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1. Klafter R, Arbiser JL: Regulation of angiogenesis and tumorigenesis by signal transduction cascades: lessons from benign and malignant endothelial tumors. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc; 2000 Dec;5(1):79-82
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  • [Title] Regulation of angiogenesis and tumorigenesis by signal transduction cascades: lessons from benign and malignant endothelial tumors.
  • Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are implicated in the regulation of the angiogenic switch.
  • Much of the data accumulated to date uses NIH 3T3 cells, which are deficient in the tumor suppressor gene p16, as models for these studies.
  • The results from our studies differ from those using NIH3T3 cells, but have been confirmed by multiple other groups.
  • The data from all of these studies suggest that there is synergy between inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene and activation of the phosphoinositol-3-kinase pathway (PI-3-K), as well as synergy between inactivation of the p16 tumor suppressor gene and activation of the MAP kinase pathway.
  • These findings suggest that there are predictable behaviors of tumors that may be assessed by the status of p53 or p16 in a biopsy, and that these predictable changes in signal transduction may be useful both prognostically and in the design of rationally based drug therapy of benign and malignant tumors.

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  • (PMID = 11147680.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-0024
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of investigative dermatology. Symposium proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / KO8AR02096
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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2. Kadin ME: Current management of primary cutaneous CD30+ T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Oncology (Williston Park); 2009 Nov 30;23(13):1158-64
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  • Primary cutaneous CD30+ T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (PCLPDs) are the second most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • These disorders comprise a spectrum of clinically benign lymphomatoidpapulosis (LyP) and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL).
  • Primary cutaneous ALCL must be distinguished from secondary skin lesions in systemic ALCL, which confer a poor prognosis.
  • Low-dose methotrexate (10-25 mg weekly) is the most effective therapy for PCLPD but is usually reserved for aggressive cases of LyP and multifocal lesions of cutaneous ALCL Many patients with LyP can be followed expectantly, with special attention to changes in character of the skin lesions or development of lymphadenopathy.
  • Extracutaneous spread of disease is an indication for multiagent chemotherapy.
  • Other treatment alternatives are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell / drug therapy. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20043465.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20RR018757
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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3. Jasaitiene D, Valiukeviciene S, Makstiene J, Juodzbaliene EB: Metastatic amelanotic nodular melanoma during pregnancy. Medicina (Kaunas); 2008;44(6):467-71
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  • A 34 year-old Caucasian woman at 19th week of the second pregnancy was diagnosed having amelanotic nodular melanoma (tumor thickness - 2.5 mm) with metastases to the regional right inguinal lymph node.
  • Amelanotic nodular melanoma represents malignant melanocytic tumor of the skin, which clinically mimics a variety of benign and malignant skin conditions and therefore commonly leads to delayed diagnosis.
  • Though primary tumor was excised immediately, other treatment procedures as radical lymphadenectomy and chemotherapy were delayed, and immunotherapy was not given totally.
  • At the 29th week of pregnancy, the woman via naturalem delivered a healthy female child, and the chemotherapy was started.
  • Since pregnancy limits the prescription of immunotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis for melanoma during pregnancy detected later than in the second stage is poor and can be illustrated by our reported case.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Amelanotic / secondary. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant, Newborn. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, Second. Pregnancy Trimester, Third. Prognosis. Puerperal Disorders / mortality. Skin / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18660642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
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4. Deme D, Ragán M, Kalmár K, Kovács L, Varga E, Varga T, Rakonczai E: [Metastatic prostate cancer complicated with chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy causing acute renal failure, mimicking thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome: pathomechanism, differential diagnosis and therapy related to a case]. Magy Onkol; 2010 Dec;54(4):351-7
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  • [Title] [Metastatic prostate cancer complicated with chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy causing acute renal failure, mimicking thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome: pathomechanism, differential diagnosis and therapy related to a case].
  • Basically two types of DIC are distinguished:.
  • Chronic DIC related to metastatic neoplasia is caused by pancreatic, gastric or prostatic carcinoma in most of the cases.
  • In other words, chronic DIC is developed in one of eight patients with prostate cancer.
  • A 71 years old male patient with known chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, benign prostatic hyperplasia, significant carotid artery stenosis, gastric ulcer and alcoholic liver disease was admitted to another hospital with melena.
  • After the fifth PF, skin manifestations of thrombotic microangiopathy occurred on the feet.
  • Clotting analysis revealed elevated D-dimer (>5 μg/mL), normal fibrinogen (3.2 g/L), a slightly raised INR (1.36) and activated partial prothrombin time (APTT) (45.8 sec), normal reticulocyte (57 G/L) and a slightly low platelet count (123 G/L), which proved to be chronic DIC.
  • Therapeutic dose of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was started.
  • This process warrants searching for metastatic neoplasia.
  • Due to the relatively low serum levels of circulating procoagulant factors (e.g. tissue factor), therapeutic dose of LMWH can be used with good efficiency in chronic DIC with low risk of bleeding.
  • Severe DIC as a complication of metastatic prostate cancer can be treated by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or CAB in combination with ketokonazole and concomitant use of supportive treatment.
  • Metastatic prostate cancer complicated with chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy causing acute renal failure mimicking thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome: pathomechanism, differential diagnosis and therapy related to a case.
  • [MeSH-major] Acute Kidney Injury / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / diagnosis. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Chronic Disease. Diagnosis, Differential. Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic / diagnosis


5. Geddes ER, Cohen PR: Antineoplastic agent-associated serpentine supravenous hyperpigmentation: superficial venous system hyperpigmentation following intravenous chemotherapy. South Med J; 2010 Mar;103(3):231-5
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  • [Title] Antineoplastic agent-associated serpentine supravenous hyperpigmentation: superficial venous system hyperpigmentation following intravenous chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To review the clinical characteristics and associated antineoplastic agents in patients who developed hyperpigmentation of the superficial venous system after chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Serpentine supravenous hyperpigmentation was the term coined by Hrushesky to describe increased pigmentation of the skin immediately overlying the venous network used for intravenous infusion of 5-fluorouracil.
  • Subsequently this phenomenon has been observed in individuals treated with other chemotherapeutic agents.
  • METHODS: A 45-year-old woman with breast cancer who developed serpentine supravenous hyperpigmentation after intravenous 5-fluorouracil is described.
  • Published reports of other individuals who developed antineoplastic agent-associated serpentine supravenous hyperpigmentation are reviewed.
  • Other chemotherapy drugs including alkylating agents, antibiotics, anti-microtubules, and proteasome-inhibitors have also caused this distinctive pattern of pigmentation.
  • Serpentine supravenous hyperpigmentation occurs predominately in men who are receiving treatment for solid tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Serpentine supravenous hyperpigmentation is an uncommon sequelae of antineoplastic therapy.
