour representing less than two per cent of ovarian cancers.
  • Carcinosarcoma is an aggressive tumour, which associates some epithelial elements (carcinoma) with a stromal component (sarcoma).
  • There is no existing consensus concerning treatment.
  • Nevertheless, surgical treatment is paramount for the survival of patients.
  • Response rates to chemotherapy are about 20%.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17408876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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8. Takami M, Idei T, Nakayama Y, Ohta H, Fukai H, Matsumoto H, Togo Y, Sakamoto H, Yamamoto T, Satoh K: [A case of advanced ovarian carcinosarcoma that responded remarkably to neoadjuvant chemotherapy of combined CPT-11 and CDDP]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2002 Feb;29(2):305-8
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced ovarian carcinosarcoma that responded remarkably to neoadjuvant chemotherapy of combined CPT-11 and CDDP].
  • Carcinosarcoma of the ovary is a very rare and highly malignant neoplasm that accounts for less than 1% of ovarian neoplasms.
  • Survival of patients with advanced stage cancer is poor and the best treatment is not clear.
  • We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who had Stage IV advanced heterogeneous ovarian carcinosarcoma with lung and liver metastases.
  • The lesions were considered surgically incurable, so she was placed on neoadjuvant chemotherapy of combination CPT-11 (60 mg/m2, day 1, 15) and CDDP (60 mg/m2, day 1).
  • Tumor markers of CA125 and LDH decreased remarkably to the normal level after 3 and 4 courses of chemotherapy, respectively.
  • After 7 courses of chemotherapy, the ovarian tumor was obviously reduced, and the lung and liver metastases had disappeared.
  • The current case suggests that combination CPT-11 and CDDP is effective against advanced ovarian carcinosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Carcinosarcoma / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Hysterotomy. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy

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  • (PMID = 11865639.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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9. Sit AS, Price FV, Kelley JL, Comerci JT, Kunschner AJ, Kanbour-Shakir A, Edwards RP: Chemotherapy for malignant mixed Müllerian tumors of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol; 2000 Nov;79(2):196-200
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy for malignant mixed Müllerian tumors of the ovary.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the chemotherapy experience at Magee-Womens Hospital for malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) of the ovary.
  • Patients were treated with either paclitaxel/carboplatin (PC) outpatient chemotherapy or platinum/ifosfamide (PI) inpatient chemotherapy as first- or second-line therapy.
  • METHODS: Thirteen patients diagnosed with MMMT of the ovary after complete surgical staging from 1990 to 1999 were studied retrospectively.
  • Six patients received PC combination chemotherapy, of which 3 patients received PC as first-line treatment.
  • The other 3 patients received PC as second-line therapy.
  • Demographic data, pathology, cytoreductive surgery, treatment, and survival rates were reviewed.
  • Complete clinical response (CR) was defined as the disappearance of all measurable disease or normalization of elevated CA 125 level after chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: The median survival time of patients receiving PC was 19 months.
  • One patient, after receiving PC as first-line treatment, demonstrated a CR and is free of disease beyond 33 months.
  • The median survival time of patients managed with PI was 23 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Optimal chemotherapy regimen for MMMT of ovary remains to be determined.
  • Platinum-based chemotherapy in combination with ifosfamide or paclitaxel may be active against this rare malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / adverse effects. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects. Platinum / administration & dosage. Platinum / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Taxoids. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 11063643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 49DFR088MY / Platinum; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; PC protocol; PI protocol
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10. Xanthoulis A, Mirelis C, Markakidis S, Bougioukas I, Bekiaridou K, Tsalkidou E, Zafeiropoulos G, Tentes AA: Complete cytoreduction combined with early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for ovarian carcinosarcoma. Report of two cases. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 2006;62(2):100-2
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  • [Title] Complete cytoreduction combined with early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for ovarian carcinosarcoma. Report of two cases.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: The purpose of the study is to report two long-term survivors with ovarian carcinosarcomas, which are rare intrapelvic malignancies with unfavorable prognosis.
