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1. Sengar AR, Kulkarni JN: Growing teratoma syndrome in a post laparoscopic excision of ovarian immature teratoma. J Gynecol Oncol; 2010 Jun;21(2):129-31

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  • [Title] Growing teratoma syndrome in a post laparoscopic excision of ovarian immature teratoma.
  • A 26-year-old girl was referred to us in December 2008 with progressive pelvic mass while on chemotherapy.
  • Since histology was immature teratoma grade I, FIGO stage 1 she was kept on surveillance.
  • In September 2008, she developed recurrent pelvic mass with AFP levels of 2,400 ng/mL.
  • Three courses of chemotherapy (bleomycin-etoposide-cisplatin) were given.
  • Post-chemotherapy AFP normalized but tumor size increased.
  • With provisional diagnosis of growing teratoma syndrome she had exploratory laparotomy with excision of pelvic mass along with sigmoid colon, excision of right pelvic and subcutaneous deposits, omentectomy and sigmoid anastomosis.
  • Histology of all masses showed mature teratoma, no immature elements.
  • Growing teratoma syndrome is a clinico-pathological presentation during/post-chemotherapy in malignant ovarian germ cell tumor where mature teratoma grows and requires complete surgical excision.
  • Our case highlights the safety and adequacy concerns of laparoscopic management of malignant ovarian tumor.
  • Literature review suggests good prospects of resumption of menses, child bearing and five year survival in case of growing teratoma syndrome.

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  • (PMID = 20613905.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2895713
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Chemotherapy / Growing teratoma syndrome / Immature teratoma / Laparoscopy / Malignant ovarian germ cell tumor / Salpingo-oophorectomy
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2. Ghaemmaghami F, Hasanzadeh M, Karimi Zarchi M, Fallahi A: Nondysgerminomatous ovarian tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A case-controlled study. Int J Surg; 2008 Oct;6(5):382-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nondysgerminomatous ovarian tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A case-controlled study.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the response of patients with nondysgerminomatous ovarian germ-cell tumors (NDOGCT) to platinum-based chemotherapy and to determine association of prognostic factors to relapse of disease.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 21 patients who had surgical resection of nondysgerminomatous ovarian germ-cell tumors (NDOGCT) and received adjuvant chemotherapy in Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Iran during 1997-2004.
  • Histological type of tumors included the following: immature teratoma (n=7), mixed germ-cell tumor (n=7), yolk sac tumors (n=4), and embryonal carcinoma (n=3).
  • Distribution by stage at the time of surgery was as follows; stage I (n=10), stage III (n=6), and stage IV (n=5).
  • After the initial surgery, 13 patients immediately received chemotherapy and the other 8 patients received chemotherapy at a median time of 5.5 months (range, 1-40 months).
  • Postoperative chemotherapy included the following: bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (n=17); vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide (n=2); methotrexate, etoposide, and cisplatin (n=l); and cisplatin (n=l).
  • Thirty-one percent of the patients suffered a relapse after platinum-based combination chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that stage at the initial surgery, residual disease and the interval from initial diagnosis to the start of chemotherapy were possible prognostic factors for relapse.
  • Also, our study indicates that there may be a role for aggressive cytoreductive surgery in advance NDOGCT, and a need for second-line combination chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Case-Control Studies. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy / methods. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18715834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-9159
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgery (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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3. David YB, Weiss A, Shechtman L, Shalev E: Tumor chemoconversion following surgery, chemotherapy, and normalization of serum tumor markers in a woman with a mixed type germ cell ovarian tumor. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 Mar;84(3):464-7
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  • [Title] Tumor chemoconversion following surgery, chemotherapy, and normalization of serum tumor markers in a woman with a mixed type germ cell ovarian tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary are often curative after conservative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Persistent tumors despite normalization of serum tumor markers may represent retroconversion to benign masses, but this is rare in ovarian tumors without teratoma elements.
  • CASE: A young woman with a stage IIIC mixed germ cell ovarian tumor containing endodermal and dysgerminoma elements and elevated serum tumor markers underwent conservative surgery followed by chemotherapy.
  • The residual tissue was resected and contained benign tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In cases where masses persist and serum tumor markers normalize, attaining a histological diagnosis, and not chemotherapy, should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Germinoma / drug therapy. Germinoma / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 11855890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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4. Lu KH, Gershenson DM: Update on the management of ovarian germ cell tumors. J Reprod Med; 2005 Jun;50(6):417-25
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  • [Title] Update on the management of ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary are rare.
  • In contrast to epithelial ovarian cancer, malignant germ cell tumors occur primarily in girls and young women.
  • In a girl or young woman who presents with a pelvic mass, a gynecologist must consider the diagnosis of an ovarian germ cell tumor in the initial workup.
  • Appropriate intraoperative decision making is crucial to adequately treat and stage the cancer without compromising future fertility.
  • For patients with stage I dysgerminoma or stage I low grade immature teratoma, no additional chemotherapy is indicated.
  • However, patients with stage I disease of other germ cell histologies, as well as advanced-stage disease of all germ cell histologies, require adjuvant treatment with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fertility. Germinoma / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16050566.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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5. Lai CH, Chang TC, Hsueh S, Wu TI, Chao A, Chou HH, Wang PN: Outcome and prognostic factors in ovarian germ cell malignancies. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Mar;96(3):784-91
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  • [Title] Outcome and prognostic factors in ovarian germ cell malignancies.
  • OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to investigate the outcome and prognostic factors in patients with ovarian germ cell malignancies (OGCMs).
  • METHODS: A total of 93 patients with OGCMs were retrospectively reviewed, among whom 84 patients had primary treatment at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH) between 1984 and 2003.
  • The other nine patients were primarily treated outside and referred for follow-up (n = 1), adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 4), or salvage therapy after recurrence (n = 4).
  • The clinicopathological and treatment-related characteristics were analyzed for association with the occurrence of tumor persistence/recurrence or death.
