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1. Niedzinski EJ, Olson DC, Chen YJ, Udove JA, Nantz MH, Tseng HC, Bolaffi JL, Bennett MJ: Zinc enhancement of nonviral salivary gland transfection. Mol Ther; 2003 Mar;7(3):396-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Zinc enhancement of nonviral salivary gland transfection.
  • Gene transfer to exocrine glands, including the major salivary glands, presents an attractive method to deliver proteins for therapeutic applications.
  • Previous efforts using nonviral gene delivery to these glands have resulted in limited success.
  • In this report, zinc and other divalent transitions were coadministered with plasmid DNA in an effort to improve nonviral salivary gland transfection efficiency.
  • This observed enhancement in transgene expression was dependent upon the DNA dose and correlated with the accumulation of plasmid DNA by salivary gland tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorides / pharmacology. DNA / administration & dosage. Gene Transfer Techniques. Submandibular Gland / drug effects. Submandibular Gland / metabolism. Transgenes / physiology. Zinc Compounds / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 12668135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-0016
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorides; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Zinc Compounds; 86Q357L16B / zinc chloride; 9004-22-2 / Globins; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
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2. Yoshimura T, Sumida T, Liu S, Onishi A, Shintani S, Desprez PY, Hamakawa H: Growth inhibition of human salivary gland tumor cells by introduction of progesterone (Pg) receptor and Pg treatment. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Dec;14(4):1107-16
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  • [Title] Growth inhibition of human salivary gland tumor cells by introduction of progesterone (Pg) receptor and Pg treatment.
  • Cancer of the salivary gland is one of the common cancers in the head and the neck regions.
  • This type of cancer develops in the minor and the major salivary glands, and it sometimes metastasizes to other organs, particularly the lung.
  • Morphologic mimicry and similarity in the expression of steroid hormone receptors between salivary gland tumors (SGTs) and breast tumors are well-known phenomena and are occasionally debated in the field of surgical pathology.
  • In this study, we used ACCM, a human adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line established from the salivary gland, in order to clarify the role of the Pg receptor (PR) on cell proliferation.
  • Our results provided significant insights into the mechanism of suppression of the proliferative property of the cells via the function of PR, and suggested that PR reintroduction therapy might be a viable method of inhibiting human SGT progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Progesterone / therapeutic use. Receptors, Progesterone / physiology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Telomerase / genetics. Telomerase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18045962.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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3. Sharma K, Rathi AK, Khurana N, Mukherji A, Kumar V, Singh K, Bahadur AK: A retrospective study of 18 cases of adenoid cystic cancer at a tertiary care centre in Delhi. Indian J Cancer; 2010 Oct-Dec;47(4):424-9
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  • CONTEXT: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare neoplasm that usually arises from the salivary, lacrimal, or other exocrine glands.
  • AIM: To analyze the presentation and natural history of cases of adenoid cystic tumors of salivary glands in our institution; and to compare with the existing literature.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on 18 patients of ACC of the salivary glands treated between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed with respect to clinical presentation, stage, and histology.
  • RESULTS: There were 8 cases of major salivary gland tumors (47%), of which 2 were in the submandibular and 6 were involving the parotid.
  • Ten patients (53%) had minor salivary gland involvement.
  • Two patients had metastasis at the time of presentation.
  • Radiotherapy was delivered to 16 patients and chemotherapy to 6 patients (concurrent, n = 3 and adjuvant, n = 3) and no adjuvant therapy was given to 2 patients.
  • No patient developed local or distant failure during the study duration.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. India. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Oral Surgical Procedures. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21131757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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4. Jensen SB, Pedersen AM, Vissink A, Andersen E, Brown CG, Davies AN, Dutilh J, Fulton JS, Jankovic L, Lopes NN, Mello AL, Muniz LV, Murdoch-Kinch CA, Nair RG, Napeñas JJ, Nogueira-Rodrigues A, Saunders D, Stirling B, von Bültzingslöwen I, Weikel DS, Elting LS, Spijkervet FK, Brennan MT, Salivary Gland Hypofunction/Xerostomia Section, Oral Care Study Group, Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/International Society of Oral Oncology (ISOO): A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies: prevalence, severity and impact on quality of life. Support Care Cancer; 2010 Aug;18(8):1039-60
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  • [Title] A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies: prevalence, severity and impact on quality of life.
