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1. Ohashi H, Kato C, Fukami S, Saito H, Hamaguchi M: Leukemic relapse in the central nervous system after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with complete remission in the bone marrow and donor-type chimerism: report of two cases. Am J Hematol; 2005 Jun;79(2):142-6
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  • [Title] Leukemic relapse in the central nervous system after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with complete remission in the bone marrow and donor-type chimerism: report of two cases.
  • We studied two cases with leukemia that relapsed in the central nervous system (CNS) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
  • One patient underwent peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (SCT) from a related, yet haplotype-mismatched, donor for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.
  • She was kept in complete remission (CR) in the bone marrow (BM) for 7 months, until relapse in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was evident.
  • In the other patient, with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, systemic relapse occurred when he was still on immunosuppression 6 months after SCT from an unrelated donor.
  • After induction chemotherapy following cessation of immunosuppression, the BM examination proved CR.
  • During consolidation chemotherapy, however, he developed leukemic dissemination in the CSF, despite the fact that the BM was in CR.
  • In both patients, the BM cells and all the fractions of the PB cells proved donor-type chimeras.
  • These results seem to suggest that the graft-versus-leukemia effects might not be as effective in the CNS as in the BM, even when complete T-lymphoid chimerism is achieved.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Leukemia / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Tissue Donors. Transplantation Chimera
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / pathology. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / therapy. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / pathology. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 15929112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Feuillard J, Jacob MC, Valensi F, Maynadié M, Gressin R, Chaperot L, Arnoulet C, Brignole-Baudouin F, Drénou B, Duchayne E, Falkenrodt A, Garand R, Homolle E, Husson B, Kuhlein E, Le Calvez G, Sainty D, Sotto MF, Trimoreau F, Béné MC: Clinical and biologic features of CD4(+)CD56(+) malignancies. Blood; 2002 Mar 1;99(5):1556-63
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  • CD4(+)CD56(+) malignancies are rare hematologic neoplasms, which were recently shown to correspond to the so-called type 2 dendritic cell (DC2) or plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
  • Other immunophenotypic characteristics included both negative (CD16, CD57, CD116, and CD117) and positive (CD36, CD38, CD45 at low levels, CD45RA, CD68, CD123, and HLA DR) markers.
  • The prognosis was rapidly fatal in the absence of chemotherapy.
  • Most patients had a relapse in less than 2 years, mainly in the bone marrow, skin, or central nervous system.
  • Furthermore, some therapeutic options were clearly identified.
  • Finally, relationships between the pure cutaneous indolent form of the disease and acute leukemia as well as with the lymphoid/myeloid origin of the CD4(+)CD56(+) malignant cell are discussed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Dendritic Cells / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / immunology. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11861268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm
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3. Coustan-Smith E, Ribeiro RC, Stow P, Zhou Y, Pui CH, Rivera GK, Pedrosa F, Campana D: A simplified flow cytometric assay identifies children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who have a superior clinical outcome. Blood; 2006 Jul 1;108(1):97-102
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  • [Title] A simplified flow cytometric assay identifies children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who have a superior clinical outcome.
  • Bone marrow normal lymphoid progenitors (CD19+, CD10+, and/or CD34+) are exquisitely sensitive to corticosteroids and other antileukemic drugs.
  • We hypothesized that, in patients with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), cells with this phenotype detected early in treatment should be leukemic rather than normal.
  • We therefore developed a simple and inexpensive flow cytometric assay for such cells and prospectively applied it to bone marrow samples collected on day 19 from 380 children with B-lineage ALL.
  • Among 84 uniformly treated children, the 10-year incidence of relapse or remission failure was 28.8% +/- 7.1% (SE) for the 42 patients with 0.01% or more leukemic cells on day 19 detected by the simplified assay versus 4.8% +/- 3.3% for the 42 patients with lower levels (P = .003).
  • Thus, this new assay would enable most treatment centers to identify a high proportion of children with ALL who have an excellent early treatment response and a high likelihood of cure.

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  • (PMID = 16537802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA5229; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA60419
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD19
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1895825
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4. Duval M, Suciu S, Ferster A, Rialland X, Nelken B, Lutz P, Benoit Y, Robert A, Manel AM, Vilmer E, Otten J, Philippe N: Comparison of Escherichia coli-asparaginase with Erwinia-asparaginase in the treatment of childhood lymphoid malignancies: results of a randomized European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Children's Leukemia Group phase 3 trial. Blood; 2002 Apr 15;99(8):2734-9
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  • [Title] Comparison of Escherichia coli-asparaginase with Erwinia-asparaginase in the treatment of childhood lymphoid malignancies: results of a randomized European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Children's Leukemia Group phase 3 trial.
