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2. Calabresi PA: Diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis. Am Fam Physician; 2004 Nov 15;70(10):1935-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Multiple sclerosis, an idiopathic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, is characterized pathologically by demyelination and subsequent axonal degeneration.
  • Diagnosis should be based on objective evidence of two or more neurologic signs that are localized to the brain or spinal cord and are disseminated in time and space (i.e., occur in different parts of the central nervous system at least three months apart).
  • Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium contrast, especially during or following a first attack, can be helpful in providing evidence of lesions in other parts of the brain and spinal cord.
  • A second magnetic resonance scan may be useful at least three months after the initial attack to identify new lesions and provide evidence of dissemination over time.
  • It is critical to exclude other diseases that can mimic multiple sclerosis, including vascular disease, spinal cord compression, vitamin B12 deficiency, central nervous system infection (e.g., Lyme disease, syphilis), and other inflammatory conditions (e.g., sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome).
  • Symptom-specific drugs can relieve spasticity, bladder dysfunction, depression, and fatigue.
  • Five disease-modifying treatments for multiple sclerosis have been approved by the U.S.
  • Food and Drug Administration.
  • These treatments are partially effective in reducing exacerbations and may slow progression of disability.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Sclerosis / diagnosis. Multiple Sclerosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15571060.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-838X
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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3. Rahman S, López-Hernández GY, Corrigall WA, Papke RL: Neuronal nicotinic receptors as brain targets for pharmacotherapy of drug addiction. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets; 2008 Nov;7(5):422-41
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  • [Title] Neuronal nicotinic receptors as brain targets for pharmacotherapy of drug addiction.
  • Nicotine addiction and other forms of drug addiction continue to be significant public health problems in the United States and the rest of the world.
  • Accumulated evidence indicates that brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are a heterogenous family of ion channels expressed in the various parts of the brain.
  • A growing body of preclinical studies suggests that brain nAChRs are critical targets for the development of pharmacotherapies for nicotine and other drug addictions.
  • Furthermore, we will discuss the role of nAChRs in mediating nicotine-induced addictive behavior in animal models.
  • Additionally, we will provide an overview of the effects of nicotine and nicotinic compounds on the mesolimbic dopamine system, part of the reinforcement/reward circuitry of the brain, as an example of the neurochemical basis of nicotine addiction and other drug addictions.
  • An appreciation of the complexity of nicotinic receptors and their regulation will be necessary for the development of nicotinic receptor modulators as potential pharmacotherapy for drug addiction.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / drug effects. Cholinergic Agents / pharmacology. Receptors, Nicotinic / drug effects. Tobacco Use Disorder / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Central Nervous System Stimulants / pharmacology. Ethanol / pharmacology. Humans. Limbic System / drug effects. Limbic System / metabolism. Limbic System / physiopathology. Protein Subunits / drug effects. Protein Subunits / genetics. Protein Subunits / metabolism. Reward

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  • (PMID = 19128201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1996-3181
  • [Journal-full-title] CNS & neurological disorders drug targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA 09577; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM57481; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / T32 AG00196
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Stimulants; 0 / Cholinergic Agents; 0 / Protein Subunits; 0 / Receptors, Nicotinic; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
  • [Number-of-references] 344
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4. Schwartz M: Lessons for glaucoma from other neurodegenerative diseases: can one treatment suit them all? J Glaucoma; 2005 Aug;14(4):321-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lessons for glaucoma from other neurodegenerative diseases: can one treatment suit them all?
  • According to this view, in glaucoma (as in other such diseases), whatever the primary risk factors, at any given time some neurons are still healthy but are threatened with destruction owing to the toxicity emanating from the degenerating neurons.
  • This novel view of glaucoma prompted scientists to compare glaucoma with other neurodegenerative diseases with respect to mediators of disease progression and ways in which the spread of damage, or 'secondary degeneration', can be attenuated.
  • With this model, pharmacological and molecular approaches were employed to identify and test potentially therapeutic neuroprotective compounds and methodologies, leading us ultimately to the serendipitous discovery of protective autoimmunity as the body's defense against destructive self-compounds.