  • Treatment with the associated drug may be continued since this adverse reaction to the chemotherapeutic agent is benign and self-limiting.
  • The hyperpigmented streaks gradually resolve spontaneously after the medication has been stopped.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Hyperpigmentation / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous / adverse effects. Male. Middle Aged. Veins / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20134385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-8243
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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6. Stadler R: Optimal combination with PUVA: rationale and clinical trial update. Oncology (Williston Park); 2007 Feb;21(2 Suppl 1):29-32
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  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is relatively benign in its early stages, but survival rates decrease dramatically as the disease progresses.
  • As no curative therapies are currently available, the goal of therapy is preventing or delaying progression from early disease stages while minimizing long-term toxicity.
  • No single agent, including psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA), can control disease progression fully, so combination therapy is needed to improve response rates.
  • In addition, low-dose combination therapy may improve treatment safety and tolerability.
  • Reduced doses of these combinations may also be effective as maintenance therapies following complete remission.
  • Other treatment combinations shown to be effective in early disease stages include bexarotene with IFNalpha and bexarotene with denileukin diftitox (Ontak).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / drug therapy. PUVA Therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Diphtheria Toxin / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Interleukin-2 / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Staging. Photopheresis. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / therapeutic use. Retinoids / therapeutic use. Tetrahydronaphthalenes / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17474357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Diphtheria Toxin; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Retinoids; 0 / Tetrahydronaphthalenes; 25E79B5CTM / denileukin diftitox; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; A61RXM4375 / bexarotene
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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7. Buechner SA: Common skin disorders of the penis. BJU Int; 2002 Sep;90(5):498-506
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  • [Title] Common skin disorders of the penis.
  • Diseases of the male genitalia range from infectious lesions to inflammatory and neoplastic conditions, including many genital manifestations of more general skin diseases.
  • This review highlights the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of the most common dermatoses of the male genitalia.
  • The most common causal agents for condyloma acuminatum are low-risk HPV 6 and 11; high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 are associated with premalignant and malignant lesions.
  • Treatment for genital warts remains unsatisfactory; recurrences are common.
  • Imiquimod, a new topical immunotherapeutic agent, which induces interferon and other cytokines, has the potential to be a first-line therapy for genital warts.
  • Scabies and pediculosis are transmitted by skin-to-skin contact and sexual transmission is common, with the penis and scrotum favourite locations for scabious lesions.
  • Oral ivermectin, a highly active antiparasitic drug, is likely to be the treatment of choice, but until approval is granted it should be reserved for special forms of scabies.
  • Common skin diseases, e.g. psoriasis and lichen planus, may have an atypical appearance in the genital area.
  • Plasma cell balanitis is a benign, idiopathic condition presenting as a solitary, smooth, shiny, red-orange plaque of the glans and prepuce of a middle-aged to older man.
  • SCC is the most common malignancy of the penis and the role of oncogenic HPV-types has been also established in SCC of the penis.
  • Prevention of SCC of the penis presupposes an identification of risk factors, early detection of all pre-cancerous lesions and treatment of phimosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Penile Diseases. Skin Diseases
  • [MeSH-minor] Balanitis / diagnosis. Balanitis / therapy. Humans. Male. Mite Infestations / diagnosis. Mite Infestations / therapy. Penile Neoplasms / diagnosis. Penile Neoplasms / therapy. Skin Diseases, Parasitic / diagnosis. Skin Diseases, Parasitic / therapy. Skin Diseases, Viral / diagnosis. Skin Diseases, Viral / therapy

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  • (PMID = 12175386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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8. Byrnes P, Ackermann E, Williams ID, Mitchell GK, Askew D: Management of skin cancer in Australia--a comparison of general practice and skin cancer clinics. Aust Fam Physician; 2007 Dec;36(12):1073-5
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  • [Title] Management of skin cancer in Australia--a comparison of general practice and skin cancer clinics.
  • BACKGROUND: Skin cancer is common in Australia and its increasing incidence has been matched by an increase in specifically focused skin cancer clinics staffed by general practitioners.
  • This study compares the management of skin cancer in general practice with that of skin cancer clinic networks.
  • METHODS: Analysis of billing data relating to management of skin cancer from 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2006 in three Queensland general practices (metropolitan, provincial, and rural) representing 23 100 patients and 23 doctors.
  • As far as possible, methods were matched to those used in two published studies of skin cancer clinics.
  • RESULTS: Of the 1417 skin cancers: 31 melanomas and 1361 nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC) were treated by excision, and 25 NMSC were treated nonsurgically.
  • The biopsy to treatment ratio in general practice was 0.7 and the number needed to treat (NNT) was 39, compared with 3.1 and 29 in one skin cancer clinic network and 0.5 and 24 in the other.
  • Eighty-seven percent of skin cancer excisions were closed by primary repair and 54% of all excised lesions were malignant, compared with 42 and 60% in one network and 76 and 46% in the other, respectively.
  • DISCUSSION: The benign to malignant excision rate was similar in general practice and the skin cancer clinic networks, but one network reported very different rates of biopsy and complex wound closure.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatology. Family Practice. Medicine. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Specialization
  • [MeSH-minor] Ambulatory Care Facilities. Australia. Humans. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / surgery. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Queensland

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  • (PMID = 18075640.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8495
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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9. Carneiro BA, Watkin WG, Mehta UK, Brockstein BE: Metastatic basal cell carcinoma: complete response to chemotherapy and associated pure red cell aplasia. Cancer Invest; 2006 Jun-Jul;24(4):396-400
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  • [Title] Metastatic basal cell carcinoma: complete response to chemotherapy and associated pure red cell aplasia.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually a benign and indolent cancer cured in greater than 95 percent of cases.
  • The patient also developed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA).
  • There was no history of exposure to drugs associated with PRCA.
  • PRCA may represent an unusual paraneoplastic syndrome associated with BCC as reported with other carcinomas.
  • This is the first report of PRCA associated with metastatic BCC or the drugs carboplatin and paclitaxel, which were used to treat it.
  • The literature on chemotherapy for metastatic BCC is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / complications. Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16777692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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10. Monteagudo B, Suárez-Amor O, Cabanillas M, León-Mateos A, Pérez-Valcárcel J, de las Heras C: [Down syndrome: another cause of immunosuppression associated with multiple eruptive dermatofibromas?]. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(9):15
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  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome de Down: ¿otra causa de inmunosupresión asociada con dermatofibromas eruptivos múltiples?
  • One patient had psoriatic arthritis under treatment with methotrexate, one had Graves-Basedow disease, and one had hypercholesterolemia.