  • METHODS: Two middle-aged women with palpable abdominal tumors underwent complete cytoreductive surgery and no macroscopic tumor was left behind.
  • Early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy with doxorubicin was used as an adjuvant treatment.
  • RESULTS: The patients are disease-free 2 and 3 years, respectively after the initial therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Complete cytoreduction combined with early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy seems to be an effective treatment for ovarian carcinosarcoma with peritoneal spread.
  • Further studies are required to define the value of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in ovarian carcinosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinosarcoma / surgery. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Infusions, Parenteral / methods. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survivors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16645301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-7346
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic and obstetric investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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11. Duska LR, Garrett A, Eltabbakh GH, Oliva E, Penson R, Fuller AF: Paclitaxel and platinum chemotherapy for malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 Jun;85(3):459-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paclitaxel and platinum chemotherapy for malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the ovary.
  • OBJECTIVE: Malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) of the ovary is a rare tumor with a dismal prognosis.
  • The most effective therapy is unknown.
  • The current study was undertaken to characterize a group of patients treated as if they had aggressive epithelial ovarian tumors, with cytoreductive surgery and combination paclitaxel/platinum chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data obtained from tumor registry and hospital records of cases of malignant mixed müllerian tumor between January 1, 1992 and January 1, 2000 treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and University of Vermont was performed.
  • Only patients treated with combination paclitaxel and platinum therapy were included in the analysis.
  • Data were collected regarding cytoreduction, response to chemotherapy, disease-free interval, and survival.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-five patients were identified with MMMT.
  • Twenty-eight patients with a clearly ovarian primary had received treatment with combination paclitaxel and platinum.
  • Paclitaxel and carboplatin was given as second-line therapy in 2 patients who had chemoresponsive but incurable disease; the remaining patients were treated with paclitaxel and platinum therapy as first-line therapy.
  • Treatment was generally well tolerated.
  • Sixteen patients of 26 treated with paclitaxel and platinum as first-line therapy achieved a complete clinical response (55%) and 6 patients achieved partial response for a total response rate of 72%.
  • Optimal cytoreduction was associated with increased time to recurrence (P = 0.001) but not with survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Although treatment fails many patients, a minority of patients with MMMT in this highly selected population do unexpectedly well.
  • An aggressive approach with surgery and combination paclitaxel-platinum chemotherapy appears to offer very effective therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12051874.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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12. Signorelli M, Chiappa V, Minig L, Fruscio R, Perego P, Caspani G, Battistello M, Colombo N: Platinum, anthracycline, and alkylating agent-based chemotherapy for ovarian carcinosarcoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Aug;19(6):1142-6
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  • [Title] Platinum, anthracycline, and alkylating agent-based chemotherapy for ovarian carcinosarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian carcinosarcoma (OCS) is a rare malignancy associated with a poor prognosis.
  • Platinum, anthracyclines, and alkylating agents are the most effective antiblastic drugs for treatment of gynecologic epithelial and stromal tumors.
  • The aim of this study was to determine response rate and overall survival (OS) of patients with OCS who were treated with a combination of these 3 drugs.
  • Heterologous, homologous, and mixed stromal components were described in 17, 14, and 10 patients, respectively.
  • Two women did not complete their treatment because of the rapid progression of their disease and severe toxicity.
  • Optimal cytoreduction may improve survival, but new anticancer drugs or more effective regimens are awaited.
  • [MeSH-major] Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinosarcoma / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Platinum Compounds / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19820383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Platinum Compounds; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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13. Matsuura Y, Kitajima M, Hachisuga T, Tanimoto A, Okura N, Kihara I: Malignant mixed müllerian tumor with malignant neuroectodermal components (teratoid carcinosarcoma) of the ovary: Report of a case with clinicopathologic findings. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Aug;36(4):907-11
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  • [Title] Malignant mixed müllerian tumor with malignant neuroectodermal components (teratoid carcinosarcoma) of the ovary: Report of a case with clinicopathologic findings.
  • Malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) or carcinosarcoma of the female genital tract is a rare neoplasm.
  • Malignant ovarian tumor composed of müllerian epithelial tumor and malignant germ cell tumor is also rare, with most cases composed of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and yolk sac tumor.
  • Ovarian MMMT with malignant neuroectodermal components resembling immature teratoma is extremely rare.
  • We report a case of teratoid carcinosarcoma of the ovary occurring in a 40-year-old female.
  • The resected tumor measuring over 20 cm in diameter consisted of cystic and solid components and was very fragile.
  • Microscopic examination showed a heterogenous mixed tumor composed of malignant epithelial, malignant mesodermal and malignant neuroectodermal components.
  • There was no tumor immunoreactivity to alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin, and inhibin.
  • In spite of aggressive combination chemotherapy and three times of laparotomy, the patient died of disease 3 years 10 months after the initial treatment.
  • This quite rare ovarian tumor closely resembled nasopharyngeal tumors described as 'teratoid carcinosarcoma' is biologically aggressive.
  • We report the fourth case of ovarian teratoid carcinosarcoma.
  • Further cases need to be accumulated to make diagnosis and to determine a successful treatment modality.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Ovary / pathology. Ovary / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20666968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1447-0756
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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14. Santacruz MR, Gehrig PA, Skinner EN, Boggess JF, Fowler WC, Van Le L: Comparison of paclitaxel and carboplatin with ifosfamide and cisplatin for the treatment of ovarian carcinosarcoma. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):5116

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  • [Title] Comparison of paclitaxel and carboplatin with ifosfamide and cisplatin for the treatment of ovarian carcinosarcoma.
  • : 5116 Background: Ovarian carcinosarcoma is associated with a poor prognosis.
  • There has been increasing controversy over the appropriate and most efficacious postoperative therapy in women with this disease.
  • We reviewed and evaluated the disease-free interval and overall survival of women with ovarian carcinosarcoma based on the post-operative chemotherapy they received.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on women with ovarian carcinosarcoma treated at our institution between 1981 and 2002.
  • Operative procedures, post-operative therapy, treatment related toxicities, disease-free interval, and overall survival data were recorded.
  • The two treatment regimens were paclitaxel (175 mg/m<sup>2</sup>) with carboplatin (AUC 5) administered every four weeks or ifosfamide (1.5 g/m<sup>2</sup>) with cisplatin (20mg/m<sup>2</sup>) for days one through four, every three weeks.
  • An unpaired t test was performed to compare disease-free interval, overall survival, and toxicity for the two treatment groups.
  • RESULTS: Eleven women received primary therapy with one of the two regimens.
  • Five had no chemotherapy related toxicity, and one expired from an unknown etiology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Paclitaxel and carboplatin appears to be as effective as ifosfamide and cisplatin in the treatment of ovarian carcinosarcoma.
  • We would advocate that women with ovarian carcinosarcoma receive post-operative therapy with a paclitaxel/platinum-based regimen as outcomes were similar and there is less toxicity and improved patient convenience.

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  • (PMID = 28015674.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Dodge JE, Mackay H, Klachook S, Bernardini M, Shaw P, Murphy KJ, Lo E, Rosen BP, Freedman O: What is the optimal strategy to confirm the diagnosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC)? J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):5511

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] What is the optimal strategy to confirm the diagnosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC)?
  • Initial diagnosis was made on the basis of: cytology (paracentesis/thoracentesis)- 89 (59%); percutaneous biopsy- 40 (26%), radiology and CA-125-18 (12%), surgical biopsy -5 (3%).
  • The final diagnosis was consistent with invasive EOC in 145 patients (95%).
  • The remaining 7 were ovarian LMP (4), ovarian carcinosarcoma (1), endometrial serous cancer (1), and GI tumor (1).
