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1. Ray-Coquard I, Pautier P, Pujade-Lauraine E, Méeus P, Morice P, Treilleux I, Duvillard P, Alexandre J, Lhommé C, Selle F, Guastalla J: [Rare ovarian tumours: therapeutic strategies in 2010, national website observatory for rare ovarian cancers and delineation of referent centers in France]. Bull Cancer; 2010 Jan;97(1):123-35
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  • [Title] [Rare ovarian tumours: therapeutic strategies in 2010, national website observatory for rare ovarian cancers and delineation of referent centers in France].
  • [Transliterated title] Les tumeurs rares de l'ovaire: stratégies thérapeutiques en 2010, Observatoire francophone des tumeurs rares de l'ovaire et émergence des centres de références.
  • Majorities of the rare ovarian cancers were represented by germ cell tumours and sex cords ovarian tumours with borderline tumours, clear cell carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma and are extremely rare malignant diseases of the ovaries.
  • Tumors of the stromal (Leydig cells) and/or sex cords (Sertoli cells) represent approximately 7% of ovarian cancers and develop from the conjunctive tissue (respectively, interstitial and nurse cells) of the ovaries.
  • All together, they represented less than 5% of the adult malignant and non malignant ovarian tumours.
  • Treatment of rare ovarian tumors is currently as follows.
  • Surgery is the same as that for ovarian adenocarcinoma, with one major difference: conservation of reproductive function in women of reproductive age is usual case for this type of tumor.
  • Chemotherapy for germ cell and sex cords tumors, based on data reported in the literature is the same as that prescribed for testicular germ-cell tumors.
  • Surgery, chemotherapy and possible surgical intervention for residual lesions are highly complex.
  • Too rare to be included in randomized studies, treatment of these tumors has benefited from the therapeutic advancements made against testicular germ-cell tumors or with publications using retrospective data.
  • Because of the rarity of these tumours a specialized website (www.ovaire-rare.org) was developed in France in 2002.
  • The other new scientific data concern surgical procedures for sex cords tumors, evidence for presence of FOXL2 mutation in adult granulosa cell tumors, the use of paclitaxel plus carboplatin for sex cords tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Care Facilities / organization & administration. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / therapy. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. France. Humans. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Rare Diseases / pathology. Rare Diseases / therapy. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20007069.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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2. Mikola MK, Rahman NA, Paukku TH, Ahtiainen PM, Vaskivuo TE, Tapanainen JS, Poutanen M, Huhtaniemi IT: Gonadal tumors of mice double transgenic for inhibin-alpha promoter-driven simian virus 40 T-antigen and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase are sensitive to ganciclovir treatment. J Endocrinol; 2001 Jul;170(1):79-90
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  • [Title] Gonadal tumors of mice double transgenic for inhibin-alpha promoter-driven simian virus 40 T-antigen and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase are sensitive to ganciclovir treatment.
  • The mice develop gonadal somatic cell tumors at the age of 5-7 months; the ovarian tumors originate from granulosa cells, and those of the testes from Leydig cells.
  • Crossbreeding of the two TG mouse lines resulted in double TG mice (Inhalpha/TK-Inhalpha/Tag), which also developed gonadal tumors.
  • During GCV treatment, the total gonadal volume including the tumor, decreased in double TG mice by an average of 40% (P<0.05), while in single TG mice, there was a concomitant increase of 60% in gonadal size (P<0.05).
  • Peroral treatment with ACV was less effective, it did not reduce significantly the gonadal volume.
  • We also analyzed the in vitro efficacy of ACV and GCV treatments in transiently HSV-TK-transfected KK-1 murine granulosa tumor cells, originating from a single-positive Inhalpha/Tag mouse.
  • These results prove the principle that targeted expression of the HSV-TK gene in gonadal somatic cell tumors is potentially useful for tumor ablation by antiherpes treatment.