  • All three patients developed multiple eruptive dermatofibromas.
  • We suggest that the immunologic disturbances associated with Down syndrome, together with other underlying conditions present in these patients, could trigger the development of cutaneous lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Down Syndrome / complications. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / etiology. Immunocompromised Host. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Arthritis, Psoriatic / complications. Arthritis, Psoriatic / drug therapy. Female. Graves Disease / complications. Graves Disease / immunology. Humans. Hypercholesterolemia / complications. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged


11. Huber MA, Staib G, Pehamberger H, Scharffetter-Kochanek K: Management of refractory early-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2006;7(3):155-69
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  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas that manifest primarily in the skin.
  • Mycosis fungoides is recognized as the most common type of CTCL.
  • Patients with early-stage CTCL usually have a benign and chronic disease course.
  • However, although there is a wide array of therapeutic options for early-stage CTCL, not all patients respond to these individual therapies, resulting in refractory cutaneous disease over time.
  • Refractory early-stage CTCL poses an important therapeutic challenge, as one of the principal treatment goals is to keep the disease confined to the skin, thereby preventing disease progression.
  • Much of the focus of current research has been on the evaluation of already available skin-directed therapies and biologic response modifiers and combination regimens thereof, such as the combination of psoralen and UVA (PUVA) with interferon-alpha or retinoids.
  • Likewise, the topical gel formulation of bexarotene has proved to be an important therapeutic option in patients with refractory or relapsed lesions.
  • Oral bexarotene and topical bexarotene have been approved by the US FDA for the treatment of refractory CTCL.
  • Systemic chemotherapy is typically reserved for advanced-stage CTCL and is usually not recommended for early-stage, skin-limited disease.
  • However, recent exploratory studies indicate that low-dose methotrexate may represent an overall well tolerated therapy in a subset of patients with refractory early-stage CTCL, as may pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, which is currently being investigated in this specific clinical setting.
  • Another recently FDA-approved therapy is the interleukin-2 fusion toxin denileukin diftitox, which is now well established to play a role in the treatment of refractory CTCL, including early-stage extensive plaque disease.
  • The value of other agents, such as topical tazarotene, topical methotrexate, and topical imiquimod, and of novel immunomodulatory approaches including monoclonal antibodies, still needs to be assessed for refractory early-stage CTCL.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Phototherapy / methods. Retinoids / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16734503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Retinoids
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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12. Drews R, Samel A, Kadin ME: Lymphomatoid papulosis and anaplastic large cell lymphomas of the skin. Semin Cutan Med Surg; 2000 Jun;19(2):109-17
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  • [Title] Lymphomatoid papulosis and anaplastic large cell lymphomas of the skin.
  • Management varies from observation in patients who have relatively asymptomatic, spontaneously remitting disease (as in LyP) to multiagent chemotherapy regimens with or without autologous stem cell transplantation in patients whose disease has spread to involve extracutaneous sites other than regional lymph nodes (as in disseminated CD30+ lymphoma).
  • The importance of clinicopathologic correlation cannot be overemphasized, because lesions with clinically "benign" behavior may appear "malignant" by pathology, and failure to interpret pathologic findings in accordance with the patient's clinical history and physical exam can result in unnecessary, overly aggressive, and potentially harmful treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Lymphomatoid Papulosis / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 10892712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1085-5629
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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13. Harmer V: Breast cancer. Part 3: advanced cancer and psychological implications. Br J Nurs; 2008 Sep 25-Oct 8;17(17):1088, 1090, 1092 passim
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  • The previous two articles have outlined the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging, and treatment for breast cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment.
  • The series concludes by giving information on advanced disease, including when a patient presents late with a fungating breast lesion, or if the disease has metastasized from the breast to other organs.
  • Lymphoedema is also described and discussed, and the latter half of this article discusses psychological implications of breast cancer, from diagnosis through the individual treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / nursing
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptation, Psychological. Female. Humans. Lymphedema / etiology. Lymphedema / nursing. Neoplasm Metastasis. Palliative Care. Skin Ulcer / etiology. Skin Ulcer / nursing. Social Support

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  • (PMID = 19186363.001).
  • [ISSN] 0966-0461
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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14. Magro CM, Seilstad KH, Porcu P, Morrison CD: Primary CD20+CD10+CD8+ T-cell lymphoma of the skin with IgH and TCR beta gene rearrangement. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Jul;126(1):14-22
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  • [Title] Primary CD20+CD10+CD8+ T-cell lymphoma of the skin with IgH and TCR beta gene rearrangement.
  • When other less common profiles are encountered, a diagnostic challenge is posed.
  • Accurate categorization is critical because of the specificity of therapeutic regimens, including biologics.
  • Her cutaneous disease progressed despite several cycles of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • However, a therapeutic trial with denileukin diftitox resulted in a striking response.
  • Rather than representing an aberrant phenotype, this tumor may represent the malignant counterpart of a benign population of weakly CD20+ T cells of the CD8 subset.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain / genetics. Gene Rearrangement, beta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor / genetics. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains / genetics. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD20 / metabolism. Antigens, CD8 / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Genes, T-Cell Receptor beta / genetics. Humans. Immunophenotyping / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neprilysin / metabolism. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / pathology. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16753590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antigens, CD8; 0 / Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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15. Jurcić V, Perković T, Pohar-Marinsek Z, Hvala A, Lazar I: Infantile myofibroma in a prematurely born twin: a case report. Pediatr Dermatol; 2003 Jul-Aug;20(4):345-9
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  • Infantile myofibromatosis is a rare benign tumor of infancy and childhood that occurs in solitary, multiple, and generalized forms with similar histology but different clinicopathologic and prognostic implications.
  • Even solitary tumors need follow-up, as the type of presentation will be determined over time.
  • It is necessary to differentiate this entity from other more aggressive tumors, especially rhabdomyosarcoma, which is treated by chemotherapy prior to excision.
  • We describe a prematurely born twin girl who had at birth a solitary tumor of the cervicoscapular region, involving the dermis and subcutis.
  • A fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) specimen obtained soon after her birth suggested a diagnosis of benign neoplasm.
  • The tumor was excised 1 month later, at which time it was significantly enlarged, ulcerated, and also exhibited worrisome histologic features including mitoses and infiltrative growth.
  • It had the characteristic histologic pattern of infantile myofibromatosis, and myofibroblastic features of tumor cells were confirmed immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally.
  • [MeSH-major] Diseases in Twins. Infant, Premature, Diseases / pathology. Leiomyoma / congenital. Leiomyoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12869160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-8046
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Mikuz G: [WHO classification of testicular tumors]. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol; 2002;86:67-75
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  • [Transliterated title] WHO-Klassifikation der Hodentumoren.
