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1. Marcu M, Chefani A, Sajin M: Postmenopausal choriocarcinoma: a case report. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2005;46(2):145-8
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  • [Title] Postmenopausal choriocarcinoma: a case report.
  • Postmenopausal uterine choriocarcinoma is very rare and benefits of curative chemotherapy.
  • Emergency surgery revealed a uterine tumor and histopathology findings were consistent with choriocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry tests confirmed betahCG and cytokeratin expression by malignant cells, thus establishing the positive diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Postmenopause

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  • (PMID = 16287001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Vimentin
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2. Shet T, Parage M, Maheshwari A, Nair R, Gupta S, Tongaonkar H, Chinoy R: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of uterus presenting as an ovarian mass: a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2008 Apr-Jun;51(2):242-4
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  • [Title] Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of uterus presenting as an ovarian mass: a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma.
  • Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is a rare gestational trophoblastic tumor and often poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the involved clinicians.
  • We report a case of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in a young woman which involved the uterus, parametrium and the right ovary.
  • Misdiagnosis as a choriocarcinoma led to improper treatment and progressive disease.
  • Differential diagnosis between placental site trophoblastic tumor and carcinoma was ruled out based on histology and immunohistochemistry.
  • The patient developed lung and brain metastasis after 10 months and is alive with disease 1(1/2) years thereafter and is taking palliative chemotherapy.
  • The patient had beta-HCG level of 85.1 mIU/mL at the time of diagnosis; but just before metastasis, the levels rose.
  • Awareness of the histological features of ETT is essential to avoid misdiagnosis, as it represents a tumor which is primarily treated by surgery rather than with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 18603694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
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3. Nakanishi T, Bailey-Dell KJ, Hassel BA, Shiozawa K, Sullivan DM, Turner J, Ross DD: Novel 5' untranslated region variants of BCRP mRNA are differentially expressed in drug-selected cancer cells and in normal human tissues: implications for drug resistance, tissue-specific expression, and alternative promoter usage. Cancer Res; 2006 May 15;66(10):5007-11
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  • [Title] Novel 5' untranslated region variants of BCRP mRNA are differentially expressed in drug-selected cancer cells and in normal human tissues: implications for drug resistance, tissue-specific expression, and alternative promoter usage.
  • To investigate transcriptional activation of the breast cancer resistance protein gene (BCRP/ABCG2), we examined the 5' untranslated region of BCRP mRNA in cell lines with high BCRP transcriptional activity and in normal tissues.
  • Human choriocarcinoma cells with high endogenous BCRP expression (JAR and BeWo) and human cancer cells (MCF-7 and Igrov1) and their BCRP-overexpressing, drug-selected, multidrug-resistant derivatives (MCF-7/AdrVp, Igrov1/MX3, and Igrov1/T8) were studied.
  • Rapid amplification of 5'-cDNA ends-PCR (5'RACE-PCR) revealed at least three novel forms of the untranslated exon 1 (E1a, E1b, and E1c) that are spliced to a common exon 2, with differential expression of these splice variants in the drug-selected cell lines.
  • Additionally, sequence analysis of the 5'RACE-PCR products revealed multiple transcriptional start sites for each variant, particularly in the drug-selected cells.
  • The E1c isoform predominated in drug-selected MCF-7 cell lines and was translated more efficiently in MCF-7 cells than the E1a isoform.
  • Varying patterns of expression of the exon 1 isoforms were observed in a variety of human tissues, suggesting that tissue-specific alternative promoters of BCRP exist.
  • In summary, we find that BCRP overexpression in the drug-selected cells is accompanied by multiple transcriptional start sites and predominance of the more efficiently translated E1c isoform.
  • [MeSH-major] 5' Untranslated Regions / genetics. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2. Base Sequence. Cell Line, Tumor. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / genetics. Choriocarcinoma / metabolism. Exons. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Protein Biosynthesis. Protein Isoforms. Transcriptional Activation. Up-Regulation

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  • [ErratumIn] Cancer Res. 2007 May 1;67(9):4535
  • (PMID = 16707421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ DQ459561/ DQ459562/ DQ459563/ DQ459564/ DQ459565/ DQ459566/ DQ459567/ DQ459568/ DQ459569/ DQ459570/ DQ459571/ DQ459572/ DQ459573/ DQ459574/ DQ459575/ DQ459576/ DQ459577/ DQ459578/ DQ459579/ DQ459580/ DQ459581/ DQ459582/ DQ459583/ DQ459584/ DQ459585/ DQ459586/ DQ459587/ DQ459588/ DQ459589/ DQ459590/ DQ459591/ DQ459592/ DQ459593/ DQ459594/ DQ459595/ DQ459596/ DQ459597/ DQ459598/ DQ459599/ DQ459600/ DQ459601/ DQ459602/ DQ459603/ DQ459604/ DQ459605/ DQ459606/ DQ459607/ DQ459608/ DQ459609/ DQ459610/ DQ459611/ DQ459612/ DQ459613/ DQ459614
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5' Untranslated Regions; 0 / ABCG2 protein, human; 0 / ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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4. Chen YX, Xu J, Lv WG, Xie X: Primary ovarian choriocarcinoma mimicking ectopic pregnancy managed with laparoscopy -- case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(2):174-6
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  • [Title] Primary ovarian choriocarcinoma mimicking ectopic pregnancy managed with laparoscopy -- case report.
  • Nongestational ovarian choriocarcinomas are extremely rare and pose diagnostic challenges in reproductive-aged patients because of elevated human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG).
  • A 23-year-old nulliparous Chinese woman with nongestational ovarian choriocarcinoma escaped diagnostic testing and was initially treated for an ectopic pregnancy.
  • Three months after her first visit, a diagnostic laparoscopy demonstrated a nongestational ovarian choriocarcinoma.
  • The tumor was confined to the left ovary.