  • RESULTS: Of the study patients, 32 had dysgerminoma (DSG), 29 immature teratoma (IMT), 23 endodermal sinus tumor, 7 mixed germ cell tumors, and 1 each had choriocarcinoma and embryonal carcinoma.
  • The median time to recurrence or progression was 8 months.
  • There were 11 treatment failures with 6 died of cancer.
  • Histology (DSG/IMT versus non-DSG/IMT) (P < 0.0001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with treatment failure, while histology (P = 0.0004), salvage high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT) after primary chemotherapy failed (P = 0.0405), and residual tumor after salvage surgery (P = 0.0014) were significant prognostic factors for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis of OGCMs is excellent if managed with standard treatment initially.
  • Aggressive HD-CT with salvage surgery needs to be applied for recurrent/persistent disease after primary chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15721426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Li H, Hong W, Zhang R, Wu L, Liu L, Zhang W: Retrospective analysis of 67 consecutive cases of pure ovarian immature teratoma. Chin Med J (Engl); 2002 Oct;115(10):1496-500
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retrospective analysis of 67 consecutive cases of pure ovarian immature teratoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the development regularity, treatment methods and prognosis of ovary immature teratoma (POIT).
  • There were 31 patients with stage I, 4 with stage II, 2 with stage III and 1 with stage IV lesions.
  • Unilateral adnexectomy was performed for stage I lesions.
  • From the 1980s, this was followed by four-cycles of combination chemotherapy (VAC, PVB or BEP x 3 cycles) as post-operative adjuvant therapy.
  • Combined chemotherapy and multiple operations were performed for advanced and recurrent lesions.
  • Thirty-five patients who had early lesions (stage I and II) had a 5-year survival rate of 91.4% (32/35).
  • The chief prognostic factors for this disease are clinical stage, pathological grade and adequate treatment.
  • It is characterized by the fact that recurrent tumors may be converted back to mature ones as time goes on.
  • With chemotherapy, these is a good opportunity to rescue those patients with recurrent tumors.
  • At present, treatment of POIT gives the most satisfactory results among all malignant ovarian germ cell tumor types.
  • Tests of serum specific tumor markers (CA19-9, AFP, CA125, CEA) performed preoperatively or before chemotherapy and during follow-up have been found helpful in the evaluation of prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Teratoma / mortality

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  • (PMID = 12490095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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7. Gueye A, Narducci F, Baranzelli MC, Collinet P, Farine O, Fournier C, Vinatier D, Leblanc E: [Malignant ovarian germ cell tumours: a trial of 36 cases]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2007 May;35(5):406-19
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  • [Title] [Malignant ovarian germ cell tumours: a trial of 36 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs germinales malignes de l'ovaire. A propos de 36 cas.
  • OBJECTIVE: With personal results and a review of the literature, we report the eventual interest of surgical staging in malignant ovarian germ cell tumours.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 36 patients (21.5-[8-61]) with malignant ovarian germ cell tumours between January 1984 and December 2004.
  • There were 4 groups: no 1--dysgerminoma only, no 2--immature teratoma, no 3--malignant ovarian germ cell tumours with secretion.
  • All the patients had a minimal follow up of 18 months after treatment.
  • RESULTS: Stages of FIGO were: group 1--IA n=2, IC n=2, IIB n=1, IIIA n=2, IIIC n=3; group 2--IA n=3 (G1, G2, G2), IC n=1 (G3); group 3--IA n=8, IC n=4, IIA n=1, IIIA n=1, IIIB n=3, IIIC n=5.
  • Three patients had neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Twenty-six patients had adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Surgery in a young patient with malignant ovarian germ cells tumours must be conservative (adnexectomy) (preserving fertility and because of good prognostic).
  • In case of stage IA with part of dysgerminoma and/or immature teratoma and/or embryonal carcinoma certified by surgical staging, strict follow up could be organized (clinic, radiology, AFP, HCG).
  • In case of more than stage IA, chemotherapy is indicated after conservative surgery and surgical staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Infertility, Female / prevention & control. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Ovariectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17350873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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8. Gadducci A, Cosio S, Muraca S, Genazzani AR: The management of malignant nondysgerminomatous ovarian germ cell tumors. Anticancer Res; 2003 Mar-Apr;23(2C):1827-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The management of malignant nondysgerminomatous ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • Nondysgerminomatous ovarian germ cell tumors are always unilateral and predominantly occur in children, adolescents and young women.
  • Conservative surgery should be the standard approach for most patients regardless of tumor stage.
  • The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage I disease is questionable.
  • Platinum-based chemotherapy is the standard postoperative treatment for all patients with advanced nondysgerminomatous ovarian germ cell malignancies.
  • In immature teratoma patients with peritoneal spreading, chemotherapy is not required for grade 0 or 1 implants, is of uncertain significance for grade 2 lesions, but is warranted for grade 3 implants.
  • In recent series, in which most patients received conservative surgery often followed by platinum-based chemotherapy, 5-year survival rates range from 82% to 100%.
  • There have been several cases reported of normal babies delivered following treatment of ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • In conclusion, the current therapeutic strategies are able to save the large majority of patients with nondysgerminomatous ovarian germ cell tumors and to preserve their reproductive potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 12820465.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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9. Skof E, Grasic Kuhar C, Cerar O, Zakotnik B: Survival and fertility of patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumours. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2004;25(6):702-6
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  • [Title] Survival and fertility of patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumours.
  • Disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and fertility of patients treated for malignant ovarian germ cell tumours at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana from 1990-2000 were assessed.
  • Five had pure dysgerminoma, three endodermal sinus tumour, ten immature teratoma and five had mixed germ cell tumours.
  • Eleven patients had FIGO Stage I and the others advanced stage disease.
  • Twenty-one patients received adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Six patients (two did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy) relapsed at a median of 16 (3-63) months after surgery.
  • At relapse four were treated with surgery and chemotherapy, one with chemotherapy only and one with palliative radiotherapy only: two are still in complete remission, one has residual disease and three died of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Slovenia / epidemiology. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15597846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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10. Uzunlar AK, Yalinkaya A, Yaldiz M, Kilinç N, Gül T: Survival and reproductive function after treatment of immature ovarian teratoma. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2001;22(5):384-6
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  • [Title] Survival and reproductive function after treatment of immature ovarian teratoma.