  • Mediators of self-perpetuating acute and chronic degeneration identified in the injured optic nerve were also detected in other sites of central nervous system (CNS) damage.
  • This finding led scientists to screen drugs that had proven to be beneficial in other disease models for their use in glaucoma therapy.
  • Although no single model can fully simulate human glaucoma or any other neurodegenerative disease, the availability of different models of optic nerve damage and the similarity of findings in the optic nerve and in other parts of the CNS have led to significant progress toward development of a cure for glaucoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Glaucoma / drug therapy. Neurodegenerative Diseases / drug therapy. Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15990618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1057-0829
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of glaucoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Glaucoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuroprotective Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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5. Kosel M, Schlaepfer TE: Mechanisms and state of the art of vagus nerve stimulation. J ECT; 2002 Dec;18(4):189-92
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  • Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an established treatment of medically refractory partial-onset seizures.
  • Recent data from an open-label multicenter pilot study also suggest a potential clinical usefulness in the acute and maintenance treatment of drug-resistant depressive disorder.
  • Despite the fact that surgery is needed to implant the stimulating device, the option of long-term use largely devoid of severe side effects would give this treatment modality a privileged place in the management of drug-resistant depression.
  • However, definite therapeutic effects of clinical significance remain to be confirmed in large, placebo-controlled trials.
  • Besides the potential clinical usefulness, VNS can be used as a research tool in epilepsy patients implanted for clinical reasons, allowing neurophysiologic investigations of the parasympathetic system and its interactions with other parts of the central nervous system.
  • [MeSH-major] Depressive Disorder, Major / therapy. Electric Stimulation Therapy / methods. Epilepsies, Partial / therapy. Vagus Nerve / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / physiopathology. Electroencephalography. Humans. Neural Pathways / physiopathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12468993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-0680
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of ECT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J ECT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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6. Kosel M, Schlaepfer TE: Beyond the treatment of epilepsy: new applications of vagus nerve stimulation in psychiatry. CNS Spectr; 2003 Jul;8(7):515-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Beyond the treatment of epilepsy: new applications of vagus nerve stimulation in psychiatry.
  • Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in humans generally refers to stimulation of the left vagus nerve at the cervical level VNS is an established treatment largely devoid of severe side effect for medically refractory partial onset seizures and has been used in more than 16,000 patients.
  • Over the past 5 years, applications in other neuropsychiatric disorders have been investigated with a special emphasis on depression.
  • Recent data from an open-label, multi-center pilot study involving 60 patients suggest a potential clinical usefulness in the acute and maintenance treatment of drug-resistant depressive disorder.
  • The perspective of VNS as along-term treatment with the advantage of assured compliance makes it an interesting technique to potentially treat drug-resistant depression.
  • However, definite therapeutic effects of clinical significance remain to be confirmed in large placebo-controlled trial.
  • Besides its clinical usefulness, VNS can be used as a research tool, allowing neurophysiologic investigations of the parasympathetic system and its interactions with other parts of the central nervous system.
  • [MeSH-major] Electric Stimulation Therapy / methods. Epilepsy / therapy. Mental Disorders / therapy. Vagus Nerve
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Depressive Disorder / physiopathology. Depressive Disorder / therapy. Humans. Treatment Outcome


8. Kuno G, Artsob H, Karabatsos N, Tsuchiya KR, Chang GJ: Genomic sequencing of deer tick virus and phylogeny of powassan-related viruses of North America. Am J Trop Med Hyg; 2001 Nov;65(5):671-6
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  • Powassan (POW) virus is responsible for central nervous system infection in humans in North America and the eastern parts of Russia.
  • Recently, a new flavivirus, deer tick (DT) virus, related to POW virus was isolated in the United States, but neither its pathogenic potential in human nor the taxonomic relationship with POW virus has been elucidated.
  • In this study, we obtained the near-full-length genomic sequence of the DT virus and complete sequences of 3 genomic regions of 15 strains of POW-related virus strains.
  • The phylogeny revealed 2 lineages, one of which had the prototype POW virus and the other DT virus.
  • Both lineages can cause central nervous system infection in humans.