  • She was given four courses of combined chemotherapy after laparoscopic surgery and has been disease-free for 36 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / ultrasonography. Methotrexate / pharmacology. Ovarian Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Pregnancy, Tubal / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chorionic Gonadotropin / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 18459557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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5. Gauchez AS, Dreux S, Stéfani L, Mousseau M, Jouk PS, Muller F: Could ovarian choriocarcinoma be detected by maternal serum screening for Down syndrome? Prenat Diagn; 2007 Jul;27(7):682-4
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  • [Title] Could ovarian choriocarcinoma be detected by maternal serum screening for Down syndrome?
  • The incidence of ovarian malignancies during gestation ranges from 1 in 8000 to 1 in 20,000 deliveries.
  • Ovarian malignancies that produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are limited to germ cell tumors, of which dysgerminoma is the most frequent (45%) malignant type encountered in pregnant patients, the others being ovarian choriocarcinoma and mixed germ cell tumors (Boulay and Podczaski, 1998).
  • In women of childbearing age, it is hard to distinguish between metastatic choriocarcinoma on a complete mole and primary ovarian choriocarcinoma.
  • Treatment is based on adnexectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • Had the diagnosis for our patient been made during pregnancy, the therapeutic approach would have been discussed in terms of gestational age.
  • In the last trimester, we could have suggested cesarean section followed by adnexectomy, and then chemotherapy.
  • In the second-trimester, chemotherapy could have been discussed, although the fetal toxicity of cisplatin chemotherapy is not firmly defined (Ferrandina et al., 2005).
  • This treatment is an alternative to termination of pregnancy.
  • We retrospectively studied maternal serum biochemistry so as to assess the possibility of a diagnosis of ovarian choriocarcinoma at the time of maternal serum screening for Down syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Down Syndrome / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17533625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0197-3851
  • [Journal-full-title] Prenatal diagnosis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prenat. Diagn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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6. Jiao LZ, Xiang Y, Feng FZ, Wan XR, Zhao J, Cui QC, Yang XY: Clinical analysis of 21 cases of nongestational ovarian choriocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Feb;20(2):299-302
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  • [Title] Clinical analysis of 21 cases of nongestational ovarian choriocarcinoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was to investigate the clinical characters, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of nongestational ovarian choriocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis was done on 21 patients with nongestational ovarian choriocarcinoma treated in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 1985 to October 2008.
  • All patients' conditions were diagnosed by histopathologic examination; in 3 of them, the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA polymorphism analysis at 12 short tandem repeat loci.
  • RESULTS: Correct diagnosis was achieved in only 3 patients before initial treatment.
  • All patients received standard multiple-drug combined chemotherapy and underwent an operation.
  • The mean number of chemotherapy courses for each patient was 10.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The early diagnosis of nongestational ovarian choriocarcinoma is expected to be improved.
  • DNA polymorphism analysis is a useful tool in determining the origin of ovarian choriocarcinoma.
  • The prognosis is optimistic if managed with standard multiple-drug chemotherapy combined with surgical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. China / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20134273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Gibbs DD, Theti DS, Wood N, Green M, Raynaud F, Valenti M, Forster MD, Mitchell F, Bavetsias V, Henderson E, Jackman AL: BGC 945, a novel tumor-selective thymidylate synthase inhibitor targeted to alpha-folate receptor-overexpressing tumors. Cancer Res; 2005 Dec 15;65(24):11721-8
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  • The K(i) for isolated thymidylate synthase is 1.2 nmol/L and the IC(50) for inhibition of the growth of alpha-FR-negative mouse L1210 or human A431 cells is approximately 7 micromol/L.
  • In contrast, BGC 945 is highly potent in a range of alpha-FR-overexpressing human tumor cell lines (IC(50) approximately 1-300 nmol/L).
  • Pharmacokinetic variables measured following i.v. injection of 100 mg/kg BGC 945 to KB tumor-bearing mice showed rapid plasma clearance (0.021 L/h) and tissue distribution.
  • Tumor BGC 945 concentration at 24 hours was approximately 1 nmol/g tissue, at least 10-fold higher than that in plasma or normal tissues.
  • Inhibition of thymidylate synthase in tissues leads to increased incorporation of 5-[(125)I]-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ([(125)I]dUrd) into DNA.
  • Forty-eight hours after injection of 100 mg/kg 6RS-BGC 945 ([(125)I]dUrd injected at 24 hours), tumor was the only tissue with incorporation above control level (6-fold).
  • The RFC-mediated thymidylate synthase inhibitor plevitrexed also increased uptake of [(125)I]dUrd in tumor (10-fold) but, in contrast, also caused increased incorporation in other normal tissues such as spleen and small bowel (4.5- and 4.6-fold, respectively).
  • These data suggest that BGC 945 selectively inhibits thymidylate synthase in alpha-FR-overexpressing tumors and should cause minimal toxicity to humans at therapeutic doses.
  • [MeSH-major] Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism. Thymidylate Synthase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Biological Transport. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / enzymology. Female. Folate Receptors, GPI-Anchored. Folic Acid / metabolism. Humans. Idoxuridine / metabolism. Iodine Radioisotopes. Leukemia L1210 / drug therapy. Leukemia L1210 / enzymology. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / enzymology. Membrane Transport Proteins. Mice. Mice, Nude. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / enzymology. Reduced Folate Carrier Protein. Tissue Distribution. Transplantation, Heterologous. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16357184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BGC945; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Folate Receptors, GPI-Anchored; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Reduced Folate Carrier Protein; 0 / SLC19A1 protein, human; 0 / Slc19a1 protein, mouse; 935E97BOY8 / Folic Acid; EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase; LGP81V5245 / Idoxuridine
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8. Goswami D, Sharma K, Zutshi V, Tempe A, Nigam S: Nongestational pure ovarian choriocarcinoma with contralateral teratoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Feb;80(2):262-6
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  • [Title] Nongestational pure ovarian choriocarcinoma with contralateral teratoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Nongestational pure ovarian choriocarcinoma is a rare malignancy with only 29 cases described to date.
  • CASE: We describe a case associated with mature cystic teratoma of the contralateral ovary.
  • Details of all 30 cases including clinical features, associations, surgicopathological findings, operative procedures, postoperative chemotherapy, and outcome are summarized.