  • The findings provide a lead for further development of somatic gene therapy for gonadal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Ganciclovir / therapeutic use. Genetic Therapy / methods. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Leydig Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acyclovir / therapeutic use. Animals. Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / genetics. Apoptosis. Breeding. Female. Gene Expression. Inhibins / genetics. Male. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Simplexvirus / enzymology. Thymidine Kinase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 11431140.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; EC 2.7.1.21 / Thymidine Kinase; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir
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3. Klotz RK, Müller-Holzner E, Fessler S, Reimer DU, Zervomanolakis I, Seeber B, Mattle V, Wildt L: Leydig-cell-tumor of the ovary that responded to GnRH-analogue administration - case report and review of the literature. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 May;118(5):291-7
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  • [Title] Leydig-cell-tumor of the ovary that responded to GnRH-analogue administration - case report and review of the literature.
  • Progressive hirsutism can be a symptom of an androgen-producing tumor, especially in postmenopausal women.
  • Transvaginal ultrasound revealed a slightly hyperdensic area of 6 mm in the left ovary.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed a contrast medium-accumulating area of 2 cm in the left ovary.
  • The histologic examination revealed a Leydig cell tumor in the hilus and stroma of the left ovary.
  • In this paper, polyglobulia, the metabolic and psychological changes due to hyperandrogenism are discussed, as well as the phenomenon that the tumor responded to a GnRH-analogue.
  • Such a response implies that the tumor is either under gonadotropin control or that GnRH analogues have direct effects via receptors on tumorous Leydig cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Leydig Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Triptorelin Pamoate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Humans. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Luteolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Postmenopause. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 20198556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Luteolytic Agents; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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4. Li B, Wu LY, Zhang WH, Li L, Ma SK, Liu LY: [Clinical analysis of 11 cases of ovarian Setoli-Leydig cell tumor]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2004 May;39(5):334-7
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 11 cases of ovarian Setoli-Leydig cell tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognostic factors of ovarian Setoli-Leydig cell tumor.
  • METHODS: During 1962 - 2002, a total of 11 patients with Setoli-Leydig cell tumor were retrospectively analyzed.
  • And 5 patients with poorly differentiated or stage II-III tumors were subjected to postoperational chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian Setoli-Leydig cell tumor has good prognosis.
  • Surgery alone is a currently acceptable treatment for patients with well-differentiated early stage tumors.
  • For patients with poorly differentiated or advanced tumors, postoperational chemotherapy seems to be necessary.
  • Conservative surgery should be the treatment of choice in young patients who need future fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15196418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. Engohan-Aloghe C, Aubain Sommerhausen Nde S, Noël JC: Ovarian involvement by desmoplastic small round cell tumor with leydig cell hyperplasia showing an unusual immunophenotype (cytokeratin negative, calretinin and inhibin positive) mimicking poorly differentiated sertoli leydig cell tumor. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Nov;28(6):579-83
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  • [Title] Ovarian involvement by desmoplastic small round cell tumor with leydig cell hyperplasia showing an unusual immunophenotype (cytokeratin negative, calretinin and inhibin positive) mimicking poorly differentiated sertoli leydig cell tumor.
  • Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare aggressive tumor primarily involving serosal surfaces in adolescents and young men.
  • We report here a variant of DSRCT involving the ovaries that mimics the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor in a 21-year-old woman complaining of abdominal pain.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a right adnexal mass.
  • Frozen section examination identified the right ovarian mass as a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor.
  • The surgically resected tumor and left ovary and omentum implants found during laparoscopy were diagnosed as DSRCT with Leydig cell hyperplasia.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were negative for epithelial markers but were positive for calretinin and inhibin.
  • The patient is still undergoing chemotherapy at 8 months after initial presentation with partial response.
