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1. Mossallam GI, Abdel Hamid TM, Samra MA: Glutathione S-transferase GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in adult acute myeloid leukemia; its impact on toxicity and response to chemotherapy. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2006 Sep;18(3):264-73
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  • [Title] Glutathione S-transferase GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in adult acute myeloid leukemia; its impact on toxicity and response to chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Heterogeneity in patient' s response to chemotherapy is consistently observed across populations.
  • Pharmacogenomics, the study of inherited differences in drug disposition and effects, is emerging as a tool to predict efficacy and toxicity of drugs.
  • It has been associated with altered response and toxicity from cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • In this study, we investigated the impact of these polymorphisms on response and side effects of chemotherapy in adult acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients.
  • Correlations between these genetic polymorphisms and other prognostic factors were also investigated.
  • Induction therapy included Doxorubicin and Cytosine arabinoside (3+7) regimen.
  • Treatment outcomes were compared in those with or without GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes.
  • On the other hand, the rate of complete remission (CR) in patients with GSTM1 present compared to those with GSTM1 null genotype was 12/27 (48%) versus 23/36 (64%), p=0.21.
  • GSTT1 null genotype was significantly associated with lymphoid marker (mainly CD7) expression (p=0.03), known with its adverse effect on prognosis.
  • No significant associations were encountered between GST genotypes and treatment outcomes.
  • Studies on larger numbers are needed focusing on selection of anticancer agents to avoid adverse reactions and therapeutic failure, with special emphasis on drug toxicity and dose adjustment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / mortality. Polymorphism, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17671537.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.5.1.- / glutathione S-transferase T1; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase
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2. Lemancewicz D, Dziecioł J, Piszcz J, Lebelt A, Mazgajska-Barczyk K, Klim B, Kłoczko J: Assessment of expression of selected Bcl-2 family proteins in lymphoid infiltration in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with nucleoside analogues. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2008;46(3):361-6

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  • [Title] Assessment of expression of selected Bcl-2 family proteins in lymphoid infiltration in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with nucleoside analogues.
  • B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) is characterized by clonal growth and accumulation of mature lymphoid cells due to disturbance in genetically regulated form of cell death called apoptosis.
  • The aim of the study was to assess expression of selected Bcl-2 family proteins in neoplastic infiltration in bone marrow in patients with B-CLL treated with nucleoside analogues.
  • The study comprised examination of bone marrow obtained routinely by trephine biopsy from 18 patients with B-CLL diagnosed before administration of purine nucleoside analogues treatment and after its completion.
  • Lymphoid cells in bone marrow were present in all patients before administration of treatment.
  • After treatment in two patients bone marrow was infiltrated in diffuse pattern, whereas other patients presented nodular pattern of infiltration.
  • The difference between stage of infiltration before and after treatment was statistically significant (p<0.002).
  • High percentage of infiltration cells with positive anti Bcl-2 reaction from 42.0% in one patient to 85.33+/-3.06% in four patients before treatment was observed.
  • After treatment percentage of infiltration cells with positive anti Bcl-2 antibody reaction was from 33.0+/-18.38% in two patients to 99.0% in one patient.
  • Positive correlation between stage of infiltration and expression of Bcl-2 protein was confirmed before and after treatment.
  • Strong staining of immunohistochemical reaction of cells in lymphoid infiltration with Bcl-2 antibody was confirmed.
  • There was a difference between Bcl-/Bax ratio before and after treatment.
  • Immunohistochemical assessment of expression of Bcl-2 family proteins in cells of lymphoid infiltration in bone marrow of patients with CLL is an important method in detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment.

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  • (PMID = 19056541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nucleosides; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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3. Lafaurie M, Lapalu J, Raffoux E, Breton B, Lacroix C, Socié G, Porcher R, Ribaud P, Touratier S, Molina JM: High rate of breakthrough invasive aspergillosis among patients receiving caspofungin for persistent fever and neutropenia. Clin Microbiol Infect; 2010 Aug;16(8):1191-6
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  • A number of agents are now available for empirical antifungal treatment (EAFT) of patients with persistent fever and neutropenia.
  • We carried out a study of efficacy of antifungal drugs to prevent breakthrough invasive aspergillosis by reviewing the medical records of all consecutive patients who received EAFT from November 2005 to February 2006.
  • Patients' characteristics and the type, dose and duration of antifungal therapy were recorded.
  • Breakthrough invasive fungal infections were documented according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) definition.
  • All patients received high-dose chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (51%), acute lymphoid leukaemia (12%), lymphoma (14%) or other haematologic conditions (22%).
  • The median duration of antifungal therapy was 9 days.
  • [MeSH-major] Antifungal Agents / administration & dosage. Aspergillosis / diagnosis. Drug Resistance, Fungal. Echinocandins / administration & dosage. Fever of Unknown Origin / drug therapy. Hematologic Neoplasms / complications. Neutropenia / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Amphotericin B / administration & dosage. Deoxycholic Acid / administration & dosage. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19735276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0691
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Microbiol. Infect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Echinocandins; 0 / liposomal amphotericin B; 005990WHZZ / Deoxycholic Acid; 7XU7A7DROE / Amphotericin B; 87687-70-5 / amphotericin B, deoxycholate drug combination; F0XDI6ZL63 / caspofungin
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4. Rituximab. Chronic lymphoid leukaemia: no decisive advantage. Prescrire Int; 2010 Apr;19(106):56-8
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  • [Title] Rituximab. Chronic lymphoid leukaemia: no decisive advantage.
  • When treatment is needed for patients with symptomatic chronic lymphoid leukaemia, the standard first-line treatment is oral chlorambucil.
  • Rituximab has been authorised for use in both first-line and second-line therapy.
  • Clinical evaluation of rituximab is mainly based on 2 randomised unblinded trials, comparing cytotoxic chemotherapy, with and without the addition of rituximab, as first-line treatment in 817 patients in one trial and as second-line treatment in 552 patients in the other trial.
  • In the trial of first-line treatment, adverse events were more frequent in the rituximab group (77% versus 62%), especially serious infections (18% versus 15%) and febrile neutropenia (8% versus 6%).
  • In the trial of second-line therapy, there were more fatal adverse events in the rituximab group (13% versus 10%).
  • In practice, adding rituximab to other cytotoxic drugs has no proven benefit in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphoid leukaemia.
  • In second-line treatment, the progression-free survival benefit associated with rituximab must be weighed against the increase in adverse effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20568482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-7422
  • [Journal-full-title] Prescrire international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prescrire Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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5. Piccaluga PP, Martinelli G, Rondoni M, Visani G, Baccarani M: Advances and potential treatment for Philadelphia chromosome-positive adult acute lymphoid leukaemia. Expert Opin Biol Ther; 2006 Oct;6(10):1011-22
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  • [Title] Advances and potential treatment for Philadelphia chromosome-positive adult acute lymphoid leukaemia.
  • Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common subtype of ALL in adults.
  • Conventional chemotherapy-based approaches that are effective in other precursor B cell ALL cases have a poor chances of cure in patients with a Ph+ diagnosis.
  • Therefore, allogeneic stem cell transplantation performed during the first remission is the recommended therapy.
  • Recently, the availability of imatinib mesylate and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors and small molecules that affect the BCR/ABL signalling pathways has introduced a new therapeutic opportunity, and could change the treatment paradigm and prognosis for these patients.
  • In this article, the results from clinical trials using imatinib in relapsed/refractory patients and as front-line therapy are described.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / genetics. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / therapy. Philadelphia Chromosome
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Humans. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic / trends. Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Stem Cell Transplantation / trends