  • CONCLUSION: This rare malignancy responds well to surgery and postoperative chemotherapy including the methotrexate-based regimes.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11161870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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9. Kong B, Tian YJ, Zhu WW, Qin YJ: A pure nongestational ovarian choriocarcinoma in a 10-year-old girl: case report and literature review. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2009 Jun;35(3):574-8
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  • [Title] A pure nongestational ovarian choriocarcinoma in a 10-year-old girl: case report and literature review.
  • Nongestational ovarian choriocarcinoma (NGCO) is a rare form of malignancy, which is difficult to diagnose.
  • We present a case of a 10-year-old girl diagnosed with pure nongestational ovarian choriocarcinoma.
  • This patient responded well to conservative surgery and cisplatin-based regimen chemotherapy.
  • We report here the clinical features, differential diagnosis, appropriate management and outcome of our case, together with analysis of the reported cases in the published work.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Humans. Ovariectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19527404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PVB protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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10. Kohorn EI: Measurement of CA-125 in trophoblastic disease. Gynecol Oncol; 2000 Jul;78(1):39-42
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  • OBJECTIVES: Physicians treating hydatidiform mole are still seeking means of identifying those patients who will require chemotherapy.
  • CA-125 was measured at the time of hydatidiform mole evacuation to determine (1) whether it would predict the need for chemotherapy and (2) whether it correlated with human chorionic gonadotropin and tumor load in following patients with hydatidiform mole and metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • Ten patients had partial hydatidiform mole and one of these required chemotherapy.
  • One patient had primary ovarian choriocarcinoma and three had placental site tumor.
  • RESULTS: The mean preevacuation CA-125 among the 15 patients with complete hydatidiform mole was 40.9 U/ml: 52.5 U/ml for 5 patients who required chemotherapy and 36.2 U/ml for 10 patients who did not require chemotherapy.
  • The patient with a tetraploid conceptus who required chemotherapy had negative CA-125.
  • With placental site tumor CA-125 was negative, but it was elevated with ovarian choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chorionic Gonadotropin / analysis. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Pregnancy. Reproducibility of Results

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 10873407.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
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11. Koo HL, Choi J, Kim KR, Kim JH: Pure non-gestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary diagnosed by DNA polymorphism analysis. Pathol Int; 2006 Oct;56(10):613-6
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  • [Title] Pure non-gestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary diagnosed by DNA polymorphism analysis.
  • Pure primary ovarian choriocarcinoma is a rare condition that can be of gestational or non-gestational origin.
  • Non-gestational choriocarcinoma has been found to be resistant to single-agent chemotherapy and has a worse prognosis than gestational choriocarcinoma, but it is difficult to distinguish the two types by routine histological examination.
  • Herein is reported a case of primary pure non-gestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary in a 33-year-old nulligravid woman, as confirmed by DNA polymorphism analysis.
  • The patient has no evidence of disease 17 months after surgery and four cycles of combination chemotherapy.
  • This case demonstrates the usefulness of DNA polymorphism analysis for the determination of the origin of extrauterine choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / diagnosis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Polymorphism, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 16984618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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12. Kohorn EI, Kacinski BM, Stanley ER: Serum levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in trophoblastic disease. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Mar;80(3):383-6
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  • OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to measure levels of colony stimulating factor (CSF-1) in patients with trophoblastic disease, to determine whether such measurement may be useful to supplement measurement of the prognostically reliable human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), and to assess whether measurement of CSF-1 may be helpful in predicting requirement for chemotherapy in patients with hydatidiform mole.
  • METHODS: Serial weekly serum samples were selected for CSF-1 assay from representative diagnostic groups of patients with trophoblastic disease: hydatidiform-mole with spontaneous resolution, low-risk post-hydatidiform-mole trophoblastic tumor, partial hydatidiform mole, high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumor, primary ovarian choriocarcinoma, and placental site trophoblastic tumor. hCG was measured by an in-house radioimmunoassay that measures all parts of the hCG molecule.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Female. Humans. Hydatidiform Mole / blood. Hydatidiform Mole / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Pregnancy. Radioimmunoassay. Risk Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 11263936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA26504; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32551; United States / PHS HHS / / P30-13330
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 81627-83-0 / Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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13. Taguchi A, Takeshita S, Machida R, Hori Y, Aida K, Furuya U, Ohe E, Murase T, Shinozuka N, Ayabe T, Mori H: [Anaphylaxia induced by etoposide--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 Aug;30(8):1187-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Under the clinical diagnosis of choriocarcinoma, she underwent total hysterectomy with right salpingooophorectomy.
  • The ovarian choriocarcinoma was confirmed by pathologic examination.
  • Additional chemotherapy was planned using the combined regimen of etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and oncovin.
  • Etoposide infusion was immediately stopped, and anti-anaphylaxic treatment was done by administering hydroxyzine hydrochloride.
  • This episode was thought to have been induced by etoposide, but etoposide was a key agent for choriocarcinoma.
  • Thus, we devised a modified chemotherapy using etoposide as follows.
  • The etoposide concentration was diluted to 50%, and the drug administration rate reduced by half.
  • The few reports on anaphylaxic reactions to chemotherapeutic agents induced by side effects must be taken into account when we use these drugs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12938279.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
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14. Szavay PO, Wermes C, Fuchs J, Schrappe M, Flemming P, von Schweinitz D: Effective treatment of infantile choriocarcinoma in the liver with chemotherapy and surgical resection: a case report. J Pediatr Surg; 2000 Jul;35(7):1134-5
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  • [Title] Effective treatment of infantile choriocarcinoma in the liver with chemotherapy and surgical resection: a case report.
  • Infantile choriocarcinoma of the liver is an extremely rare entity, and outcome has been fatal in almost all published cases.
  • To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on successful treatment with preoperative chemotherapy.
  • A 10-week-old girl presented with a large liver tumor, ovarian cysts, cardiac insufficiency, progressive hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia.
  • Ultrasound scan and magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) showed the typical pattern of infantile hemangioendothelioma.
  • An emergency laparotomy was performed because of increasing cardiac insufficiency with ligation of the right hepatic artery, tumor biopsy, and subtotal resection of the ovarian cysts.
