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1. Tao X, Sood AK, Deavers MT, Schmeler KM, Nick AM, Coleman RL, Milojevic L, Gershenson DM, Brown J: Anti-angiogenesis therapy with bevacizumab for patients with ovarian granulosa cell tumors. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Sep;114(3):431-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anti-angiogenesis therapy with bevacizumab for patients with ovarian granulosa cell tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: Ovarian granulosa cell tumors tend to respond poorly to chemotherapy.
  • We examined the clinical efficacy of bevacizumab with or without concurrent chemotherapy and evaluated the angiogenic characteristics of these patients' tumors.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients seen at our institution from February 2004 to October 2008 who received bevacizumab for ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • We performed immunohistochemical staining for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD31 when tissue was available; microvessel density was measured based on CD31 staining.
  • RESULTS: We identified 8 patients who were treated with bevacizumab; 7 had adult granulosa cell tumors and one had a juvenile granulosa cell tumor.
  • All patients had recurrent disease and had been previously treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy (median 3.5 regimens; range, 1-6).
  • One patient had a complete clinical response to bevacizumab therapy, 2 patients had a partial response, 2 patients had stable disease, and 3 patients' disease progressed, yielding a response rate of 38% and a clinical benefit rate of 63%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VEGF therapy is highly effective in patients with granulosa cell tumors.
  • Based on our observations, a prospective trial has been initiated using single-agent bevacizumab in patients with recurrent ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Granulosa Cell Tumor / blood supply. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood supply. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antigens, CD31 / metabolism. Bevacizumab. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19524286.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA101642
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS645749; NLM/ PMC4263417
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2. Ray-Coquard I, Pautier P, Pujade-Lauraine E, Méeus P, Morice P, Treilleux I, Duvillard P, Alexandre J, Lhommé C, Selle F, Guastalla J: [Rare ovarian tumours: therapeutic strategies in 2010, national website observatory for rare ovarian cancers and delineation of referent centers in France]. Bull Cancer; 2010 Jan;97(1):123-35
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  • [Title] [Rare ovarian tumours: therapeutic strategies in 2010, national website observatory for rare ovarian cancers and delineation of referent centers in France].
  • [Transliterated title] Les tumeurs rares de l'ovaire: stratégies thérapeutiques en 2010, Observatoire francophone des tumeurs rares de l'ovaire et émergence des centres de références.
  • Majorities of the rare ovarian cancers were represented by germ cell tumours and sex cords ovarian tumours with borderline tumours, clear cell carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma and are extremely rare malignant diseases of the ovaries.
  • Tumors of the stromal (Leydig cells) and/or sex cords (Sertoli cells) represent approximately 7% of ovarian cancers and develop from the conjunctive tissue (respectively, interstitial and nurse cells) of the ovaries.
  • All together, they represented less than 5% of the adult malignant and non malignant ovarian tumours.
  • Treatment of rare ovarian tumors is currently as follows.
  • Surgery is the same as that for ovarian adenocarcinoma, with one major difference: conservation of reproductive function in women of reproductive age is usual case for this type of tumor.
  • Chemotherapy for germ cell and sex cords tumors, based on data reported in the literature is the same as that prescribed for testicular germ-cell tumors.
  • Surgery, chemotherapy and possible surgical intervention for residual lesions are highly complex.
  • Too rare to be included in randomized studies, treatment of these tumors has benefited from the therapeutic advancements made against testicular germ-cell tumors or with publications using retrospective data.
  • Because of the rarity of these tumours a specialized website (www.ovaire-rare.org) was developed in France in 2002.
  • The other new scientific data concern surgical procedures for sex cords tumors, evidence for presence of FOXL2 mutation in adult granulosa cell tumors, the use of paclitaxel plus carboplatin for sex cords tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Care Facilities / organization & administration. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / therapy. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. France. Humans. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Rare Diseases / pathology. Rare Diseases / therapy. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20007069.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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3. Merras-Salmio L, Vettenranta K, Möttönen M, Heikinheimo M: Ovarian granulosa cell tumors in childhood. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2002 Apr-May;19(3):145-56
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  • [Title] Ovarian granulosa cell tumors in childhood.
  • Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary are prepubertal in 5% of the patients.
  • These juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs) are usually benign.
  • GCTs belong to ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, the more common ovarian tumors being epidermal and germinal.
  • Cisplatin-containing chemotherapy can induce remissions in adult GCTs.
  • The authors describe 3 children with GCT and review current data on this rare tumor from molecular biology to clinical aspects.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11936727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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4. Pectasides D, Pectasides E, Psyrri A: Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Cancer Treat Rev; 2008 Feb;34(1):1-12
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  • [Title] Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are uncommon neoplasms that arise from the sex-cord stromal cells of the ovary.
  • Occasionally, tumor rupture causes abdominal pain and hemoperitoneum.
  • In postmenopausal women and those with more advanced disease a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the appropriate surgical treatment.
  • The role of post-operative chemo- or radiotherapy in stage I disease and those with completely resected tumor has not been defined.
  • Nevertheless, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy has sometimes been associated with prolonged disease-free survival and possibly overall survival.
  • Chemotherapy should be considered for patients with advanced, recurrent or metastatic disease and the BEP (bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin) is the currently preferable regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Estradiol / analysis. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 17945423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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5. Schumer ST, Cannistra SA: Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. J Clin Oncol; 2003 Mar 15;21(6):1180-9
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  • [Title] Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary is oftentimes a hormonally active, stromal cell neoplasm that is distinguished by its ability to secrete sex steroids such as estrogen.
  • Patients may present with vaginal bleeding caused by endometrial hyperplasia or uterine cancer as a result of prolonged exposure to tumor-derived estrogen.
  • In addition, GCT is a vascular tumor that may occasionally rupture and result in abdominal pain, hemoperitoneum, and hypotension, mimicking an ectopic pregnancy in younger patients.
  • Surgery is required for definitive tissue diagnosis, staging, and tumor debulking.
  • In addition, patients with stage I disease associated with features such as large tumor size, high mitotic index, or tumor rupture may also be at higher risk in some series.
  • The value of postoperative adjuvant therapy for high-risk patients has not been investigated by prospective randomized trials, which are difficult to perform because of the rarity of this tumor.
  • Nonetheless, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation has sometimes been associated with prolonged disease-free survival in patients with high-risk features.
  • Because of the propensity of GCT to recur years after initial diagnosis, prolonged surveillance with serial physical examination and serum tumor markers such as estradiol and inhibin is reasonable.
  • [MeSH-major] Glycoproteins. Granulosa Cell Tumor. Ovarian Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Anti-Mullerian Hormone. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Climacteric. Estradiol / blood. Female. Growth Inhibitors / analysis. Humans. Incidence. Inhibins / blood. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Staging. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Population Surveillance. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Testicular Hormones / analysis. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 12637488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Growth Inhibitors; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Testicular Hormones; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 80497-65-0 / Anti-Mullerian Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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6. Colombo N, Parma G, Zanagnolo V, Insinga A: Management of ovarian stromal cell tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Jul 10;25(20):2944-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of ovarian stromal cell tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To describe the clinical management of ovarian stromal cell tumors, which are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that develop from the sex cords and the ovarian stroma.
  • DESIGN: We reviewed the current evidence on the clinical management of these relatively rare ovarian malignancies, which are typically detected at an early stage and may recur as late as 30 years following the initial treatment.
  • Adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is the most common malignancy among these tumors.
  • RESULTS: Surgery is the cornerstone of initial treatment.
  • Tumor stage represents the most important clinical parameter of prognostic relevance.
  • The value of postoperative adjuvant therapy for high-risk patients has not been proven by prospective randomized studies.
  • Platinum-based chemotherapy is used currently for patients with advanced stages or recurrent disease, with an overall response rate of 63% to 80%.
  • Taxane and platinum combination chemotherapy seems to be a reasonable candidate for future trials.
  • Little evidence exists for the use of radiation or hormonal therapy, and these modalities should be restricted to selected cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgery remains the most effective treatment for ovarian stromal tumors and, whenever feasible, for relapsing disease.