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  • (PMID = 16989583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7682
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on biological therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Biol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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6. Timuragaoglu A, Dizlek S, Uysalgil N, Tosun O, Yamac K: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism in adult patients with lymphoproliferative disorders and its effect on chemotherapy. Ann Hematol; 2006 Dec;85(12):863-8
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  • [Title] Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism in adult patients with lymphoproliferative disorders and its effect on chemotherapy.
  • On the other side, MTHFR enzyme causes methylation of homocysteine into methionine, leading to methylation of DNA.
  • Because folate is the cornerstone in DNA synthesis, we analysed herein if the polymorphisms in MTHFR gene can alter the susceptibility of lymphoproliferative disease risk and if it has an effect on chemotherapy response.
  • One hundred fifty-six patients with lymphoid malignancies and 82 healthy controls were included into the study.
  • Although it was not statistically significant, we found a 2.7-fold increased risk in acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL)/Burkitt lymphoma patients with TT genotype [odds ratio (OR), 2.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88-8.2] than CC genotype but a 1.7-fold decreased risk with TT genotype in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.17-1.88) and a 1.8-fold decreased risk in Hodgkin's lymphoma with TT genotype (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.10-2.87) than CC genotype.
  • The chemotherapy response was analysed in DLBCL, Hodgkin's lymphoma and ALL/Burkitt's lymphoma because these patients received standard chemotherapy protocols.
  • As a conclusion, MTHFR C677T polymorphism does not increase the risk of lymphoproliferative disease, and it does not have an effect on chemotherapy response significantly; however, the patients with TT genotype have a slightly increased risk for ALL, and they also respond worse than CC genotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / drug therapy. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / genetics. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2) / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy. Burkitt Lymphoma / genetics. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genotype. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / genetics. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Risk. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Hematol. 2007 May;86(5):389 [17211521.001]
  • (PMID = 16944145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 1.5.1.20 / Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)
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7. Dubielecka PM, Jaźwiec B, Potoczek S, Wróbel T, Miłoszewska J, Haus O, Kuliczkowski K, Sikorski AF: Changes in spectrin organisation in leukaemic and lymphoid cells upon chemotherapy. Biochem Pharmacol; 2005 Jan 1;69(1):73-85

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  • [Title] Changes in spectrin organisation in leukaemic and lymphoid cells upon chemotherapy.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in spectrin and protein kinase C theta; (PKC theta;) organisation in human lymphoid and leukaemic cells undergoing chemotherapeutically induced apoptosis.
  • An analysis of spectrin arrangement in human peripheral lymphoid (non-Hodgkin lymphoma) and leukaemic (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia) cells before and after chemotherapy revealed radical differences in the distribution of this protein.
  • By using immunofluorescent technique, in lymphocytes isolated before chemotherapy, we found spectrin evenly distributed in the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane, while after the therapy changes in spectrin organisation occurred.
  • Moreover, in lymphocytes after chemotherapy, extraction with buffer containing non-ionic detergent (Triton X-100) revealed presence of an insoluble fraction of spectrin.
  • In normal or malignant cells before chemotherapy spectrin was totally soluble, however it should be mentioned that in total cell extracts and supernatants (but not in pellets) apoptotic fragments of spectrin (in addition to intact alpha and beta chains) were also found.
  • In malignant cells after chemotherapy changes in PKC theta; organisation, similar to this observed in the case of spectrin, were shown by the immunofluorescence technique.
  • In contrast, no differences in the distribution of other isoforms of protein kinase C: betaI and betaII, before and after chemotherapy, were found.
  • Apoptotic phosphatidyloserine (PS) externalisation, as well as cell shrinkage, membrane protrusions and blebbing were observed in lymphocytes after chemotherapy and treatment with cytostatics in vitro.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphocytes / metabolism. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / metabolism. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / metabolism. Spectrin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15588716.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2952
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12634-43-4 / Spectrin
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8. Thomas A: Joe Burchenal and the birth of combination chemotherapy. Br J Haematol; 2006 Jun;133(5):493-503
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  • [Title] Joe Burchenal and the birth of combination chemotherapy.
  • When Joe Burchenal started studying medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in 1934, antibiotics had not been discovered and the survival of patients diagnosed with acute leukaemia was < 4 months.
  • By the time he retired in 1983, 58% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia survived 5 years with the majority being cured of their disease.
  • The approach to developing antibiotics to conquer previously incurable infection was an inspiration and model for his pioneering work when searching for drugs with activity against cancer.
  • Trials of sequential and then combination chemotherapy followed.
  • Success in treating lymphoid malignancies in children led him to develop treatment regimens for other more resistant cancers, and as an advocate of collaborative working he introduced multimodal therapy to tackle bulky or metastatic cancers, replacing inevitable relapse with a chance of true cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / history. Leukemia / history
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Anti-Infective Agents / history. Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Child. History, 20th Century. Humans. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / history. United States