  • This case showed that DSRCT with unusual immunohistochemical profiles and Leydig cells hyperplasia pose a diagnostic challenge.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Leydig Cells / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents. Calbindin 2. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Inhibins / biosynthesis. Male. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / metabolism. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19851210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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6. Chen FY, Sheu BC, Lin MC, Chow SN, Lin HH: Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary. J Formos Med Assoc; 2004 May;103(5):388-91
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  • [Title] Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors of the ovary are rare diseases that occur primarily in young women.
  • To date, no standard therapy exists.
  • Here we report 4 cases of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors of the ovary.
  • One patient whose tumor was a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with mesenchymal heterologous elements received adjuvant chemotherapy postoperatively but died of disease 2.5 years after surgery.
  • Conservative surgery is an appropriate treatment for young patients with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors.
  • Those who have poor prognostic factors may need adjuvant chemotherapy with a combination of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin.

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  • (PMID = 15216408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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7. Watanabe T, Yamada H, Morimura Y, Abe M, Motoyama T, Sato A: Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous gastrointestinal epithelium as a source of alpha-fetoprotein: a case report. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2008 Jun;34(3):418-21
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  • [Title] Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous gastrointestinal epithelium as a source of alpha-fetoprotein: a case report.
  • Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCT) are rare sex cord stromal neoplasms.
  • To date there have been approximately 25 case reports of ovarian SLCT expressing alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).
  • In such cases, AFP was immunohistochemically detected in the Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, or hepatocytes.
  • A right ovarian tumor was detected and the patient's serum AFP was elevated.
  • On microscopic examination, the tumor was composed of a fibrosarcoma-like area and a poorly differentiated SLCT area with heterologous gastrointestinal epithelium.
  • A recurrent tumor was discovered in the omentum after adjuvant chemotherapy, but serum AFP remained normal.
  • A second laparotomy was performed and the recurrent tumor showed only fibrosarcoma-like features.
  • The patient received second line chemotherapy and is currently in remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Tract / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Epithelial Cells / chemistry. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Humans. Omentum / pathology. Omentum / surgery. Ovariectomy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 18588618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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8. Panagiotou JP, Polychronopoulou S, Sofou K, Vanvliet-Constantinidou C, Papandreou E, Haidas S: Second and third malignant solid tumor in a girl with ovarian Sertoli-Leydig tumor. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 May 1;46(5):654-6
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  • [Title] Second and third malignant solid tumor in a girl with ovarian Sertoli-Leydig tumor.
  • We report a Sertoli-Leydig cell (SLC) tumor of the right ovary in a 10-year-old girl, which was dealt with surgical removal.
  • Chemotherapy, according to SIOP-? ? ?
  • Three years after completing treatment, the patient developed a painful swelling at her left upper arm.
  • The diagnosis was Ewing sarcoma of the humerus, which was confirmed by identification of the typical 11; 22 translocation on cytogenetic and molecular analysis of the tumor tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 16411221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Wessalowski R, Pathmanathan R, Harms D, Göbel U: Therapy of advanced ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumors. Klin Padiatr; 2002 Jul-Aug;214(4):173-8
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  • [Title] Therapy of advanced ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors are rare tumors that develop from the gonadal non-germ cell component such as granulosa, Sertoli or Leydig cells.
  • Among these, juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT) constitute the largest subgroup of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors during childhood and adolescence.
  • In local disease (FIGO stage I), the beneficial role of tumor-ovarectomy is well established.
  • In contrast, life expectancy in patients with advanced JGCT (FIGO stage >/= II) is short even after complete tumor resection.
  • The current literature provides only limited and inconclusive data regarding the value of adjuvant chemotherapy in such patients with advanced disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Therefore, we analyzed the patients with FIGO stage >/= II JGCT who were prospectively documented as follow-up patients of the German MAKEI trials for non-testicular germ cell tumors and received the recommended cisplatin-based chemotherapy in an adjuvant setting.
  • Two patients received laparoscopic tumor resection, which was incomplete in both.
  • All patients received 4 or 6 cycles of adjuvant cisplatin-based three-agent chemotherapy in analogy to the current therapeutic concept applied in malignant germ cell tumors.