  • Histology findings showed a choriocarcinoma of the liver and corpus luteum cysts of the ovaries.
  • Chemotherapy was initiated with etoposide and cisplatin.
  • When x-ray examination showed development of lung metastases, chemotherapy was intensified with etoposide, cisplatin, and ifosfamid according to the German Study Group of Extracranial Nontesticular Malignant Germ Cell Tumors in Childhood and Adolescence (MAKEI-96).
  • After the fourth course, a complete tumor resection was achieved by an extended right hemihepatectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy being administered after the operation.
  • The authors' experience shows that chemotherapy is effective for preoperative tumor reduction.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 10917316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3468
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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15. Hafezi-Bakhtiari S, Morava-Protzner I, Burnell MJ, Reardon E, Colgan TJ: Choriocarcinoma arising in a serous carcinoma of ovary: an example of histopathology driving treatment. J Obstet Gynaecol Can; 2010 Jul;32(7):698-702
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  • [Title] Choriocarcinoma arising in a serous carcinoma of ovary: an example of histopathology driving treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: Choriocarcinoma within an ovarian carcinoma is exceptionally rare.
  • Nevertheless, recognition of this mixed tumour is important for administration of appropriate chemotherapy.
  • CASE: A 65-year-old woman underwent resection of an ovarian mass after presenting with a pelvic mass and breast tenderness.
  • On pathologic examination the mass showed a choriocarcinoma in association with a serous carcinoma.
  • This pathologic diagnosis led to a specific chemotherapy regimen with cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin, suitable for both types of malignancy.
  • CONCLUSION: Both gynaecologists and pathologists should be aware that the histopathologic classification of ovarian epithelial carcinoma and its variants, such as this one, may have an increasing role in the management of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20707961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1701-2163
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstétrique et gynécologie du Canada : JOGC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Obstet Gynaecol Can
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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16. Ozturk E, Ugur MG, Cebesoy FB, Aydin A, Sever T, Balat O: Good prognosis for primary ovarian pure nongestational choriocarcinoma using the EMA/CO regime. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(1):123-5
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  • [Title] Good prognosis for primary ovarian pure nongestational choriocarcinoma using the EMA/CO regime.
  • Nongestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary is a rare germ cell tumor with a worse prognosis than gestational choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20349799.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; EMA-CO protocol
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17. Tsujioka H, Hamada H, Miyakawa T, Hachisuga T, Kawarabayashi T: A pure nongestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary diagnosed with DNA polymorphism analysis. Gynecol Oncol; 2003 Jun;89(3):540-2
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  • [Title] A pure nongestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary diagnosed with DNA polymorphism analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: Choriocarcinoma arises in the ovary from gestational or nongestational origin.
  • Nongestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary is extremely rare and the pure type is less frequent than the mixed type with other germ cell tumors.
  • Diagnosis of pure nongestational choriocarcinoma is very difficult without genetic analysis.
  • CASE: We report a pure nongestational choriocarcinoma primarily arising in a 19-year-old woman's ovary.
  • Following abdominal operative procedure, careful examination of the tumor revealed pure choriocarcinoma without combination of other germ cell tumors.
  • Multiple courses of chemotherapy with an EMA/CO regimen were effective for this case.
  • CONCLUSION: Genetic analysis is useful tool in determining the origin of choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Polymorphism, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 12798727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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18. Shigematsu T, Kamura T, Arima T, Wake N, Nakano H: DNA polymorphism analysis of a pure non-gestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary: case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2000;21(2):153-4
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  • [Title] DNA polymorphism analysis of a pure non-gestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary: case report.
  • A 45-year-old nulligravida woman died from carcinoma peritonitis with choriocarcinoma arising in the ovary.
  • This tumor was resistant to chemotherapy after debulking surgery.
  • DNA polymorphism analysis was useful in proving the choriocarcinoma to be non-gestational carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / genetics. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Ovariectomy. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 10843474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ITALY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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19. Yamamoto E, Ino K, Yamamoto T, Sumigama S, Nawa A, Nomura S, Kikkawa F: A pure nongestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary diagnosed with short tandem repeat analysis: case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 Jan-Feb;17(1):254-8
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  • [Title] A pure nongestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary diagnosed with short tandem repeat analysis: case report and review of the literature.
  • Nongestational pure choriocarcinoma of the ovary is a very rare germ cell tumor.
  • We present a pure nongestational choriocarcinoma arising in the left ovary of a 19-year-old woman.
  • Following surgery, pathologic findings of the tumor demonstrated pure choriocarcinoma without combination of other germ cell tumor elements.
  • Multiple courses of chemotherapy with methotrexate, etoposide, and actinomycin-D were effective for this case.
  • DNA polymorphism analysis is useful to determine genetic origin in pure choriocarcinoma of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / genetics. Microsatellite Repeats. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17291262.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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20. Pentheroudakis G, White J, Davis J, Brown I, Vasey P: Concurrent ovarian-type primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma and peritoneal choriocarcinoma. A case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 Feb;92(2):697-700
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  • [Title] Concurrent ovarian-type primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma and peritoneal choriocarcinoma. A case report and review of the literature.
  • CASE: A 65-year old female with stage IV primary peritoneal carcinoma, ovarian type, underwent surgical cytoreduction followed by two courses of paclitaxel/carboplatin chemotherapy.
  • A choriocarcinomatous component was later identified in the resection specimens, as chemotherapy resulted in a differential response of the two malignant variants.
  • Commencement of EMA/CO chemotherapy (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine) resulted in symptom palliation and tumour regression, further consolidated with platinum-based EP/EMA (etoposide, cisplatin, methotrexate, actinomycin D).
  • CONCLUSION: Choriocarcinomas may coexist with typical ovarian-type peritoneal cancer, creating diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.
  • Aggressive weekly chorio-type chemotherapy appears to be warranted despite the low likelihood of cure, as it provides significant symptom palliation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 14766269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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21. Cao DY, Xiang Y, Yang XY, Wan XR: [Clinical analysis of 17 cases of nongestational choriocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2003 May;38(5):284-6
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 17 cases of nongestational choriocarcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of nongestational choriocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: Retrospective analysis was done on 17 cases (11 female patients and 6 male patients) of nongestational choriocarcinoma treated in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 1985 to 2001.