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  • (PMID = 16681636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Biography; Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Burchenal J
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9. Maddocks-Christianson K, Slager SL, Zent CS, Reinalda M, Call TG, Habermann TM, Bowen DA, Hoyer JD, Schwager S, Jelinek DF, Kay NE, Shanafelt TD: Risk factors for development of a second lymphoid malignancy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Br J Haematol; 2007 Nov;139(3):398-404
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  • [Title] Risk factors for development of a second lymphoid malignancy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • Previous studies suggested that patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) are at a three- to fivefold increased risk of developing a second lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD).
  • No statistically significant association was observed between risk of second LPD and other CLL characteristics (ZAP-70, CD38, IgV(H) mutation status or cytogenetic abnormalities).
  • In this series, prior treatments with PNA or anthracyclines were the only significant factors associated with risk of developing a second LPD in patients with CLL.
  • Physicians should strictly adhere to established criteria to initiate treatment for CLL patients who are not participating in clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17910629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 113408; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 94919; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 97274
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Purine Nucleotides; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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10. Gulen H, Kazanci E, Mese T, Uzunkaya D, Erbay A, Tavli V, Vergin C: Cardiac functions by myocardial performance index and QT dispersion in survivors of childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia. Minerva Pediatr; 2007 Apr;59(2):107-13
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  • [Title] Cardiac functions by myocardial performance index and QT dispersion in survivors of childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia.
  • AIM: Childhood leukaemia treatment contains multiple chemotherapeutic agents in high doses that can cause severe toxic effects on heart and other vital organs.
  • In this respect patients taking cancer chemotherapy are followed for these adverse effects.
  • Echocardiographic myocardial performance index (MPI) was reported as a new method of combined systolic and diastolic function for both adults and children, calculated as isovolumic relaxation time plus isovolumic contraction time divided by ejection time.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the probable immediate and late adverse effects of childhood leukaemia treatment containing moderate dose of anthracyclines on heart by MPI and corrected QT dispersion (QTcD).
  • METHODS: MPI and QTcD in 55 children with leukaemia and 38 healthy controls matched for age and sex were evaluated.
  • Also, there was no significant difference in MPI and QTc values between patients taking active treatment and those who completed the therapy and between the patients given a cumulative dose of anthracycline lower and higher than 250 mg/m2.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There was no overt cardiotoxicity in our children with leukaemia treated with protocols of ALL BFM 95 and TRALL 2000 (Modified BFM in Turkey) containing moderate dose of anthracyclines.
  • However, they can cause subclinical cardiotoxicity and further monitoring and evaluation with such sensitive and noninvasive methods over a longer period of time are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Daunorubicin / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Echocardiography, Doppler. Electrocardiography. Leukemia, Lymphoid / drug therapy. Survivors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17404560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4946
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva pediatrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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11. Plosker GL, Figgitt DP: Rituximab: a review of its use in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Drugs; 2003;63(8):803-43
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  • [Title] Rituximab: a review of its use in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that has demonstrated efficacy in patients with various lymphoid malignancies, including indolent and aggressive forms of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL).
  • While the optimal use of the drug in many clinical settings has yet to be clarified, two pivotal trials have established rituximab as a viable treatment option in patients with relapsed or refractory indolent NHL, and as a standard first-line treatment option when combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (the most common type of aggressive NHL).
  • Treatment with rituximab is generally well tolerated, particularly in terms of adverse haematological effects and serious or opportunistic infections relative to standard chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clinical trials with rituximab indicate that the drug has broad application to B-cell malignancies, although further clarification is needed to determine its optimal use in many of these clinical settings.
  • Importantly, rituximab in combination with CHOP chemotherapy has emerged as a new treatment standard for previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, at least in elderly patients.
  • Compared with conventional chemotherapy, rituximab is associated with markedly reduced haematological events such as severe neutropenia, as well as associated infections.
  • Rituximab may be particularly suitable for elderly patients or those with poor performance status, and its tolerability profile facilitates its use in combination with cytotoxic drugs.
  • Although treatment with rituximab induces lymphopenia in most patients, typically lasting about 6 months, a full recovery of B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood is usually seen 9-12 months after therapy, as CD20 is not expressed on haematopoietic stem cells.
  • CD20 is, however, expressed on >90% of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) and to a lesser degree on B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells.
  • In addition, in vitro data indicate that rituximab sensitises tumour cells to the effects of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs.
  • PHARMACOKINETIC PROPERTIES: Serum rituximab concentrations increased in proportion to dose across a wide range of single- and multiple-dose intravenous regimens in patients with B-cell NHL.
  • The pharmacokinetic properties of rituximab are also characterised by wide inter-individual variability, and serum drug concentrations that are correlated with clinical response.
  • The pharmacokinetics of rituximab are also reported to be similar whether the drug is administered with or without cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy.
  • THERAPEUTIC USE: A number of studies have demonstrated efficacy of intravenous rituximab in patients with various lymphoid malignancies of B-cell origin, including indolent (e.g. follicular lymphoma) and aggressive (e.g. diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) forms of NHL, and CLL, but the drug has not yet been approved for use in CLL, and approved indications in NHL vary between countries.
  • In the US, for example, rituximab is available for the treatment of patients with low-grade or follicular, relapsed or refractory, CD20-positive B-cell NHL.
  • In Europe, the drug has similar approval for relapsed or refractory follicular NHL as in the US, but has also been approved for use in combination with CHOP chemotherapy for the most common aggressive form of NHL (CD20-positive, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma).
  • Indolent NHL: Results of several studies evaluating rituximab 375 mg/m(2) once weekly for 4 weeks in patients with indolent forms of B-cell NHL (primarily follicular and small lymphocytic lymphomas) showed objective response (OR) rates ranging from approximately 40-60% in those receiving the drug for relapsed or refractory indolent B-cell NHL, and slightly higher (50-70%) for those receiving rituximab as first-line therapy.
  • In a pivotal trial in 166 patients with relapsed or refractory low-grade or follicular B-cell NHL, intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed an OR rate of 48%, and a projected median time to progression of 13 months.
  • CHOP, fludarabine-containing regimens) or other drugs (e.g. interferon-alpha2a) in previously untreated patients with indolent forms of B-cell NHL (primarily follicular and small lymphocytic subtypes).
  • Follow-up data from a study in 40 patients with low-grade or follicular B-cell NHL treated with rituximab plus CHOP as first-line therapy showed that responses were durable with a progression-free survival and median duration of response >5 years.Bcl-2 gene rearrangement (t14;18) occurs in malignant cells in up to 85% of patients with follicular lymphoma, and minimal residual disease in peripheral blood and bone marrow can be monitored using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • Aggressive NHL: Studies with rituximab as monotherapy in aggressive B-cell NHL, a potentially curable disorder, have generally been restricted to patients with relapsed or recurrent disease, since CHOP has traditionally been the standard first-line treatment regimen.
  • However, promising results from phase II monotherapy studies prompted further clinical investigation of rituximab in conjunction with chemotherapy.
  • Thus, most studies with rituximab in patients with aggressive forms of B-cell NHL have involved combination therapy, including a pivotal randomised trial comparing eight cycles of standard CHOP therapy plus rituximab 375 mg/m(2) (one dose per cycle) versus CHOP alone in 399 previously untreated elderly patients (60-80 years of age) with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Other, smaller trials with rituximab in combination with CHOP or other chemotherapeutic regimens, either as first-line therapy or for patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive B-cell NHL, have also shown promising results in terms of clinical response rates.CLL: In relatively small trials (n < 40) conducted primarily in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell CLL, rituximab monotherapy (various regimens) achieved OR rates of 23-45%, with median duration of response ranging from approximately 3-10 months. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Rituximab

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  • (PMID = 12662126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Number-of-references] 177
  •  go-up   go-down