  • We conducted a clinical and pathologic review of nine patients with immature ovarian teratoma.
  • Low stage and low grade immature ovarian teratomas have an excellent prognosis.
  • Platinum-based chemotherapy has been confirmed to be effective in the management of patients with ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • Low grade pure ovarian immature teratoma is a potentially curable disease and a fertility-sparing surgical approach is possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Fertility. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Teratoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11766747.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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11. Lertkhachonsuk R, Termrungruanglert W, Vasuratna A, Sittisomwong T, Worasethsin P, Tresukosol D: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumor in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai; 2005 Sep;88 Suppl 4:S124-8
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  • [Title] Malignant ovarian germ cell tumor in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency, characteristics, treatment and outcome of patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumor (MOGCT) in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital during the period January 1992 - December 2000.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study MATERIAL AND METHOD: All patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumor in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital during the period January 1992 - December 2000 were analyzed by the characteristics of patients, treatment and outcome.
  • Eight patients received no adjuvant treatment after surgery due to stage 1A dysgerminoma and immature teratoma stage I grade I.
  • Fifty-six patients received chemotherapy for adjuvant treatment.
  • Salvage therapy in the patients with persistent and recurrent disease was treated in 9 patients, who received a platinum-base of regimen.
  • Two-year survival was 88% with the median time to follow up 24 months.
  • CONCLUSION: MOGCT in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital had clinical characteristics similar to other studies in malignant ovarian germ cell tumor Treatment by VAC regimen still has benefit in selected group.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data. Hospitals, Urban / utilization. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Thailand / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16623016.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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12. Tangjitgamol S, Hanprasertpong J, Manusirivithaya S, Wootipoom V, Thavaramara T, Buhachat R: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: clinico-pathological presentation and survival outcomes. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2010;89(2):182-9
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  • [Title] Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: clinico-pathological presentation and survival outcomes.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinico-pathological features, treatment, survival, and prognostic factors of patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • POPULATION: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumor patients treated between January 1996 and December 2007.
  • Patients with malignant tumors arising from benign cystic teratoma were excluded.
  • More than half (64.2%) had early stage disease (stages I-II) and the majority had conservative surgery (73.1%).
  • Of 124 patients with available follow-up data, 22 did not receive adjuvant treatment; 1 had whole abdominal radiation; and 101 had chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors have a good prognosis with conservative surgical treatment.
  • Chemotherapy is important.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / mortality. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Young Adult. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19961281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0412
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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13. Terenziani M, Massimino M, Casanova M, Cefalo G, Ferrari A, Luksch R, Spreafico F, Polastri D, Fontanelli R, Piva L, Fossati-Bellani F: Childhood malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: a monoinstitutional experience. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Jun;81(3):436-40
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  • [Title] Childhood malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: a monoinstitutional experience.
  • OBJECTIVES: We reviewed our 23-year monoinstitutional exprience with childhood malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCT), with respect to survival and iatrogenic sequelae.
  • METHODS: Twenty-nine patients (median age 12 years) with newly diagnosed MOGCT were treated: all girls but 2 underwent surgery as initial treatment.
  • According to the FIGO classification, 9 girls were classified as stage I, 4 as II, 11 as III, and 3 as IV, and 2 were not evaluable because they were submitted to primary chemotherapy.
  • Twenty-four received chemotherapy with VAC, PVB, or PEB regimens, according to the ongoing protocols through the years.
  • Three stage I girls did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy because of their histology (2 dysgerminomas, 1 immature teratoma) and stage.
  • RESULTS: Five patients died of their disease: 2 dysgerminomas (stage IIIc and IV) and 3 nondysgerminomas (2 stage II and 1 stage IIIc).
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Germinoma / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 11371135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Beiner ME, Gotlieb WH, Korach Y, Shrim A, Stockheim D, Segal Y, Fridman E, Ben-Baruch G: Cystectomy for immature teratoma of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 May;93(2):381-4
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  • [Title] Cystectomy for immature teratoma of the ovary.
  • OBJECTIVES: Most patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCT) of the ovary are in their reproductive years and wish to preserve fertility.
  • Because of the excellent response to chemotherapy, the standard of care is unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (USO), but some patients undergo cystectomy only before final pathology.
  • In view of the lack of information concerning the outcome following cystectomy in germ cell tumors, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical outcome of patients who underwent cystectomy only as part of their surgical treatment.
  • RESULTS: All the eight patients who underwent cystectomy were diagnosed with immature teratoma (three grade 1, four grade 2, and one grade 3) on final pathology following surgery.
  • All except three patients (two with grade 1 and one with grade 2 disease) received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cystectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy appeared satisfactory for apparent early-stage immature teratoma when close follow-up was carried out.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Teratoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15099949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. El-Lamie IK, Shehata NA, Abou-Loz SK, El-Lamie KI: Conservative surgical management of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: the experience of the Gynecologic Oncology Unit at Ain Shams University. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2000;21(6):605-9
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  • [Title] Conservative surgical management of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: the experience of the Gynecologic Oncology Unit at Ain Shams University.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of extended surgical staging in patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors in the presence of cisplatinum-based combination chemotherapy.
  • MATERIALS & METHODS: 16 patients aged between 13 and 40 years (mean 20.5) diagnosed and treated for malignant ovarian germ cell tumors at the Gynecologic Oncology Unit.
  • RESULTS: Six patients were diagnosed with dysgerminoma, six with immature teratoma and four with endodermal sinus tumor.
  • Only seven cases were primarily managed at the unit and were subjected to proper surgical staging as required by FIGO (two in each of the stages IC, IIC and IIIA and one in stage IV).
  • However, the remaining nine cases were referred to the unit, six after having unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and no surgical staging, one patient after total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH+BSO), and one with recurrent dysgerminoma in the retroperitoneum and mediastinum following suboptimal treatment.