  • By use of the combination of molecular definition of virus species within the genus Flavivirus and serological distinction in a 2-way cross-neutralization test, the lineage of DT virus is classified as a distinct genotype of POW virus.

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  • (PMID = 11716135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9637
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3' Untranslated Regions
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9. Amanvermez R, Agara E: Does ascorbate/L-Cys/L-Met mixture protect different parts of the rat brain against chronic alcohol toxicity? Adv Ther; 2006 Sep-Oct;23(5):705-18
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  • [Title] Does ascorbate/L-Cys/L-Met mixture protect different parts of the rat brain against chronic alcohol toxicity?
  • It is hypothesized that cysteine-methionine and vitamin C may neutralize these harmful compounds while potentiating the antioxidant capacity of the cell or tissue.
  • In the present study, rats were fed regular diets and were maintained for 90 days in (1) the control group, (2) the alcoholic group, which was given 2.5 g of 50% ethanol/kg body weight administered intragastrically every other day, or (3) the alcoholic with antioxidant supplement group, to whom 2.5 g of 50% ethanol/kg body weight + a solution that contained 200 mg vitamin C, 100 mg cysteine, and 100 mg methionine was administered intragastrically every other day.
  • Simultaneous intake of ascorbate/l-cys/l-met and ethanol attenuated the amount of oxidation that occurred, which suggested that cysteine, methionine, and vitamin C may play a protective role in the central nervous system against oxidative damage caused by alcohol consumption.
  • The level of total glutathione was significantly decreased in the cerebellum of the alcoholic group, and oxidative damage was noted in various parts of the brain in this group.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / pharmacology. Ascorbic Acid / pharmacology. Brain / drug effects. Cysteine / pharmacology. Ethanol / toxicity. Methionine / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17142205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0741-238X
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid
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10. Hauff K, Zamzow C, Law WJ, De Melo J, Kennedy K, Los M: Peptide-based approaches to treat asthma, arthritis, other autoimmune diseases and pathologies of the central nervous system. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz); 2005 Jul-Aug;53(4):308-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Peptide-based approaches to treat asthma, arthritis, other autoimmune diseases and pathologies of the central nervous system.
  • In this review we focus on peptide- and peptidomimetic-based approaches that target autoimmune diseases and some pathologies of the central nervous system.
  • Special attention is given to asthma, allergic rhinitis, osteoarthritis, and Alzheimer's disease, but other related pathologies are also reviewed, although to a lesser degree.
  • Among others, drugs like Diacerhein and its active form Rhein, Pralnacasan, Anakinra (Kineret), Omalizumab, an antibody "BION-1", directed against the common beta-chain of cytokine receptors, are described below as well as attempts to target beta-amyloid peptide aggregation.
  • Parts of the review are also dedicated to targeting of pathologic conditions in the brain and in other tissues with peptides as well as methods to deliver larger molecules through the "blood--brain barrier" by exploring receptor-mediated transport, or elsewhere in the body by using peptides as carriers through cellular membranes.
  • In addition to highlighting current developments in the field, we also propose, for future drug targets, the components of the inflammasome protein complex, which is believed to initiate the activation of caspase- 1 dependent signaling events, as well as other pathways that signal inflammation.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis / therapy. Asthma / therapy. Autoimmune Diseases / therapy. Central Nervous System Diseases / therapy. Peptides / therapeutic use


11. Ishihara K, Suzuki Y, Shiota J, Kawamura M, Nakano I: [An autopsied case of paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome (limbic encephalitis, cerebellar degeneration, and pseudohypertrophy in the inferior olivary nuclei) associated with T cell lymphoma]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku; 2005 Aug;45(8):583-9
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  • [Title] [An autopsied case of paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome (limbic encephalitis, cerebellar degeneration, and pseudohypertrophy in the inferior olivary nuclei) associated with T cell lymphoma].
  • Neurological examination revealed disorientation, moderate cognitive impairment, cerebellar ataxia, bilateral limitations and nystagmus in all directions during external ocular movement, swallowing disorder, bilateral Babinski sign, sensory disturbance in the distal parts of all extremities, and Romberg's sign.
  • Neurological condition improved slightly after chemotherapy, but subsequently deteriorated.
