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Items 1 to 47 of about 47
1. Pugnale N, Waridel F, Bouzourène H, Boubaker A, Pugnale M, Gaillard RC, Gomez F: Pharyngeal pituitary non-functioning adenoma with normal intra-sellar gland: massive tumor shrinkage on octreotide therapy. Eur J Endocrinol; 2003 Mar;148(3):357-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pharyngeal pituitary non-functioning adenoma with normal intra-sellar gland: massive tumor shrinkage on octreotide therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: Functioning or non-functioning ectopic tumors may develop from pharyngeal pituitary remnants.
  • We report a case of a non-functioning ectopic pituitary adenoma of the rhino-pharynx studied over a long-term somatostatin analog treatment.
  • PATIENT AND TREATMENT: A 60-Year-old woman presented with severe posterior epistaxis.
  • On immunostaining, tumor cells were positive for pancytokeratins MNF 116 and C11, epithelial membrane antigen, chromogranin and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and negative for synaptophysin, desmin, actin, estrogen and progesterone receptors, all anterior pituitary hormones and human chorionic gonadotropin.
  • Blood levels of the above hormones and tumor markers were normal, except for a moderate elevation of NSE (33.8 microg/l, normal value <12 microg/l).
  • It was concluded that this was a non-functioning pituitary adenoma of the rhino-pharynx.
  • MRI showed a normal intra-sellar pituitary gland, including the normal bright signal of the posterior lobe.
  • Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) disclosed intense tracer uptake in the tumor, indicating high somatostatin receptor content.
  • There was also an intense uptake in the intra-sellar pituitary.
  • Therapy with long-acting octreotide was started, 20 mg per Month i.m.
  • Repeated endoscopic examinations showed rapid tumor reduction, the mass shrinkage being almost complete at 3 Months.
  • This was confirmed by MRI, while SRS showed markedly decreased uptake in the residual tumor and the intra-sellar pituitary, and NSE became normal.
  • CONCLUSION: Pharyngeal pituitary remnant adenomas are rare, but they must be considered in the differential diagnosis of bleeding or obstructive masses of the rhino-pharynx.
  • As we show for the first time in this location, octreotide can exert prolonged and marked anti-tumoral effects in non-functioning adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 12611618.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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2. Horiguchi K, Yamada M, Umezawa R, Satoh T, Hashimoto K, Tosaka M, Yamada S, Mori M: Somatostatin receptor subtypes mRNA in TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas: a case showing a dramatic reduction in tumor size during short octreotide treatment. Endocr J; 2007 Jun;54(3):371-8
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  • [Title] Somatostatin receptor subtypes mRNA in TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas: a case showing a dramatic reduction in tumor size during short octreotide treatment.
  • TSH-secreting adenoma is a rare pituitary adenoma, and the expression levels of the specific subtypes of somatostatin receptors (sstr) mRNAs have remained obscure.
  • To determine the quantitative expression of the sstr1-5 mRNAs in TSH-secreting adenomas that may be related to the efficacy of treatment with a somatostatin analogue, expression of the sstr1-5 mRNAs was examined and compared in TSH-secreting adenomas and other pituitary adenomas.
  • The pituitary adenomas were obtained at transsphenoidal surgery from 4 cases of TSH-secreting adenoma, including 1 patient showing a significant shrinkage of the tumor size after only 10 days of octreotide treatment, 2 patients without tumor size reduction and 1 patient without treatment, and 5 GH-secreting adenomas, 6 prolactinomas, 5 nonfunctioning adenomas, 4 ACTH-secreting adenomas and normal pituitaries at autopsy from 4 normal subjects.
  • In comparison to the normal pituitary, sstr2A>sstr1>sstr5>sstr3 mRNAs were expressed in the TSH-secreting adenomas examined.
  • The expression level of sstr2 mRNA was significantly higher than those in normal pituitary, prolactinomas, ACTH-secreting and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • The patient with marked shrinkage of the tumor showed the highest expression of both sstr2 and sstr5 mRNAs among all the cases of pituitary adenoma.
  • A TSH-secreting tumor without shrinkage showed a similar expression level of sstr2 mRNA.
