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1. Halberg F, Prem K, Halberg F, Norman C, Cornélissen G: Cancer chronomics I. Origins of timed cancer treatment: early marker rhythm-guided individualized chronochemotherapy. J Exp Ther Oncol; 2006;6(1):55-61
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  • [Title] Cancer chronomics I. Origins of timed cancer treatment: early marker rhythm-guided individualized chronochemotherapy.
  • A 21-year old patient who presented in 1973 with a rare and highly malignant ovarian endodermal sinus tumor with spillage into the peritoneal cavity is alive and well today after receiving chronochemotherapy.
  • During the first four courses of treatment, medications were given at different circadian stages.
  • Complete blood counts and marker variables such as mood, vigor, nausea, and temperature were monitored around the clock and analyzed by cosinor to seek times of highest tolerance.
  • Remaining treatment courses were administered at a time corresponding to the patient's best drug tolerance, rather than extrapolating the timing of optimal cyclophosphamide administration from also-implemented parallel laboratory studies on mice.

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  • (PMID = 17228525.001).
  • [ISSN] 1359-4117
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental therapeutics & oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Ther. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM013981-44; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K06 GM013981; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM-13981; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K06 GM013981-44
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS75750; NLM/ PMC2581882
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2. Shimizu Y, Komiyama S, Kobayashi T, Nakata K, Iida T: Successful management of endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary associated with pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol; 2003 Mar;88(3):447-50
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  • [Title] Successful management of endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary associated with pregnancy.
  • BACKGROUND: Pregnancy complicated by endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary has rarely been reported.
  • CASE: A 32-year-old pregnant woman was found to have an ovarian tumor.
  • At 19 weeks of gestation, tumorectomy was performed and a diagnosis of primary endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary (stage Ic) was made.
  • Pregnancy was continued without postoperative chemotherapy.
  • Subsequently, three courses of combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin were administered.
  • There was no evidence of recurrence at 27 months after initial treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Successful management of endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary in a pregnant woman is reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12648602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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3. Kang H, Kim TJ, Kim WY, Choi CH, Lee JW, Kim BG, Bae DS: Outcome and reproductive function after cumulative high-dose combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) for patients with ovarian endodermal sinus tumor. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Oct;111(1):106-10
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  • [Title] Outcome and reproductive function after cumulative high-dose combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) for patients with ovarian endodermal sinus tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome and reproductive function of patients with ovarian endodermal sinus tumor (EST) after cumulative high-dose combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP).
  • METHODS: Between 1995 and 2006, 1034 patients with the diagnosis of ovarian cancer were treated at a single institution.
  • Among these patients, 51 had a confirmed diagnosis of malignant ovarian germ cell tumor (MOGCT) including 20 cases of EST.
  • We retrospectively reviewed those patients with EST, who received BEP as adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Of the 15 patients who were treated with fertility-sparing surgery, all had regular menstruation following the completion of adjuvant chemotherapy, and two of these patients had pregnancies with live birth deliveries and no complications.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with EST, the cumulative high-dose BEP regimen resulted in excellent overall survival and did not seem to impair ovarian function.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / physiopathology. Fertility. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / physiopathology. Ovary / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18656249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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4. Thanaboonyawat I, Benjapibal M: A case of ovarian endodermal sinus tumor diagnosed during pregnancy. J Med Assoc Thai; 2008 May;91(5):764-8
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  • [Title] A case of ovarian endodermal sinus tumor diagnosed during pregnancy.
  • Pregnancy complicated by endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary is extremely rare.
  • The authors present a case report of a pregnant woman with persistent left adnexal mass and subsequently found to have a primary endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary that was diagnosed at 19 weeks of gestation.
  • After left salpingo-oophorectomy had been performed, the patient chose to terminate the pregnancy before the initiation of combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin.
  • The response to chemotherapy was not satisfactory.
  • The patient expired after seven cycles of treatment had been completed because of pulmonary fibrosis and the drug toxicity of bleomycin.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abortion, Induced. Adult. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / adverse effects. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Ovariectomy / methods. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, First. Pulmonary Fibrosis / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 18672645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. Benjapibal M, Chaopotong P, Leelaphatanadit C, Jaishuen A: Ruptured ovarian endodermal sinus tumor diagnosed during pregnancy: case report and review of the literature. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Oct;36(5):1137-41
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  • [Title] Ruptured ovarian endodermal sinus tumor diagnosed during pregnancy: case report and review of the literature.
  • Pregnancy complicated by endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary is a very rare event.
  • We present a case report of a pregnant woman with a ruptured primary endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary that was diagnosed at 13 weeks of gestation.
  • After right salpingo-oophorectomy had been performed the patient received four cycles of combination chemotherapy (bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin) starting at the 15th week of pregnancy.
  • The patient did not have any evidence of tumor recurrence for 23 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Ovariectomy. Pregnancy. Rupture, Spontaneous / diagnosis. Rupture, Spontaneous / drug therapy. Rupture, Spontaneous / surgery. Treatment Outcome


6. Aoki Y, Higashino M, Ishii S, Tanaka K: Yolk sac tumor of the ovary during pregnancy: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Nov;99(2):497-9
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  • [Title] Yolk sac tumor of the ovary during pregnancy: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: There is a therapeutic dilemma for the pregnant patient with malignancy requiring chemotherapy.