  • One patient with a large tumor and multiple peritoneal metastases additionally received 40 Gy abdominal irradiation.
  • RESULTS: All patients achieved complete clinical remission after initial surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • One patient developed a metachronous tumor of the contralateral ovary after 126 months follow-up and is still alive but currently in therapy of another recurrence.
  • Another patient suffered a tumor recurrence after 12 months but achieved a second complete remission with cisplatin chemotherapy after a follow-up of currently 4 months.
  • One patient achieved complete clinical remission but suffered a diffuse peritoneal tumor recurrence with massive ascites and finally died as a result of tumor progression.
  • In summary, at the time of this report 6 of 7 patients are alive after a median of 47 (15 - 138) months.
  • CONCLUSION: This analysis clearly demonstrates that advanced JGCT can be successfully treated with surgery followed by adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Therefore, this study reveals encouraging therapeutic perspectives in these otherwise fatal tumors that merit further investigation in a prospective cooperative trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12165898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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10. Lenhard M, Kuemper C, Ditsch N, Diebold J, Stieber P, Friese K, Burges A: Use of novel serum markers in clinical follow-up of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours. Clin Chem Lab Med; 2007;45(5):657-61
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  • [Title] Use of novel serum markers in clinical follow-up of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours of the ovary account for only 0.2% of malignant ovarian tumours.
  • Diagnostic imaging was suspicious for an ovarian cancer.
  • The standard tumour marker for ovarian cancer (CA 125) was elevated to 984 U/mL.
  • The final histological report described a malignant sex-cord stroma tumour, a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour, emanating from both ovaries.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy and regional hyperthermia were performed due to the malignant potential and incomplete resection of the tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Undifferentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours show a poor clinical course.

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  • (PMID = 17484630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-6621
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / antigen CYFRA21.1; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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11. Iwamoto I, Yanazume S, Fujino T, Yoshioka T, Douchi T: Leydig cell tumor in an elderly patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Mar;96(3):870-2
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  • [Title] Leydig cell tumor in an elderly patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.
  • Testicular tumors often develop in patients with AIS, Sertoli cell tumor and seminoma being the most common types.
  • Leydig cell tumor in AIS is extremely rare.
  • CASE: A large abdominal tumor developed in a 73-year-old female patient.
  • The patient underwent the extirpation of bilateral gonads including the tumor, pelvic lymph nodes, omentum and appendix vermiformis.
  • The pathological diagnosis was malignant Leydig cell tumor of the left testis.
  • There was no adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy performed.
  • CONCLUSION: We reported an extremely rare case of malignant Leydig cell tumor developing in an elderly AIS patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome / complications. Leydig Cell Tumor / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications


12. Schneider DT, Jänig U, Calaminus G, Göbel U, Harms D: Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors--a clinicopathological study of 72 cases from the Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry. Virchows Arch; 2003 Oct;443(4):549-60
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  • [Title] Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors--a clinicopathological study of 72 cases from the Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry.
  • We analyzed 72 patients with ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (OSCST) registered at the German Pediatric Tumor Registry in Kiel over a 20-year period.
  • Juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT, n=48) were the most frequent histological subtype.
  • In addition, there were 14 Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, 5 sclerosing stromal tumors, 2 sex cord tumors with annular tubules, 2 thecomas and 1 steroid cell tumor.
  • Compared with adult granulosa cell tumors, JGCT showed pronounced mitotic activity [mean 9.8 mitoses/10 high power field (HPF)], which was significantly higher than in other histological subtypes (2.7/10 HPF, P=0.001).
  • Of patients, 12 with Ic or higher stage tumors received adjuvant cisplatinum-based chemotherapy.
  • In conclusion, this analysis confirms that the majority of patients with OSCST present at low tumor stage and that prognosis in these patients is excellent.