  • 17% of patients had an alternate final diagnosis when clinical parameters were the only basis for the diagnosis of EOC prior to NAC.
  • Subtype differed between pre- and post-treatment samples in 13% of histology and 8% of cytology cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of EOC based on cytology or histology-based strategies are superior to clinical factors alone.
  • Even in a centre with trained gynecologic cytopathologists, cytology and biopsy strategies preclude accurate subtype diagnosis in a significant number of patients.

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  • (PMID = 27962465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Mano MS, Rosa DD, Azambuja E, Ismael G, Braga S, D'Hondt V, Piccart M, Awada A: Current management of ovarian carcinosarcoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 Mar-Apr;17(2):316-24
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  • [Title] Current management of ovarian carcinosarcoma.
  • Ovarian carcinosarcomas (OCS), also known as malignant mixed müllerian tumors, are uncommon malignancies that carry a poor prognosis.
  • The presentation of OCS is usually indistinguishable from that of epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • Due to its low frequency, prospective trials have been difficult to perform, but there is evidence that OCS are sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • Recent studies have shown encouraging results with platinum-ifosfamide and platinum-taxane schedules, which are usually considered the treatment of choice.
  • However, poor performance status at presentation is also a common problem, so that many patients may be unsuitable for combination chemotherapy but may still benefit from single-agent platinum or ifosfamide or, occasionally, from nonplatinum schedules such as ifosfamide plus paclitaxel.
  • However, this procedure has been associated with higher rates of complication in OCS and should only be attempted by experienced (gynecological) surgeons in centers with expertise in the management of gynecological malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17362309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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17. Jonson AL, Bliss RL, Truskinovsky A, Judson P, Argenta P, Carson L, Dusenbery K, Downs LS Jr: Clinical features and outcomes of uterine and ovarian carcinosarcoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Mar;100(3):561-4
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  • [Title] Clinical features and outcomes of uterine and ovarian carcinosarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare the clinical presentation and outcomes of women with ovarian and uterine carcinosarcoma (CS).
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients treated for uterine or ovarian CS from 1952 to 2003.
  • RESULTS: We identified 87 patients with uterine CS and 18 with ovarian CS.
  • 43% of women with uterine CS presented at stage I/II, compared to 28% of women with ovarian tumors (P = 0.0003).
  • 82% of patients with ovarian tumors received adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiation; 51% of the patients in the uterine CS group received adjuvant radiation therapy.
  • The median survival for uterine CS patients was 16 months, compared to 11 months in the ovarian CS group; HR = 0.991 (95% CI = 0.534, 1.839).
  • Despite differences in stage and initial treatment, there was no difference in survival between women with uterine and ovarian CS.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinosarcoma. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


18. Tate Thigpen J, Blessing JA, DeGeest K, Look KY, Homesley HD, Gynecologic Oncology Group: Cisplatin as initial chemotherapy in ovarian carcinosarcomas: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 May;93(2):336-9
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  • [Title] Cisplatin as initial chemotherapy in ovarian carcinosarcomas: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
  • OBJECTIVES: Carcinosarcomas of the ovary are rare; hence, although most patients recur after surgical resection or have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, only anecdotal information is available concerning the activity of cytotoxic drugs against these lesions.
  • The Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) initiated a concerted effort to study cytotoxic therapy for these cancers in 1976.
  • METHODS: One hundred thirty-six eligible patients with ovarian carcinosarcoma received cisplatin (50 mg/m(2)) every 3 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data provide the first objective evidence that cisplatin is active as an initial therapy for patients who have carcinosarcoma of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinosarcoma / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15099942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12477; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12482; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12484; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12485; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12534; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 13630; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 15975; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 15977; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16386; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16938; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 19502; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21720; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23073; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23088; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23501; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 27469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 28160; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 34477; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 35640; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37234; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37569; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 40296; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13633; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA37535
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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19. Melilli GA, Nappi L, Carriero C, Lapresa M, Loizzi V, Caradonna F, Quaranta M, Putignano G: Malignant mixed mullerian tumor of the ovary: report of four cases. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2001;22(1):67-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant mixed mullerian tumor of the ovary: report of four cases.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant mixed mullerian tumor (MMMT) of the ovary is an extremely rare gynaecologic neoplasm that represents 1% of the malignances of this organ.