  • No lymphoma cell was observed in the central nervous system or lymphatic organs.
  • Based on the pathological findings, paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome (limbic encephalitis, cerebellar degeneration and olivary pseudohypertrophy) associated with T-cell type malignant lymphoma was diagnosed.
  • Only three other cases of paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome associated with T-cell lymphoma have been reported.
  • Lesions in the central nervous system in paraneoplastic neurological syndromes may follow a course independent of the original malignant disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Limbic Encephalitis / etiology. Limbic Encephalitis / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / complications. Olivary Nucleus / pathology. Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration / pathology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16180707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-918X
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinshō shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Shinkeigaku
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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12. Ven Murthy MR, Ranjekar PK, Ramassamy C, Deshpande M: Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: ashwagandha. Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem; 2010 Sep 1;10(3):238-46
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  • [Title] Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: ashwagandha.
  • It represents an ancient system of traditional medicine prevalent in India and in several other south Asian countries.
  • It is based on a holistic view of treatment which is believed to cure human diseases through establishment of equilibrium in the different elements of human life, the body, the mind, the intellect and the soul [1].
  • Ayurveda dates back to the period of the Indus Valley civilization (about 3000 B.C) and has been passed on through generations of oral tradition, like the other four sacred texts (Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvanaveda) which were composed between 12(th) and 7(th) century B.C [2, 3].
  • References to the herbal medicines of Ayurveda are found in all of the other four Vedas, suggesting that Ayurveda predates the other Vedas by at least several centuries.
  • It was already in full practice at the time of Buddha (6(th) century B.C) and had produced two of the greatest physicians of ancient India, Charaka and Shushrutha who composed the basic texts of their trade, the Samhitas.
  • By this time, ayurveda had already developed eight different subspecialties of medical treatment, named Ashtanga, which included surgery, internal medicine, ENT, pediatrics, toxicology, health and longevity, and spiritual healing [4].
  • Ayurvedic medicine was mainly composed of herbal preparations which were occasionally combined with different levels of other compounds, as supplements [5].
  • In the Ayurvedic system, the herbs used for medicinal purposes are classed as brain tonics or rejuvenators.
  • Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, WS), also commonly known, in different parts of the world, as Indian ginseng, Winter cherry, Ajagandha, Kanaje Hindi and Samm Al Ferakh, is a plant belonging to the Solanaceae family.
  • It grows prolifically in dry regions of South Asia, Central Asia and Africa, particularly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, South Africa, Egypt, Morocco, Congo and Jordon [7].
  • Ashwagandha is a shrub whose various parts (berries, leaves and roots) have been used by Ayurvedic practitioners as folk remedies, or as aphrodisiacs and diuretics.
  • It is also considered an adaptogen, a nontoxic medication that normalizes physiological functions, disturbed by chronic stress, through correction of imbalances in the neuroendocrine and immune systems [9, 10].
  • The scientific research that has been carried out on Ashwagandha and other ayurvedic herbal medicines may be classified into three major categories, taking into consideration the endogenous or exogenous phenomena that are known to cause physiological disequilibrium leading to the pathological state;.
  • (A) pharmacological and therapeutic effects of extracts, purified compounds or multi-herbal mixtures on specific non-neurological diseases;.
  • (B) pharmacological and therapeutic effects of extracts, purified compounds or multi-herbal mixtures on neurodegenerative disorders; and (C) biochemical, physiological and genetic studies on the herbal plants themselves, in order to distinguish between those originating from different habitats, or to improve the known medicinal quality of the indigenous plant.
  • Some of the major points on its use in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders are described below.
  • [MeSH-major] Medicine, Ayurvedic. Neurodegenerative Diseases / drug therapy. Phytotherapy. Withania / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain Chemistry / drug effects. Humans. India. Mice. Neurotoxicity Syndromes / drug therapy. Oxidative Stress / drug effects. Plant Extracts. Rats

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  • (PMID = 20528765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-6166
  • [Journal-full-title] Central nervous system agents in medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ashwagandha; 0 / Plant Extracts
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13. Kappos L, Kuhle J, Gass A, Achtnichts L, Radue EW: Alternatives to current disease-modifying treatment in MS: what do we need and what can we expect in the future? J Neurol; 2004 Sep;251 Suppl 5:v57-v64
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  • [Title] Alternatives to current disease-modifying treatment in MS: what do we need and what can we expect in the future?
  • Disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) are now widely available, and their beneficial effects on relapse rates, magnetic resonance imaging outcomes and, in some cases, relapse-related disability have been shown in numerous clinical studies.
  • However, as these treatments are only partially effective in halting the MS disease process, the search for improved treatment regimens and novel therapies must continue.
  • Strategies to improve our therapeutic armamentarium have to take into account the different phases or parts of the pathogenesis of the disease.
  • Available treatments address systemic immune dysfunction, blood-brain barrier permeability and the inflammatory process in the central nervous system.
  • However, new approaches are being developed.
  • Combination therapies offer an alternative approach that may have considerable potential to improve therapeutic yield and, although likely to present considerable challenges in terms of trial design, this certainly seems to be a logical step forward in view of the complex pathology of MS.
  • Several new drugs are also being developed with the aim of providing more effective, convenient and/or specific modulation of the inflammatory component of the disease.
  • These treatments include humanised monoclonal antibodies such as the anti-VLA-4 antibody natalizumab, inhibitors of intracellular activation, signalling pathways and T-cell proliferation, and oral immunomodulators such as sirolimus, teriflunomide or statins.
  • There remains, however, an urgent need for treatments that protect against demyelination and axonal loss, or promote remyelination/regeneration.
  • Due to the chronicity of MS, the therapeutic window for neuroprotective agents is wider than that following stroke or acute spinal cord injury, and may therefore allow the use of some drugs that have proven disappointing in other situations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Interferon-beta / therapeutic use. Multiple Sclerosis / drug therapy. Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Models, Biological. Signal Transduction / drug effects. T-Lymphocytes / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15549357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-5354
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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14. Morris-Natschke SL, Ishaq KS, Kucera LS: Phospholipid analogs against HIV-1 infection and disease. Curr Pharm Des; 2003;9(18):1441-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Phospholipid analogs are a new class of compounds with potent activity against HIV infection when used alone or conjugated with other therapeutic agents.
  • Of great interest are data indicating that selected phospholipids are active against drug resistant variants, a current major problem in treating HIV/AIDS and controlling the epidemic occurring in various parts of the world.
  • The purpose of this review is to provide current information on the design and synthesis of various types of phospholipids and phospholipid conjugates, in-vitro and in-vivo antiviral activity, tissue distribution, intracellular metabolism, and mechanism of action.
  • The future development of this novel class of compounds offers an exciting approach for reducing the toxicity and enhancing the distribution of therapeutic drugs to the lymphatics and central nervous system and suppressing the emergence of drug resistant variants of HIV.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / chemical synthesis. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Phospholipids / chemical synthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. HIV-1 / drug effects. HIV-1 / physiology. Humans. Nucleosides / chemistry. Nucleosides / pharmacology. Nucleosides / therapeutic use. Prodrugs / chemical synthesis. Prodrugs / pharmacology. Prodrugs / therapeutic use. Tissue Distribution. Treatment Outcome. Virus Replication / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12769724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1381-6128
  • [Journal-full-title] Current pharmaceutical design
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Pharm. Des.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Nucleosides; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / Prodrugs
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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15. Baldwin L: Keep taking the tablets? Evidence-based approaches to AD(H)D. Part 2: Audit and changing practice. Paediatr Nurs; 2002 May;14(4):34-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DEXTROAMPHETAMINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We still need to continue the audit cycle by revisting the process, and auditing other parts of our service to children and young people diagnosed as having Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Adolescent Health Services / standards. Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / diagnosis. Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Stimulants / therapeutic use. Child Health Services / standards. Dextroamphetamine / therapeutic use. Evidence-Based Medicine. Medical Audit


16. Simko F, Paulis L: Melatonin as a potential antihypertensive treatment. J Pineal Res; 2007 Apr;42(4):319-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melatonin as a potential antihypertensive treatment.