  • Platinum-based chemotherapy is currently used in metastatic or recurrent tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Medical Oncology / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17617526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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7. Grabiec M, Kwiatkowski M, Walentowicz M, Greźlikowska U: [Current views on treatment of the ovarian granulosa-cell tumor]. Ginekol Pol; 2008 Jan;79(1):42-6
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  • [Title] [Current views on treatment of the ovarian granulosa-cell tumor].
  • The granulosa-cell tumor (folliculoma) is a rare type of ovarian neoplasm, accounting for 5% of all cases.
  • It is the most common type of sex cord-stromal tumors, diagnosed in 70% of cases.
  • The granulosa-cell tumor is a hormone active one, originating from granulosa cells which produce estradiol.
  • Overproduction of estradiol is helpful in the diagnosis of the tumor because of its numerous symptoms.
  • There are two types of folliculoma: juvenile (5%) and adult (95%).
  • The juvenile type is mostly recognized (90%) in FIGO I stage and has a better prognosis.
  • Operation is often a sufficient way of treatment in this group.
  • Patients with the disease diagnosed in higher stages must be treated by adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • Recurrence appears often many years after the treatment and has high mortality.
  • Many old (platinum) and new (taxans) agents are active when used in treatment of this type of tumor.
  • Randomized study must be made to establish standard therapy of granulosa-cell tumor.
  • Currently, the most frequent way of treatment is chemotherapy with BEP (Blemycyna, Etopozyd, Cisplatyna).
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18510049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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8. Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Wessalowski R, Pathmanathan R, Harms D, Göbel U: Therapy of advanced ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumors. Klin Padiatr; 2002 Jul-Aug;214(4):173-8
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  • [Title] Therapy of advanced ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors are rare tumors that develop from the gonadal non-germ cell component such as granulosa, Sertoli or Leydig cells.
  • Among these, juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT) constitute the largest subgroup of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors during childhood and adolescence.
  • In local disease (FIGO stage I), the beneficial role of tumor-ovarectomy is well established.
  • In contrast, life expectancy in patients with advanced JGCT (FIGO stage >/= II) is short even after complete tumor resection.
  • The current literature provides only limited and inconclusive data regarding the value of adjuvant chemotherapy in such patients with advanced disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Therefore, we analyzed the patients with FIGO stage >/= II JGCT who were prospectively documented as follow-up patients of the German MAKEI trials for non-testicular germ cell tumors and received the recommended cisplatin-based chemotherapy in an adjuvant setting.
  • Two patients received laparoscopic tumor resection, which was incomplete in both.
  • All patients received 4 or 6 cycles of adjuvant cisplatin-based three-agent chemotherapy in analogy to the current therapeutic concept applied in malignant germ cell tumors.
  • One patient with a large tumor and multiple peritoneal metastases additionally received 40 Gy abdominal irradiation.
  • RESULTS: All patients achieved complete clinical remission after initial surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • One patient developed a metachronous tumor of the contralateral ovary after 126 months follow-up and is still alive but currently in therapy of another recurrence.
  • Another patient suffered a tumor recurrence after 12 months but achieved a second complete remission with cisplatin chemotherapy after a follow-up of currently 4 months.
  • One patient achieved complete clinical remission but suffered a diffuse peritoneal tumor recurrence with massive ascites and finally died as a result of tumor progression.
  • In summary, at the time of this report 6 of 7 patients are alive after a median of 47 (15 - 138) months.
  • CONCLUSION: This analysis clearly demonstrates that advanced JGCT can be successfully treated with surgery followed by adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Therefore, this study reveals encouraging therapeutic perspectives in these otherwise fatal tumors that merit further investigation in a prospective cooperative trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12165898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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9. Koukourakis GV, Kouloulias VE, Koukourakis MJ, Zacharias GA, Papadimitriou C, Mystakidou K, Pistevou-Gompaki K, Kouvaris J, Gouliamos A: Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: tumor review. Integr Cancer Ther; 2008 Sep;7(3):204-15
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  • [Title] Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: tumor review.
  • Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare neoplasms that originate from sex-cord stromal cells.