  • These findings demonstrated that TSH-secreting adenomas express sstr1, 2A, 3 and 5 mRNAs, predominantly sstr2A, and in addition to the expression of sstr2 mRNA, the expression level of sstr5 mRNA may be a factor affecting the tumor shrinkage by somatostatin analogues against TSH-secreting adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / genetics. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Thyrotrophs / pathology. Tumor Burden / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Protein Isoforms / genetics. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17420609.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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3. Steele CA, MacFarlane IA, Blair J, Cuthbertson DJ, Didi M, Mallucci C, Javadpour M, Daousi C: Pituitary adenomas in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: presentation, management, endocrine and metabolic outcomes. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Oct;163(4):515-22
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  • [Title] Pituitary adenomas in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: presentation, management, endocrine and metabolic outcomes.
  • OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the long-term outcomes of pituitary adenomas diagnosed in childhood and adolescence, knowledge of which remains sparse.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients aged ≤21 years at diagnosis of pituitary adenoma, attending a neuroendocrine service in Liverpool, UK, between 1984-2009.
  • RESULTS: There were 41 patients (33 female), mean age at diagnosis 17.3 years (range 11-21) and mean follow-up 9.6 years; 29 patients had prolactinomas (15 macroprolactinomas), 6 non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), 5 Cushing's disease (CD) and 1 acromegaly.
  • All prolactinoma patients received dopamine agonists (DAs) and three also underwent pituitary surgery.
  • Furthermore, ten patients underwent surgery: five with CD, one with acromegaly and four with NFPA.
  • Thirteen patients gained significant weight (body mass index (BMI) increase >2 kg/m(2)) since diagnosis and 16 in total are now obese (BMI>30 kg/m(2)).
  • Two received antihypertensive medications, two had type 2 diabetes and four were treated for dyslipidaemia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the largest reviews of patients aged 21 or younger at diagnosis of pituitary adenoma followed up by a single service.
  • Increased cardiovascular risk factors (obesity and dyslipidaemia) and infertility are important sequelae and active identification and treatment are necessary.

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  • (PMID = 20685833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists
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4. Hagen C, Schroeder HD, Hansen S, Hagen C, Andersen M: Temozolomide treatment of a pituitary carcinoma and two pituitary macroadenomas resistant to conventional therapy. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Oct;161(4):631-7
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  • [Title] Temozolomide treatment of a pituitary carcinoma and two pituitary macroadenomas resistant to conventional therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: Aggressive pituitary tumours may be difficult to treat.
  • In a small number of cases, TMZ therapy has been reported to reduce pituitary tumour size and hormone hypersecretion.
  • DESIGN: We present three patients with pituitary tumours treated with TMZ.
  • One tumour was initially a macroprolactinoma that developed into a mixed GH- and prolactin-secreting carcinoma (patient A).
  • Two adenomas, a macroprolactinoma (patient B) and a clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma (patient C), were highly invasive.
  • The three patients suffered from extensive tumour mass effects, and all tumours were resistant to conventional treatment.
  • RESULT: During TMZ therapy, tumour sizes were significantly reduced, hormone levels normalized and symptoms of mass effects decreased in all three cases.
  • Three years after the terminating treatment, the tumour has not regrown and hormone levels are normalized.
  • CONCLUSION: TMZ therapy significantly decreased tumour volume, hormone hypersecretion and symptoms in all three patients, corresponding to the pathological findings regarding MGMT.
  • TMZ therapy may be a new option for the treatment of resistant pituitary adenomas.


5. Petrossians P, Thonnard AS, Beckers A: Medical treatment in Cushing's syndrome: dopamine agonists and cabergoline. Neuroendocrinology; 2010;92 Suppl 1:116-9
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  • [Title] Medical treatment in Cushing's syndrome: dopamine agonists and cabergoline.
  • Since this action may also appear in a number of secretory tumors in various locations, DA agonists have elicited some interest as a medical treatment for hypercorticism.
  • Non-iatrogenic Cushing's syndromes are due in 70% of the cases to a pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing adenoma, and, less frequently, to an adrenal adenoma or an ectopic ACTH secretion by a neuroendocrine tumor.
  • First-line treatment in Cushing's syndrome consists of the surgical removal of the secreting tumor.
  • However, surgery may not achieve a complete cure in a number of cases, hence emphasizing the potential benefit of a medical complementary treatment, which could also benefit patients as an alternative approach, either when waiting for, or when the patient is not eligible for surgery.
  • Studies of corticotropic adenomas have shown that 80% of these tumors express D2 receptors.
  • Clinical trials of DA agonists in Cushing's disease have shown an inhibitory effect of these drugs with an inhibition of ACTH secretion and/or a decrease of tumor size.