  • PURPOSE: This systematic review aimed to assess the literature for prevalence, severity, and impact on quality of life of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies.
  • METHODS: The electronic databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE were searched for articles published in English since the 1989 NIH Development Consensus Conference on the Oral Complications of Cancer Therapies until 2008 inclusive.
  • RESULTS: The inclusion criteria were met by 184 articles covering salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by conventional, 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients, cancer chemotherapy, total body irradiation/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, radioactive iodine treatment, and immunotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia are induced by radiotherapy in the head and neck region depending on the cumulative radiation dose to the gland tissue.
  • Treatment focus should be on optimized/new approaches to further reduce the dose to the parotids, and particularly submandibular and minor salivary glands, as these glands are major contributors to moistening of oral tissues.
  • Other cancer treatments also induce salivary gland hypofunction, although to a lesser severity, and in the case of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, the adverse effect is temporary.
  • Fields of sparse literature included pediatric cancer populations, cancer chemotherapy, radioactive iodine treatment, total body irradiation/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and immunotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / therapy. Salivary Gland Diseases / etiology. Xerostomia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20237805.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7339
  • [Journal-full-title] Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Support Care Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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5. Stanczyk FZ, Paulson RJ, Roy S: Percutaneous administration of progesterone: blood levels and endometrial protection. Menopause; 2005 Mar;12(2):232-7
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  • A major concern is that serum progesterone levels achieved with progesterone creams are too low to have a secretory effect on the endometrium.
  • Despite the low serum progesterone levels achieved with the creams, salivary progesterone levels are very high, indicating that progesterone levels in serum do not necessarily reflect those in tissues.
  • Because there appears to be rapid uptake and release of steroids by red blood cells passing through capillaries, these cells may play an important role in transporting progesterone to salivary glands and other tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrium / drug effects. Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Progesterone / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15772572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-3714
  • [Journal-full-title] Menopause (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Menopause
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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6. Lennerz JK, Perry A, Mills JC, Huettner PC, Pfeifer JD: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the cervix: another tumor with the t(11;19)-associated CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Jun;33(6):835-43
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  • By strict morphologic criteria, the tumor has features identical to those of salivary gland MEC and is characterized by nests composed of 3 cell types (epidermoid, intermediate, and mucin producing) in the absence of overt glandular differentiation.
  • Given the morphologic similarity between MEC of the cervix and MEC of the salivary glands, we sought to determine if MEC of the cervix harbors the t(11;19)(q21;p13) characteristic of MEC of the major and minor salivary glands, a rearrangement that results in fusion of the cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate coactivator CRTC1 to the Notch coactivator MAML2.
  • Our results demonstrate that cervical tumors defined as MEC by strict morphologic criteria harbor genetic aberrations involving the genes characteristically rearranged in MEC of the salivary glands, and suggest that cervical MEC is an entity distinct from conventional cervical adenosquamous carcinoma.
  • The development of drug therapy targeted to the genes rearranged in MEC underscores the importance of correct classification of cervical MEC because the diagnosis may hold therapeutic implications different from other cervical malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 19092631.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK079798-01A2; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK066062; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK079798; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK079798-01A2; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK066062-05; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK066062-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRTC1 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MAML2 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Transcription Factors
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7. Grisanti S, Amoroso V, Buglione M, Rosati A, Gatta R, Pizzocaro C, Ferrari VD, Marini G: Cetuximab in the treatment of metastatic mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands: a case report and review of literature. J Med Case Rep; 2008;2:320
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  • [Title] Cetuximab in the treatment of metastatic mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands: a case report and review of literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Patients with metastatic mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands have a poor outcome.
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor protein is overexpressed in approximately 70% of mucoepidermoid carcinoma patients and may represent a therapeutic target.