  • CASE REPORTS: In the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of Bari four cases of MMMT of the ovary were diagnosed.
  • Three patients were in stage IIIC and one of them was a homologous MMMT; the fourth patient was affected by a heterologous stage IV MMMT.
  • All women were treated with surgery and chemotherapy.
  • Two patients are alive 14 and 12 months after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The malignant mixed mullerian tumor (MMMT) of the ovary is a particularly aggressive tumor, especially in advanced stages.
  • The survival rate is very low in spite of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • The optimal treatment for this neoplasm is unknown because of its rarity.
  • [MeSH-major] Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 11321500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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20. Silasi DA, Illuzzi JL, Kelly MG, Rutherford TJ, Mor G, Azodi M, Schwartz PE: Carcinosarcoma of the ovary. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Jan-Feb;18(1):22-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinosarcoma of the ovary.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment and outcome in patients with ovarian carcinosarcoma.
  • The Tumor Board Registry was reviewed for patients with ovarian carcinosarcoma treated at our institution from June 1993 to December 2004.
  • The combination of carboplatin (AUC 5) and taxol (175 mg/m(2)) every 21 days was administered to four patients as first-line chemotherapy following optimal cytoreduction.
  • In conclusion, patients with ovarian carcinosarcoma usually present with advanced stage disease.
  • Treatment consists of optimal cytoreduction and chemotherapy.
  • First-line cisplatin and ifosfamide or carboplatin and taxol can achieve survival rates observed in epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17451459.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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21. Hsieh CL, Chang TC, Lai CH, Jung SM, Chou HH: Excellent progression-free survival with liposomal doxorubicin for a patient with recurrent ovarian malignant mixed müllerian tumor: case report and literature review. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 Sep;94(3):854-7
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  • [Title] Excellent progression-free survival with liposomal doxorubicin for a patient with recurrent ovarian malignant mixed müllerian tumor: case report and literature review.
  • INTRODUCTION: Ovarian malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) is a rare, highly aggressive, fatal disease.
  • Optimal cytoreduction surgery plus platinum-based combination chemotherapy are associated with better outcomes.
  • CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old patient of stage IIIc ovarian MMMT having obtained a 41-month remission after four courses of aggressive surgical debulking procedures, platinum-containing chemotherapy, and intraoperative radiotherapy suffered from multi-focal recurrences and obtained another 22-month progression-free survival after treatment with monthly liposomal doxorubicin (Lipo-Dox) for 14 courses and Lipo-Dox/carboplatin for subsequent 6 courses without obvious toxicity.
  • DISCUSSION: Liposomal doxorubicin might be useful as salvage chemotherapy for heavily pretreated, recurrent ovarian MMMT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15350389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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22. Leiser AL, Chi DS, Ishill NM, Tew WP: Carcinosarcoma of the ovary treated with platinum and taxane: the memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Jun;105(3):657-61
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  • [Title] Carcinosarcoma of the ovary treated with platinum and taxane: the memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience.
  • INTRODUCTION: Due to the rarity of ovarian carcinosarcomas, the optimal chemotherapeutic regimen to treat this aggressive disease is yet to be determined.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the response rate, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival of patients with ovarian carcinosarcoma who were treated with the combination of platinum and a taxane as first-line chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: We identified all patients with ovarian carcinosarcoma who received a combination of platinum and taxane either after initial tumor resection or as neoadjuvant therapy.
  • Data extracted from the medical records included residual tumor after surgery, number, type and dose of chemotherapy cycles, tumor response, and survival outcome.
  • Twenty-eight patients received chemotherapy after surgery, and 2 patients received chemotherapy before surgery.