  • None of these cases were surgically re-explored and all including the first six cases were given the standard BEP chemotherapy for 4-6 courses (mean 5.8).
  • All patients are alive without any evidence of disease recurrence except for one patient with a stage IIIA immature teratoma who had a local and distant recurrence and is undergoing second-line chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: In view of the high chemosensitivity and curability of ovarian germ cell tumors and their occurrence in young patients, every effort should be made to preserve one ovary and the uterus for future reproduction even in advanced cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Germinoma / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Egypt. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11214621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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16. Patterson DM, Murugaesu N, Holden L, Seckl MJ, Rustin GJ: A review of the close surveillance policy for stage I female germ cell tumors of the ovary and other sites. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Jan-Feb;18(1):43-50
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  • [Title] A review of the close surveillance policy for stage I female germ cell tumors of the ovary and other sites.
  • Ovarian germ cell tumors are rare but very curable at all stages of disease.
  • There is good evidence that surveillance for stage I dysgerminomas is a safe option although many centers worldwide still advocate adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IA nondysgerminomatous tumors, despite the significant risk of developing long-term treatment side effects.
  • Here, we review the safety of our ongoing surveillance program of all stage IA female germ cell tumors.
  • Thirty-seven patients (median age 26, range 14-48 years) with stage I disease were referred to Mount Vernon and Charing Cross Hospitals between 1981 and 2003.
  • Relapse rates for stage IA nondysgerminomatous tumors and dysgerminomas were 8 of 22 (36%) and 2 of 9 (22%), respectively, plus one patient with mature teratoma and glial implants also relapsed; 10 of these 11 patients (91%) were successfully cured with platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • The overall disease-specific survival of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors was 94%.
  • We have confirmed again that surveillance of all stage IA ovarian germ cell tumors is very safe and that the outcome is comparable with testicular tumors.
  • We question the need for potentially toxic adjuvant chemotherapy in nondysgerminoma patients who have greater than 90% chance of being salvaged with chemotherapy if they relapse later.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Population Surveillance. Prognosis. Risk Management. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17466047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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17. Pectasides D, Pectasides E, Kassanos D: Germ cell tumors of the ovary. Cancer Treat Rev; 2008 Aug;34(5):427-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Germ cell tumors of the ovary.
  • PURPOSE: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCTS) are rare but curable at all stages of disease.
  • METHODS: We performed a literature search in the PubMed of almost all relevant articles concerning MOGCTs on pathology, prognostic factors, surgery, post-operative therapy and late effects of therapy.
  • RESULTS: Prognostic factors include stage, amount of residual tumor, histologic type and raised tumor markers.
  • For patients with early stage disease, cure rates approach 100%, while for those with advanced-stage disease are at least 75%.
  • Appropriate surgical treatment for patients where fertility needs to be preserved consists in laparotomy with unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (USO) and resection of all visible disease.
  • For patients with advanced-stage disease, the role and the extent of debulking surgery remain controversial despite its routine use.
  • However, it is suggested a benefit from minimal residual disease at completion of primary surgical cytoreduction with both non-platinum and platinum-based chemotherapy regimens.
  • Second-look surgery clearly is not indicated in patients with early stage non-dysgerminoma or in all patients with dysgerminoma.
  • However, teratoma patients may benefit from secondary cytoreduction.
  • Three courses of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) is the current standard adjuvant chemotherapy and four courses of BEP are recommended in case of bulky residual tumor after surgery.
  • There is a hint that high-dose chemotherapy may play a role in relapsed patients.
  • The majority of MOGCTs patients who undergo fertility-sparing surgery and chemotherapy retain their gonadal and reproductive function.
  • There is an increasing concern about life-threatening long-term effects of treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: MOGCTs are rare neoplasms that affect girls and young women and have excellent prognosis at all stages of disease with optimal therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Female. Global Health. Humans. Incidence. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18378402.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 129
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18. Rezk Y, Sheinfeld J, Chi DS: Prolonged survival following salvage surgery for chemorefractory ovarian immature teratoma: a case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Mar;96(3):883-7
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  • [Title] Prolonged survival following salvage surgery for chemorefractory ovarian immature teratoma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Data regarding salvage surgery for ovarian immature teratoma (IT) are lacking despite its established role in the management of chemorefractory testicular germ cell tumors.
  • In this report, a case of advanced IT that was salvaged by secondary cytoreduction following failure of both primary therapy and salvage chemotherapy is described, and the available literature is reviewed.
  • CASE: A 28-year-old patient underwent primary cytoreductive surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy for stage IIIC, grade 3, ovarian IT.
  • Second-line chemotherapy was administered after residual disease was identified at second-look surgery.
  • Following failure of salvage chemotherapy, aggressive secondary debulking resulted in long-term disease-free survival of over 48 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Teratoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 15721445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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19. Zanetta G, Bonazzi C, Cantù M, Binidagger S, Locatelli A, Bratina G, Mangioni C: Survival and reproductive function after treatment of malignant germ cell ovarian tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2001 Feb 15;19(4):1015-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survival and reproductive function after treatment of malignant germ cell ovarian tumors.
  • PURPOSE: Germ cell ovarian tumors are curable.
  • The possible sequelae of chemotherapy on long-term survivors are still unknown, but these patients may expect normal lives.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1982 and 1996, 169 women with malignant germ cell ovarian tumors were seen (70 dysgerminomas, 28 endodermal sinus tumors, 24 mixed tumors, and 47 immature teratomas).
  • Fertility-sparing surgery was performed in 138 (81%) women, 81 of whom received postoperative chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 67 months, the survival rate was 94% for dysgerminoma, 89% for endodermal sinus tumors, 100% for mixed types, and 98% for immature teratoma.
  • Two women had adnexal recurrences, and both received salvage treatment.
  • After treatment, all but one postpubertal woman had recovery of menses within 9 months.
  • Four malformations were observed: one in 14 conceptions of patients who had not received chemotherapy and three in 41 conceptions of treated patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Irrespective of subtype and stage, conservative surgery should become the standard approach to treating most patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • Fertility seems to be only marginally affected by treatments.