12. Andersen MK, Christiansen DH, Jensen BA, Ernst P, Hauge G, Pedersen-Bjergaard J: Therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with MLL rearrangements following DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors, an increasing problem: report on two new cases and review of the literature since 1992. Br J Haematol; 2001 Sep;114(3):539-43
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  • [Title] Therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with MLL rearrangements following DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors, an increasing problem: report on two new cases and review of the literature since 1992.
  • A highly increased risk of myelodysplasia (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is well established in patients previously treated for other malignancies with alkylating agents or topoisomerase II inhibitors.
  • More recently, single cases of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), often presenting balanced translocations involving chromosome band 11q23, have been observed.
  • We present two such cases with t(4;11)(q21;q23), one of whom had previously received only single-agent chemotherapy with 4-epi-doxorubicin.
  • A review of the literature since 1992 including these two patients reveals a total of 23 cases of ALL or lymphoblastic lymphoma after chemotherapy presenting balanced translocations to 11q23.
  • All 23 patients had previously received at least one topoisomerase II inhibitor, and in two patients 4-epi-doxorubicin had been administered as single-agent chemotherapy for breast cancer.
  • The MLL gene was found to be rearranged in 14 out of 14 cases, and in three out of six cases the breakpoint was at the telomeric part of the gene, as observed in most cases of AML following therapy with topoisomerase II inhibitors.
  • These results indicate that patients with ALL and balanced translocations to chromosome band 11q23 following chemotherapy with topoisomerase II inhibitors in the future should be included with cases of MDS or AML in calculations of risk of leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Leukemia, Prolymphocytic / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / chemically induced. Proto-Oncogenes. Topoisomerase II Inhibitors. Transcription Factors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Enzyme Inhibitors / adverse effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Female. Gene Rearrangement. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein. Seminoma / complications. Seminoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 11552977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / MLL protein, human; 0 / Topoisomerase II Inhibitors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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13. Apostolidou E, Swords R, Alvarado Y, Giles FJ: Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia : a new era. Drugs; 2007;67(15):2153-71
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  • [Title] Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia : a new era.
  • Acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous group of disorders that result from the clonal proliferation and expansion of malignant lymphoid cells in the bone marrow, blood and other organs.
  • Distinct clinicopathological ALL entities have been identified, resulting in the adoption of risk-oriented treatment approaches.
  • Advances in ALL therapy have led to long-term survival rates of >80% in children.
  • Contemporary ALL treatment programmes include induction, intensified consolidation, maintenance phases and CNS prophylaxis.
  • The optimal treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive patients requires the addition of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib, whereas allogeneic stem-cell transplantation remains the preferred approach for high-risk patients in first remission.
  • Since only approximate, approximately 38% of adult ALL patients are free of disease 5 years after diagnosis and the outcome of salvage chemotherapy is very poor (complete remission rates of 20-30%, median survival of 3-6 months), novel agents are desperately required.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Animals. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Folic Acid Antagonists / therapeutic use. Humans. Microtubules / drug effects. Nucleosides / therapeutic use. Oncogene Proteins v-abl / antagonists & inhibitors. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcr / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 17927282.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Folic Acid Antagonists; 0 / Nucleosides; 0 / Oncogene Proteins v-abl; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcr
  • [Number-of-references] 159
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14. Moosig F, Schoch R, Kneba M: [T-large granular lymphocyte leukaemia. An important differential diagnosis to Felty's syndrome]. Z Rheumatol; 2006 Sep;65(5):447-51
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  • [Title] [T-large granular lymphocyte leukaemia. An important differential diagnosis to Felty's syndrome].
  • T-Large Granular Lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukaemia is a rare clonal disease characterized by neutropenia and/or anaemia.
  • Because of its strong association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), T-LGL leukaemia is an important differential diagnosis to Felty's syndrome.
  • This differentiation might be especially difficult since, in severe RA with extraarticular manifestations, there is often an expanded memory effector T-cell population which can hardly be separated from T-LGL leukaemia cells by means of immunophenotyping.
  • The main criterion for T-LGL leukaemia is the detection of a clonal T-cell-receptor rearrangement by PCR.
  • First-line therapy consists of weekly low-dose methotrexate.
  • Alternatively, other immunosuppressives or cytotoxic agents can be useful.
  • There are very limited data from therapy studies.
  • The German CLL study group has initiated a protocol using parenteral low-dose methotrexate as first-line therapy and fludarabine as second-line medication.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Lymphoid / diagnosis. Leukemia, T-Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antirheumatic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / diagnosis. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Felty Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives. Vidarabine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16450150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-1855
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Rheumatol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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15. Niitsu N, Hayashi Y, Sugita K, Honma Y: Sensitization by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine of leukaemia cells with MLL abnormalities to induction of differentiation by all-trans retinoic acid and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Br J Haematol; 2001 Feb;112(2):315-26
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  • [Title] Sensitization by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine of leukaemia cells with MLL abnormalities to induction of differentiation by all-trans retinoic acid and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
  • Most chromosomal abnormalities associated with breakage at 11q23 in acute leukaemia involve the MLL gene, and the presence of this breakage strongly predicts a poor clinical outcome.
  • We assessed the possibility of differentiation-inducing therapy for acute leukaemias with chromosomal translocations involving 11q23.
  • These cells expressed p16 mRNA before treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA), an inhibitor of DNA methylation.
  • On the other hand, differentiation was not induced in SN-1, KOCL33, KOCL51 or KOCL44 cells by ATRA or VD3, and these cells did not express mRNA of this gene.
  • However, these cells were effectively induced to differentiate by ATRA or VD3 in the presence of 5-AZA, and concomitantly exhibited p16 gene expression, suggesting an association between DNA demethylation and restoration of sensitivity to differentiation-inducing activity of ATRA or VD3 in leukaemia cells with MLL abnormalities.
  • Based on these findings, combined treatment with ATRA or VD3 plus 5-AZA may be clinically useful in therapy for acute leukaemia with MLL abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Azacitidine / therapeutic use. Chromosome Breakage. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Leukemia / drug therapy. Proto-Oncogenes. Transcription Factors
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcitriol / administration & dosage. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. DNA Methylation / drug effects. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase. Humans. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein. Tretinoin / administration & dosage. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11167824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MLL protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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16. Shah A, Stiller C, Lancaster D, Vincent T, Coleman MP: Leukaemia survival trends in children with Down's syndrome in Great Britain, 1971-2000: a population-based study. J Epidemiol Community Health; 2010 Jul;64(7):604-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leukaemia survival trends in children with Down's syndrome in Great Britain, 1971-2000: a population-based study.
  • BACKGROUND: Children with Down's syndrome (DS) who developed leukaemia have had a worse prognosis than other children with leukaemia in the past.
  • In the 1970s and early 1980s, some children with DS who developed leukaemia received fewer cycles of chemotherapy or were advised not to have treatment.
  • METHODS: In this population-based study, trends in 5-year survival from leukaemia were evaluated for children with and without DS who were diagnosed in Great Britain during 1971-2000 and followed to the end of 2004.
  • For lymphoid leukaemia, survival in children with DS increased, but remains lower than for other children (5-year survival 59% vs 83% during 1996-2000).
  • For acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia (ANLL), however, 5-year survival improved substantially for children with DS, from less than 1% in the early 1970s to over 80% in the 1990s.
  • For other children, survival increased from 6% to 64% during the same period.
  • CONCLUSION: Survival for all children diagnosed with leukaemia has improved during the last three decades.
  • For lymphoid leukaemia, the inferior outcome observed on more recent treatment protocols in children with DS remains an area for concern.
  • For ANLL, the improvement in survival for children with DS is due to a number of factors, namely increased recruitment of these children to clinical trials, changes in clinical practice and important differences in the biology of myeloid leukaemia in young children with DS, resulting in a better response to some chemotherapeutic agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Down Syndrome / mortality. Leukemia / mortality