  • The long natural history of granulosa cell tumors and their tendency to recur years after the initial diagnosis are the most prominent of their characteristics.
  • Abdominal pain and hemoperitoneum, which occasionally can occur, are attributable to tumor rupture.
  • The most common finding in pelvic examination is a tumor mass, which is subsequently confirmed with imaging techniques.
  • Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the appropriate surgical treatment for postmenopausal women and those with more advanced disease.
  • There are no clear conclusions regarding the role of postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy in stage I disease and in those with completely resected tumor.
  • The use of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy has sometimes been associated with prolonged disease-free survival and possibly overall survival.
  • Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for patients with advanced, recurrent, or metastatic disease, and BEP (bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin) is the preferred regimen.
  • Although the overall rate of response to treatment is high, the impact of treatment on disease-free or overall survival is unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 18815151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-7354
  • [Journal-full-title] Integrative cancer therapies
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Integr Cancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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10. Chauhan A, Dahiya P, Singh H, Gill M, Verma S: Isolated breast metastasis from granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Dec;280(6):997-9
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  • [Title] Isolated breast metastasis from granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare neoplasms arising from sex-cord stromal cells.
  • Granulosa cell tumor of ovary metastasizing to breast has never been reported in literature.
  • We present such a case of ovarian granulosa cell tumor with metastasis to the breast, which was the presenting symptom.
  • The patient was treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy which was followed by chemotherapy.
  • The patient is relapse free 2 years after completion of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Granulosa Cell Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19306013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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11. Geetha P, Nair MK: Granulosa cell tumours of the ovary. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol; 2010 Jun;50(3):216-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Granulosa cell tumours of the ovary.
  • Granulosa cell tumours are rare, potentially malignant sex cord stromal tumours of the ovary.
  • Many of them are hormone-producing and this property helps them to present early unlike other epithelial ovarian cancers.
  • As a result, most of them will be in an early stage at the time of initial diagnosis.
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice and initial staging laparatomy a determinant recurrence.
  • Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have very little role in the initial treatment and may be suggested in case of recurrences.
  • With appropriate treatment, a better survival rate can be achieved as against other ovarian malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20618236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-828X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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12. Mehta H, Trivedi P, Parikh B, Shukla K, Shah MJ: Clinicopathological prognostic factors of adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary--a study of 37 cases. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Oct;48(4):439-43
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological prognostic factors of adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary--a study of 37 cases.
  • Adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary is the most common malignancy amongst the sex cord stromal tumors.
  • Clinical stage, age, tumor size, residual disease and several histologic factors have been reported to be of prognostic significance.
  • There were 839 ovarian malignancies at our institute during the period from 1998 to 2002.
  • Out of 54 granulosa cell tumors, 40 cases were evaluable which includes 37 cases of adult GCT and 3 cases of juvenile GCT.
  • All patients were treated surgically and 62.1% of adult GCTs were given post-operative chemotherapy.
  • Clinical stage, presence of residual disease and tumor volume were the most important prognostic factors.
  • Age of patient, menstrual status, post-operative chemotherapy, mitosis or histological patterns were of little significance in our study.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16366090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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13. Freeman SA, Modesitt SC: Anastrozole therapy in recurrent ovarian adult granulosa cell tumors: a report of 2 cases. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Nov;103(2):755-8
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  • [Title] Anastrozole therapy in recurrent ovarian adult granulosa cell tumors: a report of 2 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian sex cord stromal tumors are frequently hormonally active, and adult granulosa cell tumors often demonstrate estrogen receptor positivity.
  • Thus, hormonal agents have been evaluated as potential treatments for advanced stage or recurrent adult granulosa cell tumors.
  • CASE: Two cases of patients with recurrent adult granulosa cell tumors are presented.
  • Each patient received multiple treatment modalities including chemotherapy and had previously progressed on leuprolide.
  • They have been maintained on treatment for 14 and 18 months, respectively, and have tolerated the drug without difficulty.