  • Such atypical cells appear in the tubules adjacent to the germ cell tumors, in some few cases (6%) also in the contra lateral healthy gonad and rarely in infertile men (1%).
  • The precursor lesion can progress to franc germ cell tumor starting probably with seminoma, which still maintain the capability of differentiation (pluripotente cells) in all other types of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • This lesion is missed in germ cell tumors of childhood and in spermatocytic seminomas, both seem to have a histogenetic history rather different from the other germ cell in adults.
  • Spermatocytic seminomas are perfectly benign tumors but they become a life threatening disease when combined with sarcomas (new entity).
  • In the group of mature teratomas the "dermoid cyst" appears as a benign subtype mostly observed in children.
  • This is a harmless name for an extremely dangerous tumor in which one tissue overgrows the other and gives rise to somatic type sarcomas or carcinomas.
  • Such tumors do not respond like germ cell tumors to the usual chemotherapy.
  • Treatment should be tailored according to that used in standard management of the respective sarcoma or carcinoma.
  • In the comments it is mentioned that the testis carcinoid could be a part of teratoma, but the diagnosis is listed in the group of "miscellaneous" tumors together with tumors of ovarian epithelial type.
  • This is a very questionable decision because the normal testis does not contain neuroendocrine cells from which carcinoids would have to be able to develop.
  • This morphologically peculiar tumor can be part of the Swiss syndrome also called Carney's complex.
  • The patients have cardiac myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation, hormone active nodular hyperplasia of the adrenals and soft tissue myxomas.
  • For the therapy of germ cell tumor an assessment of risk factors found by the pathologists is extremely important.
  • The most important independent predictors of relapse are tumor invasion of blood or lymph-vessels, absence of yolk sac elements and the presence of an embryonal carcinoma component.
  • In the absence of such predictors a surveillance policy allows some patients to forgo chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms / classification

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  • (PMID = 12647353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0070-4113
  • [Journal-full-title] Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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17. Massone C, Parodi A, Virno G, Rebora A: Multiple eruptive dermatofibromas in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus treated with prednisone. Int J Dermatol; 2002 May;41(5):279-81
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  • We report a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who developed MDF while she was taking oral prednisone.
  • Other laboratory findings were negative or within normal limits.
  • In 1996, while she was taking 5 mg/day prednisone, several nodules developed on her limbs within a few months.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / adverse effects. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Eruptions / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / chemically induced. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / drug therapy. Prednisone / adverse effects. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


18. Adams BB: Dermatologic disorders of the athlete. Sports Med; 2002;32(5):309-21
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  • The most common injuries afflicting the athlete affect the skin.
  • The list of sports-related dermatoses is vast and includes infections, inflammatory conditions, traumatic entities, environmental encounters, and neoplasms.
  • It is critical that the sports physician recognises common and uncommon skin disorders of the athlete.
  • Knowledge of the treatment and prevention of various sports-related dermatoses results in prompt and appropriate care of the athlete.
  • Vigilant surveillance and early treatment help teams avoid these epidemics.
  • Fortunately, several recent studies suggest that pharmacotherapeutic prevention may be effective for some of these sports-related infections.
  • Other more unusual traumatic skin conditions, such as talon noire, jogger's nipples and mogul's palm, occur in specific sports.
  • Several techniques and special clothing exist to help prevent traumatic skin conditions in athletes.
  • Swimmers with fair skin and light hair may also present with unusual green hair that results from the deposition of copper within the hair.
  • Finally, athletes are at risk of developing both benign and malignant neoplasms.
  • Outdoor sports enthusiasts are at greater risk of developing melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • Athletes spend a great deal of time outdoors, typically during peak hours of ultraviolet exposure.
  • It is critical that the sports physician recognises common and uncommon skin disorders of the athlete.
  • Knowledge of the treatment and prevention of various sports-related dermatoses results in prompt and appropriate care of the athlete.
  • [MeSH-major] Athletic Injuries / diagnosis. Athletic Injuries / therapy. Skin Diseases / diagnosis. Skin Diseases / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Anaphylaxis / diagnosis. Anaphylaxis / therapy. Blister / diagnosis. Blister / therapy. Dermatitis / diagnosis. Dermatitis / therapy. Humans. Nails / injuries. Skin / injuries. Skin Diseases, Infectious / diagnosis. Skin Diseases, Infectious / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urticaria / diagnosis. Urticaria / therapy

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  • (PMID = 11929358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0112-1642
  • [Journal-full-title] Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sports Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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19. Onder M, Adişen E: A new indication of botulinum toxin: leiomyoma-related pain. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Feb;60(2):325-8
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  • Cutaneous leiomyomas are benign neoplasms with smooth muscle differentiation.
  • They are painful tumors of the skin.
  • In the published literature, surgical excision and pharmacologic agents such as analgesics, nifedipine, phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride, gabapentin, and doxazosin have been used in the treatment of leiomyomas with varying degrees of success.
  • Our experience showed that botulinum toxin might offer a new therapeutic approach for leiomyoma by reducing the intensity and the frequency of the pain.
  • Botulinum toxin has no known systemic adverse effects, and can be combined with other treatments without concern for drug interactions.
  • Like any other medication, aside from its actual pharmacologic effect, botulinum toxin may have had a placebo effect in our patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Botulinum Toxins / therapeutic use. Leiomyomatosis / complications. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analgesics / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Pain Threshold / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19150277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics; EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins
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20. Singer CF, Hudelist G, Lamm W, Mueller R, Handl C, Kubista E, Czerwenka K: Active (p)CrkL is overexpressed in human malignancies: potential role as a surrogate parameter for therapeutic tyrosine kinase inhibition. Oncol Rep; 2006 Feb;15(2):353-9
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  • [Title] Active (p)CrkL is overexpressed in human malignancies: potential role as a surrogate parameter for therapeutic tyrosine kinase inhibition.
  • CrkL is a nuclear adaptor and transcriptional activator in Bcr-Abl expressing cells and constitutes the major tyrosine phosphorylated protein in CML, but the expression and biological function of CrkL in other malignancies is largely unknown.
  • Using immunohistochemistry, we have analyzed the protein expression of activated (p)CrkL in normal and malignant tissues.
  • We then treated K562 leukemia cells with imatinib to analyze the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibition on CrkL activation. pCrkL expression was predominantly epithelial and detected in the majority of non-malignant prostate (79%), 49% of colon biopsies, 36% of skin biopsies, and 41% of samples obtained from normal brain.
  • Protein expression was, however, considerably less frequent in normal breast (18%), lung (16%) and ovarian (12%) tissues.