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  • (PMID = 19703908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-2738
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of epidemiology and community health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Epidemiol Community Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Department of Health / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Gorelik O, Cohen N, Shpirer I, Almoznino-Sarafian D, Alon I, Koopfer M, Yona R, Modai D: Fatal haemoptysis induced by invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with acute leukaemia during bone marrow and clinical remission: report of two cases and review of the literature. J Infect; 2000 Nov;41(3):277-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fatal haemoptysis induced by invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with acute leukaemia during bone marrow and clinical remission: report of two cases and review of the literature.
  • We describe two patients with acute leukaemia who died of massive haemoptysis caused by invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA).
  • The fatal event occurred during the period of bone marrow remission which followed chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.
  • An upper lobe infiltrate in one case, and a progressive pleural effusion in the other, were late findings on chest radiographs during the period of bone marrow recovery.
  • In conclusion, patients with acute non-lymphoid leukaemia are at significant risk for IPA-induced fatal haemoptysis during bone marrow and clinical remission.
  • In view of the potential fatal outcome, aggressive diagnostic and treatment efforts are mandatory.
  • [MeSH-major] Aspergillosis / complications. Hemoptysis / etiology. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Lung Diseases, Fungal / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Remission Induction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 The British Infection Society.
  • (PMID = 11120621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-4453
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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18. Lundin J, Porwit-MacDonald A, Rossmann ED, Karlsson C, Edman P, Rezvany MR, Kimby E, Osterborg A, Mellstedt H: Cellular immune reconstitution after subcutaneous alemtuzumab (anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody, CAMPATH-1H) treatment as first-line therapy for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Leukemia; 2004 Mar;18(3):484-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cellular immune reconstitution after subcutaneous alemtuzumab (anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody, CAMPATH-1H) treatment as first-line therapy for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • Little information is available on long-term immune reconstitution after therapy with alemtuzumab in B-CLL patients.
  • We present long-term follow-up data for blood lymphocyte subsets analysed by flow cytometry in previously untreated B-CLL patients who received alemtuzumab subcutaneously as first-line therapy.
  • All lymphoid subsets were significantly (P<0.001) and profoundly reduced; the median end-of-treatment counts for CD4(+), CD8(+), CD3(-)56(+) (natural killer (NK)), CD3(+)56(+) (NK-T) and CD19(+)5(-) (normal B) cells were 43, 20, 4, 1 and 8 cells/microl, respectively.
  • The median cell count of all subsets remained at <25% of the baseline values for >9 months post-treatment.
  • CD4(+) and CD8(+) levels in blood had reached >100 cells/microl in >50% of the patients at 4 months after the end of treatment.
  • One patient had a cytomegalovirus reactivation and one patient developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia during therapy.
  • No opportunistic or other major infections were recorded during unmaintained, long-term follow-up.
  • CD52(-) T-cell subsets occurred during the treatment and comprised >80% of all CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells in the blood at the end of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Neoplasm / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / immunology. T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antigens, CD / immunology. Case-Control Studies. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunity, Cellular. Immunophenotyping. Injections, Subcutaneous. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Leukemia. 2005 Jan;19(1):153-4 [15496971.001]
  • (PMID = 14749699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab
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19. Nagatoshi Y, Kawano Y, Nagayama J, Okamura J: Treatment of isolated central nervous system relapse in high-risk lymphoid malignancy with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and extended intrathecal therapy. Br J Haematol; 2004 Jun;125(6):766-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of isolated central nervous system relapse in high-risk lymphoid malignancy with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and extended intrathecal therapy.
  • We performed allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with an extended period of post-transplant intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy for five patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who had relapsed in the central nervous system either in the very early phase or more than twice.
  • Disease relapse occurred in one patient and the other patients remained in complete remission for 39-196 months post-BMT.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Central Nervous System Diseases / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Injections, Spinal. Male. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Transplantation Conditioning. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 15180866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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20. Piccaluga PP, Rondoni M, Paolini S, Rosti G, Martinelli G, Baccarani M: Imatinib mesylate in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Expert Opin Biol Ther; 2007 Oct;7(10):1597-611
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  • [Title] Imatinib mesylate in the treatment of hematologic malignancies.
  • The treatment of hematologic malignancies has been based for many years on chemotherapy and possibly, for the more aggressive forms, stem cell transplantation.
  • In 2001, the signal transduction inhibitor 571 (STI571, imatinib mesylate) was reported to have striking effects in chronic myeloid leukaemia patients.
  • Since then, imatinib became the first molecular-targeted agent approved for the treatment of human cancer and was later on demonstrated to be effective in other malignancies, such as Philadelphia positive acute lymphoid leukemia, hypereosinophilic syndromes, gastrointestinal stromal tumours and more recently, systemic mastocytosis and other myeloprolipherative disease-carrying platelet-derived growth factor receptor abnormalities.
  • In this article, the authors review the evidence which led to imatinib approval in the treatment of several of the above mentioned diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Benzamides. Drug Interactions. Drug Resistance. Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl / genetics. Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl / metabolism. Humans. Hypereosinophilic Syndrome / drug therapy. Imatinib Mesylate. Leukemia, Lymphoid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Lymphoid / genetics. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Mastocytosis, Systemic / drug therapy. Myeloproliferative Disorders / drug therapy. Myeloproliferative Disorders / genetics. Myeloproliferative Disorders / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / metabolism. Philadelphia Chromosome. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / genetics. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / metabolism. Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / genetics. Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Treatment Outcome. mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors / genetics. mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17916051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7682
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on biological therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Biol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.2 / Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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21. Storm HH, Klint A, Tryggvadóttir L, Gislum M, Engholm G, Bray F, Hakulinen T: Trends in the survival of patients diagnosed with malignant neoplasms of lymphoid, haematopoietic, and related tissue in the Nordic countries 1964-2003 followed up to the end of 2006. Acta Oncol; 2010 Jun;49(5):694-712
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  • [Title] Trends in the survival of patients diagnosed with malignant neoplasms of lymphoid, haematopoietic, and related tissue in the Nordic countries 1964-2003 followed up to the end of 2006.
  • BACKGROUND: Hodgkin lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and acute and other leukaemias constitute about 7% of the overall cancer incidence and 8% of cancer mortality in the Nordic countries.
  • High 5-year relative survival ratios of over 80% were seen in the most recent period 1999-2003 for Hodgkin lymphoma, between 50 and 60% for Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 38-49% for acute leukaemia and 60-73% for other leukaemia.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the recent trends and absolute levels of incidence, mortality and survival for the lympho-haematopoietic malignancies are similar, the consistently lower survival of Danish patients--irrespective of type of malignancy--points to an impact of co-morbidity related lifestyle factors, which may negatively affect the chemotherapy and radiation offered as standard treatments for these diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematologic Neoplasms / mortality. Leukemia / mortality. Lymphoma / mortality

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  • (PMID = 20491526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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22. Trnený M, Klener P: [Ten years since the successful introduction of the first monoclonal antibody (rituximab) into the therapy of lymphomas]. Cas Lek Cesk; 2007;146(7):578-85
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  • [Title] [Ten years since the successful introduction of the first monoclonal antibody (rituximab) into the therapy of lymphomas].
  • Cancer treatment is based on combination of systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • The new methods of therapy based on biological priniciples have been introduced within last decade.
  • This antibody against CD20 antigen, which is expressed on B cell lymphocytes and on the majority of B-cell lymphoid malignancies, has revolutionized the lymphoma therapeutic strategy.
  • The immuno-chemotherapy has dramatically improved the outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas patients.
  • The combination of rituximab and chemotherapy as first line therapy has for the first time improved the survival of follicular lymphoma patients previously considered to be incurable.
  • Rituximab has become the inevitable part of therapeutic regimens for other B-cell lymphomas, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia as well as for some non-malignant diseases.
  • The important milestones, the therapeutic results of rituximab and other approved monoclonal antibodies (alemtuzumab, ibritumomab tiuxetan 90Y) is reviewed in this paper as well as short compendium of new antibodies is given.
  • The cost effectiveness of the new therapy is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antibodies, Neoplasm / pharmacology. Antibodies, Neoplasm / therapeutic use. Humans. Radioimmunotherapy. Rituximab. Yttrium Radioisotopes