  • CONCLUSION: Aromatase inhibitors may be a viable treatment option for women with advanced stage or recurrent ovarian adult granulosa cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Aromatase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Triazoles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16870240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / 2K12DA14040-06
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 2Z07MYW1AZ / anastrozole
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14. Stuart GC, Dawson LM: Update on granulosa cell tumours of the ovary. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol; 2003 Feb;15(1):33-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Update on granulosa cell tumours of the ovary.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Granulosa cell tumours of the ovary are an uncommon ovarian sex-cord stromal tumour.
  • Surgery represents the primary therapy for early stage disease; however, management of women with advanced disease is less clear.
  • Because of their relative rarity, evidence to support decision-making in the management of granulosa cell tumours is limited.
  • The purpose of this review is to provide the clinician with an updated knowledge of the clinical and molecular aspects of granulosa cell tumours in order to guide therapy.
  • However, these tumours may demonstrate heterogeneous genetic aberrations that can predict behaviour and response to therapy.
  • Case series and reports suggest that postoperative combination chemotherapy is of most benefit in advanced disease.
  • SUMMARY: The pathology and treatment of women with granulosa cell tumours of the ovary is complex.
  • A better understanding of the molecular pathology may assist treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / surgery. Inhibins / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12544499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-872X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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15. Schneider DT, Jänig U, Calaminus G, Göbel U, Harms D: Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors--a clinicopathological study of 72 cases from the Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry. Virchows Arch; 2003 Oct;443(4):549-60
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  • [Title] Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors--a clinicopathological study of 72 cases from the Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry.
  • We analyzed 72 patients with ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (OSCST) registered at the German Pediatric Tumor Registry in Kiel over a 20-year period.
  • Juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT, n=48) were the most frequent histological subtype.
  • In addition, there were 14 Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, 5 sclerosing stromal tumors, 2 sex cord tumors with annular tubules, 2 thecomas and 1 steroid cell tumor.
  • Compared with adult granulosa cell tumors, JGCT showed pronounced mitotic activity [mean 9.8 mitoses/10 high power field (HPF)], which was significantly higher than in other histological subtypes (2.7/10 HPF, P=0.001).
  • Of patients, 12 with Ic or higher stage tumors received adjuvant cisplatinum-based chemotherapy.
  • In conclusion, this analysis confirms that the majority of patients with OSCST present at low tumor stage and that prognosis in these patients is excellent.
  • Therefore, histopathological evaluation substantially contributes to risk assessment in patients with OSCST and might be useful for therapy stratification in prospective therapeutic protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12910419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Harms D, Göbel U, German Maligne Keimzelltumoren Study Group: Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors in children and adolescents. J Reprod Med; 2005 Jun;50(6):439-46
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  • [Title] Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors in children and adolescents.
  • Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (OSCSTs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that develop from the gonadal non-germ-cell component.
  • Despite recent advances in the clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of OSCSTs, a high degree of uncertainty remains with regard to adequate therapy, particularly in patients presenting with microscopic or macroscopic tumor spread.
  • In addition, we summarize the data from our clinical, histopathologic and genetic analyses of patients that were prospectively reported to the German MAKEI protocols for treatment of nontesticular malignant germ cell tumors.
  • Among these patients, juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs) constitute the most frequent histologic subtype, followed by Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) and sclerosing stromal tumors.
  • Patients with JGCT and SLCT show greater mitotic activity than do all those with other histologic types.
  • In addition, prognosis correlates with tumor stage according to the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
  • Nevertheless, we observed a favorable response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in the majority of stage II and III tumors.
  • This analysis confirmed that most OSCSTs present at a low tumor stage and that prognosis in these patients is excellent.
  • Most important, patients at high risk can be identified through clinical and histopathologic analysis, and the majority can be treated successfully with adjuvant cisplatinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Germany. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16050568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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17. Bats AS, Larousserie F, Le Frère-Belda MA, Metzger U, Lécuru F: Usefulness of routine intraoperative staging of suspicious adnexal tumours: illustration by two cases of adult granulosa cell tumour. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(2):206-8
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  • [Title] Usefulness of routine intraoperative staging of suspicious adnexal tumours: illustration by two cases of adult granulosa cell tumour.