  • In contrast to their corresponding benign tissues, pCrkL expression was significantly more common in breast cancer samples (49%, p<0.0001; Fisher's exact test), lung carcinomas (55%, p=0.0002), lymphatic tissues (80% vs. 10%, p=0.012), skin cancer (67%, p=0.020), ovarian malignomas (50%, p<0.0001) and colon carcinomas (63%, p<0.03).
  • By contrast, activated CrkL was significantly less frequent in prostate carcinoma samples when compared to corresponding non-malignant prostatic tissues (14% vs. 79%, p<0.0001).
  • pCrkL expression was abrogated in K562 cells with the addition of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, which indicates that phosphorylation of CrkL is mediated through targets of therapeutic TK inhibition.
  • We hypothesize that pCrkL is selectively up-regulated in a number of malignant tumor entities and involved in malignant transformation.
  • We further suggest that pCrkL might serve as a potential surrogate parameter for the efficacy of therapeutic TK inhibition.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzamides. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16391854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CRKL protein; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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21. Midorikawa Y, Suzuki K, Motohashi G, Shimazaki J: [Review of our home parenteral nutrition (HPN) and home enteral nutrition (HEN) cases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 Dec;30(1 Suppl):135-7
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  • Home anti-cancer chemotherapy was provided for 2 patients.
  • 2 patients had a benign disease and were on HEN for a long time.
  • We experienced 2 cases of skin complications, one under HPN and the other under HEN, but no severe complication experienced.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Gastrostomy. Humans. Infusion Pumps, Implantable. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / nursing. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 15311785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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22. Kazakov AA, Grishina EE, Tarantul VZ, Gening LV: Effect of human cell malignancy on activity of DNA polymerase iota. Biochemistry (Mosc); 2010 Jul;75(7):905-11
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  • To clarify the possible role of incorrect DNA polymerase iota (Pol iota) function in increased frequency of mutations in mammalian cells, the activity of this enzyme in extracts of cells of different mouse organs and human eye (melanoma) and eyelid (basal-cell skin carcinoma) tumor cells was studied.
  • Both Mg2+, considered as the main activator of the enzyme reaction of in vivo DNA replication, and Mn2+, that activates homogeneous Pol iota preparations in experiments in vitro more efficiently compared to all other bivalent cations, were used as cofactors of the DNA polymerase reaction in these experiments.
  • It was found that in cell extracts of both types of malignant tumors (basal-cell carcinoma and melanoma) Pol iota activity was observed in the presence of either Mn2+ or Mg2+.
  • In the presence of Mn2+ the Pol iota activity in the basal-cell carcinoma exceeded 2.5-fold that in control cells (benign tumors from the same eyelid region).
  • In extracts of melanoma cells in the presence of either cation, the level of the enzyme activity was approximately equal to that in extracts of cells of surrounding tumor-free tissues as well as in eyes removed after traumas.
  • The distinctive feature of tissue malignancy (in basal-cell carcinoma and in melanoma) was the change in DNA synthesis revealed as Mn2+-activated continuation of DNA synthesis after incorrect incorporation of dG opposite dT in the template by Pol iota.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / enzymology. DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase / metabolism. Eye Neoplasms / enzymology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / enzymology. Melanoma / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Enzyme Activators / pharmacology. Humans. Magnesium / pharmacology. Manganese / pharmacology. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 20673215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1608-3040
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochemistry Mosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Activators; 42Z2K6ZL8P / Manganese; EC 2.7.7.- / DNA polymerase iota; EC 2.7.7.7 / DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase; I38ZP9992A / Magnesium
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23. Wild PJ, Meyer S, Bataille F, Woenckhaus M, Ameres M, Vogt T, Landthaler M, Pauer A, Klinkhammer-Schalke M, Hofstaedter F, Bosserhoff AK: Tissue microarray analysis of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase protein expression in melanocytic skin tumors. Arch Dermatol; 2006 Apr;142(4):471-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tissue microarray analysis of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase protein expression in melanocytic skin tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Using tissue microarrays, we investigated whether methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) protein expression is associated with clinicopathologic variables in benign and malignant melanocytic skin tumors.
  • Expression was significantly reduced in primary malignant melanomas and in melanoma metastases compared with benign nevi (P<.001 for both).
  • No other variables had significant associations with MTAP expression.
  • Lymph node metastases demonstrated significantly higher MTAP expression compared with skin metastases (P = .01).
  • Among 26 patients with MTAP-positive melanomas and tumor recurrence, 18 patients who received interferon therapy had a significant benefit compared with 8 patients who did not receive interferon therapy (P = .009).
  • Conclusion Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase protein expression may be a predictive marker of interferon therapy resistance in patients with melanoma and disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Case-Control Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Interferons / therapeutic use. Male. Microarray Analysis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16618867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 9008-11-1 / Interferons; EC 2.4.2.1 / Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase; EC 2.4.2.28 / 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase
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24. Takahashi H, Itoh Y, Nakajima S, Sakata I, Iizuka H: A novel ATX-S10(Na) photodynamic therapy for human skin tumors and benign hyperproliferative skin. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed; 2004 Oct;20(5):257-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A novel ATX-S10(Na) photodynamic therapy for human skin tumors and benign hyperproliferative skin.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment for various skin tumors and other skin diseases.
  • We investigated the potential therapeutic effects of PDT using ATX-S10(Na) ointment and a diode laser in mouse skin models of experimental skin tumors as well as transplanted human samples of superficial skin tumors and lesional psoriatic skin.
  • METHODS: ATX-S10(Na) ointment (1% w/v) was introduced into tape-stripped mouse skin, transplanted squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) samples and human skin diseases after topical application, then PDT was performed.
  • RESULTS: ATX-S10(Na) ointment (1% w/v) was introduced effectively into tape-stripped mouse skin and transplanted SCC samples after topical application, but was not detected after 48 h, as assessed by fluorescence microscopy.
  • PDT, using 1% ATX-S10(Na) ointment and diode laser (50 J/cm(2)), was found to decrease epidermal thickness in 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated mouse skin by 6 days.
  • PDT against Bowen disease, basal-cell carcinoma, and psoriasis xenografts onto SCID mice also showed marked suppression of tumor growth and cell proliferation, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that ATX-S10(Na)-PDT is an effective treatment for various skin tumors and psoriasis in experimental mouse models.
  • [MeSH-major] Photochemotherapy. Porphyrins / therapeutic use. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Diseases / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinogens / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Humans. Laser Therapy. Mice. Mice, Hairless. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Transplantation. Ointments. Psoriasis / drug therapy. Skin / drug effects. Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / adverse effects. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 15379877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0905-4383
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATX-S10; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Ointments; 0 / Porphyrins; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
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25. Kapukaya A, Subaşi M, Kandiya E, Ozateş M, Yilmaz F: Limb reconstruction with the callus distraction method after bone tumor resection. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg; 2000;120(3-4):215-8
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  • [Title] Limb reconstruction with the callus distraction method after bone tumor resection.