  • CASE: We had a case of a 30-year-old pregnant woman with a yolk sac tumor who underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy at 22 weeks gestation.
  • Chemotherapy during pregnancy was postponed because of concern with the risks of the chemotherapy to the fetus.
  • Tumor recurrence was confirmed clinically at 34 weeks gestation.
  • She was induced, delivering a healthy baby, and received seven complete chemotherapy courses (cisplatin, etoposide, and peplomycin).
  • Currently, the mother (39 months after last chemotherapy) and child are doing well.
  • CONCLUSION: AFP-L2 may be a sensitive indicator for a yolk sac tumor derived AFP, leading to an earlier detection of tumor recurrence during pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor. Ovarian Neoplasms. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Peplomycin / administration & dosage. Plant Lectins. Pregnancy. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism


7. Motegi M, Takakura S, Takano H, Tanaka T, Ochiai K: Adjuvant chemotherapy in a pregnant woman with endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary. Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Feb;109(2 Pt2):537-40
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  • [Title] Adjuvant chemotherapy in a pregnant woman with endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary.
  • BACKGROUND: The administration of chemotherapeutic drugs during pregnancy is rare.
  • We describe a case of malignant ovarian tumor complicating pregnancy.
  • A normal infant was delivered, and no evidence of tumor recurrence was observed.
  • There was no evidence of recurrence observed at 65 months after the initial treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the risk of chemotherapy to the fetus cannot be assessed based on a single case, this experience is encouraging.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Prenatal Diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cesarean Section. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, Third. Prenatal Care. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17267887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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8. de La Motte Rouge T, Pautier P, Duvillard P, Rey A, Morice P, Haie-Meder C, Kerbrat P, Culine S, Troalen F, Lhommé C: Survival and reproductive function of 52 women treated with surgery and bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy for ovarian yolk sac tumor. Ann Oncol; 2008 Aug;19(8):1435-41
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  • [Title] Survival and reproductive function of 52 women treated with surgery and bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy for ovarian yolk sac tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) is a very rare malignancy arising in young women.
  • Chemotherapy has dramatically improved the prognosis.
  • Current treatment consists of surgery followed by bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy.
  • However, given the rarity of this tumor, ovarian YST-specific survival and outcome after such treatment are not precisely known.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This report concerns prospectively recorded cases that were either treated at Institut Gustave Roussy (Villejuif, France) or referred there for advice about therapy.
  • From 1990 to 2006, 52 patients underwent surgery followed by BEP chemotherapy.
  • Data on patient characteristics, treatment, survival, and fertility outcome were analyzed to assess treatment efficacy and gonadal toxicity after achieving a complete remission.
  • With a median follow-up of 68 months, the overall 5-year survival and disease-free survival rates were 94% and 90%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BEP chemotherapy following fertility-sparing surgery is a very effective treatment of ovarian YSTs.

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  • (PMID = 18408223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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9. Manchana T, Sirisabya N, Lertkhachonsuk R, Tresukosol D: Transient cortical blindness during chemotherapy (PVB) for ovarian germ cell tumor. J Med Assoc Thai; 2006 Aug;89(8):1265-8
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  • [Title] Transient cortical blindness during chemotherapy (PVB) for ovarian germ cell tumor.
  • A 17 year-old female with stage IIIc endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary developed transient cortical blindness and severe hypertension after 5 cycles of PVB regimen consisting of cisplatin, vinblastine and bleomycin.
  • Her visual acuity and blood pressure completely recovered within a few days after supportive treatment with antihypertensive drug.
  • Most reports suggested that this rare toxicity was from cisplatin therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Blindness, Cortical / chemically induced. Brain Diseases / chemically induced. Brain Diseases / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging


10. Ayhan A, Taskiran C, Bozdag G, Altinbas S, Altinbas A, Yuce K: Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary: the Hacettepe University experience. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2005 Dec 1;123(2):230-4
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  • [Title] Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary: the Hacettepe University experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment regimens used for patients with endodermal sinus tumors (EST), and also to examine the prognostic value of surgicopathological variables.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-two patients treated for pure EST, and seven patients who had mixed germ cell tumors with EST components were included.
  • Initial surgery consisting of surgical staging to achieve optimal debulking was the principal mode of therapy.
  • RESULTS: The median age at the time of diagnosis was 18 (range 8-45).
  • As an adjuvant therapy 18 patients (62%) received platin-based chemotherapy, three patients (10%) had non-platin-based chemotherapy, four patients (14%) had radiotherapy, and four patients (14%) had combined radiotherapy plus non-platin-based chemotherapy.
  • Platin-based chemotherapy achieved significant survival benefit (P = 0.03 and P < 0.001, respectively).
  • There was no significant survival difference with respect to age, histology, and tumor size.
