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1. Loew S, Schmidt U, Unterberg A, Halatsch ME: The epidermal growth factor receptor as a therapeutic target in glioblastoma multiforme and other malignant neoplasms. Anticancer Agents Med Chem; 2009 Jul;9(6):703-15
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  • [Title] The epidermal growth factor receptor as a therapeutic target in glioblastoma multiforme and other malignant neoplasms.
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is dysregulated in various tumour types such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), breast cancer, ovarian carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer and other cancers.
  • As the intracellular tyrosine kinase of the EGFR activates signalling cascades leading to cell proliferation, angiogenesis and inhibition of apoptosis, the EGFR represents an attractive target in cancer therapy.
  • Various trials are ongoing focusing on EGFR and EGFRvIII as new therapeutic targets in GBM.
  • Several trials are investigating MAbs or TKIs in combination with other agents such as inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin.
  • Other still preliminary approaches targeting the EGFR are small interfering RNA, antisense RNA and ribozymes, which lead to degradation of EGFR mRNA.
  • Further studies are needed to define their clinical potential, to identify biological predictors of response and thus to characterize subgroups of patients who will benefit from treatment with these new agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors


2. Zanetti-Dällenbach R, Wight E: [Chemotherapy for gynecological malignancies--a contraindication during pregnancy?]. Ther Umsch; 2005 Jan;62(1):53-60
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Tumors and Pregnancy.

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  • [Title] [Chemotherapy for gynecological malignancies--a contraindication during pregnancy?].
  • [Transliterated title] Chemotherapie bei gynäkologischen Tumoren--kontraindiziert in der Schwangerschaft?
  • Even though a malignant tumor during pregnancy is very rare it occurs in 0.02-0.1%.
  • With the tendency in society to postpone childbirth to an older age, there will be more cancers diagnosed during pregnancy.
  • The coincidence of malignant disease with pregnancy leads to an enormous emotional burden to the patient, the couple and the medical staff.
  • Surgery for malignant tumors during pregnancy seems to be save.
  • Radiotherapy on the other hand should be avoided.
  • Chemotherapy is regarded to be save during the second and third trimester but it should not be applied during the first trimester because of its teratogenic effects.
  • The most frequent malignant disorders during pregnancy are cervical cancer, breast cancer, melanoma and Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • We discuss possible treatment options for breast cancer and gynecological tumors during pregnancy.
  • In case of advanced stage of ovarian cancer chemotherapy besides surgery is necessary.
  • Indications for chemotherapy are the same as for not pregnant patients.
  • For invasive cervical cancer surgery or radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy is indicated after induced abortion or cesarean section.
  • In these cases systemic therapy during pregnancy and delivery at 34 weeks is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Drug-Induced / etiology. Abnormalities, Drug-Induced / prevention & control. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / contraindications. Genital Neoplasms, Female / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy. Risk Assessment / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Fetus / drug effects. Humans. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Pregnancy. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15702707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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3. Bradley P, McClelland L, Mehta D: Paediatric salivary gland epithelial neoplasms. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2007;69(3):137-45
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  • [Title] Paediatric salivary gland epithelial neoplasms.
  • Salivary gland epithelial neoplasms in children are rare.
  • Surgery is the primary treatment of choice in the majority of cases, with the addition of adjuvant radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy when the diagnosis is a high-grade tumour and/or when the malignancy presents as a large mass or is associated with local tissue invasion.
  • Minor salivary gland neoplasms also present, the oral cavity is most frequent, with pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma being most common, other malignant neoplasms have been reported in other sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Carcinoma / classification. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Epithelium / pathology. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17264529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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4. Sitkiewicz A, Przewratil P, Andrzejewska E: [Severe bilateral hydronephrosis in a 12 years old boy with neurofibromatosis type-1]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2004 Mar;16(93):261-4
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  • [Title] [Severe bilateral hydronephrosis in a 12 years old boy with neurofibromatosis type-1].
  • The large neurofibromatic tumours developing in head, neck and abdominal cavity in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 make a serious clinical problem.
  • In this report the case of 12 years old boy with benign abdominal tumor leading from nerve roots (S1-S2) is presented.
  • The other malignant neoplasms, additional congenital defects or neurological dysfunctions were not confirmed.
  • The primary resection was not radical and adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy, hormonotherapy) was ineffective.
  • Due to the progression and not coming to hospital in next 2 years severe obstructive uropathy developed leading to complete destruction of the left kidney.
  • Despite of slow tumor grow the patient is stable now.
  • Further treatment of this case remains open question.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / complications. Hydronephrosis / etiology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications

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  • (PMID = 15190605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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5. Koutselini HA, Lazaris AC, Thomopoulou G, Papayannopoulou A, Kairi-Vasilatou E: Papillary serous carcinoma of peritoneum: case study and review of the literature on the differential diagnosis of malignant peritoneal tumors. Adv Clin Path; 2001 Jul;5(3):99-104
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  • [Title] Papillary serous carcinoma of peritoneum: case study and review of the literature on the differential diagnosis of malignant peritoneal tumors.
  • The distinction between malignant mesothelioma and other malignant neoplasms diffusely involving the peritoneum is important for proper patient treatment.
  • The extra-ovarian peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma is a rare, primary, multicentric peritoneal tumor that is morphologically identical to ovarian serous carcinoma of equivalent grade, but can spare or minimally involve the ovaries.