  • There are only a few cases of documented use of DA agonists in ectopic ACTH secretion, but when the tumor expresses DA receptors, DA agonists may represent a useful complementary treatment.
  • DA receptors are also expressed in normal and tumoral adrenals, suggesting a potential use of DA agonists in Cushing's syndrome secondary to adrenal tumors.
  • However, clinical data regarding this specific situation are very scarce, maybe due to the relatively high rate of surgical cure of adrenal adenomas.
  • In conclusion, DA agonists represent a potential preparatory or complementary treatment for endogenous Cushing's syndrome, especially in Cushing's disease.
  • In the future, association of these drugs with somatostatin analogs may also prove beneficial.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20829631.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0194
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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6. de Herder WW, Reijs AE, Feelders RA, van Aken MO, Krenning EP, Tanghe HL, van der Lely AJ, Kwekkeboom DJ: Dopamine agonist therapy of clinically non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas. Is there a role for 123I-epidepride dopamine D2 receptor imaging? Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Nov;155(5):717-23
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  • [Title] Dopamine agonist therapy of clinically non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas. Is there a role for 123I-epidepride dopamine D2 receptor imaging?
  • OBJECTIVE: Clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) can express functional dopamine D2 receptors.
  • Therapy with dopamine (DA) agonists may result in a NFPA size reduction.
  • However, DA agonist-sensitive and -resistant NFPAs are clinically indistinguishable.
  • We have studied the correlation between in vivo imaging of D2 receptors using (123)I-epidepride and the radiological response of NFPA to DA in 18 patients.
  • RESULTS: Pituitary uptake of (123)I-epidepride varied from slight uptake classified as grade 0 to very high classified as grade 3.
  • NFPA stabilization or shrinkage with DA agonist therapy showed no significant difference between grade 0, 1, and 2 tumors (mean tumor stabilization or shrinkage: 31, 30, and 36% respectively).
  • However, when we considered a decrease in tumor size ranging from 0 to 20% as tumor stabilization and >20% decrease in tumor size as true shrinkage, one out of four NFPAs with grade 1 uptake, two out of three with grade 1 uptake, and eight out of ten with grade 2 uptake showed tumor shrinkage.
  • DA agonist therapy in NFPAs can result in tumor stabilization and shrinkage.

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  • (PMID = 17062888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Pyrrolidines; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 107188-87-4 / epidepride; 80Q9QWN15M / quinagolide; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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7. Olsson DS, Buchfelder M, Schlaffer S, Bengtsson BA, Jakobsson KE, Johannsson G, Nilsson AG: Comparing progression of non-functioning pituitary adenomas in hypopituitarism patients with and without long-term GH replacement therapy. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Nov;161(5):663-9
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  • [Title] Comparing progression of non-functioning pituitary adenomas in hypopituitarism patients with and without long-term GH replacement therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: An important safety issue with GH replacement therapy (GHRT) in hypopituitary patients with a history of a pituitary adenoma is the risk for tumour recurrence or enlargement.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied tumour progression rate in 121 patients with hypopituitarism on the basis of non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) receiving long-term GHRT.
  • A group of 114 NFPA patients not receiving GHRT who were matched in terms of duration of follow-up, gender, age, age at diagnosis and radiotherapy status were used as a control population.
  • RESULTS: In patients with a known residual adenoma, 63% had no detectable enlargement of tumour during the study.
  • In patients who had no visible residual tumour prior to GHRT, 90% did not suffer from recurrence.
  • In total, the 10-year tumour progression-free survival rate in patients with NFPA receiving GHRT was 74%.
  • Radiotherapy as part of the initial tumour treatment reduced the rate of tumour progression in both GHRT and non-GHRT patients to a similar extent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The rate of tumour progression was similar in this large group of GHRT patients and the control population not receiving GHRT.
  • Our results provide further support that long-term use of GH replacement in hypopituitarism may be considered safe in patients with residual pituitary adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 19734242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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8. Wu ZB, Chen Y, Lü QP, Wang CD, Su ZP, Wu JS, Zheng WM, Zhuge QC: [Natural history study of postoperative residual non-functioning pituitary adenomas]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Mar 9;90(9):597-600
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  • [Title] [Natural history study of postoperative residual non-functioning pituitary adenomas].
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the postoperative residual non-functioning pituitary adenomas (PR-NFPAs) without postoperative radiotherapy and to analyze the natural history of PR-NFPAs' growth in order to provide a basis for selecting appropriate strategies of clinical treatment.