  • Granulosa cell tumours (GCTs) account for less than 3% of all ovarian malignancies but are among the most common sex cord-stromal tumours.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy is required in some patients.
  • We report two cases of adult GCTs that illustrate the usefulness of extensive abdominal exploration in every patient with a suspicious ovarian mass, to obviate the need for a second staging procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20527242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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18. Ye L, Wu XL, Xu L, Huang Q, Sun L, He Y, Yang KX: [Ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified: a clinicopathologic study]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Aug;36(8):516-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified: a clinicopathologic study].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis and treatment options of ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified (NOS).
  • METHODS: Light microscopy and immunohistochemical study was carried out in 8 cases of ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS.
  • RESULTS: The 7 cases of benign ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS were composed mainly of polygonal cells with granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and larger cells with vacuolated cytoplasm.
  • They resembled the architecture of normal adrenal gland, with formation of cell nests and trabeculae.
  • The single case of malignant ovarian steroid cell tumor had evidence of significant cellular pleomorphism, haemorrhage and coagulative tumor necrosis.
  • Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells expressed calretinin and alpha-inhibin.
  • Differential diagnosis included oxyphilic granulosa cell tumor, thecoma, Sertoli cell tumor and clear cell carcinoma.
  • The treatment options of benign ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS was local excision or ipsilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, while the malignant counterpart should be treated with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, including administration of GnRH agonist.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS, is the most common type of ovarian steroid cell tumors.
  • The treatment options of ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS depend on its malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Inhibins / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovary / pathology. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Calbindin 2. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Ovariectomy / methods. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Thecoma / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17980097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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19. Chua IS, Tan KT, Lim-Tan SK, Ho TH: A clinical review of granulosa cell tumours of the ovary cases in KKH. Singapore Med J; 2001 May;42(5):203-7
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  • [Title] A clinical review of granulosa cell tumours of the ovary cases in KKH.
  • INTRODUCTION: Granulosa cell tumour (GCT) represents the largest group of sex-cord stromal tumours and comprises 1.5-3% of ovarian malignancy.
  • RESULTS: GCT accounts for 3.5% of ovarian malignancy (54 out of 1552) in Singapore, of which 94.7% are adult GCT.
  • Only one patient required adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Thus, despite the fact that there is no evidence of recurrence of disease in our current study, we still recommend a vigilant follow-up protocol on all patients as literature has proven that with early detection of recurrences, it is possible to achieve complete cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age of Onset. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Endometrial Hyperplasia. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postmenopause. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Singapore / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 11513057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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20. Zanagnolo V, Pasinetti B, Sartori E: Clinical review of 63 cases of sex cord stromal tumors. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2004;25(4):431-8
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  • [Title] Clinical review of 63 cases of sex cord stromal tumors.
  • PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: A retrospective analysis of 63 cases of sex cord stromal tumors treated in a 22-year period to evaluate the prognostic impact of different clinical parameters.
  • METHODS: Sixty-three cases of sex cord stromal tumors were studied.
  • The most frequent cell type was adult granulosa cell tumor (75%); a total of 37 patients (62%) had Stage IA lesions.
  • RESULTS: The cornerstone of treatment is surgery.
  • Conservative surgical treatment was performed in 11 out of 47 cases (23%) of early stage tumor and in one of 13 patients affected by advanced neoplasm.
  • Five of these 12 patients became pregnant after the treatment.
  • Twenty-one patients (35%) received adjuvant therapy: 20 chemotherapy and one chemo-radiation treatment.
  • All the recurrent patients but one had been treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (VAC and/or PVB).
  • CONCLUSION: Tumor stage is the most important clinical parameter of prognostic relevance.
  • Tumor size and laterality significantly affected prognosis in terms of overall survival; survival rate did not seem to be affected either by the age of the patients or by the modality of surgical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / mortality. Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / mortality. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy / methods. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15285297.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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21. Chan JK, Zhang M, Kaleb V, Loizzi V, Benjamin J, Vasilev S, Osann K, Disaia PJ: Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary--a multivariate analysis. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jan;96(1):204-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary--a multivariate analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prognostic factors that impacts the survival of women with sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary (SCST).