  • RESULTS: All cases received operation as well as chemotherapy.
  • The mean courses of chemotherapy for each patient is 8.6.
  • Correct diagnosis at the first administration was seen in only 3 cases.
  • Nine female and 2 male patients obtained complete remission after the treatment and no recurrence was seen during the 8 to 118 months of follow up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of nongestational choriocarcinoma is expected to be promoted.
  • Optimal prognosis can be gained for the female patients after treatment by operation as well as chemotherapy, but the prognosis for the male patients is poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational. Ovarian Neoplasms. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 12895312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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22. Dumesnil C, Gatbois E, Leverger G: [Infantile choriocarcinoma: an uncommon and curable tumor]. Arch Pediatr; 2005 Dec;12(12):1721-5
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  • [Title] [Infantile choriocarcinoma: an uncommon and curable tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Le choriocarcinome infantile : une tumeur exceptionnelle et curable.
  • Choriocarcinoma is a malignant growth of trophoblastic cells characterized by secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).
  • Infantile choriocarcinoma is a very rare tumor, which is a complication of gestational choriocarcinoma and usually had very poor prognosis before chemotherapy was used.
  • Our case report describes the successful treatment by chemotherapy of a newborn with cerebral metastasis.
  • Several features are important: Infantile choriocarcinoma occurs in infants aged 0 to 6 months.
  • But diagnosis can be difficult when clinical symptoms are poor.
  • Histological pattern is not mandatory for diagnosis.
  • Recommended treatment is chemotherapy and surgery is discussed when a tumoral residue remains.
  • Post-treatment surveillance is based on clinical and radiological examination as well as negativation of beta-hCG.
  • Choriocarcinoma occurring simultaneously in mother and child have been reported.
  • Therefore it is necessary to assay maternal serum beta-hCG when infantile choriocarcinoma is disclosed and to assay serum beta-hCG in the newborn when the mother has gestational choriocarcinoma.
  • Infantile choriocarcinoma is a very chemosensitive tumor and is thereby potentially curable.
  • Early diagnosis is the most important prognostic factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16271451.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-693X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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23. Zhao J, Xiang Y, Wan XR, Feng FZ, Cui QC, Yang XY: [Genetic genesis of choriocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Jan;45(1):35-40
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  • [Title] [Genetic genesis of choriocarcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To distinguish choriocarcinoma from gestational or non-gestational choriocarcinoma and also identify the causative pregnancy of gestational choriocarcinoma by the genetic origin through molecular genetic analysis.
  • METHODS: Twelve patients with choriocarcinoma, who had experienced surgery prior to chemotherapy were enrolled in this study.
  • All 12 cases were diagnosed pathologically as choriocarcinoma.
  • Peripheral venous blood samples and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks of choriocarcinoma tissue microdissected from haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of tissue by microdissection method were available from the patient and (or) her husband.
  • DNA was then prepared from the couples' blood samples and choriocarcinoma tissue by using standard techniques.
  • PCR amplification and fluorescent microsatellite genotyping were performed by using DNA from the couples and captured choriocarcinoma tissues.
  • The genetic contributions to the choriocarcinoma tissue were determined by comparing the fragments of genes from the choriocarcinoma tissue to those from blood samples of the couples.
  • RESULTS: The primary lesion was ovary in 7 cases, but only 4 of them had the maternal contribution, indicating a non-gestational origin; the other three were gestational choriocarcinoma.
  • The primary lesion was uterus in 5 cases, which were all gestational choriocarcinoma confirmed by genetic analyses.
  • The causative pregnancies of the 8 cases with gestational choriocarcinoma were identified as androgenetic complete hydatidiform mole (AnCHM) in six cases and normal pregnancies in two cases, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Microsatellite polymorphism analysis is a molecular approach for distinguishing the non-gestational choriocarcinoma from the gestational one, and also be used to identify the causative pregnancy of gestational choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Hydatidiform Mole / genetics. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / diagnosis. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / genetics. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Polymorphism, Genetic. Pregnancy. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20367924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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24. Vázquez JP, Cobo SL, Antón FM, Asado AC, Vidart JA, Coronado P, Díaz-Rubio E: Brain metastasis and carcinomatous meningitis from vulvar squamous cell carcinoma: case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(2):152-4
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  • [Title] Brain metastasis and carcinomatous meningitis from vulvar squamous cell carcinoma: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Brain metastasis and carcinomatous meningitis from gynecological tumors are an uncommon event, usually related to choriocarcinoma, ovarian and cervical cancer.
  • Initial therapy consisted of multiagent chemotherapy and vulvar, pelvis and groin irradiation.
  • The patient subsequently developed widely spread metastatic disease including brain and meningeal metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: The rising incidence of central nervous system metastasis in the last two decades is probably associated with treatment-related improvement in life expectancy.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case reported of brain metastases and meningeal carcinomatosis associated with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17479684.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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25. Lai CH, Chang TC, Hsueh S, Wu TI, Chao A, Chou HH, Wang PN: Outcome and prognostic factors in ovarian germ cell malignancies. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Mar;96(3):784-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcome and prognostic factors in ovarian germ cell malignancies.
  • OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to investigate the outcome and prognostic factors in patients with ovarian germ cell malignancies (OGCMs).
  • METHODS: A total of 93 patients with OGCMs were retrospectively reviewed, among whom 84 patients had primary treatment at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH) between 1984 and 2003.
  • The other nine patients were primarily treated outside and referred for follow-up (n = 1), adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 4), or salvage therapy after recurrence (n = 4).
  • The clinicopathological and treatment-related characteristics were analyzed for association with the occurrence of tumor persistence/recurrence or death.
  • RESULTS: Of the study patients, 32 had dysgerminoma (DSG), 29 immature teratoma (IMT), 23 endodermal sinus tumor, 7 mixed germ cell tumors, and 1 each had choriocarcinoma and embryonal carcinoma.