  • We report such a tumor in a 65-year-old female who had abdominal swelling, ascites with positive cytology and a high grade of nuclear atypia in malignant cells as well as elevated serum CA125.
  • Since the amount of residual disease may be an important prognostic determining factor in primary papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum, the patient was debulked to no macroscopic disease and was then given platin-based chemotherapy.
  • The tumor's differential diagnosis from malignant mesothelioma was based, apart from morphologic criteria, on the tumor's immunoreactivity to MOC-31, Ber-EP4 and TAG-72, as well as on the lack of immunostaining for keratin 5/6 and calretinin.
  • Differential diagnosis from ovarian cancer was possible only after the pathological examination of the surgically resected ovaries; the tumor showed minimal superficial invasion of the ovarian cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Mesothelioma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11753882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1125-5552
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in clinical pathology : the official journal of Adriatic Society of Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Clin Path
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Merimsky O, Kollender Y, Issakov J, Bickels J, Flusser G, Gutman M, Lev-Chelouche D, Inbar M, Meller I: Multiple primary malignancies in association with soft tissue sarcomas. Cancer; 2001 Apr 1;91(7):1363-71
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  • [Title] Multiple primary malignancies in association with soft tissue sarcomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Modern cancer treatment has increased the survival of patients with various malignancies substantially.
  • One of the late sequelae of successful treatment is the development of a second malignant tumor.
  • However, in many cases of second primary tumors, exposure to chemotherapy or radiation therapy is not evident, and it should be postulated that the putative mechanism for the development of the second tumor is different.
  • In the current series, the association between soft tissue sarcoma (STS) in adults and the development of other primary malignancies was studied.
  • All files regarding patients with STS who developed a second malignant tumor were retrieved for analysis.
  • RESULTS: Of 375 patients with STS, 28 (7.5%) developed other malignant neoplasms either before or after the diagnosis of STS.
  • STS as the first tumor occurred in 14 patients (ages 16-72 years).
  • Only three patients were treated with chemotherapy for their sarcoma.
  • Radiation therapy was administered to five patients as an adjuvant to surgery for the first tumor.
  • The second tumor types mainly included STS and renal cell carcinoma.
  • The time interval between the diagnosis of the STS and the second malignancy was 0 (for synchronous tumors) to 21 years.
  • Three patients developed a third primary tumor within 3 years after the diagnosis of the second tumor.
  • Fourteen patients (ages 35-87 years) had a first primary tumor other than STS (mainly breast carcinoma and genitourinary malignancies).
  • The median overall survival for the 14 patients in this group from the time of diagnosis of the first tumor was > 102 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The phenomenon of two or three primary neoplasms developing in patients in whom one of the tumors was STS occurs at a rate of 7.5%, a significantly higher rate than that reported for the occurrence of STS among the general cancer population (1%).
  • The clinical implication includes the need to search for an occult second primary tumor in patients with STS as an integral part of their follow-up.
  • This is especially true in patients with primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma who demonstrate a risk for developing a renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Sarcoma. Soft Tissue Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11283938.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Bahadur G, Ozturk O, Muneer A, Wafa R, Ashraf A, Jaman N, Patel S, Oyede AW, Ralph DJ: Semen quality before and after gonadotoxic treatment. Hum Reprod; 2005 Mar;20(3):774-81
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  • [Title] Semen quality before and after gonadotoxic treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse the semen quality of patients before and after gonadotoxic therapy.
  • The diagnostic categories were leukaemia (n = 13); lymphoma (n = 128); testicular cancer (n = 102); benign conditions (n = 13); and other malignant neoplasms (n = 58).
  • We then analysed the recovery in semen quality over time for each disease category.
  • A total of 1115 post-treatment semen samples were analysed from 314 patients.
  • There was a significant reduction in the post-treatment sperm concentration, sperm motility and semen volume compared with pre-treatment levels (P < 0.05) in the entire cohort.
  • Patients with testicular carcinoma had the lowest pre-treatment sperm concentrations but also the lowest incidence of azoospermia after cancer treatment.
  • Patients with lymphoma and leukaemia had the highest incidence of post-treatment azoospermia and oligospermia.
  • Patients having the largest reductions in their sperm concentration after treatment required the longest recovery period for spermatogenesis.
  • The diagnostic category was the only significant predictor of post-treatment azoospermia.
  • CONCLUSION: Gonadotoxic treatment results in a significant reduction in sperm quality.
  • The type of cancer or disease, and the pre-treatment sperm concentrations were found to be the most significant factors governing post-treatment semen quality and recovery of spermatogenesis.
  • This highlights the importance of ensuring sperm banking before treatment, including for patients with benign conditions.
  • Several factors and associations are discussed further in order to give an insight into the pre- and post-gonadotoxic treatment effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / physiopathology. Semen / drug effects. Spermatozoa / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cohort Studies. Humans. Leukemia / drug therapy. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Oligospermia / chemically induced. Oligospermia / etiology. Oligospermia / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sperm Count. Sperm Motility / drug effects. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15689346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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8. Delgado PI, Jorda M, Ganjei-Azar P: Small cell carcinoma versus other lung malignancies: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration cytology. Cancer; 2000 Oct 25;90(5):279-85
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma versus other lung malignancies: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • BACKGROUND: When a diagnosis of small cell carcinoma is reached in a patient with a lung mass, a surgical treatment approach is no longer considered and chemotherapy becomes the treatment of choice.