  • METHODS: We evaluated the natural history of 20 patients with PR-NFPAs who did not receive postoperative radiotherapy and drug therapy.
  • Through MRI images, the residual tumor volumes of those patients were serially measured.
  • We further calculated the monthly growth rate and the tumor volume doubling time (TVDT) and analyzed the correlations between the patient age, gender, volume of residual tumor, cavernous sinus (CS) invasion and TVDT.
  • Among which, 17 adenomas increased in volume and 3 remained unchanged during a follow-up period of 7 months to 17 years (mean 3.90 yr).
  • As to 17 patients with tumor regrowth, the tumor volume at the beginning of MRI observation period was 4.73 cm(3) and tumor volume at the last MRI observation was 16.98 cm(3).
  • Such factors as patient age, gender, volume of residual tumor and CS invasion did not affect the TVDT of PR-NFPAs.
  • CONCLUSION: The tumor growth rate of PR-NFPAs is not significantly correlated with the patient gender, age, volume of residual tumor and CS invasion.
  • In conjunctions with the volume of PR-NFPAs and the distance between residual adenoma and optic chiasm, we should take the TVDT into consideration and determine the appropriate and safe follow-up period.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Postoperative Period. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20450781.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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9. Lin SH, Hung YH, Lin YF: Severe hyponatremia as the presenting feature of clinically non-functional pituitary adenoma with hypopituitarism. Clin Nephrol; 2002 Jan;57(1):85-8
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  • [Title] Severe hyponatremia as the presenting feature of clinically non-functional pituitary adenoma with hypopituitarism.
  • We present two cases in which severe hyponatremia developed with weakness, light-headedness and seizure.
  • Computerized tomography of the brain revealed an adenoma of the pituitary gland.
  • These two cases illustrate that severe hyponatremia may be the presenting feature of clinically non-functional pituitary adenoma with hypopituitarism, which should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of hyponatremia mimicking SIADH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hyponatremia / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Thyroid Hormones / therapeutic use. Thyroxine / administration & dosage. Vasopressins / blood. Vasopressins / deficiency

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  • (PMID = 11837807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0430
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 11000-17-2 / Vasopressins; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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10. Zhang W, Murao K, Imachi H, Iwama H, Chen K, Fei Z, Zhang X, Ishida T, Tamiya T: Suppression of prolactin expression by cabergoline requires prolactin regulatory element-binding protein (PREB) in GH3 cells. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Jul;42(8):557-61

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  • The prolactin regulatory element-binding protein (PREB) is a transcriptional factor that regulates prolactin (PRL) promoter activity in the anterior pituitary.
  • Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary tumors.
  • Administration of cabergoline, a selective dopamine D2-receptor agonist, has become the initial therapy of choice for most patients with prolactinomas.
  • Samples of ten prolactinomas and ten nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of PREB.
  • The effect of cabergoline on PREB expression was assessed by western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong positive PREB expression in the prolactinoma tissue, but extremely weak or undetected expression in the nonfunctioning pituitary tumor tissue.
  • Western blots probed with a PREB-specific antiserum revealed that the relative abundance of the PREB protein in the GH3 cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to cabergoline treatment, as did the relative abundance of PREB mRNA.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Ergolines / pharmacology. Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors / metabolism. Prolactin / genetics. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Prolactinoma / metabolism. Prolactinoma / pathology. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Transcription, Genetic / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
  • (PMID = 20411477.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors; 0 / PREB protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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11. Guerra Y, Lacuesta E, Marquez F, Raksin PB, Utset M, Fogelfeld L: Apoplexy in non functioning pituitary adenoma after one dose of leuprolide as treatment for prostate cancer. Pituitary; 2010;13(1):54-9
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  • [Title] Apoplexy in non functioning pituitary adenoma after one dose of leuprolide as treatment for prostate cancer.
  • We report the case of a 60 year old male who complained of headache and blurry vision--that progressed to left ophthalmoplegia and ptosis--after receiving a dose of leuprolide for Prostate cancer therapy.
  • The patient underwent transsphenoidal debulking, and the tissue obtained demonstrated immunohistochemical staining for LH.
  • A literature review revealed nine previously reported cases of pituitary apoplexy after GnRH agonist therapy for prostate cancer.
  • In most cases, the sellar tissues stained for LH, consistent with a gonadotropinoma.