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  • (PMID = 17722844.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-7335
  • [Journal-full-title] Casopís lékar̆ů c̆eských
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cas. Lek. Cesk.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Yttrium Radioisotopes; 0 / ibritumomab tiuxetan; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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23. Tobinai K: Rituximab and other emerging monoclonal antibody therapies for lymphoma. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs; 2002 Oct;7(2):289-302
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  • [Title] Rituximab and other emerging monoclonal antibody therapies for lymphoma.
  • The recent approval of rituximab, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, alemtuzumab and ibritumomab tiuxetan by the FDA in the US revealed clear evidence that monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have significant roles in the current treatment of haematologic malignancies.
  • Among the mAbs under clinical development, anti-CD20 mAbs have been most extensively investigated and have shown definitive clinical efficacy.
  • Consecutive clinical trials conducted in the US, Europe and Japan have revealed that rituximab is a highly effective agent with acceptable toxicities against indolent and aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHLs) as a single agent and in combination with cytotoxic drugs.
  • A recent French Phase III study in elderly patients with untreated aggressive B-NHL suggested that the addition of rituximab to standard CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) chemotherapy increases the complete response rate and prolongs event-free and overall survival.
  • The aim of radioimmunotherapy is to use the mAb to target radiation to lymphoma tissue while minimising toxicity to normal cells.
  • The clinical trials of 90Y ibritumomab tiuxetan and (131)I tositumomab showed they have definitive efficacy in relapsed indolent B-NHL with acceptable toxicities.
  • In addition, BL22, a recombinant anti-CD22 immunotoxin, showed significant efficacy in patients with chemotherapy-resistant hairy cell leukaemia.
  • MAbs will have significant roles in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies in the future.

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  • (PMID = 15989552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7623
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on emerging drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Emerg Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Dearden CE, Matutes E, Catovsky D: Clinical overview of pentostatin (Nipent) use in lymphoid malignancies. Semin Oncol; 2000 Apr;27(2 Suppl 5):22-6
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  • [Title] Clinical overview of pentostatin (Nipent) use in lymphoid malignancies.
  • This includes 145 patients with postthymic T-cell malignancies in whom disease subtype was found to be the most significant predictor of response, with the best response rates seen in Sézary syndrome (62%) and T-prolymphocytic leukemia (45%).
  • However, there are no long-term survivors among patients with this group of disorders, and strategies using pentostatin in combination with other therapies, such as CAMPATH-1H, are currently being explored.
  • Among the mature B-cell diseases, pentostatin in both standard- and low-dose regimens is effective in advanced, relapsed/refractory B-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, showing no cross-resistance with other purine analogs such as fludarabine.
  • Our largest series treated with pentostatin consists of 165 patients with hairy cell leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia / drug therapy. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Pentostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leukemia, B-Cell / drug therapy. Leukemia, Hairy Cell / drug therapy. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Leukemia, Prolymphocytic / drug therapy. Leukemia, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Sezary Syndrome / drug therapy. Survival Rate. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives. Vidarabine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 10877047.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 395575MZO7 / Pentostatin; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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25. Anderson KB, Tan JS, File TM Jr, DiPersio JR, Willey BM, Low DE: Emergence of levofloxacin-resistant pneumococci in immunocompromised adults after therapy for community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis; 2003 Aug 1;37(3):376-81
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  • [Title] Emergence of levofloxacin-resistant pneumococci in immunocompromised adults after therapy for community-acquired pneumonia.
  • We describe 4 patients infected with levofloxacin-resistant pneumococci after therapy for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
  • The underlying medical condition was Bruton agammaglobulinemia in 3 patients and chronic lymphoid leukemia in the other.
  • The time between episodes of pneumonia varied from 1 to 4 months.
  • In immunocompromised patients with suspected or proven pneumococcal infection, it may be prudent not to use fluoroquinolone monotherapy empirically when the patient has a history of fluoroquinolone therapy in at least the past 4 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Levofloxacin. Ofloxacin / therapeutic use. Pneumococcal Infections / drug therapy. Pneumonia, Pneumococcal / drug therapy. Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Community-Acquired Infections / drug therapy. Drug Resistance, Microbial. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Male. Microbial Sensitivity Tests

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  • (PMID = 12884162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6591
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 6GNT3Y5LMF / Levofloxacin; A4P49JAZ9H / Ofloxacin
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26. Vey N, Mozziconacci MJ, Groulet-Martinec A, Debono S, Finetti P, Carbuccia N, Beillard E, Devilard E, Arnoulet C, Coso D, Sainty D, Xerri L, Stoppa AM, Lafage-Pochitaloff M, Nguyen C, Houlgatte R, Blaise D, Maraninchi D, Birg F, Birnbaum D, Bertucci F: Identification of new classes among acute myelogenous leukaemias with normal karyotype using gene expression profiling. Oncogene; 2004 Dec 16;23(58):9381-91
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  • Conventional cytogenetic analysis currently stratifies acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) into prognostically relevant groups.
  • Supervised analysis distinguished two subgroups of NC-AML: one subgroup constituted a homogeneous NC cluster ('pure NC-AML'), and the other NC-AMLs were close to the AML cases with translocations ('translocation like').
  • Discriminator genes included genes involved in drug resistance (TOP2B), protein transport (MTX2, SLC35A2), and cell signalling (MAPK1, PRKAB2).
  • Our results demonstrate the transcriptional heterogeneity of NC-AMLs, and suggest the existence of 'translocation-like' NC-AMLs and of a gene expression signature that may predict response to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Duplication. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase. Humans. Karyotyping. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogenes / genetics. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3