  • The number of patients with well-controlled hypertension is alarmingly low worldwide and new approaches to treatment of increased blood pressure (BP) are being sought.
  • Melatonin seems to interfere with peripheral and central autonomic system, with a subsequent decrease in the tone of the adrenergic system and an increase of the cholinergic system.
  • Melatonin may act on BP also via specific melatonin receptors localized in peripheral vessels or in parts of central nervous system participating in BP control.
  • With a large clinical trial using melatonin in hypertension treatment, many important questions could be answered, such as the dose of melatonin and regimen of its application, the choice of patients with greatest possible benefit from melatonin treatment, the potential of anti-remodeling effect of melatonin and the interaction of melatonin with other antihypertensive drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Hypertension / drug therapy. Melatonin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Circadian Rhythm. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Humans. Male. Receptors, Melatonin / drug effects. Receptors, Melatonin / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17439547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Receptors, Melatonin; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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17. Habel LA, Schaefer CA, Levine P, Bhat AK, Elliott G: Treatment with stimulants among youths in a large California health plan. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol; 2005 Feb;15(1):62-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment with stimulants among youths in a large California health plan.
  • Stimulant use was lower and use of other psychotropic drugs was higher among children with visits for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a coexisting psychiatric disorder than among those seen for ADHD alone.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of treatment with stimulants was lower than what generally has been reported in other parts of the United States; it increased by approximately 4% between 1996 and 2000, and was frequently short term or intermittent.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Stimulants / therapeutic use. State Health Plans
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / drug therapy. Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / epidemiology. California. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Mental Disorders / drug therapy. Mental Disorders / epidemiology. United States

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  • (PMID = 15741787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1044-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Stimulants
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18. Pergolizzi J, Böger RH, Budd K, Dahan A, Erdine S, Hans G, Kress HG, Langford R, Likar R, Raffa RB, Sacerdote P: Opioids and the management of chronic severe pain in the elderly: consensus statement of an International Expert Panel with focus on the six clinically most often used World Health Organization Step III opioids (buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone). Pain Pract; 2008 Jul-Aug;8(4):287-313
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The use of opioids in cancer pain: The criteria for selecting analgesics for pain treatment in the elderly include, but are not limited to, overall efficacy, overall side-effect profile, onset of action, drug interactions, abuse potential, and practical issues, such as cost and availability of the drug, as well as the severity and type of pain (nociceptive, acute/chronic, etc.).
  • At any given time, the order of choice in the decision-making process can change.
  • There are various driving factors relating to prescribing medication, including availability of the compound and cost, which may, at times, be the main driving factor.
  • They are willing to make trade-offs regarding treatment choices and understand that they may experience pain, providing that can have increased quality of life and functionality.
  • World Health Organization step III opioids are the mainstay of pain treatment for cancer patients and morphine has been the most commonly used for decades.
  • Based on these studies, all opioids are considered effective in cancer pain management (although parts of cancer pain are not or only partially opioid sensitive), but no well-designed specific studies in the elderly cancer patient are available.
  • 2. The use of opioids in noncancer-related pain: Evidence is growing that opioids are efficacious in noncancer pain (treatment data mostly level Ib or IIb), but need individual dose titration and consideration of the respective tolerability profiles.
  • When it is not clear which drugs and which regimes are superior in terms of maintaining analgesic efficacy, the appropriate drug should be chosen based on safety and tolerability considerations.
  • Evidence-based medicine, which has been incorporated into best clinical practice guidelines, should serve as a foundation for the decision-making processes in patient care; however, in practice, the art of medicine is realized when we individualize care to the patient.
  • Most of the treatment data are level II or III, and suggest that incorporation of opioids earlier on might be beneficial.
  • Buprenorphine shows a distinct benefit in improving neuropathic pain symptoms, which is considered a result of its specific pharmacological profile.
  • For all opioids except buprenorphine, half-life of the active drug and metabolites is increased in the elderly and in patients with renal dysfunction.
  • It is, therefore, recommended that--except for buprenorphine--doses be reduced, a longer time interval be used between doses, and creatinine clearance be monitored.
  • Thus, buprenorphine appears to be the top-line choice for opioid treatment in the elderly.