  • However, whether treatment with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor agents is effective is unclear and clinical trials are difficult due to the rarity of the disease.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 40-year old Caucasian man with a mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the major salivary glands who developed distant bone and visceral metastases despite platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • After 11 doses of cetuximab, the patient developed brain metastases but evidence of response was documented at all extracranial metastatic sites.
  • Cetuximab does not cross the blood brain barrier and may select a metastatic clone to home the central nervous system while responding at other sites.

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  • (PMID = 18826647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2570365
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8. Sato K, Kawana M, Sato Y, Takahashi S: Malignant lymphoma in the head and neck associated with benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the parotid gland. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2002 Apr;29(2):209-14
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  • [Title] Malignant lymphoma in the head and neck associated with benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the parotid gland.
  • Lymphoepithelial lesion is a benign lymphoproliferative disease occasionally arises in the salivary glands, but association with malignant diseases or autoimmune diseases has also been discussed.
  • We herein present three cases of malignant lymphoma arose in the parotid gland and the lacrimal gland, following parotid surgery for benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLEL) of the parotid gland.
  • Two cases had mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in the parotid gland; one arose in the ipsilateral parotid gland as a recurrent swelling, and the other arose in the contralateral parotid gland of the previous BLEL surgery.
  • All three patients were treated by chemotherapy and one patient received additional radiotherapy.
  • To follow-up lymphoproliferative diseases in the salivary glands such as BLEL, careful observation should be made on the same gland, other major salivary glands, and other organs in the head and neck, especially in females with autoimmune diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11893460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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9. Hatta C, Terada T, Okita J, Kakibuchi M, Kubota A, Sakagami M: Clinicopathological study of undifferentiated carcinoma of the parotid gland. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2003 Aug;30(3):273-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Undifferentiated carcinoma of the salivary gland is a rare malignant tumor, and is difficult to distinguish from other poorly differentiated types of carcinoma or sarcoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-four patients with previously untreated carcinoma of the major salivary glands were treated at our institution between 1986 and 1999.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Investigation using multislice sections is needed to diagnose undifferentiated carcinoma of the salivary glands.
  • All patients died of distant metastasis despite radical surgery, suggesting that chemotherapy is needed to improve patient outcomes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12927291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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10. Gustavsson A, Osterman B, Cavallin-Ståhl E: A systematic overview of radiation therapy effects in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Acta Oncol; 2003;42(5-6):605-19
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  • [Title] A systematic overview of radiation therapy effects in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU).
  • This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is based on data from seven randomized trials.
  • Moreover, data from 17 prospective studies, 22 retrospective studies and 27 other articles were used.
  • Addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy does not indicate any improvement in overall outcome.
  • Although randomized and non-randomized studies favour combined modality treatment with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy instead of radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone in localized disease, no firm conclusions can be drawn.
  • Optimal dose for radiation alone or after chemotherapy has not been established.
  • The value of TBI for treatment of NHL has not been proven.
  • There is no proof that fractionated TBI in conjunction with high-dose chemotherapy is superior to chemotherapy regimens alone.
  • Data show that radiotherapy induces a response of short duration and is associated with major neurotoxicity, especially in elderly patients.
  • High-dose methotrexate therapy seems to lead to longer survival than radiotherapy alone.
  • There is fairly good support for primary chemotherapy including high-dose methotrexate followed by radiotherapy in patients below 60 years.
  • To minimize the risk of neurotoxicity of combined modality treatment it has been proposed to use chemotherapy alone and delay radiotherapy for relapse, especially in patients above 60 years, or use it in chemotherapy-resistant disease.
  • Optimal chemotherapy regimen is not defined and the role of radiotherapy remains to be determined.
  • There is some support for combined modality treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for aggressive lymphomas in Waldeyer's ring with limited disease.
  • There are sparse data supporting radiotherapy alone in localized indolent lymphomas in salivary glands.
  • Radioimmunotherapy is a new treatment modality with systemic radiation for patients with advanced NHL, where conventional external beam radiotherapy plays only a minor role.