  • The malformation rate is slightly higher than in the general population, but no significant difference was seen between patients who did and did not receive chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Fertility. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / mortality. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / physiopathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Congenital Abnormalities / etiology. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11181664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Zuntová A, Sumerauer D, Teslík L, Kabícková E, Koutecký J: [Mixed germ cell tumours of the ovary in childhood and adolescence]. Cesk Patol; 2004 Jul;40(3):92-101
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  • [Title] [Mixed germ cell tumours of the ovary in childhood and adolescence].
  • Mixed germ cell tumours of the ovary are rare malignant neoplasms containing combinations of two or more types of germ cell elements.
  • The aim of the study was to review biopsy examinations, medical records, treatment strategy, follow-up and outcome of all girls treated for mixed germ cell tumour of the ovary at the Department of Pediatric Oncology, University Hospital Motol during the period 1979-2002.
  • The clinical data on surgical treatment, chemotherapy and radiotherapy used and follow-up information were obtained in all girls.
  • Sixteen girls with mixed germ cell tumour of the ovary, age range 3 years 11 months to 17 years 8 months (median 12 years) were treated.
  • All girls presented with unilateral tumour of the ovary and all underwent surgery as an initial treatment.
  • The original diagnosis of mixed histology was confirmed in all cases; in five cases the tumour contained three histologic components, in eleven cases the tumour consisted of two germ cell types.
  • All tumours contained elements of yolk sac tumour, followed by immature teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, dysgerminoma and mature teratoma.
  • At the time of diagnosis three patients had stage I disease, four patients stage II, seven stage III and two stage IV disease.
  • All patients were treated with chemotherapy after surgery, predominantly with platinum-based regimens (PVB, BEP).
  • Overall survival and event-free survival were 80% and 81.3% respectively (median follow-up time 7.6 years).
  • Three patients have died from the disease, two progressed on treatment (MAC), one girl relapsed three months after finishing therapy, no further therapy was administered.
  • Microscopic examination should be extensive and careful to find out all types of malignant germ cell elements.
  • Platinum based chemotherapy is effective in the management of children and adolescents with mixed germ cell tumors of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15493415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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21. Schwartz PE: Surgery of germ cell tumours of the ovary. Forum (Genova); 2000 Oct-Dec;10(4):355-65
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  • [Title] Surgery of germ cell tumours of the ovary.
  • The surgical management of germ cell tumours of the ovary is based on the premise of preserving fertility.
  • Ovarian germ cell tumours occur in young women in whom fertility preservation is of great concern.
  • Overwhelmingly ovarian germ cell tumours are benign, the most common form of which is the benign cystic teratoma (dermoid cyst).
  • Cystectomies with preservation of the ovarian remnant should be the routine surgical treatment of benign cystic teratomas.
  • Management of ovarian germ cell malignancies also focuses on preservation of fertility.
  • All are exquisitely sensitive to cytotoxic chemotherapy and fertility has been preserved and successful conception has occurred even in women with advanced stage disease following surgery and chemotherapy.
  • Cytoreductive surgery plays a role in the treatment of non-dysgerminomatous ovarian germ cell malignancies, but is not necessary for the management of ovarian dysgerminomas as the latter are exquisitely sensitive to chemotherapy.
  • Second-look surgery is no longer routinely recommended in the management of these disorders due to the low incidence of positivity when patients have been treated with modern combination chemotherapy.
  • The role of surgery in the management of recurrent disease has yet to be established due to the low incidence of persistent disease following modern combination chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Ovariectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fertility. Humans. Incidence. Neoplasm Staging. Reoperation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11535985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-8142
  • [Journal-full-title] Forum (Genoa, Italy)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Forum (Genova)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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22. Kanazawa K, Suzuki T, Sakumoto K: Treatment of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors with preservation of fertility: reproductive performance after persistent remission. Am J Clin Oncol; 2000 Jun;23(3):244-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors with preservation of fertility: reproductive performance after persistent remission.
  • To describe our experience with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors with special reference to reproductive performance after remission, medical records of 31 patients were reviewed.
  • Tumor by stage was I in 16 cases, II in 5, III in 5, IV in 3, and recurrence in 2.
  • Histology was dysgerminoma in 7 cases, yolk sac tumor in 10, immature teratoma in 7, choriocarcinoma in 1, and mixed-type tumor in 6.
  • Postoperative chemotherapy was given to all cases except two with stage Ia dysgerminoma.
  • Thus, management of the disease with fertility preservation is safe and the majority of patients can attain or retain normal ovarian function and reproductive potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dysgerminoma / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Germinoma / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Reproduction / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Fertility / drug effects. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Menstruation / drug effects. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10857886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; BEP protocol; EMACO protocol; MAC combination; VAC protocol
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23. Biswajit D, Patil CN, Sagar TG: Clinical presentation and outcome of pediatric ovarian germ cell tumor: a study of 40 patients. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Mar;32(2):e54-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical presentation and outcome of pediatric ovarian germ cell tumor: a study of 40 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Germ cell tumor is a rare malignancy accounting for 3% of all pediatric tumors.
  • The common histologies being mixed germ cell tumor (32%) and dysgerminoma (27%).
  • Ten percent of patients presented with ovarian torsion.
  • Sixty-two percent of patients presented in advanced stage.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms an excellent outcome for girls with ovarian germ cell tumor, although majority of the patients presented in advanced stage.
  • Patients with initial histology of Teratoma and Mixed germ cell tumor relapsed frequently.
  • The mainstay of treatment being fertility preservation and cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 20168245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Tewari K, Cappuccini F, Disaia PJ, Berman ML, Manetta A, Kohler MF: Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Obstet Gynecol; 2000 Jan;95(1):128-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant therapy for ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • METHODS: We reviewed records of women who had malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary from 1977-1997.
  • RESULTS: Seventy-two women had surgical resections of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors and most received adjuvant therapy.
  • Fifty-six women (78%) presented with stage I disease, and 16 (22%) had more advanced disease.