  • The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of small cell carcinoma with the diagnoses of other lung malignancies.
  • METHODS: Two hundred fifty-nine consecutive transthoracic fine needle aspirations of lung tissue from 235 patients with histologic diagnosis of malignancy were reviewed.
  • 2) other lung malignancies (158 smears, 65%);.
  • RESULTS: The histologic diagnoses were divided into two groups: small cell carcinomas (29 smears, 12%), and other lung malignancies (213 smears, 88%).
  • Once the diagnosis of malignancy was established, fine-needle aspiration cytology was found to be highly accurate in distinguishing small cell carcinoma from other neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that fine-needle aspiration cytology of the lung is an accurate diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of lung malignancies and is an excellent technique for distinguishing small cell carcinoma from other malignant neoplasms.
  • It can be used with confidence to select treatment modalities and to avoid unnecessary surgeries in patients with lung malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cytodiagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 11038424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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9. Farias TP, Dias FL, Lima RA, Kligerman J, de Sá GM, Barbosa MM, Gonçalves FB Jr: Prognostic factors and outcome for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2003 Jul;129(7):794-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is a distinct form of cancer of the upper respiratory or digestive tract in which the epidemiologic features, origin, histopathologic types, treatment, and prognosis are different from those associated with other malignant neoplasms of this anatomical area.
  • Recent publications have demonstrated the advantage of aggressive multimodality treatment for advanced NPC.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the results of standardized treatment of NPC during 11 years and to identify pertinent factors for clinical outcome.
  • Documented data of the initial presenting symptoms, head and neck examination, radiotherapy protocols, chemotherapy regimens, and surgical technique were analyzed.
  • To determine important prognostic factors, we correlated survival rates with age, clinical stage, tumor extent, histopathological type, and therapeutic approach.
  • Gross extension of the primary tumor involving the facial bones and skull base was observed in 39.3% and 20.8%, respectively.
  • Just under 75% of patients were treated with radiotherapy (median dose, 6600 cGy), and 25.4% underwent concomitant chemoradiotherapy with adjuvant chemotherapy (cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil) (median dose, 6800 cGy).
  • The disease-specific survival for the radiotherapy group was 22.5%, compared with 61.4% for the chemoradiotherapy plus adjuvant chemotherapy group (P =.004).
  • Factors associated with adverse outcomes were age older than 40 years at treatment (P =.001), advanced TNM stage (P =.002), skull base invasion (P =.004), and facial bone invasion (P<.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Compared with radiotherapy alone, concomitant chemoradiotherapy with adjuvant chemotherapy improved the treatment outcome of patients with NPC treated in our institution.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / mortality. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12874084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-4470
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Kimura T, Kuramochi S, Katayama T, Yoshikawa T, Yamada T, Ueda Y, Okada Y: Amiodarone-related pulmonary mass and unique membranous glomerulonephritis in a patient with valvular heart disease: Diagnostic pitfall and new findings. Pathol Int; 2008 Oct;58(10):657-63
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  • Amiodarone is an anti-arrhythmic drug for life-threatening tachycardia, but various adverse effects have been reported.
  • Reported herein is an autopsy case of valvular heart disease, in a patient who developed a lung mass (1.5 cm in diameter) and proteinuria (2.76 g/day) after treatment with amiodarone for a long time.
  • The lung mass was highly suspected to be lung cancer on CT and positron emission tomography, but histologically the lesion was composed of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in alveolar walls and intra-alveolar accumulation of foamy macrophages containing characteristic myelinoid bodies, indicating that it was an amiodarone-related lesion.
  • In addition, the lung tissue had unevenly distributed hemosiderin deposition, and abnormally tortuous capillaries were seen in the mass and in heavily hemosiderotic lung portions outside the mass.
  • Autoimmune diseases, viral hepatitis, malignant neoplasms or other diseases with a known relationship to membranous glomerulonephritis were not found.
  • The present case highlights the possibility that differential diagnosis between an amiodarone-related pulmonary lesion and a neoplasm can be very difficult radiologically, and suggests that membranous glomerulonephritis might be another possible complication of amiodarone treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Amiodarone / adverse effects. Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / adverse effects. Diagnostic Errors. Glomerulonephritis, Membranous / chemically induced. Heart Valve Diseases / drug therapy. Lung Diseases / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cytoplasm / drug effects. Cytoplasm / ultrastructure. Fatal Outcome. Foam Cells / drug effects. Foam Cells / ultrastructure. Hemosiderin / metabolism. Humans. Lung / drug effects. Lung / metabolism. Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphocytes / pathology. Male. Plasma Cells / pathology. Proteinuria / chemically induced. Proteinuria / diagnosis


11. Koshida S, Narita T, Kato H, Yoshida S, Taga T, Ohta S, Takeuchi Y: Estrogen receptor expression and estrogen receptor-independent cytotoxic effects of tamoxifen on malignant rhabdoid tumor cells in vitro. Jpn J Cancer Res; 2002 Dec;93(12):1351-7
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  • [Title] Estrogen receptor expression and estrogen receptor-independent cytotoxic effects of tamoxifen on malignant rhabdoid tumor cells in vitro.
  • Recent studies have shown that the antiestrogen tamoxifen (TAM) can be used in the treatment of malignant neoplasms other than breast cancer.