  • One randomized clinical trial is published, showing superior therapy results with radiolabelled antibody compared with the corresponding unlabelled antibody.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Sweden. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14596518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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11. Castle JT, Thompson LD: Kaposi sarcoma of major salivary gland origin: A clinicopathologic series of six cases. Cancer; 2000 Jan 1;88(1):15-23
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  • [Title] Kaposi sarcoma of major salivary gland origin: A clinicopathologic series of six cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi sarcoma (KS), one of the defining tumors of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), is rarely identified in the major salivary glands.
  • To the authors' knowledge, no previous published series has evaluated the clinicopathologic aspects of this tumor in major salivary glands.
  • METHODS: Six cases of salivary gland KS, diagnosed between 1970 and 1998, were retrieved from the files of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Registry of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
  • Patients were treated with surgical excision (n = 6), followed by chemotherapy (n = 1) for the single patient with other foci of KS (rectal).
  • Three patients died of AIDS-related infectious complications and one of congestive heart failure, whereas the remaining patients are alive with AIDS but free of salivary gland KS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Salivary gland enlargement is frequently identified in HIV positive or AIDS patients.
  • Although rare, it is important to consider KS in the differential diagnosis of other AIDS-related salivary gland manifestations (infections and tumors).
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 10618601.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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12. Capaccio P, Torretta S, Osio M, Minorati D, Ottaviani F, Sambataro G, Nascimbene C, Pignataro L: Botulinum toxin therapy: a tempting tool in the management of salivary secretory disorders. Am J Otolaryngol; 2008 Sep-Oct;29(5):333-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Botulinum toxin therapy: a tempting tool in the management of salivary secretory disorders.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of botulinum toxin therapy in salivary secretory disorders.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We treated 24 patients with botulinum neurotoxin type A for drooling, salivary fistulas, sialoceles, recurrent parotitis, and Frey's syndrome; each parotid gland and submandibular gland received 25 to 60 and 10 to 40 mouse units, respectively, per session.
  • All the patients other than those with Frey's syndrome underwent, for diagnostic purpose, color Doppler ultrasonography (Hitachi H 21; frequency, 7.5 MHz, Scanner, Kashiwa, Japan), and Minor's test was carried out for gustatory sweating; pretreatment magnetic resonance sialography (Philips Gyroscan Intera, Eindhoven, The Netherlands) and sialoendoscopy were also performed in selected cases.
  • No major side effects were observed with the exception of transitory paresis of the lower branch of the facial nerve in a patient with concomitant autonomic diabetic neuropathy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that botulinum toxin therapy is valid for the nonsurgical management of patients with salivary secretory disorders; the use of color Doppler ultrasonographic monitoring warrants the safety of the procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Botulinum Toxins, Type A / administration & dosage. Salivary Gland Diseases / drug therapy. Salivary Gland Diseases / radiography. Salivary Glands / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Intralesional. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Satisfaction. Prospective Studies. Quality of Life. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Sialography. Sialorrhea / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18722890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-818X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins, Type A
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13. Ellies M, Laskawi R, Rohrbach-Volland S, Arglebe C, Beuche W: Botulinum toxin to reduce saliva flow: selected indications for ultrasound-guided toxin application into salivary glands. Laryngoscope; 2002 Jan;112(1):82-6
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  • [Title] Botulinum toxin to reduce saliva flow: selected indications for ultrasound-guided toxin application into salivary glands.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The study investigates the effect of local injections of botulinum toxin type A (Botox) into the major salivary glands of the head in various states of hypersalivation.
  • In particular, we studied pathological states with permanent as well as passing hypersalivation disorders and present new indications for local application of botulinum toxin to the salivary glands.
  • METHODS: A total of 55 to 65 units of Botox were injected under sonographic control into the left and right parotid and submandibular glands of four patients with hypersalivation resulting from head and neck carcinoma, tracheostomy, and "idiopathic" hypersalivation disorder.
  • At defined time intervals following injection, flow rate, total protein and immunoglobulin A content, and the enzymatic activities of amylase, acid phosphatase, and kallikrein were determined in the saliva.