  • Asparaginase is an enzyme used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma in children.
  • Nonrandomized clinical studies have suggested a similar efficacy of these 2 types of asparaginases and a lower toxicity for Erwinia-asparaginase.
  • The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Children's Leukemia Group (EORTC-CLG) 58881 trial randomized 700 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma to either E coli- or Erwinia-asparaginase at the same dosage of 10 000 IU/m(2) twice weekly to compare toxicity and efficacy.
  • The incidence of other toxicity was not significantly different.
  • In the Erwinia-asparaginase arm, more patients failed to achieve complete remission (4.9% versus 2.0%; P =.038) and the relapse rate was higher, leading to shorter event-free survival (hazard ratio,1.59; 95% CI, 1.23-2.06; P =.0004).
  • The estimate of event-free survival rate (SE) at 6 years was 59.8% (2.6%) versus 73.4% (2.4%).
  • With the dose scheduling used in this protocol, E coli-asparaginase induced more coagulation abnormalities but was superior to Erwinia-asparaginase for the treatment of childhood lymphoid malignancies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / complications. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Remission Induction / methods. Therapeutic Equivalency

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  • (PMID = 11929760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10-CA11488-20; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10-CA11488-30
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase
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5. Harned TM, Gaynon PS: Treating refractory leukemias in childhood, role of clofarabine. Ther Clin Risk Manag; 2008 Apr;4(2):327-36
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  • Approximately 4000 children and adolescents under the age of 20 years develop acute leukemia per year in the US.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric cancer.
  • Therapy for relapsed ALL remains unsatisfactory, and the majority of relapse patients still succumb to leukemia.
  • Between one-third and one-half of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) relapse, and no standard therapy is recognized for patients with relapsed and/or refractory AML.
  • Novel therapeutic agents are needed to improve the cure rate for relapsed ALL and AML.
  • Clofarabine is a next-generation nucleoside analog, designed to incorporate the best features and improve the therapeutic index of cladribine and fludarabine.
  • Phase I and II single-agent trials in children have shown that clofarabine is safe and active in both myeloid and lymphoid relapsed/refractory acute leukemias.
  • Clofarabine has been approved by the FDA for pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory ALL after at least 2 prior therapeutic attempts.
  • Rational combinations of clofarabine with other active agents in refractory leukemias are currently under investigation.

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  • (PMID = 18728851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1176-6336
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutics and clinical risk management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Clin Risk Manag
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2504075
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; childhood / clofarabine / leukemia / pediatric / refractory
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6. Thomas A: Joe Burchenal and the birth of combination chemotherapy. Br J Haematol; 2006 Jun;133(5):493-503
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  • [Title] Joe Burchenal and the birth of combination chemotherapy.
  • By the time he retired in 1983, 58% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia survived 5 years with the majority being cured of their disease.
  • The approach to developing antibiotics to conquer previously incurable infection was an inspiration and model for his pioneering work when searching for drugs with activity against cancer.
  • Trials of sequential and then combination chemotherapy followed.
  • Success in treating lymphoid malignancies in children led him to develop treatment regimens for other more resistant cancers, and as an advocate of collaborative working he introduced multimodal therapy to tackle bulky or metastatic cancers, replacing inevitable relapse with a chance of true cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / history. Leukemia / history
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Anti-Infective Agents / history. Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Child. History, 20th Century. Humans. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / history. United States

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  • (PMID = 16681636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Biography; Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Burchenal J
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7. Nagatoshi Y, Kawano Y, Nagayama J, Okamura J: Treatment of isolated central nervous system relapse in high-risk lymphoid malignancy with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and extended intrathecal therapy. Br J Haematol; 2004 Jun;125(6):766-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of isolated central nervous system relapse in high-risk lymphoid malignancy with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and extended intrathecal therapy.
  • We performed allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with an extended period of post-transplant intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy for five patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who had relapsed in the central nervous system either in the very early phase or more than twice.
  • Disease relapse occurred in one patient and the other patients remained in complete remission for 39-196 months post-BMT.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Central Nervous System Diseases / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Injections, Spinal. Male. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Transplantation Conditioning. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 15180866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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8. Onciu M: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2009 Aug;23(4):655-74
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  • [Title] Acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma constitute a family of genetically heterogeneous lymphoid neoplasms derived from B- and T-lymphoid progenitors.