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  • (PMID = 15543237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MLL protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase; EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
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27. Pituch-Noworolska A: [Biological properties and sensitivity to induction therapy of differentiated cells expressing atypical immunophenotype in acute leukemia of children]. Folia Med Cracov; 2001;42(3):5-80
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  • [Title] [Biological properties and sensitivity to induction therapy of differentiated cells expressing atypical immunophenotype in acute leukemia of children].
  • [Transliterated title] Właściwości biologiczne i wrazliwość na leczenie indukcyjne komórek rozrostowych o nietypowym immunofenotypie w ostrych białaczkach u dzieci.
  • The atypical immunophenotype (expression of determinant from the another cell lines than line of origin) of acute leukaemia blast cells are noted in a part of cases.
  • The purpose of the study was: precise description of atypical immunophenotypes and analysis of their frequency in different types of acute leukaemia, analysis of association between expression of atypical immunophenotypes and the level of initial leukocytosis, percentage of blast cells in peripheral blood, expression of CD34, analysis of frequency of multidrug resistance molecule (MDR) expression and association between MDR and immunophenotypes of leukaemia cells, analysis of association between atypical immunophenotypes and proliferation, secretion of cytokines (IL-6, TNF) and spontaneous apoptosis of leukaemia cells, analysis of association between atypical immunophenotypes and sensitivity to induction therapy.
  • The bone marrow samples used for routine diagnosis were the basic source of leukaemia cells for the study.
  • The morphological examination and the immunophenotypes of leukaemia cells were done for classification of leukaemia.
  • The spontaneous proliferation of leukaemia cells was studied with 3H-Thymidine uptake after 3-days culture in vitro.
  • The type of proliferation (autocrine, paracrine) was defined based on comparison of shorter (3-days) and longer (6-days) culture of leukaemia cells.
  • The percentage of apoptotic leukaemia cells was analysed with flow cytometry after staining of leukaemia cells with propidium iodide in subdiploidal region of DNA profile.
  • The secretion of cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) was determined by ELISA technique in supernatants of leukaemia cells cultured for 24 hr in vitro.
  • The effect of induction therapy was estimated base on time of cytoreduction in peripheral blood and time of reaching the haematological remission in bone marrow.
  • The study included 230 children with acute leukaemia: lymphoblastic (ALL)--189 children (ALL-proB--19, common ALL--139, ALL-B--5 and ALL-T--26) and myeloid (AML)--34 children.
  • Moreover, into the study 2 cases of acute undifferentiated leukaemia (AUL) and 3--acute mixed lineage leukaemia (AMLL) and 2--biphenotypic leukaemia were included.
  • The all studies of leukaemia cells had been done before the therapy was installed.
  • Basing on the assay of immunophenotypes the following forms of atypical immunophenotypes were distinguished: immunophenotype incomplete, hyperexpression of determinants, asynchronic immunophenotype, coexpression of determinants from the other line than origin of leukaemia cells, balanced expression of determinants from two cells lines (biphenotypic leukaemia) and three cells lines (mixed lineage leukaemia).
  • The most common form of atypical immunophenotypes was coexpression of determinants from the other cell line.
  • The expression of CD34, recognised as the one of markers of poorer prognosis, was analysed regarding the leukaemia type and immunophenotype of leukaemia cells.
  • Moreover, in common ALL the expression of CD34 was significantly higher when myeloid determinants were present on common ALL cells (common ALL + My) in comparison to coexpression of lymphoid determinants (common ALL + Ly).
  • The common ALL + My leukaemia cells showed higher ability to proliferation in vitro compare with common ALL without atypical immunophenotype.
  • AML leukaemia cells with coexpression of lymphoid determinants (AML + Ly) showed lower proliferation in vitro than AML without atypical immunophenotype.
  • The autocrine type of proliferation was observed frequently in AML (35.3% of cases) than in ALL (14.2%).
  • This type of spontaneous proliferation was observed only when the leukaemia cells without changes in immunophenotype had been cultured.
  • AML leukaemia cells without changes in immunophenotype released significantly higher amount of these cytokines than AML cells with atypical immunophenotypes (AML + Ly).
  • The above observations suggested that coexpression of myeloid determinants in ALL and lymphoid determinants in AML were leading to changes of some biological properties of these cells.
  • The ALL + My leukaemia cells behaved similarly to myeloid leukaemia cells, while AML + Ly cells showed features of lymphoid leukaemia cells.
  • The common ALL and AML leukaemia cells with atypical immunophenotype showed higher percentage of apoptotic cells (16.1% and 16.9% respectively) comparing to common ALL and AML without changes in immunophenotype (9.0% and 9.2% respectively).
  • In common ALL and AML with typical immunophenotype of leukaemia cells and ALL-T the level of apoptosis was associated positively with the spontaneous proliferation, whereas this relation was negative in AML with atypical immunophenotype.
  • There were no differences of the time of cytoreduction of leukaemia cells in peripheral blood in B cell origin ALL and AML with or without changes in immunophenotype of blastic cells.
  • In ALL-T + My the time of cytoreduction was significantly longer.
  • However, the expression of CD10 in ALL-T had no effect on cytoreduction time.
  • The expression of MDR in ALL-T with typical immunophenotype was independent marker associated with elongation of cytoreduction time.
  • The time of reaching the complete haematological remission was analysed in 186 children with ALL (ALL-proB--18 children, common ALL--137 children, ALL-T--26) and only 19 children with AML.
  • The longest period of time for reaching the remission was observed in AML, shortest--in ALL-T.
  • In common ALL and ALL-T the expression of myeloid determinants was associated with significant elongation of time of reaching the remission.
  • In the majority of AML cases with coexpression lymphoid determinants, the complete remission was reached.
  • The time needed for the reaching of remission was similar in AML with or without coexpression of lymphoid determinants.
  • The results of this study suggest that coexpression of determinants from the other cell line modify the biological properties of leukaemia cells into the cells from the line of origin of these additional determinants.
  • In ALL the combined expression of MDR and atypical immunophenotype of leukaemia cells were associated with poorer response to induction therapy.
  • In AML the combined expression of CD34 and atypical immunophenotype were associated with response to induction therapy by reaching the complete remission, but without any influence on the time of reaching this remission.
  • The results of analysis of cytoreduction time and time of reaching the remission improved the usefulness of these parameters for the estimation of response to the induction therapy.
  • The clinical importance of these observations consist in characterisation of leukaemia cells potentially resistant to the induction therapy what may suggest the modification and individualization of the induction therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / immunology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Animals. Antigens, CD34 / immunology. Apoptosis. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytokines / secretion. Drug Resistance, Multiple / immunology. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Infant. Mice. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins / immunology. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 12353422.001).
  • [ISSN] 0015-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia medica Cracoviensia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Med Cracov
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 160
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28. Krejci O, Starkova J, Otova B, Madzo J, Kalinova M, Hrusak O, Trka J: Upregulation of asparagine synthetase fails to avert cell cycle arrest induced by L-asparaginase in TEL/AML1-positive leukaemic cells. Leukemia; 2004 Mar;18(3):434-41
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  • L-Asparaginase is a standard component in chemotherapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).
  • Leukaemic cells carrying TEL/AML1 fusion gene are more sensitive to treatment with L-asparaginase compared to other subtypes of ALL.
  • We demonstrate in vitro the prolonged growth suppression of TEL/AML1[+] cells compared to TEL/AML1[-] leukaemic cells after L-asparaginase treatment simulating treatment protocol.
  • Quantitative analysis of asparagine synthetase (AsnS) expression showed the ability of TEL/AML1[+] cells to increase AsnS mRNA levels after L-asparaginase treatment to the same extent as TEL/AML1[-] leukaemic and nonleukaemic lymphoid cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Asparaginase / therapeutic use. Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase / metabolism. Cell Cycle. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / metabolism. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / enzymology