  • In the present study, we investigated the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) in six malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) cell lines.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Antagonists / pharmacology. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Rhabdoid Tumor / drug therapy. Tamoxifen / analogs & derivatives. Tamoxifen / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Estradiol / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 12495475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0910-5050
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of cancer research : Gann
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 17197F0KYM / afimoxifene; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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12. Nakamura H, Arakawa K, Itakura H, Kitabatake A, Goto Y, Toyota T, Nakaya N, Nishimoto S, Muranaka M, Yamamoto A, Mizuno K, Ohashi Y, MEGA Study Group: Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with pravastatin in Japan (MEGA Study): a prospective randomised controlled trial. Lancet; 2006 Sep 30;368(9542):1155-63
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  • BACKGROUND: Evidence-based treatment for hypercholesterolaemia in Japan has been hindered by the lack of direct evidence in this population.
  • Our aim was to assess whether evidence for treatment with statins derived from western populations can be extrapolated to the Japanese population.
  • There was no difference in the incidence of malignant neoplasms or other serious adverse events between the two groups.
  • INTERPRETATION: Treatment with a low dose of pravastatin reduces the risk of coronary heart disease in Japan by much the same amount as higher doses have shown in Europe and the USA.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticholesteremic Agents / therapeutic use. Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control. Hypercholesterolemia / drug therapy. Pravastatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diet, Fat-Restricted. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Japan. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2006 Dec 9;368(9552):2052; author reply 2052 [17161725.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2006 Dec 9;368(9552):2051-2; author reply 2052 [17161724.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2006 Dec 9;368(9552):2051; author reply 2052 [17161723.001]
  • [CommentIn] Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2007 Oct;9(4):257-57 [18173949.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2006 Sep 30;368(9542):1135-6 [17011926.001]
  • (PMID = 17011942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-547X
  • [Journal-full-title] Lancet (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00211705
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticholesteremic Agents; KXO2KT9N0G / Pravastatin
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13. Schmidt D: [Changes in the endometrium after tamoxifen therapy]. Pathologe; 2006 Feb;27(1):27-32
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  • [Title] [Changes in the endometrium after tamoxifen therapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Endometriumveränderungen nach Tamoxifen-Therapie.
  • Depending on the type of tissue, tamoxifen has either an anti-estrogenic or an estrogenic effect on the cells.
  • In the treatment of breast cancer, the anti-estrogenic effect is used.
  • However, at the same time there is a predominant progestin-like and only mild estrogenic effect on the endometrium.
  • Other findings related to tamoxifen therapy are stromal decidualisation, regressive hyperplasia, and foci of mucinous, clear cell and serous metaplasia.
  • Still unsolved is the question of whether endometrial carcinomas developing after tamoxifen therapy belong mostly to type I (endometrioid) or type II (serous, clear cell) carcinomas.
  • Only in rare cases do malignant neoplasms other than carcinomas develop after tamoxifen therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Atrophy. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemically induced. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Polyps / chemically induced. Polyps / pathology. Uterus / drug effects. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16362260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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14. An JS, Wu LY, Li N, Li B, Yu GZ, Liu LY: [Clinical analysis of 42 cases of primary malignant melanoma in female genital tract]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2007 May;42(5):320-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 42 cases of primary malignant melanoma in female genital tract].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of primary malignant melanoma in female genital tract.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 42 patients of primary malignant melanoma in female genital tract were reviewed.
  • In the 40 patients who received surgery, univariate analysis showed that the adjuvant chemotherapy improved the recurrence-free survival and the overall survival significantly (P < 0.05), and the other factors including radical surgery, regional lymphadenectomy, biotherapy and radiotherapy did not affect prognosis (P > 0.05).
  • Compared with chemotherapy, biochemotherapy did not improve prognosis significantly (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy for the malignant melanoma in female genital tract has high misdiagnosis rate.
  • Surgery plays an important role in treatment, while the adjuvant chemotherapy could improve survival effectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / therapy. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. S100 Proteins / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / metabolism. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / metabolism. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17673044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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15. Manchana T, Ittiwut C, Mutirangura A, Kavanagh JJ: Targeted therapies for rare gynaecological cancers. Lancet Oncol; 2010 Jul;11(7):685-93
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  • [Title] Targeted therapies for rare gynaecological cancers.
  • Some gynaecological cancers are uncommon, such as sex cord-stromal tumours, malignant germ-cell tumours, vulvar carcinoma, melanoma of the female genital tract, clear-cell carcinoma of the ovary and endometrium, neuroendocrine tumours of the cervix, and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.
  • All these cancers have different clinicopathological characteristics, suggesting different molecular biological pathogeneses.
  • Despite aggressive treatment, some cancers recur or respond poorly to therapy.
  • Comprehensive knowledge of the molecular biology of each cancer might help with development of novel treatments that maximise efficacy and minimise toxic effects.
  • Targeted therapy is a new treatment strategy that has been investigated in various tumours in clinical and laboratory settings.
  • Since these cancers are rare and large clinical trials are difficult to do, molecular biological techniques might allow rapid proof-of-principle experiments in few patients.
  • Novel targeted agents either alone or in combination with other treatments offer promising therapeutic options.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Delivery Systems / trends. Genital Neoplasms, Female / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Female. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy. Humans. Melanoma / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Pregnancy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20362508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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16. Horejsí J, Rob L: [Malignant tumors of the female genitalia in childhood--yesterday, today and tomorrow]. Cas Lek Cesk; 2003 Feb;142(2):84-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Malignant tumors of the female genitalia in childhood--yesterday, today and tomorrow].