  • Diagnosis is based on morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features that allow differentiation from normal progenitors and other hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic neoplasms.
  • Current intensive chemotherapy regimens have accomplished overall cure rates of 85% to 90% in children and 40% to 50% in adults, with outcomes depending on the genetic subtype of disease and clinical features at presentation.
  • Therapy is optimized using minimal residual disease studies that employ flow cytometric and molecular methodologies, and are important determinants of prognosis.
  • Genetic analyses currently underway are likely to provide insight into biology, mechanisms of relapse, pharmacogenetics, and new potential therapeutic targets, which should aid in further improvement of outcome in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunophenotyping / methods. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Flow Cytometry. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Immunoglobulins / genetics. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19577163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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9. Ramirez O, Linares A, Trujillo ML, Caminos JE: WT1 mRNA in cerebrospinal fluid associated with relapse in pediatric lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2003 Jun;25(6):453-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] WT1 mRNA in cerebrospinal fluid associated with relapse in pediatric lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: The goal was to assess a possible relationship between the detection of mRNA from WT1 gene in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neoplastic relapse in pediatric patients being treated for lymphoid precursor cell neoplasms.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety-four patients less than 19 years old with lymphoid precursor cell leukemia in hematologic remission and without central nervous system (CNS) compromise were included.
  • Cytology, cytochemistry, cell count, and qualitative RT-PCR were performed using routine CSF samples obtained during intrathecal chemotherapy administration.
  • The main outcome measure was clinical, radiologic, and cytologic evidence of CNS, hematologic or any other type of neoplastic relapse.
  • RESULTS: At some time during follow-up, 28.7% of the patients had a positive WT1 CSF test.
  • Relapses included 10 patients with isolated hematologic, 4 with isolated CNS, 1 with combined CNS and hematologic, and 1 with mediastinal relapse; the maximal follow-up period was 312 days.
  • A statistically significant association was found between the detection of WT1 in CSF and CNS relapse.
  • Adjusted hazard rate ratios of 5.04 (95% confidence interval 1.33-19.12) and 7.48 (2.34-23.93) were estimated for isolated hematologic relapse and for all types of relapses, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although it is likely that the short follow-up period underestimated the incidence of relapse, this study was able to identify a strong association between WT1 mRNA detection and CNS or hematologic relapse.
  • These findings represent a potentially novel and useful approach for subclinical disease detection.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / cerebrospinal fluid. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / cerebrospinal fluid. RNA, Messenger / cerebrospinal fluid. WT1 Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 12794523.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / WT1 Proteins
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10. Li T, Xue Y, Zhang J, Chen S, Pan J, Wu Y, Wang Y, Shen J: Isodicentric 20q- in two cases of B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia with the respective t(9;20)(p11;q11.2) and t(9;22)(q34;q11.2). Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2008 Feb;181(1):55-9
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isodicentric 20q- in two cases of B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia with the respective t(9;20)(p11;q11.2) and t(9;22)(q34;q11.2).
  • The cytogenetic anomaly der(20)del(20)(q11.2q13.3)idic(20)(p11), or idic(20q-) in short form, has been reported in 13 cases of myelodysplastic syndrome, one case of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and one case of acute myeloid leukemia since 2004.
  • To our knowledge, it has not previously been described in lymphoid diseases.
  • Here we report the cases of two patients with B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) having a novel idic(20q-).
  • One was a 34-year-old man with B-cell ALL whose leukemic cells at presentation had a karyotype of 45,XY,dic(9;20)(p11;q11.2); at relapse, a small marker chromosome was found coexisting with the dic(9;20).
  • The other was a 39-year-old woman with Ph-positive B-cell-ALL whose leukemic cells contained both t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) and a small marker chromosome.
  • A series of FISH analyses using the appropriate probes revealed the small marker chromosome in both patients to be an idic(20q-), confirming the dic(9;20)(p11;q11.2) in one case and revealing a BCR/ABL fusion gene in the other.
  • One patient achieved complete remission but relapsed; the other did not achieve complete remission.
  • Both patients died with a short survival time, despite receiving intensive chemotherapy.