  • CONCLUSION: Fertility-sparing surgery with a postoperative platin-based combination chemotherapy should be the selected mode of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Hospitals, University. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Platinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Turkey

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  • (PMID = 16026921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Platinum Compounds
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11. Lee KH, Lee IH, Kim BG, Nam JH, Kim WK, Kang SB, Ryu SY, Cho CH, Choi HS, Kim KT, Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group: Clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of Korean women: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Jan;19(1):84-7
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of Korean women: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.
  • We evaluated the clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of South Korean women and determined the prognostic factors affecting recurrence.
  • Histologically, immature teratoma was the most common tumor type (n = 68), followed by dysgerminoma (n = 54), endodermal sinus tumor (n = 38), mixed form (n = 24), and choriocarcinoma (n = 12).
  • Postoperative chemotherapy was administered in 166 patients, and the most common regimen was bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (n = 120).
  • Recurrence was observed in 13 patients (6.8%) and was influenced by the stage of the tumor and patient age (>40 years).
  • The results of this study demonstrate that most malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary in Korean women are detected in the early stage and have excellent survival outcomes with conservative operation and platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Korea. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19258947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Lee JK; Park JJ; Cha MS; Kim JH; Lee JM; Park SY; Kim SC; Lee SK
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12. Kamoi S, Ohaki Y, Mori O, Okada S, Seto M, Matsushita N, Kawamura T, Araki T: A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor component in a postmenopausal woman. APMIS; 2002 Jun;110(6):508-14
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  • [Title] A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor component in a postmenopausal woman.
  • The co-existence of an endometrioid adenocarcinoma with an ovarian yolk sac tumor is very rare.
  • A 54-year-old postmenopausal woman with a 6-month history of progressive abdominal distension was seen at our hospital.
  • MR imaging revealed a large cyst with a solid intramural node.
  • At laparotomy, a large tumor approximately 20 cm in diameter was found to occupy the abdominal cavity, adhering to the swollen appendix and part of the omentum.
  • Microscopically, foci of endometrioid adenocarcinoma together with a yolk sac tumor component were observed within a large endometriotic cyst.
  • Since the tumor was clinically staged 1c, the patient was given 500 mg of intraperitoneal carboplatin postoperatively, followed by five courses of combination chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, etoposide and peplomycin at 4-week intervals.
  • In contrast to a very poor prognosis of this tumor in previously reported cases, our patient showed no sign of recurrence during a 21-month follow-up period.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Postmenopause. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 12193212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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13. Nawa A, Obata N, Kikkawa F, Kawai M, Nagasaka T, Goto S, Nishimori K, Nakashima N: Prognostic factors of patients with yolk sac tumors of the ovary. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2001 May;184(6):1182-8
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors of patients with yolk sac tumors of the ovary.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the prognostic factors in yolk sac tumors of the ovary.
  • STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective review of 47 patients with yolk sac tumors of the ovary from 1979 to 1997.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two patients had pure yolk sac tumors and 25 had germ cell tumors with yolk sac tissue as a component of the disease.
  • All patients who did not respond to chemotherapy died of this disease within 36 months of the first treatment.
  • Chemotherapy regimens that included cisplatin gave better results than those without cisplatin (P <.05).
  • The difference in prognosis was significant in cases in which the size of residual tumor was <2 cm in diameter (P <.01) and in cases in which ascites was either absent or <100 mL in volume (P <.05).
  • Coexistence of other components of ovarian germ cell tumors in histologic specimens, preoperative serum alpha-fetoprotein level, fertility-sparing surgery, dissection of intrapelvic nodes, and p53 status had no significant correlation with the prognosis in this study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Staging and tumor-reductive surgery strongly affected the prognosis of this disease.
  • Tumor-reductive surgery is advisable when ascites is minimal.
  • Cisplatin-based chemotherapy after surgery was superior to chemotherapy without cisplatin; however, p53 status seemed to have no impact on chemosensitivity in yolk sac tumors of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / physiopathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Ascites / metabolism. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Mortality. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11349186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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14. El-Lamie IK, Shehata NA, Abou-Loz SK, El-Lamie KI: Conservative surgical management of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: the experience of the Gynecologic Oncology Unit at Ain Shams University. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2000;21(6):605-9
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  • [Title] Conservative surgical management of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: the experience of the Gynecologic Oncology Unit at Ain Shams University.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of extended surgical staging in patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors in the presence of cisplatinum-based combination chemotherapy.
  • MATERIALS & METHODS: 16 patients aged between 13 and 40 years (mean 20.5) diagnosed and treated for malignant ovarian germ cell tumors at the Gynecologic Oncology Unit.
  • RESULTS: Six patients were diagnosed with dysgerminoma, six with immature teratoma and four with endodermal sinus tumor.
  • However, the remaining nine cases were referred to the unit, six after having unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and no surgical staging, one patient after total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH+BSO), and one with recurrent dysgerminoma in the retroperitoneum and mediastinum following suboptimal treatment.
  • None of these cases were surgically re-explored and all including the first six cases were given the standard BEP chemotherapy for 4-6 courses (mean 5.8).