  • METHODS: Cases were identified from tumor registry databases at three academic institutions between 1975 and 2003.
  • Patient characteristics, surgical treatment, adjuvant therapy, pathologic and follow-up information were collected from hospital charts and clinic records.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-three women (median age: 49 years) with SCST of the ovary, including 73 with granulosa and 10 with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors were identified.
  • Furthermore, age <50 (P = 0.003), premenopausal status (P = 0.013), tumor size < 10 cm (P = 0.003), lack of lymph node invasion (P < 0.0005), and absence of residual disease (P = 0.002) were all significant predictors for improved survival.
  • Of the patients who received adjuvant treatment, chemotherapy did not impact survival (P = 0.11).
  • In multivariate analysis, age <50, smaller tumor size, and absence of residual disease remained as independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Age <50, smaller tumor size, and absence of residual disease are important predictors for improved survival in patients with SCST of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / mortality

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  • (PMID = 15589602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Loeffen JL, Wijnen M, Schijf CP, van Wieringen P: [Ovarian tumour in a girl with chronic abdominal pain and distension]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2006 Mar 25;150(12):677-80
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  • [Title] [Ovarian tumour in a girl with chronic abdominal pain and distension].
  • The cause was a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour originating in the left ovary.
  • Ovarian tumours are rarely seen in children.
  • Two of the most frequently observed sex cord-stromal tumours are the juvenile granulosa cell tumour and the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour.
  • Patients with advanced disease may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Chronic abdominal pain is frequently observed in children and, in some rare cases, may be caused by ovarian tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sertoli Cell Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16613252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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23. Kommoss F, Kommoss S, Eichhorn J, Schmidt D: [Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Morphological and clinical features]. Pathologe; 2007 May;28(3):209-14
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  • [Title] [Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Morphological and clinical features].
  • Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary (TCC-O) is a less common type of malignant surface epithelial-stromal tumor of the ovary, still with uncertain incidence.
  • Histologically, TCC-O resembles urothelial carcinoma of the urinary system, and by definition does not contain a Brenner tumor component.
  • TCC-O may not be a bona fide urothelial neoplasm, however, but rather a lesion of the Müllerian type derived from the ovarian surface epithelium.
  • This notion is supported by the existence of mixed tumors consisting of TCC-O and other histological types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as the observation that TCC-O has a Müllerian type but not a urothelial-like immunohistochemical profile.
  • Besides metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract, the other types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as sex cord-stromal tumors such as adult granulosa cell tumors, have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of TCC-O.
  • A recent analysis of a large series of advanced ovarian carcinomas treated by radical surgery and postoperative chemotherapy confirms studies that had suggested that TCC-O has a better prognosis (with current treatment) than that of the other histological types of ovarian carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17447068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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24. Krasner C: Aromatase inhibitors in gynecologic cancers. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2007 Aug-Sep;106(1-5):76-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Recurrences of ovarian cancer have been treated with tamoxifen and megesterol acetate with variable response rates from 0 to 56%.
  • The favorable toxicity profile of aromatase inhibitors led to trials of these agents for the treatment of relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare, hormonally sensitive tumors, with reported responses to a variety of hormonal manipulations, including aromatase inhibition.
  • Endometrial cancers, particularly type I lesions, are often treated with hormonal manipulation, most commonly with progestins, but also with antiestrogens such as tamoxifen.
  • A trial of aromatase inhibition in the treatment of recurrent endometrial cancer showed minimal responses.
  • Endometrial stromal sarcoma, an uncommon uterine malignancy, has shown response to hormonal treatments, with multiple case reports of efficacy of aromatase inhibition.
  • Despite the rarity of some of these tumor types, rare tumor study groups, such as within the Gynecologic Oncology Group, should make an effort to prospectively define the utility of these treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Genital Neoplasms, Female / drug therapy. Genital Neoplasms, Female / enzymology. Sarcoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Hormones / therapeutic use. Humans

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Soft Tissue Sarcoma.
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  • (PMID = 17826626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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