  • The callus distraction method was applied to nine patients who were referred to us because of a bone tumor.
  • All of the tumors were localised on the femur, and the histological diagnosis was two chondrosarcomas, one Ewing's sarcoma, three osteosarcomas, one giant cell bone tumor, and the remainder benign fibrous histiocytoma.
  • The mean length of the defect after resection of the tumor was 11.5 (range 8-20) cm.
  • Preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy were applied to patients with osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma.
  • Complications included one deep infection, one skin invagination, and one premature consolidation and bone bridge in the defect area.
  • This method can be used without any need for massive autogenous bone graft in repairing defects of any length and diameter produced after excision of the lesion and thus can be considered as an alternative to other techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Chondrosarcoma / surgery. Femoral Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumors / surgery. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Osteogenesis, Distraction. Osteosarcoma / surgery. Sarcoma, Ewing / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Transplantation. Child. External Fixators. Female. Femur / radiography. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 10738888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
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26. Lito P, Pantanowitz L, Marotti J, Aboulafia DM, Campbell V, Bower M, Dezube BJ: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in patients with HIV infection: a trans-Atlantic series. Am J Med Sci; 2009 Jan;337(1):1-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The occurrence of neuroendocrine (NE) tumors in sites other than the lung and skin has not been well characterized in the setting of concurrent HIV infection.
  • A retrospective chart review was performed, and data regarding demographics, HIV status, presenting symptoms and signs, diagnostic work-up, therapeutic interventions, and outcome were extracted.
  • RESULTS: We identified 4 adult patients, mean age 42 years (range: 37-47) infected with HIV, who developed NE tumors originating in their gastrointestinal tact.
  • The spectrum of tumors ranged from benign (typical carcinoid) to highly aggressive neoplasms (NE carcinoma).
  • Treatment with octreotide, surgical resection, or systemic chemotherapy provided effective symptomatic relief and was associated with a favorable outcome, despite metastases in 2 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These cases serve to broaden the spectrum of neoplasms that may be encountered in the current HIV era, and illustrate the difficulty in establishing the diagnosis of NE tumors in the context of HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / etiology. HIV Infections / complications. Neuroendocrine Tumors / etiology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19155751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9629
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of the medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Wilson VG, Rosas-Acosta G: Molecular targets for papillomavirus therapy. Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord; 2003 Sep;3(3):221-39
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular targets for papillomavirus therapy.
  • Papillomaviruses are infectious agents for human and animal epithelial tissue, and nearly 100 distinct human types (HPVs) have been identified.
  • When these viruses infect cutaneous or mucosal skin they can initially cause clinical warts or persistent infection with little or no visible manifestations.
  • Warts, while usually benign, can be painful or cosmetically unacceptable and often require medical treatment.
  • Furthermore, infection with certain specific HPV types, such as 16 or 18 (as well as several others), is the major risk factor for a woman's development of cervical cancer.
  • In addition to cervical cancer, papillomaviruses have also been implicated in cancers of the skin and respiratory track though the evidence is not yet as conclusive.
  • It is clear that prevention or elimination of papillomavirus infections would ultimately reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and possibly other epithelial cancers as well.
  • The rational development of effective anti-papillomaviral treatments will require a detailed understanding of how these viruses replicate and interact with the host cell, and much progress has been made in this area over the last 10 years.
  • This review will discuss the known functions of the viral proteins with a focus on strategies to interdict their biological activities as a possible means of specific therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Papillomavirus Infections / drug therapy. Papillomavirus Infections / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Design. Humans. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / virology. Papillomaviridae / drug effects. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomaviridae / growth & development. Viral Proteins / physiology. Virus Replication / drug effects. Warts / drug therapy. Warts / virology

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  • (PMID = 14529355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1568-0053
  • [Journal-full-title] Current drug targets. Infectious disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Viral Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 383
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28. Fuchs J, Weber S, Kaufmann R: Genotoxic potential of porphyrin type photosensitizers with particular emphasis on 5-aminolevulinic acid: implications for clinical photodynamic therapy. Free Radic Biol Med; 2000 Feb 15;28(4):537-48

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genotoxic potential of porphyrin type photosensitizers with particular emphasis on 5-aminolevulinic acid: implications for clinical photodynamic therapy.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses exogenously administered photosensitizers activated by light to induce cell death or modulation of immunological cascades, presumably via formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
  • 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated photosensitization is increasingly used for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer and other indications including benign skin disorders.
  • Just as tumor treatments such as ionizing radiation and chemotherapy can cause secondary tumor induction, PDT may potentially have a carcinogenic risk.
  • Evaluation of the biological effects of ALA in absence of activating light and analysis of the mechanism of ALA-PDT and porphyrin-type photosensitizers mediated photosensitization indicate that this therapy has a pro-oxidant and genotoxic potential.
  • However, porphyrin type molecules also possess antioxidant and antimutagenic properties.
  • ALA-PDT delays photocarcinogenesis in mice, and topical ALA alone does not increase skin cancer incidence in these animals.
  • Patients with increased tissue levels of ALA have an increased incidence of internal carcinoma, however, it is not clear whether this relationship is casual or causal.
  • There is no evidence indicating higher rates of skin cancer in patients with photosensitivity diseases due to presence of high protoporphyrin IX (PP) levels in skin.
  • Overall, the presently available data indicate that the risk for secondary skin carcinoma after topical ALA-PDT seems to be low, but further studies must be carried out to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of ALA-PDT in conditions predisposed to skin cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinogens / toxicity. Humans. Mice. Neoplasms / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 10719235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-5849
  • [Journal-full-title] Free radical biology & medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Free Radic. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 176
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29. Rizzo AG, Sanò M, Querci A, Lemma G, Lemma F: [Treatment of skin neoplasms with polidocanol infiltrations. Our experience]. Suppl Tumori; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):S197-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of skin neoplasms with polidocanol infiltrations. Our experience].
  • [Transliterated title] Trattamento delle neoplasie cutanee con infiltrazioni di polidocanolo. Nostra esperienza.
  • They report their 5 years experience in treatment of face and neck skin neoplasms by injections of a sclerosant product as hydropolyethoxydodecan, in case of a difficult good esthetic result with surgery or other therapies because of patients general conditions, such as diabetic ones, or because of their viral nature.
  • Then they affirm to have treated 350 benign and malign tumors with this method.
  • All subjects presented a complete resolution of disease in few weeks and none between them controlled has actually complications or recruitment of neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Polyethylene Glycols / administration & dosage. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16437984.001).