  • Genital tumors in children and adolescents represent 1.5 to 2.0% of al malignancies in these age groups.
  • Malignant tumors of the external genital are very rare (sarcomas of the soft tissues).
  • Malignancies of vagina are represented by the embryogenic rabdomyosarcoma, yolk sack tumor and tumor of pale cells or vaginal adenocarcinoma.
  • All these tumors are highly malignant.
  • Cytostatics are used as the basic therapy and only later the less radical surgery is recommended.
  • They differ in types from those of adults: Epithelial tumors (carcinomas) do not occur in childhood, germinal and gonadal stromal tumors are typical in this age.
  • It has malignant progression with early propagation along lymph vessels into the lymph nodes.
  • Beside ovarectomy, also lymphadenectomy at the affected side is performed and the treatment proceeds with chemotherapy.
  • For the prognostic reasons, immunological examinations, DNA ploidity identification and other tests are recommended.
  • Gonadal stromal tumors are always unilateral, malignant, and frequently hormonally active, but they usually have a good prognosis.
  • To protect gonad from the adverse effects of oncological treatment, pharmacologically induced regression to premenarcheal stadium has been tested.
  • Complex treatment of gonadal malignancies in childhood in future will be aimed not only at the lifesaving but also at the preservation of the highest possible quality of life, including the motherhood.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Female. Humans. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 12698534.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-7335
  • [Journal-full-title] Casopís lékar̆ů c̆eských
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cas. Lek. Cesk.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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17. Zimny M, Siggelkow W: Positron emission tomography scanning in gynecologic and breast cancers. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol; 2003 Feb;15(1):69-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Positron emission tomography scanning in gynecologic and breast cancers.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Positron emission tomography with 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose represents a noninvasive functional imaging modality that is based on metabolic characteristics of malignant tumors.
  • The recent findings of this technique in breast cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, and other gynecologic malignancies are discussed.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: In breast cancer, positron emission tomography with 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose is more accurate than conventional methods for the staging of distant metastases, enables early assessment of treatment response in patients undergoing primary chemotherapy.
  • The diagnostic accuracy for axillary lymph node staging depends on the tumor load of the lymph nodes.
  • False negative findings in well differentiated adenocarcinoma and borderline lesions as well as false positive findings in benign conditions limit the role of positron emission tomography scanning for the differential diagnosis of adnex tumors.
  • SUMMARY: Positron emission tomography with 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose reveals unique information about tumor metabolism in gynecologic malignancies and breast cancer.
  • It may become the method of choice for the early assessment of treatment response in breast cancer and the detection of recurrent disease in ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Genital Neoplasms, Female / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 12544505.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-872X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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18. Shima Y, Ohtsu A, Shirao K, Sasaki Y: Clinical efficacy and safety of octreotide (SMS201-995) in terminally ill Japanese cancer patients with malignant bowel obstruction. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2008 May;38(5):354-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical efficacy and safety of octreotide (SMS201-995) in terminally ill Japanese cancer patients with malignant bowel obstruction.
  • OBJECTIVE: In patients with advanced cancer, malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting leading to severely impaired oral food intake.
  • METHODS: The subjects were patients with MBO that was refractory to other medical treatment and who had suffered at least two vomiting episodes per day for two consecutive days or had required a nasogastric tube.
  • Patients who responded to this 6-day course of treatment continued to receive the drug.
  • RESULTS: Among 25 patients who were enrolled, 11 (44.0%) responded to treatment with resolution or improvement of nausea/vomiting.
  • Their symptomatic improvement was assessed by quantitatively measuring the level of control of nausea/vomiting and by using a self-administered QOL questionnaire that evaluated the frequency and severity of nausea/vomiting, the proportion of patients enjoying recreational activities and the overall patient satisfaction with the therapy.
  • SMS was well tolerated, and nausea and agitation were the only adverse events potentially related to this drug.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of the study confirmed that the 300-microg/day dose of SMS is safe and effective for patients with MBO uncontrolled by other therapies and suggested that the relief of symptoms with nausea/vomiting by SMS could contribute to improvement of the QOL of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Intestinal Obstruction / etiology. Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Octreotide / adverse effects. Terminally Ill
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Digestive System Neoplasms / complications. Digestive System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Female. Gastrointestinal Agents / administration & dosage. Gastrointestinal Agents / adverse effects. Genital Neoplasms, Female / complications. Genital Neoplasms, Female / drug therapy. Humans. Japan. Male. Middle Aged. Nausea / chemically induced. Quality of Life. Severity of Illness Index. Vomiting / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 18490369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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19. Mundhenke C, Bauerschlag D, Fischer D, Friedrich M, Maass N: [Malignant tumors of the uterus]. Ther Umsch; 2007 Jul;64(7):381-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Malignant tumors of the uterus].
  • [Transliterated title] Maligne Tumoren des Uterus.
  • Malignant uterine tumors are responsible for up to 9% of all new cancer cases and for 4.5% of all cancer related deaths in women.
  • The three important uterine cancers are endometrial cancers, uterine sarcomas and cervical cancers.
  • Endometrial cancers are typically found in elderly women and are > 70% hormone sensitive (type I), type II is often less differentiated and not hormone sensitive.