  • Particular attention to clinical findings suggestive of a non functioning pituitary tumor in patients receiving GnRH agonist therapy is critical as routine screening with MRI is not practical.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Leuprolide / adverse effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Stroke / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sella Turcica


12. Yaman E, Benekli M, Coskun U, Sezer K, Ozturk B, Kaya AO, Yildiz R, Uluoglu O, Buyukberber S: Intrasellar plasmacytoma: an unusual presentation of multiple myeloma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2008 Sep;150(9):921-4; discussion 924
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  • Occasionally, they can be misdiagnosed as a nonfunctioning adenoma because of radiological and clinical similarities.
  • Initial diagnosis of a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma was later overruled by a repeat biopsy, which showed a plasmacytoma.
  • The tumor stained positively for CD138 and kappa light chain.
  • Further studies confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma.
  • The patient was successfully treated with radiotherapy followed by systemic chemotherapy.
  • Because they have different therapeutic implications, extramedullary plasmacytomas involving pituitary gland should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a nonfunctioning pituitary mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / complications. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Plasmacytoma / diagnosis. Plasmacytoma / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Sella Turcica. Syndecan-1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18726062.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains; 0 / Syndecan-1
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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13. Colao A, Di Sarno A, Marzullo P, Di Somma C, Cerbone G, Landi ML, Faggiano A, Merola B, Lombardi G: New medical approaches in pituitary adenomas. Horm Res; 2000;53 Suppl 3:76-87
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  • [Title] New medical approaches in pituitary adenomas.
  • Recently, the medical approach to patients with secreting and clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas has received great impulse thanks to the availability of new, selective and long-lasting compounds with dopaminergic activity, such as cabergoline, and of somatostatin analogues provided in slow-release formulations, such as lanreotide and octreotide long acting release (LAR).
  • In particular, the use of cabergoline has induced control of hyperprolactinaemia and tumour shrinkage in the great majority of patients with micro- and macroprolactinomas.
  • Cabergoline treatment restores fertility both in women and men, and partially improves osteoporosis, one of the major complications of hyperprolactinaemia.
  • In acromegaly, disease control (growth hormone [GH] <2.5-1.0 microg/l as a fasting or glucose-suppressed value, respectively, together with age-normalised insulin-like growth factor [IGF]-I) is achievable in more than half of patients receiving treatment with lanreotide or octreotide-LAR.
  • Improvement in cardiomyopathy, sleep apnoea and arthropathy has been reported during GH/IGF-I suppression after pharmacotherapy.
  • A synthetic GH analogue, B2036-PEG, that antagonises endogenous GH binding to its receptor-binding sites and a GH-releasing hormone antagonist that blocks the effect of this releasing factor on the hypothalamus and pituitary are presently under investigation in acromegaly.
  • Beneficial effects of subcutaneous octreotide and lanreotide have also been reported in adenomas secreting thyroid-stimulating hormone, while the results of treatment with dopamine agonists or somatostatin analogues remain disappointing in patients with clinically non-functioning adenomas.
  • Scant effects of pharmacotherapy have also been reported in patients with adenomas secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Dopamine Agents / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 10971110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agents; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 118
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14. Verhelst J, Kendall-Taylor P, Erfurth EM, Price DA, Geffner M, Koltowska-Häggström M, Jönsson PJ, Wilton P, Abs R: Baseline characteristics and response to 2 years of growth hormone (GH) replacement of hypopituitary patients with GH deficiency due to adult-onset craniopharyngioma in comparison with patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: data from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database). J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4636-43
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  • [Title] Baseline characteristics and response to 2 years of growth hormone (GH) replacement of hypopituitary patients with GH deficiency due to adult-onset craniopharyngioma in comparison with patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: data from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database).
  • Patients with hypopituitarism caused by a craniopharyngioma (CP) and/or its treatment have a higher mortality than patients with other etiologies, such as a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA).
  • To analyze this difference, we used the KIMS database (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) comparing CP and NFPA patients in terms of baseline characteristics and responses to GH replacement.
  • PATIENTS: Baseline characteristics were studied in 351 CP patients (189 men and 162 women; mean age, 42.5 yr) and compared with 370 NFPA patients, matched for age and sex (185 men and 185 women; mean age, 42.5 yr).
  • The effects of 2 yr of GH replacement were analyzed in a subgroup of 183 CP and 209 NFPA patients.