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  • [CommentIn] Leukemia. 2005 Feb;19(2):318-9; author reply 319-21 [15526023.001]
  • (PMID = 14724653.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / TEL-AML1 fusion protein; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; EC 6.3.1.1 / Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase
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29. Elira Dokekias A, Bikandou B, Dhello G, Chasen M, Martin A, Raphaël M: [Hairy cell leukemia, a reality in the Congo; apropos of 10 cases]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot; 2003 May;96(2):115-8
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  • [Title] [Hairy cell leukemia, a reality in the Congo; apropos of 10 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Leucémie à tricholeucocytes (hairy cell leukemia), une réalité au Congo; à propos de 10 observations.
  • Hairy cell Leukaemia (HCL) is a rare chronic lymphoid hemoproliferation.
  • As far as the socio-professional and environmental risk is concerned, three patients have probably been exposed: one as a workman in wood working industry and the other two as exposed to hydrocarbons manipulation for at least ten years.
  • Chemotherapy could not be systematically offered due to lack of means.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Hairy Cell / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 12836529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-9085
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique (1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Soc Pathol Exot
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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30. Ernst-Kruis MR, Rutgers MI, Révész T, Wolfs TF, Fleer A, Geelen SP: [Invasive infection with Moraxella catarrhalis in two children with lymphatic leukemia and granulocytopenia]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2003 Jun 7;147(23):1126-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Invasive infection with Moraxella catarrhalis in two children with lymphatic leukemia and granulocytopenia].
  • [Transliterated title] Invasieve infectie met Moraxella catarrhalis bij twee kinderen met lymfatische leukemie en granulocytopenie.
  • In two young children with leukaemia, a girl and a boy aged 5 and 4 years, respectively, an invasive infection due to Moraxella catarrhalis was diagnosed at the time of granulocytopenia.
  • The first child developed pneumonia and recovered, the other developed severe septic shock and died. M. catarrhalis is a Gram-negative diplococcus, frequently colonising the upper respiratory tract in young children.
  • [MeSH-major] Agranulocytosis / complications. Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / etiology. Immunocompromised Host. Leukemia, Lymphoid / complications. Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis / pathogenicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Pneumonia, Bacterial / drug therapy. Pneumonia, Bacterial / etiology. Pneumonia, Bacterial / immunology. Shock, Septic / drug therapy. Shock, Septic / etiology. Shock, Septic / immunology

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  • (PMID = 12822523.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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31. Brenner H, Coebergh JW, Parkin DM, Izarzugaza I, Clavel J, Arndt V, Steliarova-Foucher E: Up-to-date monitoring of childhood cancer long-term survival in Europe: leukaemias and lymphomas. Ann Oncol; 2007 Sep;18(9):1569-77
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  • BACKGROUND: In recent decades, following the introduction of effective chemotherapy, the prognosis of children with leukaemia and lymphoma has dramatically improved, but data reflecting further possible improvement achieved in the 1990s are scarce.
  • RESULTS: Ten-year survival estimates for the 1995-99 period were 73% for any type of leukaemia, 78% for acute lymphoid leukaemia and 52% for acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • The corresponding 10-year survival rates for all types of lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma were 84, 91 and 79%, respectively.
  • A large difference in prognosis is still observed between the East and other parts of Europe.
  • CONCLUSION: Major improvement in prognosis for children with leukaemia or lymphoma has been ongoing in Europe during the 1990s, but further monitoring and investments are required to remove the large regional differences between European regions.

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  • (PMID = 17660497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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32. Iodine-131 Tositumomab: (131)I-anti-B1 antibody, (131)I-tositumomab, anti-CD20 murine monoclonal antibody-I-131, B1, Bexxar, (131)I-anti-B1 antibody, iodine-131 tositumomab, iodine-131 anti-B1 antibody, tositumomab. BioDrugs; 2003;17(4):290-5
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  • In February 2003, the European Commission granted iodine-131 tositumomab orphan-drug designation.
  • Corixa Corporation and GlaxoSmithKline also intend to jointly investigate the use of the product in other indications.
  • Corixa Corporation formed agreements with Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma KG and Lonza Biologics to produce the B1 antibody and radiolabelling of the antibody has been contracted out to MDS Nordion.Iodine-131 tositumomab has received orphan drug and fast track designation for the treatment of NHL.
  • Corixa Corporation submitted a Biologics Licence Application (BLA) to the US FDA in 1999, seeking permission to market Bexxar in the US for the treatment of relapsed or refractory, low grade or transformed low grade B-cell NHL.
  • Corixa Corporation will now file a formal request for dispute resolution under the Food and Drug Administration Modernisation Act.
  • In December 2002, the US FDA's Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee agreed that Bexxar has clinical benefit for patients with NHL.
  • Corixa Corporation initiated its Expanded Access Program for Bexxar in response to requests from physicians and patients for continued access to Bexxar during the period prior to potential US FDA marketing approval.A phase II multicentre trial of Bexxar in combination with CHOP chemotherapy is underway in the US as first-line therapy in patients with intermediate-grade NHL.
  • Corixa Corporation has initiated a phase II trial of iodine-131 tositumomab in combination with cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone for the treatment of previously untreated low-grade NHL.
  • Corixa Corporation intends to pursue additional trials to expand the potential use of iodine-131 tositumomab to other indications, including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • The trial is designed to test the combination of iodine-131 tositumomab and chemotherapy.
  • In addition, a phase II dose-escalation trial has begun at the University of Nebraska for the combined use of iodine-131 tositumomab and chemotherapy as preparation for autologous bone marrow transplant.
  • Corixa Corporation has received an issued US patent covering methods for administering and dosing radioimmunotherapy for the treatment of B-cell lymphomas.
  • The patent covers iodine-131 tositumomab and other anti-CD20 antibodies used to aid in selective tumour targeting.
  • Corixa Corporation has exclusive rights to the patent.A February 2000 media release from GlaxoSmithKline and Corixa Corporation stated that they had been issued a composition patent relating to radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies (including Bexxar) for the treatment of B-cell lymphomas.
  • These actions however, should have no effect on the regulatory process that Zevalin is completing, or prevent IDEC from launching the drug before iodine-131 tositumomab.A year earlier, in March 2001, the Financial Times reported that Bexxar could reach peak sales of $US120 million.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / chemistry. Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology. Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Forecasting. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Leukemia, Lymphoid / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / chemically induced. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / complications. Patents as Topic / legislation & jurisprudence. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12899647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1173-8804
  • [Journal-full-title] BioDrugs : clinical immunotherapeutics, biopharmaceuticals and gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BioDrugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / iodine-131 anti-B1 antibody
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33. Kwong YL, Lam CC, Chan TM: Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease of natural killer cell lineage: a clinicopathological and molecular analysis. Br J Haematol; 2000 Jul;110(1):197-202
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  • A renal allograft recipient developed progressive pancytopenia 1 year after transplantation.
  • Serial bone marrow biopsies showed an increasing infiltration by large granular lymphoid cells.
  • A subsequent leukaemic phase also developed with systemic infiltration of other organs.
  • The overall features were consistent with NK cell lymphoma/leukaemia.
  • The patient did not respond to cessation of immunosuppression or anti-EBV treatment.
  • Combination chemotherapy was given, but the patient died ultimately of disseminated fungal infection.
  • In conclusion, we have demonstrated that NK cell lymphoma is another rare type of PTLD that appears to be highly aggressive and therefore may require early chemotherapy to improve treatment outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Transplantation. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Lectins, C-Type. Leukemia, T-Cell / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / immunology

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  • (PMID = 10930998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD2; 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / KLRD1 protein, human; 0 / Lectins, C-Type; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D
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