  • These two cases show that idic(20q-) can appear not only in myeloid diseases but also in lymphoid diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9. Leukemia, B-Cell / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 18262055.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Khouri IF: Reduced-intensity regimens in allogeneic stem-cell transplantation for non-hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program; 2006;:390-7
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  • [Title] Reduced-intensity regimens in allogeneic stem-cell transplantation for non-hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • Autologous stem-cell transplantation is widely accepted as effective therapy for patients with relapsed aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
  • Although 40-60% of younger patients with diffuse large cell lymphoma can expect to be cured, substantial numbers will experience a relapse.
  • In addition, certain histologic subtypes are associated with particularly poor prognoses with combination chemotherapy alone (e.g., mantle cell lymphoma).
  • Although other NHL subtypes are associated with more favorable prognoses in terms of overall survival, they are rarely cured (e.g., follicular lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia).
  • Allogeneic transplantation has been increasingly utilized in patients with lymphoid malignancies but is associated with high toxicity.
  • This article discusses changes in the way autologous and allogeneic transplants may be carried out in the future to treat patients with lymphoid malignancies.


12. Lefrère F, Hermine O, François S, Panelatti G, Valensi F, Grosbois B, Misset JL, Varet B, Troussard X: Lack of efficacy of 2-chlorodeoxyadenoside in the treatment of splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes. Leuk Lymphoma; 2000 Dec;40(1-2):113-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CLADRIBINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lack of efficacy of 2-chlorodeoxyadenoside in the treatment of splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes.
  • Splenectomy and/or chlorambucil (CLB) are usually regarded as the most effective treatment in SLVL patients.
  • However, a few patients relapse and the second line therapy remains questionable.
  • Although 2-Cda has been evaluated in patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) and hairy cell leukemia (HCL), it has been reported as the treatment of SLVL in only one case report.
  • The median duration between diagnosis and treatment was 18 months (range, 1 to 59).
  • The patients received 2-CdA (0.1 mg/kg/d) by venous infusion for 7 days with a median number of 1 cycle (range, 1 to 2) either as a first line therapy (one patient) or after a failure of other therapies (splenectomy, chemotherapy).
  • The treatment was not well tolerated with many infectious events.
  • In the limits of our study, 2-Cda does not appear to be efficient therapy for SLVL and is not well tolerated for patients in relapse after splenectomy or resistant to CLB.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosine Triphosphate / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Cladribine / pharmacokinetics. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Splenic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Therapeutic Equivalency. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11426611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / cladribine triphosphate; 47M74X9YT5 / Cladribine; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate
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13. Oken MM, Lee S, Kay NE, Knospe W, Cassileth PA: Pentostatin, chlorambucil and prednisone therapy for B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a phase I/II study by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study E1488. Leuk Lymphoma; 2004 Jan;45(1):79-84
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PENTOSTATIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pentostatin, chlorambucil and prednisone therapy for B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a phase I/II study by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study E1488.
  • Pentostatin is a purine nucleoside analog with demonstrated activity in low-grade lymphoid malignancies.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the dose of pentostatin (dCF) that could be combined with chlorambucil and prednisone to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), evaluate the toxicity of the resulting regimen and to estimate its efficacy.
  • Individuals with active B-CLL were eligible if they had no prior treatment or were in sensitive first relapse, provided they had normal renal and hepatic function.
  • Thirty-nine of these patients were eligible, of which 38 were evaluable for response, 36 of these 38 had no prior treatment.
  • The median time to treatment failure is 32 months.
  • Due to toxicity, 33% of patients stopped therapy.
  • These findings add to other recent reports which suggest combination therapy with pentostatin and alkylators are active in B-CLL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chlorambucil / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Pentostatin / therapeutic use. Prednisone / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15061201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 18D0SL7309 / Chlorambucil; 395575MZO7 / Pentostatin; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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14. Rege K, Swansbury GJ, Atra AA, Horton C, Min T, Dainton MG, Matutes E, Durosinmi M, Treleaven JG, Powles RL, Catovsky D: Disease features in acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21)(q22;q22). Influence of age, secondary karyotype abnormalities, CD19 status, and extramedullary leukemia on survival. Leuk Lymphoma; 2000 Dec;40(1-2):67-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Disease features in acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21)(q22;q22). Influence of age, secondary karyotype abnormalities, CD19 status, and extramedullary leukemia on survival.
  • Over a period of 14 years, 50 patients (12 children and 38 adults) of whom 46 had acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 4 had myelodysplastic syndrome characterized by the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation were referred to the Royal Marsden Hospital.