  • All patients are alive without any evidence of disease recurrence except for one patient with a stage IIIA immature teratoma who had a local and distant recurrence and is undergoing second-line chemotherapy.
  • All patients have their menstrual function preserved except for three patients; one having 46,XX pure gonadal dysgenesis with a preoperative FSH level of 120 U/l and the eldest two patients having a TAH+BSO as they had completed their families.
  • CONCLUSION: In view of the high chemosensitivity and curability of ovarian germ cell tumors and their occurrence in young patients, every effort should be made to preserve one ovary and the uterus for future reproduction even in advanced cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Germinoma / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Egypt. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11214621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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15. Aoki Y, Kase H, Fujita K, Tanaka K: Dysgerminoma with a slightly elevated alpha-fetoprotein level diagnosed as a mixed germ cell tumor after recurrence. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 2003;55(1):58-60
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  • [Title] Dysgerminoma with a slightly elevated alpha-fetoprotein level diagnosed as a mixed germ cell tumor after recurrence.
  • A pure dysgerminoma shows a normal serum alpha-fetoprotein level, and mixed germ cell tumors containing endodermal sinus tumor elements have elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein levels, ranging from >100 to far higher than 1,000 ng/ml.
  • A 40-year-old woman was diagnosed as having a stage Ia pure dysgerminoma with a slight alpha-fetoprotein elevation (11 ng/ml), after a staging laparotomy, because we could not find any yolk sac element in the original tumor.
  • After 44 months, she had a pelvic recurrent tumor with a significant elevation of the serum alpha-fetoprotein concentration (1,520 ng/ml); histological examination of a needle biopsy specimen revealed a typical yolk sac tumor.
  • Eventually, her initial tumor was diagnosed as a mixed germ cell tumor.
  • The patient was successfully treated with seven courses of chemotherapy and has been disease free for 22 months.
  • It is necessary to be aware of the possibility of a mixed germ cell tumor containing a yolk sac element, even when the alpha-fetoprotein level is only slightly elevated.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 12624554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-7346
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic and obstetric investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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16. Low JJ, Perrin LC, Crandon AJ, Hacker NF: Conservative surgery to preserve ovarian function in patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. A review of 74 cases. Cancer; 2000 Jul 15;89(2):391-8
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  • [Title] Conservative surgery to preserve ovarian function in patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. A review of 74 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Effective combination chemotherapy has improved the previously dismal prognosis for malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCT) dramatically.
  • In young patients, conservative surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy has made the preservation of fertility possible, even in patients with advanced disease.
  • METHODS: The current study is a retrospective review of 74 patients with MOGCT treated by conservative surgery, retaining the uterus and contralateral ovary to preserve ovarian function, with or without chemotherapy.
  • The histologic subtypes included 31 dysgerminomas (41.9%), 16 immature teratomas (21.6%), 13 endodermal sinus tumors (17.6%), 11 mixed germ cell tumors (14.9%), and 3 embryonal cell tumors (4.1%).
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 47 patients (63.5%).
  • During chemotherapy 61.7% of patients developed amenorrhea but 91.5% of these women resumed normal menstrual function on completion of chemotherapy.
  • Fourteen healthy live births were recorded in the chemotherapy group and there were no documented birth defects.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The surgical approach in young patients with MOGCT confined to a single ovary should aim to preserve fertility.
  • Advanced disease is not usually accompanied by contralateral ovarian disease and should not necessarily contraindicate conservative surgery.
  • The majority of these patients who have received combination chemotherapy resume normal ovarian function and can expect a normal fertility rate and healthy offspring.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Cohort Studies. Cystectomy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Menstruation. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Omentum / surgery. Ovariectomy / methods. Reproduction. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 10918171.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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17. Lai CH, Chang TC, Hsueh S, Wu TI, Chao A, Chou HH, Wang PN: Outcome and prognostic factors in ovarian germ cell malignancies. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Mar;96(3):784-91
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  • [Title] Outcome and prognostic factors in ovarian germ cell malignancies.
  • OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to investigate the outcome and prognostic factors in patients with ovarian germ cell malignancies (OGCMs).
  • METHODS: A total of 93 patients with OGCMs were retrospectively reviewed, among whom 84 patients had primary treatment at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH) between 1984 and 2003.
  • The other nine patients were primarily treated outside and referred for follow-up (n = 1), adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 4), or salvage therapy after recurrence (n = 4).
  • The clinicopathological and treatment-related characteristics were analyzed for association with the occurrence of tumor persistence/recurrence or death.
  • RESULTS: Of the study patients, 32 had dysgerminoma (DSG), 29 immature teratoma (IMT), 23 endodermal sinus tumor, 7 mixed germ cell tumors, and 1 each had choriocarcinoma and embryonal carcinoma.
  • The median time to recurrence or progression was 8 months.
  • There were 11 treatment failures with 6 died of cancer.
  • Histology (DSG/IMT versus non-DSG/IMT) (P < 0.0001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with treatment failure, while histology (P = 0.0004), salvage high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT) after primary chemotherapy failed (P = 0.0405), and residual tumor after salvage surgery (P = 0.0014) were significant prognostic factors for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis of OGCMs is excellent if managed with standard treatment initially.