  • Therapy of choice is the stage related radical hysterectomy (incl. lymphnode dissection).
  • Postoperatively and at progressive stages endocrine and radiation therapies can be useful.
  • Chemotherapy is only useful in not hormone sensitive and in progressive tumors.
  • These often aggressive tumors are hardly responding to systemic and radiation therapy.
  • Therefore radical tumor surgery plays the main therapeutic role.
  • Important co-factors for carcinogenesis are tobacco smoking, an immunodeficiency and chronic genital infections of other causes.
  • Many tumors are detected in early tumor stages.
  • Preoperatively diagnostic procedures are performed to examine local and distant tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma. Uterine Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / epidemiology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Hysteroscopy. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Care. Risk Factors. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17948755.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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20. Rowinsky EK: Challenges of developing therapeutics that target signal transduction in patients with gynecologic and other malignancies. J Clin Oncol; 2003 May 15;21(10 Suppl):175s-186s
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Challenges of developing therapeutics that target signal transduction in patients with gynecologic and other malignancies.
  • A greater understanding of cancer biology and major advances in biotechnology have resulted in the identification of a plethora of rationally designed, target-based anticancer therapeutics, particularly those that inhibit malignant-cell signal transduction, ushering in new therapeutic opportunities and extraordinary developmental challenges.
  • Because these agents seem to principally target malignant cells, it is expected that they will produce less toxicity at clinically effective doses than nonspecific cytotoxic agents.
  • The innate complexity of signaling networks, which have redundant relay systems that confer robustness, adaptability, and signaling diversity, also decreases the probability that any single therapeutic manipulation against any specific signaling element will be highly successful when used alone, particularly in patients with solid malignancies that have multiple relevant signaling aberrations.
  • In addition, because the predominant therapeutic effect of inhibitors of signal transduction processes in preclinical studies is a decreased rate of tumor growth, it is anticipated that the predominant therapeutic outcome in the clinic will be similar; however, this end point is not readily detectable or quantifiable using traditional clinical evaluation methods.
  • Therefore, both regulatory and clinical practice end points, such as time to disease progression, disease-related symptoms, and quality of life, which are generally considered secondary for cytotoxic agents, may evolve into primary end points.
  • The cumulative results of developmental evaluations to date indicate that the development, evaluation, and general clinical use of rationally designed, target-based anticancer therapeutics will require a radical departure from traditional paradigms to exploit the full potential of these new therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Drug Design. Drugs, Investigational / pharmacology. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical / methods. Farnesyltranstransferase / antagonists & inhibitors. Farnesyltranstransferase / metabolism. Female. Genital Neoplasms, Female / drug therapy. Genital Neoplasms, Female / metabolism. Humans. MAP Kinase Signaling System / drug effects. Male. Patient Selection. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Protein Kinases / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, ErbB-2 / immunology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases. Treatment Outcome. ras Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12743132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drugs, Investigational; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.5.1.29 / Farnesyltranstransferase; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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21. Maia HJ, Casoy J: Non-contraceptive health benefits of oral contraceptives. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care; 2008 Mar;13(1):17-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The mechanisms involved are multiple; next to ovulation suppression, a reduction in inflammation in the genital tract is involved.
  • This is accomplished through inhibition of the endometrial expression of enzymes related to the biosynthesis of prostaglandin and oestrogen, particularly cyclooxygenase type II (Cox-2) and aromatase.
  • The blockade of ovulation and ovarian steroidogenesis, on the other hand, may explain the lesser incidence of ovarian cancer and the improvement of acne in users.
  • In conclusion, inflammation appears to play a pivotal role in the development of various benign and malignant gynecological diseases.
  • COCs reduce inflammation in the female genital tract by blocking enzymes such as Cox-2 and aromatase.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acne Vulgaris / drug therapy. Aromatase / metabolism. Contraceptives, Oral, Combined / therapeutic use. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Endometriosis / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Menorrhagia / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / prevention & control. Perimenopause. Uterine Neoplasms / prevention & control. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 17963179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-5187
  • [Journal-full-title] The European journal of contraception & reproductive health care : the official journal of the European Society of Contraception
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptives, Oral, Combined; 0 / Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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22. Gallardo A, Prat J: Mullerian adenosarcoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 55 cases challenging the existence of adenofibroma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Feb;33(2):278-88
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  • Mullerian adenosarcomas are rare mixed tumors of low malignant potential that occur mainly in the uterus and also in extrauterine locations.
  • Treatment was known in 50 patients: 10 had polypectomy, 1 cone biopsy, and 39 hysterectomy, which was accompanied by bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in 24 and lymphadenectomy in 4.
  • Five patients had radiotherapy and 2 of them had chemotherapy.
  • Three of the 4 ovarian tumors were stage IA and the other was stage IIIC.
  • The tumor of the fallopian tube was stage IC, and the tumors of the vagina and recto-uterine pouch were confined to their site of origin.
  • Of 4 cervical tumors, 2 were endocervical polyps, 1 invaded one-third of the cervical wall, and the other invaded its full thickness.
  • Six developed metastases and 5 of them died of tumor.
  • Four had adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth; however, the other 2 patients had typical low-grade adenosarcomas of the uterine corpus and cervix, respectively, exhibiting only mild nuclear atypia of the stromal component and </=2 mitotic figures/10 high power fields.