  • The patients were clinically examined to assess the severity of their symptoms, including sonographic control of the major salivary glands.
  • Salivary flow rate had considerably dropped, whereas the concentrations of the salivary components were much increased.
  • Sonography did not reveal any changes of the salivary gland parenchyma.
  • Therapeutic side effects were absent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of hypersalivation by local injections of Botox into the salivary glands of the head is a reliable and efficient therapy without side effects for certain otolaryngological diseases, especially if injections are performed under sonographic control.
  • Extension of this therapeutic concept to other indications is suggested.
  • [MeSH-major] Botulinum Toxins, Type A / administration & dosage. Parotid Gland / drug effects. Salivation / drug effects. Sialorrhea / drug therapy. Submandibular Gland / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Injections. Male. Middle Aged. Secretory Rate / drug effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11802043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins, Type A
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14. Salama AR, Jham BC, Papadimitriou JC, Scheper MA: Metastatic neuroendocrine carcinomas to the head and neck: report of 4 cases and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2009 Aug;108(2):242-7
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  • Here, we present 4 cases of metastatic NEC to the jaws and major salivary glands.
  • The parotid was the site of metastasis in 2 patients, with the jaws being involved in the other 2.
  • Treatment included surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.
  • Our series shows these lesions can present in the oral and maxillofacial region as frank malignancies or mimic benign processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Mandibular Neoplasms / secondary. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19615663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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15. De Moor R: [Direct and indirect effects of medication (including chemotherapy) and irradiation on the pulp]. Rev Belge Med Dent (1984); 2000;55(4):321-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Direct and indirect effects of medication (including chemotherapy) and irradiation on the pulp].
  • [Transliterated title] Influence directe et indirecte de la médication (chimiothérapie y comprise) et de l'irradiation sur la pulpe.
  • A direct or indirect effect of the intake of medication on the pulp itself has not yet been described in the literature.
  • The effect of local anesthetics on the pulp, on the other hand, has been documented.
  • Radiotherapy involving the oral cavity and salivary glands and chemotherapy (in a lesser degree) induce alterations in the oral tissues and the salivary gland functions.
  • Unfortunately most of the patients belonging to this group consult with the complications of their radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • In this respect endodontic treatment of the severely decayed teeth is an important part of dental treatment.
  • Moreover, extraction is regularly contraindicated as osteoradionecrosis is then one of the major sequels.
  • [MeSH-major] Dental Pulp / drug effects. Dental Pulp / radiation effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Anesthetics, Local / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Dental Caries / etiology. Humans. Jaw Diseases / etiology. Maxillofacial Development / drug effects. Maxillofacial Development / radiation effects. Osteoradionecrosis / etiology. Root Canal Therapy. Vasoconstrictor Agents / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 11505758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0775-0293
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue belge de médecine dentaire
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Belge Med Dent (1984)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Local; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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16. Pester U, Günzel T, Franzen A: [Small cell carcinoma of parotid gland--a case report]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2008 Apr;87(4):265-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the major salivary glands are very seldom.
  • If there is such a tumor always have in mind that it can be a metastatic process of another small cell carcinoma in other locations of the body.
  • Because a surgical therapy was impossible she underwent a radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: First choice for therapy of tumors of the major salivary glands is surgical therapy in combination with radiation/chemotherapy.
  • If this is not possible a primary radiotherapy sometimes in combination with chemotherapy seems to be another therapeutic option.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Parotid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18038375.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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17. Ellies M, Gottstein U, Rohrbach-Volland S, Arglebe C, Laskawi R: Reduction of salivary flow with botulinum toxin: extended report on 33 patients with drooling, salivary fistulas, and sialadenitis. Laryngoscope; 2004 Oct;114(10):1856-60
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  • [Title] Reduction of salivary flow with botulinum toxin: extended report on 33 patients with drooling, salivary fistulas, and sialadenitis.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was the evaluation of the clinical data of 33 patients who had had drooling attributable to various diseases, salivary fistulas, and sialadenitis and had been treated with injection of botulinum toxin type A (Botox).