  • Aggressive HD-CT with salvage surgery needs to be applied for recurrent/persistent disease after primary chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15721426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Erdemoglu E, Ozen S: Ovarian gonodoblastoma with yolk sac tumor in a young 46, XX female: case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(6):516-8
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  • [Title] Ovarian gonodoblastoma with yolk sac tumor in a young 46, XX female: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Gonodoblastomas with ovarian germ cell tumors (OGCTs) other than dysgerminoma are very unusual.
  • This is the first case report of a pure endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary with gonodoblastoma in a 46 XX, female.
  • Fertility sparing surgery was undertaken and revealed a Stage IA endodermal sinus tumor and gonodoblastoma in the same ovary.
  • The patient refused chemotherapy and was followed-up for six months without disease.
  • Tumor markers and immunohistochemical examination may help in the diagnosis of these OGCTs with gonodoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / genetics. Gonadoblastoma / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18179152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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19. Cyganek A, Ejmocka-Ambroziak A, Wiczyńska-Zajac A, Marianowski L: [Ovarian endodermal sinus tumor associated with pregnancy--a case report]. Ginekol Pol; 2002 Apr;73(4):408-11
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  • [Title] [Ovarian endodermal sinus tumor associated with pregnancy--a case report].
  • An ovarian endodermal sinus tumor was found in a 29-years old patient with a 32-week intrauterine gestation.
  • She received caesarean section, conservative surgery and three courses of combination chemotherapy.
  • She died 6 months after the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor. Ovarian Neoplasms. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 12152296.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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20. Li J, Yang W, Wu X: Prognostic factors and role of salvage surgery in chemorefractory ovarian germ cell malignancies: a study in Chinese patients. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Jun;105(3):769-75
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors and role of salvage surgery in chemorefractory ovarian germ cell malignancies: a study in Chinese patients.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The majority of the studies on ovarian germ cell malignancies (OGCMs) focused on combination chemotherapy and fertility sparing surgery in primary treatment.
  • Prognostic factors and the salvage treatment, particularly the role of salvage surgery, for the chemorefractory disease are much less documented.
  • The histological subtypes included 2 dysgerminomas (DSG), 7 immature teratomas (IMT), 22 endodermal sinus tumors (EST) (including 16 pure EST, 3 mixed type with DSG, 3 with EC), 2 embryonal carcinomas (EC) and 1 mixed form (with component of sex cord-stromal tumor).
  • The median follow-up time was 44.09 months (range, 5-164 months).
  • Histology (DSG/IMT vs. non-DSG/IMT) (P=0.0221), primary and salvage chemotherapy regimen (non-BEP/PVB regimen for primary chemotherapy and BEP/PVB regimen for salvage chemotherapy vs. all other regimens in primary and salvage chemotherapy) (P=0.0316), site of chemorefractory disease (retroperitoneal vs. intraperitoneal) (P=0.0221), and salvage surgery states (optimal cytoreduction vs. suboptimal cytoreduction) (P=0.0036) were significant prognostic factors for survival through univariate analysis.
  • When offered standard BEP/PVB regimen as salvage chemotherapy, patients with chemorefractory disease after non-BEP/PVB primary chemotherapy have better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. China. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17459461.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol; PVB protocol
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21. Sun XF, Yang QY, Zhen ZJ, Xia Y, Huang ZH, Ling JY: [Treatment outcome of children and adolescents with germ cell tumor after combined therapy---a report of 44 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Dec;25(12):1529-32
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  • [Title] [Treatment outcome of children and adolescents with germ cell tumor after combined therapy---a report of 44 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: The overall survival rate of children and adolescents with germ cell tumor is more than 75% after adopting combined therapy.
  • However, the prognosis varies with stage, pathologic type, and primary tumor site.
  • This study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of children and adolescents with germ cell tumor, and to investigate the prognostic factors and therapeutic strategy.
  • METHODS: Clinical characteristics, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors of 44 children and adolescents with germ cell tumor, treated in Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University from Jan.
  • RESULTS: Of the 44 patients, 25 received adjuvant chemotherapy after operation; 1 received operation alone; 18 received induction chemotherapy.
  • Of the 18 patients, 7 received tumor resection after chemotherapy; 2 patients with primary mediastinal chorioepithelioma with multiple metastases received radiotherapy on residual disease after chemotherapy; 1 patient with postoperative abdominal metastasis and 1 with postoperative lung metastasis achieved complete remission after chemotherapy; 1 patient with mediastinal sinus tumor achieved partial remission after chemotherapy; 6 had poor response to chemotherapy and died of disease progression.
  • Chemotherapy-treated patients received platinum-containing regimens for 2-7 cycles.
  • For previously untreated patients, the 3-year survival rate was 96.0% for gonadal germ cell tumor patients and 61.0% for extragonadal germ cell tumor patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgery combined with platinum-containing chemotherapy can improve efficacy and survival of children and adolescents with germ cell tumor.