  • The median time to recurrence or progression was 8 months.
  • There were 11 treatment failures with 6 died of cancer.
  • Histology (DSG/IMT versus non-DSG/IMT) (P < 0.0001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with treatment failure, while histology (P = 0.0004), salvage high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT) after primary chemotherapy failed (P = 0.0405), and residual tumor after salvage surgery (P = 0.0014) were significant prognostic factors for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis of OGCMs is excellent if managed with standard treatment initially.
  • Aggressive HD-CT with salvage surgery needs to be applied for recurrent/persistent disease after primary chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15721426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Hu YJ, Ip PP, Chan KK, Tam KF, Ngan HY: Ovarian clear cell carcinoma with choriocarcinomatous differentiation: report of a rare and aggressive tumor. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Nov;29(6):539-45
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  • [Title] Ovarian clear cell carcinoma with choriocarcinomatous differentiation: report of a rare and aggressive tumor.
  • Ovarian epithelial tumors of nongerm cell origin with true choriocarcinomatous differentiation are rare.
  • In the reported cases, the epithelial component was of mixed cell types or of mucinous differentiation.
  • To the best of our knowledge, an ovarian carcinoma exclusively of clear cell differentiation coexisting with a pure choriocarcinoma has not been reported earlier.
  • She received 6 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy that included 3 cycles of etoposide/cisplatin and 3 cycles of paclitaxel/etoposide-paclitaxel/carboplatin (TE/TP) with partial response.
  • Pathologic examination showed an ovarian clear cell carcinoma with a second component of choriocarcinoma in which the bilaminar growth pattern of cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblasts was striking.
  • Despite additional therapy, which included 2 cycles of TE/TP and 2 cycles of gemcitabine/taxotere, the disease progressed and the patient died 11 months postoperatively.
  • This report showed that ovarian clear cell carcinoma with choriocarcinomatous differentiation is a highly aggressive tumor and has a very poor prognosis.
  • Nonetheless, there may be a role for neoadjuvant chemotherapy that targets both the clear cell and the choriocarcinoma components to reduce the volume of the disease before debulking surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20881859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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27. Roth LM, Talerman A: Recent advances in the pathology and classification of ovarian germ cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Oct;25(4):305-20
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  • [Title] Recent advances in the pathology and classification of ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • In recent years, our knowledge of ovarian germ cell tumors has increased, and their classification has evolved.
  • The introduction of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and the discovery of tumor markers, including alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin, have dramatically changed the clinical outlook for most of these patients.
  • In this review, recent advances in the classification and pathology of ovarian germ cell tumors are discussed.
  • Where appropriate, comparisons are made with testicular germ cell tumors.
  • The last section of the article discusses the pathogenesis of germ cell tumors.
  • This review will emphasize the articles written in the last 10 years and those that have significantly advanced our knowledge of germ cell tumors in past decades.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / classification. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / classification. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / classification. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / classification. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Dysgerminoma / classification. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / classification. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Teratoma / classification. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16990705.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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28. Quero-Hernández A, Estrada-Correa R, Tenorio-Rodríguez H, Alvarez-Solís RM: [Malignant germ cell ovarian tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome]. Cir Cir; 2007 Mar-Apr;75(2):81-5
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  • [Title] [Malignant germ cell ovarian tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor de células germinales de ovario: características clínicas, y resultados del tratamiento.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian malignant neoplasms in young girls and teenagers are unusual.
  • The most frequent histological subtypes found are those derived from germ cells.
  • Treatment has been improved with combined modality therapy.
  • We present treatment results of the germ cell subtype of malignant ovarian tumors.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed from the medical records of 16 ovarian germ cell patients in order to analyze clinical characteristics, type of surgery performed and chemotherapy, as well as final treatment results.
  • RESULTS: Mean age was 13.8 years, and the left ovary was affected in 75% of cases.
  • Stage distribution was as follows: stage I, one patient diagnosed with choriocarcinoma; stage II, three cases (19%); stage III, 10 cases; and 2 cases in stage IV.
  • Mean number of chemotherapy cycles (cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin) was 4, and 85% of patients survived >2 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical procedure was conservative and a favorable outcome was observed for the chemotherapy cycles.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Mexico / epidemiology. Ovariectomy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17511902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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29. Wang D, Hu Y, He Y, Xie C, Yin R: Pure ovarian choriocarinoma mimicking ectopic pregnancy in true hermaphroditism. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2009;88(7):850-2
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  • [Title] Pure ovarian choriocarinoma mimicking ectopic pregnancy in true hermaphroditism.
  • Ovarian choriocarinoma is a rare tumor and has not been described before in a true hermaphrodite condition.
  • Ectopic pregnancy was suspected three times and exploratory laparoscopy done each time removing the right ovarian mass and local pelvic and omental spread.
  • Final pathology revealed a true hermaphrodite state with testicular tissue with distinct tubules, ovarian tissue with follicles, and ovarian choriocarinoma with necrosis and hemorrhage.
  • She received chemotherapy followed by radical pelvic surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovotesticular Disorders of Sex Development / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Pregnancy. Pregnancy, Ectopic / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19363709.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0412
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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30. Kanazawa K, Suzuki T, Sakumoto K: Treatment of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors with preservation of fertility: reproductive performance after persistent remission. Am J Clin Oncol; 2000 Jun;23(3):244-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors with preservation of fertility: reproductive performance after persistent remission.
  • To describe our experience with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors with special reference to reproductive performance after remission, medical records of 31 patients were reviewed.
  • The mean age at diagnosis was 18.6 years.
  • Histology was dysgerminoma in 7 cases, yolk sac tumor in 10, immature teratoma in 7, choriocarcinoma in 1, and mixed-type tumor in 6.
  • Postoperative chemotherapy was given to all cases except two with stage Ia dysgerminoma.