  • A controlled follow-up study documenting efficiency, possible side effects, and duration of the effect of treatment was also performed.
  • METHODS: Thirty-three patients with drooling attributable to head and neck carcinoma, neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, or idiopathic hypersalivation or with salivary fistula or chronic sialadenitis received injections of 20 to 65 U botulinum toxin type A into salivary glands under sonographic control.
  • The entire salivary flow rate and the output per minute of the salivary analytes thiocyanate, total protein, alpha-amylase, acid phosphatase, kallikrein, and immunoglobulin A were measured at various times before and after injection.
  • The patients were examined with regard to severity of their symptoms, including sonographic control investigation of their cephalic salivary glands.
  • In general, salivary flow rates and thiocyanate output dropped sharply within 1 week after injection and had increased again after a period of 12 to 16 weeks.
  • Conversely, amylase outputs increased during this period, whereas the outputs of the other analytes remained roughly constant.
  • Sonography did not reveal any major changes in salivary gland parenchyma, and side effects were not noted.
  • CONCLUSION: Reduction of salivary flow in patients with drooling, salivary fistulas, or chronic sialadenitis by local injection of botulinum toxin type A into the salivary glands proved to be a dependable therapy for these disorders, as shown in the present extended report on 33 patients.
  • Based on their results, the authors recommend botulinum toxin injection as the therapy of choice in patients with the problem of drooling.
  • [MeSH-major] Botulinum Toxins, Type A / administration & dosage. Neuromuscular Agents / administration & dosage. Salivary Gland Fistula / drug therapy. Sialadenitis / drug therapy. Sialorrhea / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Injections. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Salivation / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15454785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuromuscular Agents; EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins, Type A
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18. Niedzinski EJ, Chen YJ, Olson DC, Parker EA, Park H, Udove JA, Scollay R, McMahon BM, Bennett MJ: Enhanced systemic transgene expression after nonviral salivary gland transfection using a novel endonuclease inhibitor/DNA formulation. Gene Ther; 2003 Dec;10(26):2133-8
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  • [Title] Enhanced systemic transgene expression after nonviral salivary gland transfection using a novel endonuclease inhibitor/DNA formulation.
  • Gene transfer to the major salivary glands is an attractive method for the systemic delivery of therapeutic proteins.
  • To date, nonviral gene transfer to these glands has resulted in inadequate systemic protein concentrations.
  • We believe that identification of the barriers responsible for this inefficient transfection will enable the development of enhanced nonviral gene transfer in salivary glands and other tissues.
  • To test this hypothesis, we coadministered two endonuclease inhibitors ((zinc and aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA)) with plasmid DNA, containing the secreted alkaline phosphatase gene (SEAP), to the submandibular glands of rats.
  • The effect of zinc and ATA on SEAP expression, tissue accumulation of plasmid DNA, and plasmid DNA stability was then characterized.
  • We observed that mixtures containing zinc/DNA, ATA/DNA, and zinc/ATA/DNA significantly enhanced both systemic transgene expression and the amount of plasmid DNA associated with treated tissues.
  • The use of zinc/ATA enhanced the efficacy of salivary gland transfection by at least 1000-fold versus DNA alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Aurintricarboxylic Acid / pharmacology. DNA / metabolism. Endonucleases / antagonists & inhibitors. Salivary Glands / metabolism. Transfection / methods. Transgenes / genetics. Zinc / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Gene Expression. Genetic Therapy / methods. Genetic Vectors. Male. Plasmids. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 14625568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-7128
  • [Journal-full-title] Gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gene Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4431-00-9 / Aurintricarboxylic Acid; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 3.1.- / Endonucleases; J41CSQ7QDS / Zinc
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19. Prasad KC, Sreedharan S, Chakravarthy Y, Prasad SC: Tuberculosis in the head and neck: experience in India. J Laryngol Otol; 2007 Oct;121(10):979-85
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  • OBJECTIVE: With improvement in economic and social conditions and the use of effective anti-tubercular therapy, the developed nations, and most developing nations, have enjoyed a decline in tuberculosis for several decades.