  • Tumor subtypes included dysgerminoma (n = 20), yolk sac tumor (n = 8), immature teratoma (n = 29) and mixed germ cell tumor (n = 15).
  • Surgical management of the 56 with stage I disease consisted of total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and extensive surgical staging in ten women, whereas a conservative surgical approach, consisting of unilateral adnexectomy with or without comprehensive surgical staging, was adopted in later years (n = 46).
  • Fifty-six women were treated with postoperative chemotherapy, predominantly platinum-based regimens.
  • CONCLUSION: These data confirmed that platinum-based adjuvant treatments allow most women with ovarian germ cell malignancies to have conservative surgery without compromising survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 10636515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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25. Sagae S, Kudo R: Surgery for germ cell tumors. Semin Surg Oncol; 2000 Jul-Aug;19(1):76-81
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  • [Title] Surgery for germ cell tumors.
  • We performed a review of the current modalities of surgical treatment of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors by clinical stages and histological types.
  • Stage IA dysgerminoma is performed with a unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (USO) without chemotherapy.
  • However, for Stage IB or IC patients with dysgerminoma, USO plus chemotherapy as a primary treatment may or may not be followed with a second-look operation (SLO).
  • For non-dysgerminomas, USO is indicated only for Stage IA immature teratoma grade 1.
  • The treatment for Stage IA immature teratoma grade 2 or 3 and other histological types is USO plus chemotherapy.
  • Patients with Stage IB, IC or higher with non-dysgerminoma are treated with USO plus chemotherapy or USO with contralateral partial ovariectomy plus chemotherapy.
  • For patients who require non-conservative surgery, a total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) plus chemotherapy are performed.
  • For patients with Stage II of all histological types, conservative surgery consists of USO and a cytoreductive operation plus chemotherapy, followed by SLO or a second cytoreductive operation.
  • For non-conservative surgery, TAH+BSO with or without a cytoreductive operation plus chemotherapy is followed by SLO.
  • Conservative surgery for patients with Stage III and IV is USO and a cytoreductive operation plus chemotherapy followed by a second cytoreductive operation.
  • Non-conservative surgery is TAH+BSO with a cytoreductive operation plus chemotherapy, followed by SLO or a second cytoreductive operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Humans. Japan. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Reoperation. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 10883028.001).
  • [ISSN] 8756-0437
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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26. Bakri YN, Ezzat A, Akhtar, Dohami, Zahrani: Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Pregnancy considerations. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2000 May;90(1):87-91
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  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Pregnancy considerations.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the pregnancy association and malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary with regard to its effects on tumor prognosis.
  • STUDY DESIGN: : Seventy-five patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary treated at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital-Research Center (KFSH-RC) Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 1976 and December 1992, were reviewed.
  • Data was retrieved from the medical records and the database of ovarian tumor pathology.
  • Patients who conceived after treatment were identified and their reproductive outcome described.
  • RESULTS: Malignant germ cell tumor was associated with pregnancy in a group of ten patients.
  • Pregnancy did not seem to influence the tumor prognosis of pure dysgerminoma (n=6), however, two patients with non-dysgerminomatous germ cell tumor (one endodermal sinus tumor and one immature teratoma) died of rapidly progressive disease during the second trimester.
  • Two patients with advanced (stage IIIC) disease concurrent with pregnancy (one pure dysgerminoma and one mixed germ cell tumor), had normal fetal outcomes and achieved long-term survival.
  • Amongst the 22 patients who planned to conceive after conservative surgery, with or without post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy, 12 conceived (12/22) and achieved a total of 20 pregnancies.
  • However, the question remains as to whether pregnancy worsened the prognosis of non-dysgerminomatous germ cell tumors. (2) Recent platinum-based regimens of multiagent chemotherapy for germ cell tumors did not seem to affect fertility potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 10767517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
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27. Hackethal A, Brueggmann D, Bohlmann MK, Franke FE, Tinneberg HR, Münstedt K: Squamous-cell carcinoma in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: systematic review and analysis of published data. Lancet Oncol; 2008 Dec;9(12):1173-80
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  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: systematic review and analysis of published data.
  • Up to a quarter of ovarian masses originate from germ cells, and many of these are mature cystic teratomas.
  • The secondary development of malignancy is a rare but well-known phenomenon in patients with ovarian teratomas.
  • Squamous-cell carcinoma accounts for 80% of secondary malignant transformations of ovarian teratomas.
  • Squamous-cell carcinoma in mature cystic teratoma was mainly found in women aged more than 50 years, with high concentrations of squamous-cell-carcinoma antigen and cancer antigen CA125, and with ovarian tumours more than 100 mm in size.
  • Patients with FIGO stage Ia tumours had better survival than those with more advanced disease.
  • Complete resection together with hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and lymphadenectomy for patients with advanced disease, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with an alkylating drug was associated with higher survival, radiotherapy was not.
  • We make proposals for investigation and treatment of this rare disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Ovarian Neoplasms. Teratoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Young Adult

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  • [ErratumIn] Lancet Oncol. 2009 May;10(5):446
  • (PMID = 19038764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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28. Matsushita H, Arai K, Fukase M, Takayanagi T, Ikarashi H: Growing teratoma syndrome of the ovary after fertility-sparing surgery and successful pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 2010;69(4):221-3
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  • [Title] Growing teratoma syndrome of the ovary after fertility-sparing surgery and successful pregnancy.
  • BACKGROUND: Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is rare and is defined as an enlarging mature teratoma that arises during or after chemotherapy for a malignant germ cell tumor, with normalization of previously elevated serum tumor markers.
  • CASE: A 30-year-old nulliparous Japanese woman was diagnosed as having a stage IIIa immature teratoma.
  • After fertility-sparing surgery, she received 4 cycles of chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin.
  • Surgical specimens revealed a mature teratoma, and she was diagnosed as having GTS postoperatively.