  • The clinicopathological features of these cases were analyzed to determine the influence of age, secondary karyotype abnormalities, and expression of the lymphoid marker CD19 on event free survival, and presence of extramedullary leukemia on overall survival.
  • They were treated with a variety of chemotherapy protocols and some had bone marrow transplantation.
  • Out of the 50 cases, 16 (32%) had the (8;21) translocation alone, 17 (34%) had additional loss of a sex chromosome and the remaining 17 (34%) had other karyotype abnormalities of which deletion or translocation of the long arms of a #9 was most common (observed in 8 of the 17 patients).
  • Extramedullary leukemia (EML) occurred in 5 of the 50 cases (10%).
  • In one patient it was observed at diagnosis but in the others it presented concurrent with bone marrow relapse.
  • The overall survival of patients with EML was worse than that of the other patients but did not achieve statistical significance and was probably adversely affected by other factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Leukemia, Myeloid / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 11426630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD19
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15. Unal S, Cetin M, Tuncer AM, Gümrük F, Yetgin S: The prognostic impact of myeloid antigen expression in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Turk J Pediatr; 2008 Nov-Dec;50(6):533-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The prognostic impact of myeloid antigen expression in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients.
  • The incidence of mixed-lineage leukemias in the pediatric age group was previously reported as 13.8% for myeloid antigen-positive ALL and 11.1% for lymphoid antigen-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Recent studies showed that extensive chemotherapy protocols overcome the risk of myeloid lineage.
  • Our study also supports most of the previous data and we postulate that myeloid antigen expression in pediatric ALL cases has insignificant effect on clinical presentation, relapse rates and survival.
  • Importantly, 54% of myeloid antigen-expressing ALL patients received high-risk treatment protocols for some other reasons and this may also have contributed to similar outcome in these patients to that observed in myeloid antigen-negative ALL patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / immunology. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / immunology. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19227415.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4301
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm
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16. Huang X, Guo N, Ren H, Zhang Y, Gao Z, Lu D: An improved anti-leukemic effect achieved with donor progenitor cell infusion for relapse patients after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Chin Med J (Engl); 2003 May;116(5):736-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An improved anti-leukemic effect achieved with donor progenitor cell infusion for relapse patients after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the antileukemic effect in relapse patients by infusion of donor immunocompetent cells with or without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization.
  • METHODS: Twenty patients with leukemia in relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) were treated with chemotherapy followed by donor-derived lymphocytes (DDL) without G-CSF mobilization (Group A, n = 11), or donor peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) with G-CSF mobilization (Group B, n = 9).
  • RESULTS: Five patients in Group A were in hematologic relapse.
  • One achieved partial remission and died of interstitial pneumonia; and the other one showed no response.
  • Another 6 patients in Group A were in cytogenetic relapse or central nerve system (CNS) leukemia, and all achieved CR and remained in disease free survival (DFS) for 10 to 98 months after DDL infusion.
  • All 9 patients in group B were in hematologic relapse.
  • Three patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) had cytogenetic and molecular remission for 16, 35 and 51 months, respectively after PBPC infusion; and 5 patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) had CR and were still in CR for 10 to 18 months except 1 patient relapsed soon.
  • And the other one with AML showed no response to the therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Donor immunocompetent cells infusion is an effective therapy for relapsed leukemia after allo-BMT, especially for the patients with early (molecular and cytogenetic) or CNS relapse.
  • Infusion of donor PBPC mobilized by G-CSF seems to have more potentiated graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect than DDL infusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia / therapy

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  • (PMID = 12875692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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17. Kitazawa J, Tono C, Terui K, Kinukawa N, Oda M, Isoyama K, Ishii E, Ito E, Japan Infant Leukemia Study Group: Successful outcome of mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a related donor in an infant with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 9;11 translocation: case report and review of the literature. Int J Hematol; 2005 Jun;81(5):428-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful outcome of mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a related donor in an infant with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 9;11 translocation: case report and review of the literature.
  • Although infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and MLL gene rearrangements have a poor prognosis, those with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have been shown to have a superior outcome with intensive chemotherapy alone despite the presence of MLL gene rearrangements.
  • We report the case of an ALL infant with t(9;11), a common cytogenetic abnormality in infant AML, who after relapse underwent successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from her HLA 2-loci-mismatched mother.