  • The median time to progression for responders was 12 months.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of platinum and a taxane is a viable first-line treatment option for patients with ovarian carcinosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinosarcoma / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Survival Rate. Taxoids / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17395252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Taxoids
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23. Varras M, Akrivis Ch, Antoniou N, Tolis C, Stefanaki S, Salamalekis E: Primary ovarian carcinosarcoma: a case report and review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2004;25(5):653-6
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  • [Title] Primary ovarian carcinosarcoma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Primary ovarian carcinosarcoma is characterized by an admixture of malignant epithelial and stromal elements.
  • This neoplasm is extremely rare with fewer than 400 cases reported in the English literature.
  • Its histogenesis, clinical features and optimal treatment remain unclear because of the rarity of primary ovarian carcinosarcoma.
  • This study focuses on the clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical features and survival of a 73-year-old patient with primary ovarian carcinocarcoma.
  • The patient was treated with surgery followed by combined chemotherapy with carboplatin and taxol and assigned to FIGO Stage IIIc.
  • In conclusion, ovarian carcinosarcoma is a very aggressive tumor, especially when it is diagnosed at advanced stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15493190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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24. Wei CF, Hwang SH, Ho CM, Shih BY, Chien TY: Malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the ovary. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei); 2000 Apr;63(4):344-8
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  • [Title] Malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the ovary.
  • Malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (MMMT) of the ovary is very rare, and to the best of our knowledge, only a few cases have been reported in the literature from Taiwan.
  • We report two recent cases of ovarian MMMT at our hospital.
  • Case 1 was a 59-year-old female with stage IIIC MMMT of the ovary, with a tumor having carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements.
  • The sarcomatous component was composed of a homologous malignant mesenchymal element with conspicuous hyaline globules.
  • Case 2 was a 42-year-old female with ovarian stage IIC MMMT.
  • The carcinomatous component was composed of grade II-III clear cell carcinoma and the sarcomatous component was composed of high-grade non-specific spindle cell sarcoma, which was positive for vimentin, but negative for cytokeratin, desmin and S-100 protein on immunostaining.
  • These two patients both underwent hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy and both received platinum-based chemotherapy after debulking surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 10820916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1337
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi = Chinese medical journal; Free China ed
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] CHINA
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25. Rutledge TL, Gold MA, McMeekin DS, Huh WK, Powell MA, Lewin SN, Mutch DG, Johnson GA, Walker JL, Mannel RS: Carcinosarcoma of the ovary-a case series. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Jan;100(1):128-32
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  • [Title] Carcinosarcoma of the ovary-a case series.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our experience with ovarian carcinosarcoma and identify prognostic factors.
  • METHODS: Thirty-one cases of ovarian carcinosarcoma were identified over a 6-year time period through tumor registry and pathology records.
  • RESULTS: All 31 patients underwent initial surgical treatment with an appropriate staging procedure.
  • 29 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy with 11 patients receiving ifosfamide/cisplatin and 16 patients receiving carboplatin/taxol.
  • In advanced stage patients, overall survival was not significantly influenced by type of adjuvant chemotherapy administered, P = 0.13.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian carcinosarcoma has a poor overall prognosis with median survival rates reported in the literature ranging from 7-10 months.
  • Aggressive debulking to eliminate residual disease and the use of ifosfamide/cisplatin chemotherapy seem to be factors in this improved outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinosarcoma / drug therapy. Carcinosarcoma / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16213011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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26. Wei LH, Huang CY, Cheng SP, Chen CA, Hsieh CY: Carcinosarcoma of ovary associated with previous radiotherapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2001 Jan-Feb;11(1):81-4
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  • [Title] Carcinosarcoma of ovary associated with previous radiotherapy.
  • Carcinosarcoma is a rare neoplasm which, in the female genital tract, arises mainly in the endometrium.