  • It is now seen that extra-pulmonary presentations form a major proportion of new cases, especially since the advent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic.
  • Most patients were treated with anti-tubercular therapy alone; others required surgical intervention followed by Anti-tubercular therapy (ATT).
  • In addition, those with human immunodeficiency virus infection or malignancy were treated with anti-retroviral therapy and radiotherapy, respectively.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology was highly effective in the diagnosis of tubercular lymphadenitis (92 per cent) but not so for other sites.
  • Excision biopsy and histopathological examination were required to make a diagnosis in tuberculosis of the oral and nasal cavities, salivary glands, ear, temporo-mandibular joint, and mandible.
  • CONCLUSION: In addition to cervical lymphadenitis, tuberculosis in the head and neck region can produce isolated disease in the oral cavity, ear, salivary glands, temporo-mandibular joint, nose and larynx.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology was highly effective in the diagnosis of nodal tuberculosis, but histopathological examination was required to make the diagnosis in other head and neck sites.
  • Successful outcome depends upon appropriate chemotherapy and timely surgical intervention when necessary.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. India / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17367564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents
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20. Pinto A, De Rossi SS: Salivary gland disease in pediatric HIV patients: an update. J Dent Child (Chic); 2004 Jan-Apr;71(1):33-7
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  • [Title] Salivary gland disease in pediatric HIV patients: an update.
  • Salivary gland disease is a common manifestation of HIV infection in pediatric patients, presenting either as gland enlargement and/or xerostomia.
  • The parotid glands by far are most frequently affected, though the other major glands are commonly involved.
  • Diseases of the salivary glands and the corresponding quantitative changes in saliva affect the homeostasis of the oral cavity and account for significant morbidity during the progression of HIV disease.
  • This paper summarizes the research on HIV-related salivary gland disease and outlines treatment and management considerations.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Salivary Gland Diseases / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Candidiasis, Oral / complications. Candidiasis, Oral / drug therapy. Child. Cholinergic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Parotitis / complications. Parotitis / drug therapy. Xerostomia / complications. Xerostomia / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15272653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-8949
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dentistry for children (Chicago, Ill.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dent Child (Chic)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Cholinergic Agents
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21. Baudouin C, Pisella PJ, Brignole F: [Current treatments of xerophthalmia in Sjögren's syndrome]. Rev Med Interne; 2004 May;25(5):376-82
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  • [Title] [Current treatments of xerophthalmia in Sjögren's syndrome].
  • [Transliterated title] Traitements actuels de la xérophtalmie dans le syndrome de Gougerot-Sjögren.
  • PURPOSE: To describe the large variety of treatments currently used in Sjögren's syndrome for one of its major manifestations, keratoconjunctivitis sicca or xerophthalmia.
  • CURRENT KNOWLEDGE AND KEY POINTS: Sjögren's syndrome causes a diffuse immunoinflammatory disturbance of main lacrimal glands and the whole ocular surface.
  • Many different tear substitutes have been widely developed that are poorly efficient for relieving patients from their complaints.
  • Moreover, the latter may increase patients' complaints when they are associated to preservatives, antiseptic drugs that have widely demonstrated their toxic or irritating potential.
  • Stimulation of lacrimal and salivary secretions with systemic pilocarpine, or obturation of lacrimal puncta in order to limit the drainage of tears in lachrymal ducts may be useful in most severe forms of Sjögren's syndrome.
  • However, the development of topical cyclosporine and other immunomodulating agents is the most relevant progress in the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in Sjögren's syndrome.
  • PERSPECTIVES: The future for treating Sjögren's syndrome is most likely to pass through the use of new drugs capable of treating the disease or at least its mechanisms, and not only to try to relieve symptoms with poorly efficient tear substitutes.