  • Therefore, long-term follow-up of patients treated for ovarian immature teratoma should be mandatory.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20068327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-002X
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic and obstetric investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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29. Mann JR, Raafat F, Robinson K, Imeson J, Gornall P, Sokal M, Gray E, McKeever P, Hale J, Bailey S, Oakhill A: The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group's second germ cell tumor study: carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin are effective treatment for children with malignant extracranial germ cell tumors, with acceptable toxicity. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Nov 15;18(22):3809-18
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  • [Title] The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group's second germ cell tumor study: carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin are effective treatment for children with malignant extracranial germ cell tumors, with acceptable toxicity.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (JEB) in children with malignant extracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs).
  • Stage I testicular and some ovarian GCTs were resected and monitored with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) ("watch-and-wait" approach).
  • Patients with recurrent stage I disease and all other patients received JEB (etoposide 120 mg/m(2) on days 1 through 3, carboplatin 600 mg/m(2) on day 2, and bleomycin 15 mg/m(2) on day 3).
  • Chemotherapy toxicities were assessed using World Health Organization or Brock grading.
  • Eight were excluded because either there was no histologic diagnosis (n = 3) or chemotherapy was given off-study (n = 5).
  • The remaining 184 patients had germinoma (n = 20), malignant teratoma (n = 55), embryonal carcinoma (n = 1), yolk sac tumor (n = 107), or choriocarcinoma (n = 1).
  • The median follow-up after JEB treatment was 53 months (range, 0 to 109 months); the median number of courses was five (range, three to eight).
  • Site, stage, and AFP level had prognostic significance.
  • CONCLUSION: Conservative surgery, a watch-and-wait approach after complete excision, and JEB for those requiring chemotherapy produced high cure rates and few serious complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11078494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; JEB protocol
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30. Nishio S, Ushijima K, Fukui A, Fujiyoshi N, Kawano K, Komai K, Ota S, Fujiyoshi K, Kamura T: Fertility-preserving treatment for patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2006 Aug;32(4):416-21
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  • [Title] Fertility-preserving treatment for patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary.
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate whether fertility preservation influences the clinical outcome in patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary (MGCTO).
  • Thirty-five patients were included in the study, 14 with immature teratoma, 11 with dysgerminoma, eight with endodermal sinus tumor, and two with mixed germ cell tumor.
  • Twenty-three patients had International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I (Ia, 11; Ib, 2; Ic, 10), one had stage II, seven had stage III, and four had stage IV disease.
  • RESULTS: Five patients with stage III or IV disease received radical surgery.
  • As the adjuvant treatment, 30 patients received chemotherapy, while five patients did not receive any chemotherapy.
  • She was 13 years old with a stage IV endodermal sinus tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of the stage of the disease, conservative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for MGCTO can achieve a favorable outcome in terms of survival and fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16882268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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31. Malagón HD, Valdez AM, Moran CA, Suster S: Germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 46 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Sep;31(9):1356-62
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 46 cases.
  • The clinicopathologic features of 46 patients with germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components (GCTSC) involving either the primary site or their metastases were studied.
  • The germ cell component consisted of pure mature or immature teratoma (23 cases), teratoma mixed with other seminomatous or nonseminomatous components (17), pure seminoma (2), intratubular germ cell neoplasia (1), and yolk sac tumor (1).
  • All patients were treated by cisplatinum-based chemotherapy plus other agents followed by surgery.
  • Comparison of these patients with an age-matched and stage-matched control group of patients with GCT without SC showed statistically significant differences in survival between the 2 cohorts (P <or=0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Immunohistochemistry. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Ovariectomy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17721191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Han JY, Nava-Ocampo AA, Kim TJ, Shim JU, Park CT: Pregnancy outcome after prenatal exposure to bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin for malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: report of 2 cases. Reprod Toxicol; 2005 Mar-Apr;19(4):557-61
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  • [Title] Pregnancy outcome after prenatal exposure to bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin for malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: report of 2 cases.
  • Bleomycin plus etoposide and cisplatin seem to be a promising alternative for women with ovarian cancer.
  • A pregnant woman with a stage Ic yolk-sac tumor underwent a right oophorectomy with omentectomy, and received five cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin from the 22nd week of pregnancy until delivery.
  • The second case was a pregnant woman with a stage Ia immature teratoma who underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy and received two cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin starting at 30th week of pregnancy.
  • The two patients did not have any evidence of recurrence of ovarian cancer for 6 and 2 years, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy. Pregnancy Outcome. Teratoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 15749271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-6238
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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33. Sun XF, Yang QY, Zhen ZJ, Xia Y, Huang ZH, Ling JY: [Treatment outcome of children and adolescents with germ cell tumor after combined therapy---a report of 44 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Dec;25(12):1529-32
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  • [Title] [Treatment outcome of children and adolescents with germ cell tumor after combined therapy---a report of 44 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: The overall survival rate of children and adolescents with germ cell tumor is more than 75% after adopting combined therapy.
  • However, the prognosis varies with stage, pathologic type, and primary tumor site.
  • This study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of children and adolescents with germ cell tumor, and to investigate the prognostic factors and therapeutic strategy.
  • METHODS: Clinical characteristics, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors of 44 children and adolescents with germ cell tumor, treated in Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University from Jan.
  • RESULTS: Of the 44 patients, 25 received adjuvant chemotherapy after operation; 1 received operation alone; 18 received induction chemotherapy.
  • Of the 18 patients, 7 received tumor resection after chemotherapy; 2 patients with primary mediastinal chorioepithelioma with multiple metastases received radiotherapy on residual disease after chemotherapy; 1 patient with postoperative abdominal metastasis and 1 with postoperative lung metastasis achieved complete remission after chemotherapy; 1 patient with mediastinal sinus tumor achieved partial remission after chemotherapy; 6 had poor response to chemotherapy and died of disease progression.
  • Chemotherapy-treated patients received platinum-containing regimens for 2-7 cycles.
  • The 3-year survival rate was 100% for stage I-II patients, 83.3% for stage III patients, 65.6% for stage IV patients, and 66.7% for relapsed patients.