  • There have been sporadic case reports of the development of carcinosarcomas of the cervix, vagina, and extragenital areas, but not of the ovary, after previous pelvic irradiation.
  • We describe a case of ovarian carcinosarcoma arising in a 74-year-old female who had pelvic irradiation 33 years previously.
  • Exploratory laparotomy showed a 25 x 18 x 9 cm left ovarian tumor with adjacent organ invasion including peri-uterine serosa and rectum.
  • The patient was treated by optimal cytoreduction, followed by chemotherapy with adriamycin and cisplatin.
  • However, acute hepatitis caused by reactivation of hepatitis B virus infection developed just before the fifth course of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Hepatitis B / chemically induced. Hepatitis B / mortality. Humans. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 11285039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Cryns P, Roofthooft NJ, Tjalma WA: Malignant mixed müllerian tumor of the ovary and false negative punctures. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2003;24(1):70-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant mixed müllerian tumor of the ovary and false negative punctures.
  • Malignant mixed müllerian tumour (MMMT) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumour with a poor prognosis.
  • We present a case of a 57-year-old woman with a large pelvic mass, omental cake, ascites and pleural effusions, clinically highly suspect of an ovarian neoplasm.
  • Paracentesis and ultrasound-guided biopsy of the ovary were negative for malignant disease.
  • The latter gave a histopathologic diagnosis of an endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary.
  • However after cytoreductive surgery anatomopathologic examination revealed a malignant mixed müllerian tumour of the ovary with heterologous differentiation.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy, active against the sarcomatous and the carcinomatous component, was given.
  • At present the patient is well and disease free 35 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • Cytological examination of ascites may be negative in the presence of malignant disease.
  • Punctures should be discouraged as a diagnostic tool in patients in whom an ovarian malignancy is suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Biopsy, Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. False Negative Reactions. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy / methods. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12691322.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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28. Gallardo A, Prat J: Mullerian adenosarcoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 55 cases challenging the existence of adenofibroma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Feb;33(2):278-88
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  • [Title] Mullerian adenosarcoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 55 cases challenging the existence of adenofibroma.
  • Mullerian adenosarcomas are rare mixed tumors of low malignant potential that occur mainly in the uterus and also in extrauterine locations.
  • Thirty-seven tumors were of the uterine corpus, 11 of the cervix, 4 of the ovary, and 1 each of the fallopian tube, vagina, and Douglas peritoneum.
  • Treatment was known in 50 patients: 10 had polypectomy, 1 cone biopsy, and 39 hysterectomy, which was accompanied by bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in 24 and lymphadenectomy in 4.
  • Five patients had radiotherapy and 2 of them had chemotherapy.
  • Three of the 4 ovarian tumors were stage IA and the other was stage IIIC.
  • The tumor of the fallopian tube was stage IC, and the tumors of the vagina and recto-uterine pouch were confined to their site of origin.
  • Six developed metastases and 5 of them died of tumor.
  • The finding of such cases, which raises the controversy of whether or not adenofibroma exists as a tumor entity, prompted us to make a comparative immunohistochemical analysis of 23 typical adenosarcomas, 8 adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth, and 29 benign and malignant related lesions, including 7 clinically benign adenofibromas.
  • Adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth showed strong immunoreaction for Ki-67 and p53 and loss of CD10 and progesterone receptors immunostaining; in contrast, the immunoreaction for these tumor markers in typical adenosarcomas without sarcomatous overgrowth was similar to that of adenofibromas associated with favorable outcome and other benign lesions such as endometrial polyps and endometriosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Staging. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18941402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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29. Zorzou MP, Markaki S, Rodolakis A, Kastritis E, Bozas G, Dimopoulos MA, Papadimitriou CA: Clinicopathological features of ovarian carcinosarcomas: a single institution experience. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jan;96(1):136-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathological features of ovarian carcinosarcomas: a single institution experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical prognostic factors of patients with ovarian carcinosarcoma treated with radical surgery and postoperative chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: During a 6-year period, nine patients with ovarian carcinosarcoma were referred to our institution.