  • Thus, management of the disease with fertility preservation is safe and the majority of patients can attain or retain normal ovarian function and reproductive potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dysgerminoma / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Germinoma / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Reproduction / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Fertility / drug effects. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Menstruation / drug effects. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10857886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; BEP protocol; EMACO protocol; MAC combination; VAC protocol
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31. Lee KH, Lee IH, Kim BG, Nam JH, Kim WK, Kang SB, Ryu SY, Cho CH, Choi HS, Kim KT, Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group: Clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of Korean women: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Jan;19(1):84-7
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of Korean women: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.
  • We evaluated the clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of South Korean women and determined the prognostic factors affecting recurrence.
  • Histologically, immature teratoma was the most common tumor type (n = 68), followed by dysgerminoma (n = 54), endodermal sinus tumor (n = 38), mixed form (n = 24), and choriocarcinoma (n = 12).
  • Postoperative chemotherapy was administered in 166 patients, and the most common regimen was bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (n = 120).
  • The results of this study demonstrate that most malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary in Korean women are detected in the early stage and have excellent survival outcomes with conservative operation and platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19258947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Lee JK; Park JJ; Cha MS; Kim JH; Lee JM; Park SY; Kim SC; Lee SK
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32. Mann JR, Raafat F, Robinson K, Imeson J, Gornall P, Sokal M, Gray E, McKeever P, Hale J, Bailey S, Oakhill A: The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group's second germ cell tumor study: carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin are effective treatment for children with malignant extracranial germ cell tumors, with acceptable toxicity. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Nov 15;18(22):3809-18
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  • [Title] The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group's second germ cell tumor study: carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin are effective treatment for children with malignant extracranial germ cell tumors, with acceptable toxicity.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (JEB) in children with malignant extracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs).
  • Stage I testicular and some ovarian GCTs were resected and monitored with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) ("watch-and-wait" approach).
  • Chemotherapy toxicities were assessed using World Health Organization or Brock grading.
  • Eight were excluded because either there was no histologic diagnosis (n = 3) or chemotherapy was given off-study (n = 5).
  • The remaining 184 patients had germinoma (n = 20), malignant teratoma (n = 55), embryonal carcinoma (n = 1), yolk sac tumor (n = 107), or choriocarcinoma (n = 1).
  • The median follow-up after JEB treatment was 53 months (range, 0 to 109 months); the median number of courses was five (range, three to eight).
  • One child died of a thoracic tumor and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and another died of acute myeloid leukemia.
  • CONCLUSION: Conservative surgery, a watch-and-wait approach after complete excision, and JEB for those requiring chemotherapy produced high cure rates and few serious complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11078494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; JEB protocol
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33. Suita S, Shono K, Tajiri T, Takamatsu T, Mizote H, Nagasaki A, Inomata Y, Hara T, Okamura J, Miyazaki S, Kawakami K, Eguchi H, Tsuneyoshi M, Committee for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area: Malignant germ cell tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A report from the study group for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area, Japan. J Pediatr Surg; 2002 Dec;37(12):1703-6
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  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A report from the study group for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area, Japan.
  • PURPOSE: This study aims to assess the prognostic factors and optimal treatments for malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT) in childhood.
  • The prognostic factors and treatments were assessed based on the 5-year survival rate. RESULTS:.
  • (1) Stage: 100% for stage I (n = 54), 75.0% for stage II (n = 4), 67.3% for stage III (n = 14), and 54.8% for stage IV (n = 33); Unknown: n = 12. (2) Primary site: 93.4% for the testis (n = 52), 86.7% for the ovary (n = 31), 56.9% for the sacrococcygeal (n = 21), and 60.6% for others (n = 12); unknown: n = 1. (3) Surgical intervention for primary tumor: 100% for stage I with a complete resection (n = 53), 78.4% for stage III, IV with a complete resection (n = 26), and 33.3% for stage III, IV with an incomplete resection (n = 21). (4) Type of chemotherapy for the stage III and IV: 83.9% for the PVB (cisplatin, vinblastin, bleomycin; n = 13), 66.7% for the VAC (vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide; n = 6), and 47.1% for other regimens (n = 25).
  • CONCLUSIONS: An early stage, a diagnosis under 1 year of age and a primary site in the gonads were favorable prognosis factors, whereas histologic findings of choriocarcinoma and liver or lung metastasis were unfavorable.
  • Radical complete resection alone is a sufficient treatment for localized MGCT.
  • The PVB regimen is optimal chemotherapy for advanced MGCT; however, high-risk cases still may require more aggressive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2003 Sep;170(3):1040 [12926414.001]
  • (PMID = 12483635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Zhao S, Kato N, Endoh Y, Jin Z, Ajioka Y, Motoyama T: Ovarian gonadoblastoma with mixed germ cell tumor in a woman with 46, XX karyotype and successful pregnancies. Pathol Int; 2000 Apr;50(4):332-5
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  • [Title] Ovarian gonadoblastoma with mixed germ cell tumor in a woman with 46, XX karyotype and successful pregnancies.
  • An extremely rare case of unilateral gonadoblastoma with mixed germ cell tumor arising in the ovary of a 27-year-old woman with 46,XX karyotype and two successful pregnancies is reported.
  • The mixed germ cell tumor was composed of choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, immature teratoma and dysgerminoma.
  • The patient has been well, without evidence of disease for over 10 years since her first surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma. Gonadoblastoma. Ovarian Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 10849320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] AUSTRALIA
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35. Guillem V, Poveda A: Germ cell tumours of the ovary. Clin Transl Oncol; 2007 Apr;9(4):237-43
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumours of the ovary.
  • Germinal cell tumours represent only 2-5% of all cancers of the ovary.
  • However, the characteristics of the tumour and the patients have some special qualities as high rates of healing goes together with a strong desire to keep fertility intact because this condition occurs in female children and adolescent girls.
  • Neither the prognosis nor the treatment of these tumours is homogeneous; the low incidence is the reason it is hard to develop prospective studies for establishing prognostic factors and specific treatments.
  • The introduction of adjuvant chemotherapy into initial surgery has improved the prognosis of these patients.
  • The surgical treatment demands the application of the same principles seen in cytoreduction surgery of epithelial cancers of the ovary (maximum possible cytoreduction), though in many cases hysterectomy and double adnexectomy may be obviated.