  • The finding of such cases, which raises the controversy of whether or not adenofibroma exists as a tumor entity, prompted us to make a comparative immunohistochemical analysis of 23 typical adenosarcomas, 8 adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth, and 29 benign and malignant related lesions, including 7 clinically benign adenofibromas.
  • Adenosarcomas with sarcomatous overgrowth showed strong immunoreaction for Ki-67 and p53 and loss of CD10 and progesterone receptors immunostaining; in contrast, the immunoreaction for these tumor markers in typical adenosarcomas without sarcomatous overgrowth was similar to that of adenofibromas associated with favorable outcome and other benign lesions such as endometrial polyps and endometriosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / pathology. Adenosarcoma / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Staging. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18941402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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23. Piura B, Rabinovich A, Yavelsky V, Wolfson M: [Heat shock proteins and malignancies of the female genital tract]. Harefuah; 2002 Nov;141(11):969-72, 1010, 1009
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  • [Title] [Heat shock proteins and malignancies of the female genital tract].
  • However, their synthesis is also accentuated under other stress conditions, such as exposure of the cell to inflammation, infection, ischemia, toxins, cytotoxic drugs and malignant transformation.
  • In ovarian carcinoma, over-expression of Hsp27 was associated with increased resistance to chemotherapy and a worse prognosis.
  • Since Hsp are highly antigenic, their property to bind with tumor proteins and proteins produced by viruses may be used for the development of vaccines against cancers and viral diseases.
  • It is speculated that examination of the lower genital tract secretions for IgA antibodies against Hsp will contribute to early detection of malignancies.
  • Since Hsp may affect the growth of the tumor and its response to chemotherapy, it is speculated that using drugs that inhibit Hsp in combination with conventional chemotherapy may contribute to the improvement of the treatment results.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / physiopathology. Heat-Shock Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cancer Vaccines. Female. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 12476632.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-7768
  • [Journal-full-title] Harefuah
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harefuah
  • [Language] heb
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Heat-Shock Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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24. Lévy A, Lebbe C: [Buschke-Löwenstein tumour: diagnosis and treatment]. Ann Urol (Paris); 2006 Jun;40(3):175-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Buschke-Löwenstein tumour: diagnosis and treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Prise en charge des tumeurs de Buschke-Löwenstein.
  • It presents like an exophytic tumour of the genital or peri-anal area, with ulceration and sometimes fistulae and sinuses.
  • Histological appearance is not far from condyloma acuminata, but with a tendency to compress and displace deeper tissues, without basement membrane disruption.
  • HPV types 6 or 11 are regularly found in association with this tumour.
  • Other STI have to be searched.
  • Physical examination and precise imagery are useful to chose the right treatment regimen.
  • Radical excision is recommended to avoid malignant transformation, but has to be large because of the high number of recurrences.
  • Other treatment modalities such as chemotherapy or imiquimod could be of interest to avoid mutilating surgical interventions.
  • A regular follow-up is necessary because of frequent recurrences and possible malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / surgery. Condylomata Acuminata / pathology. Condylomata Acuminata / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Fistula / etiology. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Male. Perineum / pathology. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 16869538.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4401
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Urol (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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25. Okudaira T, Nagasaki A, Miyagi T, Nakazato T, Taira N, Kudaka W, Maehama T, Takasu N: [Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the uterine cervix--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Aug;35(8):1423-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary malignant lymphoma of the female genital tract is an extremely rare clinical entity.
  • A 68-year-old woman presented with abnormal genital bleeding in May 2002.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed a bulky cervical tumor(7.5 x 8 cm)invading the right parametrium and adjacent levator ani muscle.
  • No other lesions were detected by the whole-body computed tomography, gallium scintigraphy, and bone marrow examination.
  • Immunophenotypic studies revealed tumor cells were positive for CD19, CD20, CD30, and k-chain.
  • The patient was treated with 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone(CHOP)chemotherapy followed by the involved field irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans


26. Kacalska O, Krzyczkowska-Sendrakowska M, Milewicz T, Zabińska-Popiela M, Bereza T, Krzysiek-Maczka G, Krzysiek J: [Molecular action of insulin-sensitizing agents]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 May-Jun;56(3):308-13
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Atypical endometrial hyperplasia has been associated with progression to endometrial cancer, the most common genital malignancy.
  • There is known the first description of atypical endometrial hyperplasia resistant to progestogen therapy, which was subsequently treated with an insulin-sensitizng agent, metformin.
  • Metformin is a biguanide antihyperglycemic agent used in the treatment of adult-onset diabetes.
  • Increased insulin sensitivity may improve the metabolic effect of insulin and decrease its mitogenic effect by tissue-specific mechanisms.
  • One explanation for tissue specific differences in insulin binding and action may be through the relative expression of the insulin receptor (IR) isoforms.
  • The IR-A is predominantly expressed in malignant tissues and may lead to mitogenic effects within the cell.
  • The relative expressions of IR-A and IR-B in normal and malignant endometrial tissue is not known.
  • Binding sites for IGF-1 and IGF-2 have been confirmed in both normal and malignant endometrium.
  • Interestingly, IGFBP-1 was undetectable or minimally expressed in endometrial cancers.
  • Nestler discussed results of a 6-month treatment of 100 nonebese women with PCOS, which showed a somewhat greater effect of metformin than rosiglitazone and no benefit of administering both agents in combination.