  • Therefore, histopathological evaluation substantially contributes to risk assessment in patients with OSCST and might be useful for therapy stratification in prospective therapeutic protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12910419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Nicoletto MO, Caltarossa E, Donach M, Nardelli GB, Parenti A, Ambrosini A: Sertoli cell tumor: a rare case in an elderly patient. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(1):86-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sertoli cell tumor: a rare case in an elderly patient.
  • Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors constitute < 1% of ovarian tumors, mostly in young women with virilization; however, not all present endocrine manifestations.
  • The pathologic diagnosis was poorly-differentiated sex cord-stromal tumor with Sertoli cells.
  • No adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation was administered.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Sertoli Cell Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy / methods. Rare Diseases. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16550978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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14. Loeffen JL, Wijnen M, Schijf CP, van Wieringen P: [Ovarian tumour in a girl with chronic abdominal pain and distension]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2006 Mar 25;150(12):677-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Ovarian tumour in a girl with chronic abdominal pain and distension].
  • The cause was a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour originating in the left ovary.
  • The cyst and ovary were resected.
  • Ovarian tumours are rarely seen in children.
  • Two of the most frequently observed sex cord-stromal tumours are the juvenile granulosa cell tumour and the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour.
  • Patients with advanced disease may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Chronic abdominal pain is frequently observed in children and, in some rare cases, may be caused by ovarian tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sertoli Cell Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16613252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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15. Cass DL, Hawkins E, Brandt ML, Chintagumpala M, Bloss RS, Milewicz AL, Minifee PK, Wesson DE, Nuchtern JG: Surgery for ovarian masses in infants, children, and adolescents: 102 consecutive patients treated in a 15-year period. J Pediatr Surg; 2001 May;36(5):693-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgery for ovarian masses in infants, children, and adolescents: 102 consecutive patients treated in a 15-year period.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Ovarian pathology, although rare in children, must be included in the differential diagnosis of all girls who present with abdominal pain, an abdominal mass, or precocious puberty.
  • METHODS: To improve clinical appreciation of these lesions, the authors reviewed the presentation, evaluation, and outcome of all patients with ovarian pathology surgically treated at their institution since 1985.
  • RESULTS: One hundred two girls (aged 9.8 +/- 5.5 years; range, 2 days to 20 years) underwent 106 separate ovarian operations (43 salpingo-oophorectomies, 21 oophorectomies, 33 ovarian cystectomies, and 9 ovarian biopsies).
  • Of those presenting with acute abdominal pain (n = 59), 25 (42%) had ovarian torsion (14 associated with a mature teratoma), and only 1 (2%) had a malignant tumor.
  • Nine children had 10 operations for presumed malignant tumors (3 dysgerminomas, 2 immature teratomas with foci of yolk sac tumor, 2 juvenile granulosa cell tumors, 1 yolk sac tumor, and 1 Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor).
  • These patients all had unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, 4 had chemotherapy, and all are now disease free at 8.4 +/- 4.1 years follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: Ovarian pathology remains a rare indication for surgery in girls less than 20 years of age.
  • Because most of these lesions are benign, ovarian-preserving operations should be performed whenever feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Ovariectomy / methods. Ovariectomy / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Age Factors. Age of Onset. Biopsy. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hospitals, Pediatric. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Omentum / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.
  • (PMID = 11329568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3468
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Harms D, Göbel U, German Maligne Keimzelltumoren Study Group: Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors in children and adolescents. J Reprod Med; 2005 Jun;50(6):439-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors in children and adolescents.
  • Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (OSCSTs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that develop from the gonadal non-germ-cell component.
  • Despite recent advances in the clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of OSCSTs, a high degree of uncertainty remains with regard to adequate therapy, particularly in patients presenting with microscopic or macroscopic tumor spread.
  • In addition, we summarize the data from our clinical, histopathologic and genetic analyses of patients that were prospectively reported to the German MAKEI protocols for treatment of nontesticular malignant germ cell tumors.