  • For previously untreated patients, the 3-year survival rate was 96.0% for gonadal germ cell tumor patients and 61.0% for extragonadal germ cell tumor patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgery combined with platinum-containing chemotherapy can improve efficacy and survival of children and adolescents with germ cell tumor.
  • For the patients with stage IV, relapsed, and metastatic tumors, novel therapeutic regimens with increased dose intensity need further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17166380.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol; COB protocol
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34. Palenzuela G, Martin E, Meunier A, Beuzeboc P, Laurence V, Orbach D, Frappaz D: Comprehensive staging allows for excellent outcome in patients with localized malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary. Ann Surg; 2008 Nov;248(5):836-41
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  • [Title] Comprehensive staging allows for excellent outcome in patients with localized malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • BACKGROUND: The management of malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary (OMGCT) requires multidisciplinary expertise.
  • RESULTS: Twenty (53%) of 38 the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I tumors were staged Ix.
  • All stage Ix tumors had been operated by a nongynecologic surgeon.
  • Relapses occurred in 8 of 24 stage I tumors that were observed (0/8 stage Ia; 5/13 stage Ix (P = 0.044) and 3/3 stage Ic) versus 0/14 stage I treated by adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.0015).
  • There was no significant prognostic value for age, stage, level of tumor markers at diagnosis, type of surgery, and type of chemotherapy.
  • It allows a safe observation strategy in stage Ia tumors.
  • Patients with stages Ix and Ic tumors may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Dysgerminoma / surgery. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18948812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Rzepka-Górska I, Błogowska A, Zajaczek S, Zielińska D: [Germinal cell tumors in young and adolescent girls]. Ginekol Pol; 2003 Sep;74(9):840-6
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  • [Title] [Germinal cell tumors in young and adolescent girls].
  • OBJECTIVE: Germ cell tumours are the most common ovarian tumours in childhood and adolescence.
  • This diverse group of tumours derives from germ cells.
  • DESIGN: The aim of this work is presentation of germ cell tumours in the material from our clinic with characteristic clinical features, the scope of operation and effects of many years of observation.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We treated 109 girls with germ cell tumours of the ovary: 13 had malignant tumours: there were 7 patients with dysgerminomas, 2 with endodermal sinus tumour of the ovary, 3 with immature teratomas, 1 with carcinoma embryonale.
  • Most patients with dysgerminoma have stage I of disease and surgery is sufficient.
  • It must be suggested that patients of stage I who wish to preserve childbearing function may be treated with unilateral salpingoophorectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Monitoring of the treatment is connected with measurement of biochemical markers.
  • Some of these markers are useful for monitoring of response to therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The sift ultrasonographic investigations can be helpful in the early diagnosis of germ cell tumours of the ovary in girls.
  • Fertility sparing operative treatment is preferred when karyotype is normal.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Dysgerminoma / therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Female. Germinoma / pathology. Germinoma / therapy. Gonadoblastoma / pathology. Gonadoblastoma / therapy. Gonadotropins / blood. Gonadotropins / genetics. Humans. Poland. Risk Factors. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 14674134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gonadotropins
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36. Lee KH, Lee IH, Kim BG, Nam JH, Kim WK, Kang SB, Ryu SY, Cho CH, Choi HS, Kim KT, Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group: Clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of Korean women: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Jan;19(1):84-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of Korean women: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.
  • We evaluated the clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of South Korean women and determined the prognostic factors affecting recurrence.
  • The distribution of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage was as follows: 128 cases (65.3%) in stage I, 27 cases (13.8%) in stage II, 39 cases (19.9%) in stage III, and 2 cases (1.0%) in stage IV.
  • Histologically, immature teratoma was the most common tumor type (n = 68), followed by dysgerminoma (n = 54), endodermal sinus tumor (n = 38), mixed form (n = 24), and choriocarcinoma (n = 12).
  • Postoperative chemotherapy was administered in 166 patients, and the most common regimen was bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (n = 120).
  • Recurrence was observed in 13 patients (6.8%) and was influenced by the stage of the tumor and patient age (>40 years).
  • The results of this study demonstrate that most malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary in Korean women are detected in the early stage and have excellent survival outcomes with conservative operation and platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19258947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Lee JK; Park JJ; Cha MS; Kim JH; Lee JM; Park SY; Kim SC; Lee SK
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37. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.
  • Nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NSCNEC) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumor commonly associated with other surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasms.
  • In 2 cases, the tumor was associated with a mature cystic teratoma; one of them also containing an invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • A single case was associated with a benign ovarian cyst.
  • NSCNEC represented anywhere from 10% to 90% of the ovarian tumor.
  • According to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system, 4 cases were stage I tumors, 3 cases were stage III tumors, and 4 cases were stage IV tumors.
  • Seven patients were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • One patient had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with omentectomy and appendectomy followed by chemotherapy; 1 patient had a total abdominal hysterectomy with right salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy; one had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy, and one had a right salpingo-oophorectomy with appendectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • Four of 5 patients who died of disease had either stage III or IV tumors and 3 of 5 patients who are alive without evidence of disease have stage I tumors.
  • In summary, ovarian NSCNEC is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to present at advanced stage and cause death within a mean of 17 months after diagnosis; however, some patients, particularly those with stage I disease and/or those who have received platinum-based therapy, may have a more favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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38. Rajbhandari S, Shrestha B, Karki A: Diagnostic dilemma of an unusual pelvic mass in a young girl. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc; 2007 Oct-Dec;46(168):199-202
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Ovarian Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Dysgerminoma of ovary is the most common germ cell tumor, accounting for 50% of all germ cell tumor cases.
  • It is rare to find both ovaries to be involved in germ cell tumors.
  • The prognosis of patients with malignant germ cell has improved significantly over the last two decades after the introduction of chemotherapy specially cisplatin.
  • The only exceptions are stage 1, grade 1, immature teratoma and stage 1A dysgerminoima who are followed up after surgery without adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Normal ovarian functions and fertility can be retained in most patients by following the conservative surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18340374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2715
  • [Journal-full-title] JNMA; journal of the Nepal Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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