  • For the patients with stage IV, relapsed, and metastatic tumors, novel therapeutic regimens with increased dose intensity need further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17166380.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol; COB protocol
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22. Skof E, Grasic Kuhar C, Cerar O, Zakotnik B: Survival and fertility of patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumours. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2004;25(6):702-6
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  • [Title] Survival and fertility of patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumours.
  • Disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and fertility of patients treated for malignant ovarian germ cell tumours at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana from 1990-2000 were assessed.
  • Twenty-three patients with a median age of 25 (15-67) years were treated.
  • Five had pure dysgerminoma, three endodermal sinus tumour, ten immature teratoma and five had mixed germ cell tumours.
  • Twenty-one patients received adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Six patients (two did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy) relapsed at a median of 16 (3-63) months after surgery.
  • At relapse four were treated with surgery and chemotherapy, one with chemotherapy only and one with palliative radiotherapy only: two are still in complete remission, one has residual disease and three died of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Slovenia / epidemiology. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15597846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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23. Guillem V, Poveda A: Germ cell tumours of the ovary. Clin Transl Oncol; 2007 Apr;9(4):237-43
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumours of the ovary.
  • Germinal cell tumours represent only 2-5% of all cancers of the ovary.
  • However, the characteristics of the tumour and the patients have some special qualities as high rates of healing goes together with a strong desire to keep fertility intact because this condition occurs in female children and adolescent girls.
  • Neither the prognosis nor the treatment of these tumours is homogeneous; the low incidence is the reason it is hard to develop prospective studies for establishing prognostic factors and specific treatments.
  • The introduction of adjuvant chemotherapy into initial surgery has improved the prognosis of these patients.
  • The surgical treatment demands the application of the same principles seen in cytoreduction surgery of epithelial cancers of the ovary (maximum possible cytoreduction), though in many cases hysterectomy and double adnexectomy may be obviated.
  • In view of the rarity of these tumours, it is advisable to work within cooperative groups that may have subgroups for the treatment of rare tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Ovarian Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Child. Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human. Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Dysgerminoma / drug therapy. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Ovary / pathology. Prognosis. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / pathology. World Health Organization. alpha-Fetoproteins

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  • (PMID = 17462976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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24. Jeyakumar A, Chalas E, Hindenburg A: Sustained complete remission in a patient with platinum-resistant ovarian yolk sac tumor. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Sep;82(3):578-80
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  • [Title] Sustained complete remission in a patient with platinum-resistant ovarian yolk sac tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Yolk sac tumors of the ovary are generally very responsive to chemotherapy; however, they are difficult to manage in the setting of platinum resistance where treatment options are limited and outcomes are poorer.
  • CASE: We present a 39-year-old woman who had a platinum-resistant yolk sac ovarian tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of docetaxel, gemcitabine, and thalidomide might be an active regimen for platinum-resistant ovarian nondysgerminomas and further investigation of this combination is warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Taxoids
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / analogs & derivatives. Thalidomide / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 11520160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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25. Bakri YN, Ezzat A, Akhtar, Dohami, Zahrani: Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Pregnancy considerations. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2000 May;90(1):87-91
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  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Pregnancy considerations.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the pregnancy association and malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary with regard to its effects on tumor prognosis.
  • STUDY DESIGN: : Seventy-five patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary treated at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital-Research Center (KFSH-RC) Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 1976 and December 1992, were reviewed.
  • Data was retrieved from the medical records and the database of ovarian tumor pathology.
  • Patients with tumor/pregnancy association were identified and correlation with obstetrical outcome and tumor prognosis analyzed.
  • Patients who conceived after treatment were identified and their reproductive outcome described.
  • RESULTS: Malignant germ cell tumor was associated with pregnancy in a group of ten patients.
  • Possible tumor effects upon pregnancy in this group included operative delivery by caesarean section (n=3), mid-trimester termination (n=2), spontaneous abortion (n=1).
  • Four patients had normal vaginal birth with no apparent tumor effects upon pregnancy.
  • Pregnancy did not seem to influence the tumor prognosis of pure dysgerminoma (n=6), however, two patients with non-dysgerminomatous germ cell tumor (one endodermal sinus tumor and one immature teratoma) died of rapidly progressive disease during the second trimester.
  • Two patients with advanced (stage IIIC) disease concurrent with pregnancy (one pure dysgerminoma and one mixed germ cell tumor), had normal fetal outcomes and achieved long-term survival.
  • Amongst the 22 patients who planned to conceive after conservative surgery, with or without post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy, 12 conceived (12/22) and achieved a total of 20 pregnancies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that, (1) The association of pure dysgerminoma and pregnancy did not adversely affect the tumor prognosis or fetal outcome.
  • However, the question remains as to whether pregnancy worsened the prognosis of non-dysgerminomatous germ cell tumors. (2) Recent platinum-based regimens of multiagent chemotherapy for germ cell tumors did not seem to affect fertility potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Reproductive History

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  • (PMID = 10767517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
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26. Rzepka-Górska I, Błogowska A, Zajaczek S, Zielińska D: [Germinal cell tumors in young and adolescent girls]. Ginekol Pol; 2003 Sep;74(9):840-6
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  • [Title] [Germinal cell tumors in young and adolescent girls].