  • Tissue blocks were reviewed and sections containing both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements were stained for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), vimentin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD45RO, c-erbB-2, p53, CD34, Ki67, S100, estrogen, and progesterone receptors.
  • All patients were treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy following surgery.
  • Reactivity for VEGF and CD45RO was observed in four and two tumor specimens, respectively.
  • The median overall survival was 32.9 months with no statistical difference between early and advanced stages, while median time to progression was 13.5 months. p53 overexpression demonstrated a trend for better overall survival.
  • Despite the predominance of early stage patients that favorably influenced overall survival, aggressive surgical cytoreduction followed by anthracycline-based treatment were the cornerstone in our multimodality approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anthracyclines / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD45 / metabolism. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15589592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45
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30. Ma CJ, Yang SF, Huang CC, Chai CY, Cheng KI, Tsai EM, Wang JY: Malignant mixed müllerian tumor of primary mesenteric origin associated with a synchronous ovarian cancer: case report and literature review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(3):289-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant mixed müllerian tumor of primary mesenteric origin associated with a synchronous ovarian cancer: case report and literature review.
  • Malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) is a rare tumor in females and extragenital MMMT is even more so.
  • We report a patient with MMMT primarily in the mesentery with synchronous ovarian cancer.
  • In the English literature, 42 cases of extragenital MMMT have been reported other than the presented case, and this is only the second MMMT arising from the mesentery.
  • Furthermore, among the cases reviewed, MMMTs tend to be associated with synchronous or metachronous colonic cancer or gynecologic tumors originating from the müllerian duct, including ovarian tumors, fallopian tube cancer, endometrial cancer, cervical cancer, and serous carcinoma of the peritoneum (14 out of 43 patients; 32.6%).
  • The risk factors for MMMT include obesity, nulliparity, exogenous estrogen, and long-term tamoxifen use.
  • The prognosis of MMMT is catastrophic and the treatment is based on the experience of those of uterine sarcomas, which is composed of operation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Mesentery / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / drug therapy. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Postmenopause


31. Picchio M, Sironi S, Messa C, Mangili G, Landoni C, Gianolli L, Zangheri B, Viganò R, Aletti G, De Marzi P, De Cobelli F, Del Maschio A, Ferrari A, Fazio F: Advanced ovarian carcinoma: usefulness of [(18)F]FDG-PET in combination with CT for lesion detection after primary treatment. Q J Nucl Med; 2003 Jun;47(2):77-84
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  • [Title] Advanced ovarian carcinoma: usefulness of [(18)F]FDG-PET in combination with CT for lesion detection after primary treatment.
  • AIM: To determine the additional value of [(18)F]FDG-PET in combination with computed tomography (CT) over CT used alone, for evaluating ovarian cancer patients after primary treatment.
  • METHODS: Twenty-five women (mean age: 53.6 years) had primary debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy for histologically proven ovarian carcinoma.
  • At initial diagnosis, the tumor types were papillary serous adenocarcinoma (n=20), endometroid carcinoma (n=3), mixed mullerian tumor (n=1), and granulosa cell tumor (n=1).
  • All patients underwent [(18)F]FDG-PET and contrast enhanced CT examinations, within 30 days of the completion of chemotherapic treatment.
  • An inflammatory lymph-node was misdiagnosed as viable tumor with both PET+CT and CT alone; an area of scar tissue in the presacral region was also misinterpreted as malignant tissue with CT alone.
  • Overall lesion-based sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in assessing focal areas of residual tumor were as follows: 69.56%, 83.33%, 74.28% for CT, and 82.60%, 91.67%, 85.71% for PET+CT.
  • CONCLUSION: PET used in combination with CT allows to accurately assess tumor response.
  • A major advantage of PET+CT over CT alone is in excluding the presence of residual viable lesions after treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiography. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Subtraction Technique. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12865867.001).
  • [ISSN] 1125-0135
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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