  • Among these patients, juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs) constitute the most frequent histologic subtype, followed by Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) and sclerosing stromal tumors.
  • Patients with JGCT and SLCT show greater mitotic activity than do all those with other histologic types.
  • In addition, prognosis correlates with tumor stage according to the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
  • Nevertheless, we observed a favorable response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in the majority of stage II and III tumors.
  • This analysis confirmed that most OSCSTs present at a low tumor stage and that prognosis in these patients is excellent.
  • Most important, patients at high risk can be identified through clinical and histopathologic analysis, and the majority can be treated successfully with adjuvant cisplatinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Germany. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16050568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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17. Chan JK, Zhang M, Kaleb V, Loizzi V, Benjamin J, Vasilev S, Osann K, Disaia PJ: Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary--a multivariate analysis. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jan;96(1):204-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary--a multivariate analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prognostic factors that impacts the survival of women with sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary (SCST).
  • METHODS: Cases were identified from tumor registry databases at three academic institutions between 1975 and 2003.
  • Patient characteristics, surgical treatment, adjuvant therapy, pathologic and follow-up information were collected from hospital charts and clinic records.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-three women (median age: 49 years) with SCST of the ovary, including 73 with granulosa and 10 with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors were identified.
  • Furthermore, age <50 (P = 0.003), premenopausal status (P = 0.013), tumor size < 10 cm (P = 0.003), lack of lymph node invasion (P < 0.0005), and absence of residual disease (P = 0.002) were all significant predictors for improved survival.
  • Of the patients who received adjuvant treatment, chemotherapy did not impact survival (P = 0.11).
  • In multivariate analysis, age <50, smaller tumor size, and absence of residual disease remained as independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Age <50, smaller tumor size, and absence of residual disease are important predictors for improved survival in patients with SCST of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Registries. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15589602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Donahoe PK, Clarke T, Teixeira J, Maheswaran S, MacLaughlin DT: Enhanced purification and production of Müllerian inhibiting substance for therapeutic applications. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2003 Dec 15;211(1-2):37-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Enhanced purification and production of Müllerian inhibiting substance for therapeutic applications.
  • MIS functions by interacting with two receptors; a type II binds the hormone and at type I that initiates downstream signaling.
  • The MIS type II receptor has been cloned and functionally confirmed as distinct from that of other members of the TGFbeta superfamily.
  • MIS can employ a number of type I receptors (ALK2, ALK3, ALK6) and BMP receptor specific SMADS 1, 5, and 8 in various tissue specific contexts.
  • Cell lines derived from human ovarian, breast, and prostate tumors, and from rodent Leydig cell tumors, which respond to MIS in growth inhibition assays, all express the MIS type II receptor.
  • For example, breast and prostate cancer cell lines use a MIS-mediated NFkappaB pathway leading to G1 arrest and apoptosis.
  • The ovarian cancer cell lines employ a pathway which enhances p16, modulates the E2Fs, and induces apoptosis.
  • These signal transduction events can establish new rational treatment strategies to complement the growth inhibitory effects mediated by MIS.
  • [MeSH-major] Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Glycoproteins / therapeutic use. Testicular Hormones / biosynthesis. Testicular Hormones / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Activin Receptors, Type I / physiology. Animals. Anti-Mullerian Hormone. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / physiology. Female. Fibrinolysin / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Mice. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / physiology. Receptors, Growth Factor / physiology. Receptors, Peptide / physiology. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta. Recombinant Proteins / biosynthesis. Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Sex Differentiation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 14656474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor; 0 / Receptors, Peptide; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Testicular Hormones; 0 / anti-Mullerian hormone receptor; 80497-65-0 / Anti-Mullerian Hormone; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.30 / Activin Receptors, Type I; EC 2.7.11.30 / BMPR1B protein, human; EC 2.7.11.30 / Bmpr1a protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.30 / Bmpr1b protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.30 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I; EC 3.4.21.7 / Fibrinolysin
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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