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  • (PMID = 15110955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents, Local; 0 / Gels; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Miotics; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 01MI4Q9DI3 / Pilocarpine; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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22. Issing PR, Hemmanouil I, Wilkens L, Karstens H, Lenarz T: [Long term results in adenoidcystic carcinoma]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2002 Feb;81(2):98-105
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  • The major salivary glands were affected in 26 cases.
  • No definitive differentiation was possible in 10 specimens.
  • Except one patient all 54 underwent surgical therapy.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy was additionally given in 25 cases which was combined with a chemotherapy in 6 patients.
  • Lymphnode metastases were observed in 13 patients after a latency of 3.3 years in average, but predominantly pulmonary metastases as distant spread developed in 18 patients after 5.8 years significantly later.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Due to the uncommon biological behaviour with a slow growth on the one hand side and an aggressive local invasion on the other hand side the ACC can be regarded as a challenging malignant disease for the clinician whose adequate therapy does not allow any standardized regime.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic. Mouth Neoplasms. Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms. Salivary Gland Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Laryngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery. Parotid Neoplasms / therapy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Submandibular Gland. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11914946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. Pfeffer MR, Talmi Y, Catane R, Symon Z, Yosepovitch A, Levitt M: A phase II study of Imatinib for advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma of head and neck salivary glands. Oral Oncol; 2007 Jan;43(1):33-6
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  • [Title] A phase II study of Imatinib for advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma of head and neck salivary glands.
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands is characterized by a poor response to chemotherapy.
  • We therefore hypothesized that Imatinib may be an effective drug in patients with locally advanced or metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma and conducted a phase 2 trial in order to study this.
  • Treatment was begun at a dose of Imatinib of 400mg/day.
  • All other patients stopped treatment after 2-14 (median 6) months due to progressive disease.
  • Imatinib has no major effect on advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16757202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
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24. Lin A, Kim HM, Terrell JE, Dawson LA, Ship JA, Eisbruch A: Quality of life after parotid-sparing IMRT for head-and-neck cancer: a prospective longitudinal study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2003 Sep 1;57(1):61-70
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  • The questionnaires and measurements of salivary output from the major glands were completed before RT started (pre-RT) and at 3, 6, and 12 months after RT.
  • The association between the QOL scores and patient-, tumor-, and therapy-related factors was assessed using the random effects model.
  • The XQ scores worsened significantly at 3 months compared with the pre-RT scores, but later they improved gradually through 12 months (p = 0.003), in parallel with an increase in the salivary output from the spared salivary glands.
  • Patients receiving postoperative RT (whose pre-RT questionnaires were taken a few weeks after surgery) tended to have improved scores after RT, reflecting the subsidence of acute postoperative sequelae, compared with a tendency toward worsened scores in patients receiving definitive RT.
  • The salivary flow rates, tumor doses, mean oral cavity dose, age, gender, sites or stages of tumor, surgery, and use of chemotherapy were not associated with the QOL scores at any point.
  • The mean dose to the parotid glands correlated with the QOL scores at 3 months (p = 0.05) but not at other post-RT periods.
  • Both xerostomia and QOL scores improved significantly over time during the first year after therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Health Surveys. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Parotid Gland / radiation effects. Prospective Studies. Salivation / radiation effects. Statistics as Topic. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12909216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA59827; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA78165
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Bennett CL, Lane D, Stinson T, Glatzel M, Buntzel J: Economic analysis of amifostine as adjunctive support for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: preliminary results from a randomized phase II clinical trial from Germany. Cancer Invest; 2001;19(2):107-13
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  • 28 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck received adjunctive or primary radiotherapy (5 days per week with daily fractions of 2 Gy, up to a total dose of 60 Gy) in conjunction with carboplatin (70 mg/m2) on days 1-5 and days 21-26.
  • All patients received radiation encompassing at least 75% of the major salivary glands.
  • Additional economic studies alongside randomized phase III trials and from other countries are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Amifostine / economics. Amifostine / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Costs and Cost Analysis. Female. Germany. Hospitalization / economics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiation-Protective Agents / adverse effects. Radiation-Protective Agents / economics. Radiation-Protective Agents / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11296615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Protective Agents; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine
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