  • [ISSN] 2283-5423
  • [Journal-full-title] I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Suppl Tumori
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0AWH8BFG9A / polidocanol; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols
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30. Egan CA, Lazarova Z, Darling TN, Yee C, Yancey KB: Anti-epiligrin cicatricial pemphigoid: clinical findings, immunopathogenesis, and significant associations. Medicine (Baltimore); 2003 May;82(3):177-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • These patients have a mucosal predominant subepithelial blistering disease that is clinically indistinguishable from other forms of cicatricial pemphigoid.
  • The skin is also involved in most patients, but usually this is less severe than mucosal involvement.
  • AECP is characterized by the binding of circulating IgG autoantibodies to the dermal side of 1M NaCl split human skin on indirect immunofluorescence microscopy.
  • The presence of circulating IgG autoantibodies are specific for the diagnosis of AECP and are not seen in patients with other autoimmune blistering diseases or normal volunteers.
  • The majority of cancers documented in a cohort of 35 patients assembled over 12 years of study were adenocarcinomas that were at an advanced stage at their time of detection.
  • AECP patients also demonstrate a significant risk for mortality as a consequence of treatment with systemic immunosuppressives.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / immunology. Cell Adhesion Molecules / immunology. Immunoglobulin G / immunology. Neoplasms / complications. Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / complications. Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Cohort Studies. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry. Laminin / immunology. Male. Middle Aged. Precipitin Tests / methods. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12792304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7974
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicine (Baltimore)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Laminin; 0 / kalinin; 0 / laminin alpha5
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31. Gauerke S, Driscoll JJ: Hidradenocarcinomas: a brief review and future directions. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 May;134(5):781-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Hidradenocarcinomas are rare, aggressive skin adnexal tumors of sweat gland origin that demonstrate a high potential for local recurrence, metastasis, and poor outcome.
  • These neoplasms can derive from preexisting clear cell hidradenomas but more commonly appear de novo, with the molecular events responsible for the pathogenesis currently unknown.
  • Historically, diagnosis has been difficult because of the few cases, inconsistent nomenclature, variable morphology of cells that compose the neoplasm, and confusion with other visceral metastatic tumors.
  • Presentation is generally benign with an indolent clinical course that typically includes local and multiple recurrences.
  • Currently, molecular markers of pathogenesis as well as effective forms of adjuvant chemotherapy are lacking.
  • Future studies are required to identify the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features, which may facilitate diagnosis and foster development of molecularly targeted forms of adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20441512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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32. Albert A, Cruz O, Montaner A, Vela A, Badosa J, Castañón M, Morales L: [Congenital solid tumors. A thirteen-year review]. Cir Pediatr; 2004 Jul;17(3):133-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Tumores sólidos congénitos. Revisión de 13 años.
  • Tumors diagnosed during the first month of life are infrequent: 0.5 to 2% of all childhood neoplasms.
  • This is an interesting group of tumors because their type, relative incidence, natural history and response to treatment differ from those seen in older children.
  • Neuroblastoma was the commonest tumor (10 cases, 37%), of which 4 were stage I, 4 stage IV-S and 2 stage III.
  • There were 8 teratomas (3 sacrocoxigeal, 1 retroperitoneal, 1 in the CNS, 1 orbitary and two oronasal), two hepatic tumors (1 hepatoblastoma, 1 hemangioendothelioma, two CNS tumors, two giant nevus (one on a hamartoma), and one each Wilms tumor, infantile fibrosarcoma and myofibroblastic tumor.
  • Treatment was surgical resection alone in 17 cases (68%) and surgery + chemotherapy in 8 (32%) (5 neuroblastomas, one CNS tumor, one Wilms tumor and one presacral teratoma who developed a yolk sac tumor); 3 patients died (11%): one at surgery, one of tumoural airway obstruction at birth and one with craniopharyngioma.
  • Among the 14 tumors that were initially not malignant, two can be locally agressive, one was an immature teratoma, the giant nevus with hamartoma developed in situ melanoma, the other nevus had meningeal melanosis with hydrocephalus, and one mature presacral teratoma developed a yolk sac tumor.
  • Their natural history is more benign than in other age groups, except for CNS tumors and very large or obstructing tumors.
  • Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice, most cases not need adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / congenital. Kidney Neoplasms / congenital. Liver Neoplasms / congenital. Neuroblastoma / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / congenital. Teratoma / congenital. Wilms Tumor / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications. Pregnancy. Prenatal Diagnosis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15503950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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33. Midorikawa Y, Suzuki K, Motohashi G, Shimazaki J: [Review of our home parenteral nutrition (HPN) and home enteral nutrition (HEN) cases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 Dec;30 Suppl 1:135-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Home anti-cancer chemotherapy was provided for 2 patients.
  • 2 patients had a benign disease and were on HEN for a long time.
  • We experienced 2 cases of skin complications, one under HPN and the other under HEN, but no severe complication experienced.
  • [MeSH-major] Enteral Nutrition. Home Care Services, Hospital-Based. Neoplasms / therapy. Parenteral Nutrition, Home. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 14708318.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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34. Ibbotson SH: Topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for the treatment of skin conditions other than non-melanoma skin cancer. Br J Dermatol; 2002 Feb;146(2):178-88
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for the treatment of skin conditions other than non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • Topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used increasingly for superficial non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and dysplasia.
  • However, the relative accumulation of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in diseased tissue is not specific for neoplastic disease, and has been shown after the application of ALA to benign proliferative skin conditions such as viral warts and psoriasis.
  • This review appraises the quality of evidence available for the use of topical ALA-PDT in the treatment of skin conditions other than NMSC.
  • Publications relating to the treatment of other diseases by topical PDT are restricted to small case series or case reports.
  • The relevant literature will be discussed and the potential for topical PDT in the treatment of several skin diseases is highlighted, although more detailed studies are required to clarify the role of PDT beyond the treatment of NMSC.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acne Vulgaris / drug therapy. Humans. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Psoriasis / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Warts / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11903225.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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35. Burnei G, Burnei C, Hodorogea D, Gavriliu S, Georgescu I, Vlad C: Osteoarticular reconstructive surgery in malignant bone tumors: the importance of external fixators. J Med Life; 2008 Jul-Sep;1(3):295-306
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  • The patients with malignant bone tumors (table 1.) were studied by sex, tumor type, location, age at the moment of diagnosis, age at the moment of the last evaluation, type of surgery, external fixator implanted, complications, results and survival period.
  • We also considered for each patient the extent of the tumor to diaphysis, soft tissue involvement, involvement of physis and epiphyseal invasion, articular extent, vessels and nerves invasion, presence of metastases and local skin invasion.