  • Long-term treatment with oral contraceptives decreases endometrial cancer, with a reduction in serum androgens and a decreases in hirsutism and acne, but may worsen insulin resistance and lead to deteriration in glucose tolerance.
  • Insulin sensitizers, on the other hand, should decrease endometrial hyperplasia by inducing regular menses, but may not be as beneficial in improving androgen - related symptoms.
  • Theoretically, metformin, a treatment which is now widely used to treat infertile women with PCOS, may have a role in preventing endometrial hyperstimulation by lowering insulin concentrations and restoring ovulation.
  • However, the long-term effects of this drug in women with PCOS are not known and more studies are required before suggesting its use for preventing endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology. Insulin / metabolism. Metformin / pharmacology. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cardiovascular Diseases / drug therapy. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Insulin Resistance

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  • (PMID = 16350724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Insulin; 9100L32L2N / Metformin
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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27. Feuer DJ, Broadley KE: Corticosteroids for the resolution of malignant bowel obstruction in advanced gynaecological and gastrointestinal cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2000;(2):CD001219
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Corticosteroids for the resolution of malignant bowel obstruction in advanced gynaecological and gastrointestinal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal and ovarian cancers are common cancers.
  • The incidence of associated malignant bowel obstruction in patients with advanced cancers of these types is not known, and the best management of these patients is controversial.
  • Management of the symptoms can include palliative surgery, nasogastric tube suction together with intravenous fluids, or pharmacological means, such as corticosteroids.
  • There is uncertainty regarding both the efficacy and possible harmful effects of corticosteroids, and also the most effective type, dose/dosing regime, route and period of administration.
  • SEARCH STRATEGY: A comprehensive list of all studies was provided by an extensive search of the electronic databases, relevant journals, reference lists, the grey literature, contact with investigators and other search strategies outlined in the methods.
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: As the review concentrates on the 'best evidence' available of the role of corticosteroids in malignant bowel obstruction due to advanced gynaecological and gastrointestinal cancer the inclusion criteria were kept fairly broad so as to include all studies relevant to the question DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data extraction forms were used to collect data from the studies included in the review.
  • No other outcomes were available from the published data or from the authors.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / complications. Genital Neoplasms, Female / complications. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Intestinal Obstruction / drug therapy. Intestinal Obstruction / etiology. Palliative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 10796761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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28. Yasuda M, Matsui N, Kajiwara H, Osamura RY, Miyamoto T, Murakami M, Shinozuka T, Itoh J: Malignant transformation of atypical endometrial hyperplasia after progesterone therapy showing germ-cell tumor-like differentiation. Pathol Int; 2004 Jun;54(6):451-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant transformation of atypical endometrial hyperplasia after progesterone therapy showing germ-cell tumor-like differentiation.
  • A 31-year-old woman was treated for atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) with high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) therapy to preserve fertility.
  • The AEH was found by repeated cytologic and histologic examinations to have completely disappeared with the therapy, but 3 years after her last follow up she required emergency surgery to treat severe genital bleeding.
  • The hysterectomied uterus consisted mostly of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, G3 endometrioid type.
  • Part of the AEH had transformed into other histologic features with germ-cell-like differentiation, demonstrated by immunohistochemical positive reaction of placental alkaline phosphatase, alpha-fetoprotein, and human chorionic gonadotrophin.
  • Recurrent AEH had undergone malignant transformation, resulting in the development of well- and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and tumor exhibiting germ-cell-like differentiation.
  • The patient died of a massive tumor extension 7 months after surgery.
  • The AEH before MPA therapy and the recurrent tumors had genetically different characteristics based on evidence of a loss of heterozygosity, detected at D8S1132 (chromosomal locus, 8q22.1) in the latter but not in the former, by analysis of genetic alterations using microsatellite markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Endometrial Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Germinoma / secondary. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alkaline Phosphatase. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Chorionic Gonadotropin / metabolism. Fatal Outcome. Female. GPI-Linked Proteins. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Loss of Heterozygosity. Microsatellite Repeats. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15144406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.1 / alkaline phosphatase, placental
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29. Pallapies D: Trends in childhood disease. Mutat Res; 2006 Sep 28;608(2):100-11

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • While neonatal disorders, diarrhoea, pneumonia, and malaria as well as being underweight account for most of the child deaths worldwide, children's health discussions in Europe and the USA focus on other issues such as asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders, male genital malformations, and childhood cancer.
  • Interpretation of the available information on asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders and reproductive outcomes is hampered by inconstant diagnostic criteria over place and time and the lack of good and comprehensive population-based surveillance data, which makes it impossible to ascertain trends in actual disease frequency.
  • Data indicate that developed countries have a gradually increasing incidence in leukaemia with a corresponding drop in the incidence of lymphoma.
  • Increases in brain tumour frequency may be related to the development and wide application of new diagnostic capabilities, rather than a true change in the incidence of malignant disease.
  • With a better prognosis for childhood cancer survival, secondary cancers following chemotherapy appear to be increasing.
  • [MeSH-minor] Asthma / mortality. Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / epidemiology. Autistic Disorder / epidemiology. Child. Developmental Disabilities / epidemiology. Environmental Exposure. Female. Genitalia, Male / abnormalities. Humans. Learning Disorders / epidemiology. Male. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Nervous System Diseases / epidemiology. Respiratory Tract Diseases / mortality

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  • (PMID = 16854614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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