  • 5. Opioids and respiratory depression: Respiratory depression is a significant threat for opioid-treated patients with underlying pulmonary condition or receiving concomitant central nervous system (CNS) drugs associated with hypoventilation.
  • Not all opioids show equal effects on respiratory depression: buprenorphine is the only opioid demonstrating a ceiling for respiratory depression when used without other CNS depressants.
  • 6. Opioids and immunosuppression: Age is related to a gradual decline in the immune system: immunosenescence, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer, and decreased efficacy of immunotherapy, such as vaccination.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics, Opioid / administration & dosage. Analgesics, Opioid / pharmacokinetics. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / metabolism. World Health Organization
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Buprenorphine / administration & dosage. Buprenorphine / adverse effects. Buprenorphine / pharmacokinetics. Chronic Disease. Clinical Trials as Topic / methods. Disease Management. Fentanyl / administration & dosage. Fentanyl / adverse effects. Fentanyl / pharmacokinetics. Humans. Hydromorphone / administration & dosage. Hydromorphone / adverse effects. Hydromorphone / pharmacokinetics. Internationality. Methadone / administration & dosage. Methadone / adverse effects. Methadone / pharmacokinetics. Morphine / administration & dosage. Morphine / adverse effects. Morphine / pharmacokinetics. Oxycodone / administration & dosage. Oxycodone / adverse effects. Oxycodone / pharmacokinetics. Pain Measurement / drug effects. Pain Measurement / methods. Pain Measurement / standards

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  • (PMID = 18503626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-2500
  • [Journal-full-title] Pain practice : the official journal of World Institute of Pain
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pain Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Consensus Development Conference; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 40D3SCR4GZ / Buprenorphine; 76I7G6D29C / Morphine; CD35PMG570 / Oxycodone; Q812464R06 / Hydromorphone; UC6VBE7V1Z / Methadone; UF599785JZ / Fentanyl
  • [Number-of-references] 251
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19. Birzniece V, Bäckström T, Johansson IM, Lindblad C, Lundgren P, Löfgren M, Olsson T, Ragagnin G, Taube M, Turkmen S, Wahlström G, Wang MD, Wihlbäck AC, Zhu D: Neuroactive steroid effects on cognitive functions with a focus on the serotonin and GABA systems. Brain Res Rev; 2006 Aug;51(2):212-39
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Neurosteroids (such as estrogen, progesterone, and allopregnanolone) are synthesized in the central and peripheral nervous system, in addition to other tissues.
  • They are involved in the regulation of mood and memory, in premenstrual syndrome, and mood changes related to hormone replacement therapy, as well as postnatal and major depression, anxiety disorders, and Alzheimer's disease.
  • Estrogen alone, or in combination with antidepressant drugs affecting the serotonin system, has been related to improved mood and well being.
  • Estrogen alone, or in combination with progesterone, affects the brain serotonin system differently in different parts of the brain, which can at least partly explain the opposite effects on mood of those hormones.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Learning / drug effects. Neural Pathways / drug effects. Neural Pathways / metabolism. Neural Pathways / physiopathology. Receptors, GABA-A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16368148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-0173
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 0 / Receptors, GABA-A; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 56-12-2 / gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 420
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20. Shearer J: Psychosocial approaches to psychostimulant dependence: a systematic review. J Subst Abuse Treat; 2007 Jan;32(1):41-52
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Opioid Abuse and Addiction.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Psychostimulant dependence and related harms continue to increase in many parts of the world, while treatment responses are predominantly limited to psychosocial interventions.
  • The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions is compromised by poor rates of treatment induction and retention.
  • As with other substance use disorders, increasing the diversity of treatment options is likely to improve treatment coverage and outcomes across a broader range of users.
  • Identifying medications that might enhance treatment induction and retention would also enhance the effectiveness of psychosocial programs.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Stimulants. Substance-Related Disorders / rehabilitation
  • [MeSH-minor] Cognitive Therapy / methods. Cues. Humans. Motivation. Psychology. Retention (Psychology). Secondary Prevention

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  • (PMID = 17175397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of substance abuse treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Subst Abuse Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • [Number-of-references] 114
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