  • The other six were reinserted in social activities.
  • The conservative treatment is preferred to the amputation, which is being used in very few cases.
  • The development of reconstructive bone surgery is sustained by the possibility to delineate the tumor by diagnosis based on imaging and by the possibility to use modern preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Limb conservation was possible only in aggressive benign tumors up to 1970.
  • Since then the same treatment was preferred also in malignant bone tumors, because the relapse appeared as frequent as in cases with amputation but the physical and psychological comfort made the patients to accept it readily.
  • The goal of malignant bone tumors treatment is to save the life of the patient, to preserve the affected limb, to maintain the length and function of the limb.
  • Oncologic surgery consists of "en bloc" tumor resection followed by bone reconstruction or modular prosthetic replacement.
  • The use of radiotherapy in some cases may also affect other growing cartilages, leading to limb length discrepancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Chondrosarcoma / surgery. External Fixators. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Osteosarcoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Femur / surgery. Humans. Humerus / surgery. Male. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma, Ewing / surgery. Tibia / surgery. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20108507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1844-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicine and life
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Life
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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36. Oudidi A, El-Alami MN, Boulaich M, Jazouli N, Kzadri M: [Primary sub-mandibular gland tumours: experience based on 68 cases]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord); 2006;127(3):187-90
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  • [Transliterated title] Les tumeurs primitives de la glande sous-maxillaire: à propos de 68 cas.
  • Sub-mandibulary gland tumours are less common than tumours of the parotid and pose many clinical and therapeutic challengers.
  • RESULTS: 68 cases were reviewed comprising 37 benign and 31 malignant tumours (15 females and 33 males).
  • Clinical suspicion of malignancy was associated with symptom of pain, cervical adenopathy, nerve palsy, skin and/or bone invasion.
  • Definitive diagnosis was by complete excision and pathological examination.
  • Pleomorphic adenoma (n= 32) were the most frequent benign tumours.
  • Treatment was by total surgical excision of the submandibular gland for the begnin tumours.
  • For the malignant lesions it was associated acording to their extension with other anatomical region or in case of adenopathy with neck dissection.
  • Radiotherapy was performed in 24 cases and chemotherapy in 10 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / classification. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17007195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-1334
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de laryngologie - otologie - rhinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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37. Velazquez EF, Barreto JE, Rodriguez I, Piris A, Cubilla AL: Limitations in the interpretation of biopsies in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Surg Pathol; 2004 Apr;12(2):139-46
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  • Surgeons often perform small or superficial penile biopsies that are difficult to classify definitely with regard to a benign or malignant nature, and if malignant, cannot always be accurately subclassified.
  • Staging and therapeutic decisions rely on the identification, in these materials, of pathologic parameters related to prognosis.
  • The evaluated parameters were as follows: cancer diagnosis, histologic type, tumor grade, depth of invasion (anatomical levels), and vascular invasion.
  • Levels of invasion were lamina propria, corpus spongiosum, and corpus cavernosum in the glans; and lamina propria, dartos, and skin in the foreskin.
  • In 17 cases (30%) there was a biopsy-penectomy discordance of histologic types, especially of verruciform and mixed carcinomas.
  • Data from biopsies may be insufficient to make a decision whether to perform a groin dissection, or for prognostic evaluation in those patients in whom other treatment modalities (such as radiotherapy or chemotherapy) are being considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Penis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 15173919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Meyer TK, Rhee JS, Smith MM, Cruz MJ, Osipov VO, Wackym PA: External auditory canal eccrine spiradenocarcinoma: a case report and review of literature. Head Neck; 2003 Jun;25(6):505-10

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  • BACKGROUND: Eccrine spiradenocarcinoma is a rare dermal appendage carcinoma believed to arise from transformation of a long-standing benign spiradenoma.
  • This tumor demonstrates highly malignant biologic behavior with a high recurrence rate, frequent lymph node metastases, and overall poor survival.
  • The management of this tumor, its histopathologic characteristics, and a review of literature are presented.
  • Other metastatic sites included skin, bone, and lung.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Eccrine spiradenocarcinoma is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • Primary treatment should include wide local excision with or without regional lymphadenectomy.
  • Isolated successful treatments have been documented with adjuvant hormonal manipulation, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Canal / pathology. Ear Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12784243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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39. Zheng X, Liu W, Yang X, Gong J, Shen F, Shen G, Shen H, Zheng X, Fu W: Endoscope-assisted supraorbital keyhole approach for the resection of benign tumors of the sellar region. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol; 2007;16(6):363-6
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  • [Title] Endoscope-assisted supraorbital keyhole approach for the resection of benign tumors of the sellar region.
  • The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the supraorbital "keyhole" approach with endoscope assistance in surgical treatment of benign tumors around the sellar region.
  • The tumors were resected through an endoscope-assisted supraorbital keyhole approach via a small skin incision within the eyebrow.
  • There was no patient with evidence of residual or recurrent tumor during the follow-up period.
  • There was no infection, bleeding, further vision impairment, oculomotor nerve injury or other cranial nerve injury symptom owing to surgery.
  • Though some patients suffered from insipidus, hyperprolactinemia, subcutaneous edema or other postoperative complications, they eventually recovered with or without drug administration.
  • The supraorbital "keyhole" approach with endoscopic assistance in the surgical treatment of benign tumors around the sellar region is an ideal pattern.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy. Neoplasms / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17852733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-5706
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive therapy & allied technologies : MITAT : official journal of the Society for Minimally Invasive Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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40. Chen CC, Kong MS, Yang CP, Hung IJ: Hepatic hemangioendothelioma in children: analysis of thirteen cases. Acta Paediatr Taiwan; 2003 Jan-Feb;44(1):8-13
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  • Hepatic hemangioendothelioma (HE) is a tumor that presents in infancy and toddler.
  • The common clinical manifestations included abdominal distention (53%), congestive heart failure (38.5%), abdominal mass (30.8%), jaundice (30.8%), and skin hemangioma (23.1%).
  • Computed tomography (n = 11) revealed central hypointensity with peripheral enhancement after contrast of the liver masses.
  • Other management included interferon, chemotherapy, embolization and/or surgery.
  • Among the other nine patients, four patients died of sepsis, hepatic failure, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy or tumor rupture with hemorrhagic shock.
  • HE appears to be a histologically benign tumor but may have a poor outcome because of complications.
  • For its management, steroid is a first-line medication.
  • Other methods of treatment were interferon, hepatic artery embolization, chemotherapy and surgery.
  • Long term follow up is needed for the evaluation of treatment response.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioendothelioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 12800377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1608-8115
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta paediatrica Taiwanica = Taiwan er ke yi xue hui za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Paediatr Taiwan
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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