  • OBJECTIVE: Germ cell tumours are the most common ovarian tumours in childhood and adolescence.
  • This diverse group of tumours derives from germ cells.
  • DESIGN: The aim of this work is presentation of germ cell tumours in the material from our clinic with characteristic clinical features, the scope of operation and effects of many years of observation.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We treated 109 girls with germ cell tumours of the ovary: 13 had malignant tumours: there were 7 patients with dysgerminomas, 2 with endodermal sinus tumour of the ovary, 3 with immature teratomas, 1 with carcinoma embryonale.
  • There can be problems with diagnosis of the syndrome, because developmental features imitate the onset of normal puberty.
  • It must be suggested that patients of stage I who wish to preserve childbearing function may be treated with unilateral salpingoophorectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Monitoring of the treatment is connected with measurement of biochemical markers.
  • Some of these markers are useful for monitoring of response to therapy.
  • Cytological smears and biopsy specimens from the remaining ovary, peritoneum and subdiaphragmatic area should be obtained laparoscopically.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The sift ultrasonographic investigations can be helpful in the early diagnosis of germ cell tumours of the ovary in girls.
  • Fertility sparing operative treatment is preferred when karyotype is normal.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Dysgerminoma / therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Female. Germinoma / pathology. Germinoma / therapy. Gonadoblastoma / pathology. Gonadoblastoma / therapy. Gonadotropins / blood. Gonadotropins / genetics. Humans. Poland. Risk Factors. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 14674134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gonadotropins
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27. Lopez JM, Malpica A, Deavers MT, Ayala AG: Ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with endometrioid carcinoma and mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2003 Oct;7(5):300-5
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  • [Title] Ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with endometrioid carcinoma and mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary.
  • The clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical findings of an unusual case of ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with endometrioid carcinoma and mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary are reported.
  • The tumor was detected in a 51-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with abdominal swelling and a pelvic mass.
  • The tumor was confined to the right ovary and measured 16.0 cm in greatest dimension.
  • Microscopic examination revealed that the tumor had a yolk sac component associated with an endometrioid carcinoma, grade I, and a mucinous cystadenoma.
  • Immunoperoxidase studies showed that the yolk sac component stained diffusely with a cytokeratin cocktail and was focally positive for alpha-fetoprotein.
  • In contrast, the endometrioid carcinoma stained positive for keratin 7 in addition to the cytokeratin cocktail, but was negative for alpha-fetoprotein.
  • After surgery, the patient received three cycles of chemotherapy.
  • However, the disease progressed and the patient died 10 months after the diagnosis of the ovarian tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Postmenopause

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  • (PMID = 14571433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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28. Bafna UD, Umadevi K, Kumaran C, Nagarathna DS, Shashikala P, Tanseem R: Germ cell tumors of the ovary: is there a role for aggressive cytoreductive surgery for nondysgerminomatous tumors? Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2001 Jul-Aug;11(4):300-4
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumors of the ovary: is there a role for aggressive cytoreductive surgery for nondysgerminomatous tumors?
  • Thirty-three patients with germ cell tumor of the ovary were seen at Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology (KMIO), Bangalore, between 1996 and 1999.
  • Twelve patients had endodermal sinus tumor (EST), 11 dysgerminoma, seven mixed germ cell tumor, and three immature teratoma.
  • All but one patient received a combination of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) either as neoadjuvant (NACT, 3 cases) or as adjuvant therapy (28 cases).
  • In the present study, all 11 patients with dysgerminoma achieved sustained complete remission (CR), irrespective of the size of residual disease at the time of chemotherapy.
  • Four out of six cases (66.6%) with bulky nondysgerminomatous tumor achieved CR, which was sustained in three cases and one recurred.
  • This study indicates that there may be a role for aggressive cytoreductive surgery, either primary/interval or at the time of second-look laparotomy, in selected patients with nondysgerminomatous germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11520369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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29. Moodley M, Moodley J: Ovarian germ cell malignancy and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: a case report. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2003 Jul-Aug;13(4):541-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ovarian germ cell malignancy and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: a case report.
  • The occurrence of germ cell tumors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has not been previously reported.
  • The approach to management as well as the role of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is problematic as many of these therapies are toxic.
  • The presentation, management, and outcome of ovarian endodermal sinus tumor in a HIV-infected patient is reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / complications. Germinoma / therapy. HIV Infections / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ovariectomy / methods. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12911735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Palenzuela G, Martin E, Meunier A, Beuzeboc P, Laurence V, Orbach D, Frappaz D: Comprehensive staging allows for excellent outcome in patients with localized malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary. Ann Surg; 2008 Nov;248(5):836-41
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  • [Title] Comprehensive staging allows for excellent outcome in patients with localized malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • BACKGROUND: The management of malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary (OMGCT) requires multidisciplinary expertise.
  • We analyze the surgical and medical outcomes of a cohort of patients treated for OMGCT.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data concerning diagnosis, surgery, and medical decisions were reviewed for all patients seen for postoperative management of OMGCT at the Centre Léon Bérard in Lyon and the Institut Curie in Paris between 1985 and 2003.