  • In view of the rarity of these tumours, it is advisable to work within cooperative groups that may have subgroups for the treatment of rare tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Ovarian Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Child. Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human. Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Dysgerminoma / drug therapy. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Ovary / pathology. Prognosis. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / pathology. World Health Organization. alpha-Fetoproteins

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  • (PMID = 17462976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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36. Jondle DM, Shahin MS, Sorosky J, Benda JA: Ovarian mixed germ cell tumor with predominance of polyembryoma: a case report with literature review. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2002 Jan;21(1):78-81
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  • [Title] Ovarian mixed germ cell tumor with predominance of polyembryoma: a case report with literature review.
  • An ovarian mixed germ cell tumor in a 34-year-old woman contained a predominant component of polyembryoma as well as foci of choriocarcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and immature teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / surgery. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Hysterectomy. Ovariectomy. Pregnancy. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11781529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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37. Sivanesaratnam V: Chien-Tien Hsu Memorial Lecture. Fertility and gynaecologic malignancies. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2001 Feb;27(1):1-15
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  • A clear inverse relationship exists between family size and the incidence of ovarian and endometrial cancer.
  • A slightly increased risk of breast cancer has been reported in current users and those who had used hormonal contraceptives (OCs) within 10 years; this risk declined with time and disappeared after 10 years.
  • Most studies found OC to reduce the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer.
  • The relative risks of squamous cell carcinoma and adenomatous carcinoma of the cervix have been reported to be 1.3 and 1.5, respectively in ever-users of OCs; however, the aetiology of cervical cancer is multifactoral.
  • Several reports suggest the beneficial effect of tubal ligation and breast feeding in reducing the risk of ovarian cancer.
  • Therapy of gynaecological malignancies may have an influence on subsequent fertility.
  • Amenorrhoea developing after treatment of hydatidiform mole may be due to choriocarcinoma, recurrent mole or a normal pregnancy.
  • Choriocarcinoma can also develop after a partial mole.
  • The risk of fetal teratogenicity from chemotherapy is present only if conception occurs during or immediately following the treatment cycles.
  • Fertility is not impaired following chemotherapy.
  • Fertility-sparing surgery may be safe in early ovarian epithelial cancers and even in advanced germ cell tumours.
  • Gynaecological cancer occurring in pregnancy is uncommon; it presents the clinician with a difficult situation to manage.
  • Ovarian cancer in pregnancy has a good prognosis because of the early stage at diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 11330724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Lectures
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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38. Mikuz G: [WHO classification of testicular tumors]. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol; 2002;86:67-75
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Testicular Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] WHO-Klassifikation der Hodentumoren.
  • The most important is obviously the precursor lesion of germ cell tumors, which has been called "intratubular malignant germ cells".
  • Such atypical cells appear in the tubules adjacent to the germ cell tumors, in some few cases (6%) also in the contra lateral healthy gonad and rarely in infertile men (1%).
  • The precursor lesion can progress to franc germ cell tumor starting probably with seminoma, which still maintain the capability of differentiation (pluripotente cells) in all other types of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • This lesion is missed in germ cell tumors of childhood and in spermatocytic seminomas, both seem to have a histogenetic history rather different from the other germ cell in adults.
  • Seminoma with syncytiotrophoblastic cells is a variant which should not be confused with choriocarcinoma.
  • This is a harmless name for an extremely dangerous tumor in which one tissue overgrows the other and gives rise to somatic type sarcomas or carcinomas.
  • Such tumors do not respond like germ cell tumors to the usual chemotherapy.
  • Treatment should be tailored according to that used in standard management of the respective sarcoma or carcinoma.
  • In the comments it is mentioned that the testis carcinoid could be a part of teratoma, but the diagnosis is listed in the group of "miscellaneous" tumors together with tumors of ovarian epithelial type.
  • This is a very questionable decision because the normal testis does not contain neuroendocrine cells from which carcinoids would have to be able to develop.
  • "Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumour" has been recently described and can be sporadic or inherited.
  • The patients have cardiac myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation, hormone active nodular hyperplasia of the adrenals and soft tissue myxomas.
  • The newly appearing "mixed germ cell--sex cord/gonadal stromal tumours, unclassified" has a histology similar to the well known gonadoblastomas.
  • For the therapy of germ cell tumor an assessment of risk factors found by the pathologists is extremely important.
  • In the absence of such predictors a surveillance policy allows some patients to forgo chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 12647353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0070-4113
  • [Journal-full-title] Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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39. Sivanesaratnam V: Management of the pregnant mother with malignant conditions. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol; 2001 Apr;13(2):121-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Tumors and Pregnancy.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A malignancy discovered in pregnancy is often difficult to manage; the optimal maternal therapy has to be balanced with the fetal well-being.
  • For the various site-specific cancers, surgery is the main modality of treatment; this should be individualized.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Choriocarcinoma / therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Fetus / drug effects. Humans. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Pregnancy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 11315864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-872X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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40. Inaba H, Kawasaki H, Hamazaki M, Okugawa T, Uchida K, Honzumi M, Komada Y, Ito M, Toyoda N, Sakurai M: A case of metastatic ovarian non-gestational choriocarcinoma: successful treatment with conservative type surgery and myeloablative chemotherapy. Pediatr Int; 2000 Aug;42(4):383-5
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ETOPOSIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of metastatic ovarian non-gestational choriocarcinoma: successful treatment with conservative type surgery and myeloablative chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome


41. Malhotra P, Varma N, Arora N, Das R, Nath A, Patel FD, Varma S: Treatment of therapy related acute promyelocytic leukemia with the combination of all trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide without chemotherapy: a series of three patients. Leuk Lymphoma; 2010 May;51(5):933-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ALL-TRANS-RETINOIC ACID .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of therapy related acute promyelocytic leukemia with the combination of all trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide without chemotherapy: a series of three patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / chemically induced. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Arsenicals / administration & dosage. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroectodermal Tumors / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Oxides / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Tretinoin / administration & dosage

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ARSENIC TRIOXIDE .
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  • (PMID = 20350274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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