  • Analysis of the outcome among ALL infants with MLL gene rearrangements registered in the Japan Infant Leukemia Study between 1996 and 1999 showed the event-free survival of patients with t(9;11) was not different from that of those with other 11q23 translocations.
  • Most of the patients with t(9;11) described in the reviewed literature also experienced either induction failure or early relapse after achievement of complete remission, but some of them were rescued with subsequent HSCT.
  • These findings suggest that infant ALL with t(9;11) has features distinct from those of infant AML with the same karyotype and that the prognosis among these patients can be improved only with the combination of intensive chemotherapy and HSCT An appropriate strategy for the treatment of ALL infants with different 11q23 translocations must be clarified.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Histocompatibility. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Disease-Free Survival. Gene Rearrangement. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase. Humans. Infant. Karyotyping. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogenes / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 16158826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MLL protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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18. Hatake K, Terui Y: [Rituximab resistance in B-cell lymphoma and its elimination]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Apr;36(4):548-51
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. RITUXIMAB .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Rituximab is commonly incorporated into CD20-positive B-cell lymphoma therapy to improve response and prognosis.
  • Freshly collected lymphoma cells from 50 patients with previously untreated or relapsed/resistant non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphomas(diffuse large B cell, n=22; follicular, n=7; mucosa associated lymphoid tissue, n=16; chronic lymphocytic leukemia, n=2; small lymphocytic lymphoma, n=1; lymphoplasmacytic, n =1; mantle cell lymphoma, n=1)were assessed for CD20 expression by flow cytometry, and CD20 gene sequencing was performed on extracted DNA.
  • The mean fluorescence intensity of CD20 on fresh lymphoma cells was significantly lower for the Cterminal deletion mutation(3.26; 95% CI: 0.09-6.89)compared with wild type(30.8; 95% CI: 22.4-39.2)(p<0.05).
  • In contrast, early termination mutations did not show significant differences in CD20 expression compared with wild type (19.5; 95% CI: 10.7-28.4)(p>0.05).
  • It is possible that C-terminal deletion mutations of CD20 may be related to relapse/resistance after rituximab therapy.
  • Other mechanisms are also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Immunotherapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19381025.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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19. Chunduri S, Dobogai LC, Peace D, Saunthararajah Y, Quigley J, Chen YH, Mahmud N, Hurter E, Beri R, Rondelli D: Fludarabine/i.v. BU conditioning regimen: myeloablative, reduced intensity or both? Bone Marrow Transplant; 2008 Jun;41(11):935-40
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. VIDARABINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BU (12.8 mg/kg) (FluBU) in 36 adult patients (median age: 44 years, range: 18-61) with myeloid or lymphoid malignancies at standard risk (n=10) or high risk of relapse (n=26), who received an allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) from HLA-matched related (n=16) or unrelated (n=20) donors.
  • Post transplant relapse was observed in 20% standard-risk and in 46% high-risk patients.
  • FluBU conditioning regimen is associated with a limited hematologic and extrahematologic toxicity and with an antitumor activity comparable to other standard myeloablative regimens.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Leukemia / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy. Prospective Studies. Transplantation, Homologous


20. Gutiérrez A, Rodríguez J, Martínez J, Amezaga R, Ramos R, Galmes B, Bea MD, Ferrer J, Pons J, Sampol A, Morey M, Duran MA, Raurich J, Besalduch J: Pathogenic study of anti-CD20 infusion-related severe refractory shock in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 Jan;47(1):111-5
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Although rituximab is an effective and safe therapy for B-cell lymphoid malignancies, a few cases of severe infusion-related reactions have been reported.
  • Severe refractory distributive shock is an infrequent side-effect of treatment with rituximab and, to our knowledge, there are no reports describing its pathogenesis in a case of fatal outcome in detail.
  • We present for the first time a case of fatal rituximab infusion-related refractory distributive shock in a patient with CD5+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and analyse the pathogenic mechanisms involved.
  • We have compared measurements obtained from the patient that experienced lethal refractory shock with the four subsequent DLBCL patients treated with rituximab, either at diagnosis or upon relapse, at our center.
  • In conclusion, the cytokine pattern was similar to that observed in patients with rapid onset septic shock and serum cytokines reached levels markedly higher than previously described in other cases of severe rituximab infusion-related toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Shock / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antigens, CD20 / immunology. Cytokines / blood. Cytokines / immunology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Rituximab. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Large B cell diffuse lymphoma.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Shock.
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  • (PMID = 16321834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cytokines; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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