  • Sixty patients aged 0.4 to 27.9 years (mean 12.8 years) at diagnosis were included.
  • Relapses occurred in 8 of 24 stage I tumors that were observed (0/8 stage Ia; 5/13 stage Ix (P = 0.044) and 3/3 stage Ic) versus 0/14 stage I treated by adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.0015).
  • The risk of relapse was significantly increased if patients underwent postsurgical observation ((HR) = 4.5 (95% CI, 1.5 to 13.3)), and when the tumor contained yolk sac tumor (HR = 7.3 (95% CI, 2.3 to 22.7)).
  • There was no significant prognostic value for age, stage, level of tumor markers at diagnosis, type of surgery, and type of chemotherapy.
  • Patients with stages Ix and Ic tumors may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Dysgerminoma / surgery. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18948812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Futagami M, Yokoyama Y, Shigeto T, Mizunuma H: A case of recurrent yolk sac tumor as spindle cell sarcoma of the abdominal wall. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(6):690-3
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  • [Title] A case of recurrent yolk sac tumor as spindle cell sarcoma of the abdominal wall.
  • Few studies report on tissue morphology in recurrence of yolk sac tumor.
  • The case of the recurrence of a yolk sac tumor as a spindle cell sarcoma of the abdominal wall is presented.
  • A 27-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to suspicion of an ovarian tumor.
  • Right salpingo-oophorectomy, partial omentectomy, and extirpation of disseminated foci as fertility-preserving surgery was done since the intraoperative pathological diagnosis was yolk sac tumor.
  • Final pathological examination showed a germ cell tumor of which yolk sac tumor formed the major component including a small area that appeared to be immature nerve tissue.
  • Although residual tumor was not less than 1 cm, clinical complete remission was reached after the sixth course of BEP regimen.
  • However, the recurrence of a yolk sac tumor as an unclassified spindle cell sarcoma of the abdominal wall was found about two years after the initial surgery.
  • The mesenchyme-like component of the yolk sac tumor is characterized by spindle cells originating from epithelial elements, and is likely to give rise to a chemoresistant, diversely differentiated sarcoma.
  • This report suggests that the sarcoma reported in the case here also arose when spindle cells of the mesenchyme-like component underwent sarcomatous change during or after chemotherapy, subsequently relapsed as a chemoresistant tumor, and metastasized.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Wall / pathology. Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 21319519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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32. Hong DG, Chong GO, Seong WJ, Lee YS, Cho YL, Park JY, Chae JM, Park IS: A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor in a 35-year-old woman. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(4):471-4
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  • [Title] A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor in a 35-year-old woman.
  • Ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) is a malignant ovarian neoplasm differentiated from primordial germ cells that occur in young age, while endometrioid carcinoma (ECA) is a müllerian epithelial tumor that usually occurs in older patients.
  • The coexistence of an ovarian ECA and YST component is very rare.
  • We present a case of a simultaneous ECA and a YST component in a 35-year-old woman.
  • After completion of four courses of BEP chemotherapy, two courses of taxane and carboplatin chemotherapy were added.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20882900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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33. Razzi S, Luisi S, Gabbanini M, Lazzeri L, Mazzini M, Petraglia F: Yolk sac tumor in a young girl: a case report. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2005 Jun;20(6):334-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Yolk sac tumor in a young girl: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Yolk sac tumor is a rare neoplasm characterized by high malignancy given its premature metastasis, that is frequent in adolescence.
  • CASE REPORT: A 21-year-old woman came to our observation for an ovarian cyst (13 cm in diameter).
  • Following salpingo-oophorectomy, it was revealed as a yolk sac tumor by histological diagnosis.
  • She is now undergoing chemotherapy treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: This is an interesting case of yolk sac tumor in a young girl, at an age typical for germ cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Humans. Ovariectomy

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  • (PMID = 16019383.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-3590
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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34. Ali L, Bambach BJ, Kozielski R, Wagner H, Lele S, Mhawech-Fauceglia P: Ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with major fibrosarcoma component in a 13-year-old girl. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 May;29(3):252-5
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  • [Title] Ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with major fibrosarcoma component in a 13-year-old girl.
  • We are presenting a case of a 13-year-old girl with a chief complaint of lower abdominal pain.
  • A computed tomographic scan showed a 10-cm right ovarian mass.
  • The final diagnosis was a yolk sac tumor with a major (95%) fibrosarcoma component, based on morphology and further confirmed by an extensive panel of immunohistochemistry.
  • The patient completed 7 cycles of multiagent chemotherapy with cisplatin without major complications.
  • To our knowledge, our case is the first of its kind in the literature to document yolk sac tumor associated with fibrosarcoma in a teenage female.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20407325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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35. Ratnapala SR, Ratnapala SD: Pregnancy after excision of a yolk sac tumour of the ovary followed by chemotherapy. Ceylon Med J; 2004 Dec;49(4):134-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pregnancy after excision of a yolk sac tumour of the ovary followed by chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Dysgerminoma / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Pregnancy, High-Risk. Yolk Sac / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cesarean Section. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ovariectomy / methods. Risk Assessment






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