  • RESULTS: At baseline, both CP and NFPA patients had characteristic features of GH deficiency, with low serum IGF-I, increased body fat, dyslipidemia, and reduced quality of life.
  • Male CP patients were significantly more obese (30.0 vs. 28.2 kg/m2; P = 0.0003) compared with NFPA patients, had a higher waist/hip ratio (P = 0.004), higher triglycerides (P = 0.003), and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.03).
  • Similar, but much smaller, differences were seen in female CP compared with NFPA patients, only reaching significance for waist/hip ratio (P = 0.05) and triglycerides (P = 0.0004).
  • CP patients had more often undergone surgery by the transcranial route (68.8% vs. 30.9%; P < 0.0001), and panhypopituitarism was more prevalent in CP than in NFPA patients (58.7% vs. 19.8%; P < 0.0001).
  • The incidence of previous fractures, hypertension, coronary heart disease, claudication, and diabetes mellitus was high, but not different, between CP and NFPA patients.
  • After 2 yr of GH replacement therapy, similar significant improvements were evident in both groups in fat-free mass, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and Quality-of-Life-Assessment in GH Deficient Adults score compared with baseline.
  • In contrast to NFPA patients, CP patients had no significant decrease in body fat with GH therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the KIMS database, patients with CP have more often undergone surgery by the transcranial route than patients with NFPA, have a higher prevalence of pituitary deficiencies, are more obese (predominantly males), and have more dyslipidemia.
  • CP patients respond equally well to GH therapy in fat-free mass, lipids, and quality of life, but are less likely to lose body fat.
  • We assume that this difference in response merely reflects the stronger tendency of CP patients to accumulate fat over time.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Craniopharyngioma / complications. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Hypopituitarism / drug therapy. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age of Onset. Blood Glucose. Body Composition. Comorbidity. Databases, Factual. Fasting. Female. Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated / metabolism. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Lipids / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Quality of Life. Treatment Outcome


15. Deniz K, Tanriverdi F, Selçuklu A, Kontaş O, Keleştimur F: Signet ring-like cells in pituitary adenoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2008;204(3):209-12
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  • [Title] Signet ring-like cells in pituitary adenoma.
  • We describe a case of non-functioning pituitary adenoma in a 35-year-old woman with a prior history of fertility problems.
  • Histological examination of the tumor revealed signet ring-like cell areas admixed with minor conventional round-polygonal neoplastic cells.
  • The two populations of tumor cells showed strong immunoreactivity for chromogranin and synaptophysin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chorionic Gonadotropin / therapeutic use. Chromogranins / metabolism. Clomiphene / therapeutic use. Female. Fertility Agents, Female / therapeutic use. Headache / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infertility, Female / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18207654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Fertility Agents, Female; 0 / Synaptophysin; 1HRS458QU2 / Clomiphene
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16. Inenaga C, Morii K, Tamura T, Tanaka R, Takahashi H: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the sellar region. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2003 Jul;145(7):593-7; discussion 597
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  • However, no such malignant tumour has been described in the sellar region.
  • Upon initial admission, no endocrinological abnormalities were found, and computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass with calcification in the sella and right cavernous sinus.
  • INTERVENTION: For this malignant tumour, three surgical resections, two sessions of gamma-knife radiosurgery, one session of fractional irradiation, and one cycle of chemotherapy were performed, resulting in only brief arrest of the tumour growth.
  • Pathologically, the tumour consisted of undifferentiated small cells of high cellularity, and islands of hyaline cartilage.
  • CONCLUSION: Although malignant tumours in the sellar region are rare, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of various sellar tumours typified by non-functioning pituitary adenoma, and mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is one possible candidate.

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  • (PMID = 12910404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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17. Błaut K, Wiśniewski P, Syrenicz A, Sworczak K: Apoplexy of clinically silent pituitary adenoma during prostate cancer treatment with LHRH analog. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2006 Oct;27(5):569-72
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  • [Title] Apoplexy of clinically silent pituitary adenoma during prostate cancer treatment with LHRH analog.
  • LHRH analogs have become a promising modality in prostate cancer therapy as an alternative to surgical castration, and the use of these agents is generally considered to be safe.
  • Since now, only few cases of an apoplexy of previously undiagnosed pituitary adenoma (usually gonadotropinoma) at the beginning of therapy have been described in the medical literature.
  • During the first day after gosereline injection the patient developed headaches that became more severe over the next 3 days.
  • Imaging (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) revealed the presence of a pituitary tumor and hemorrhage within the gland.
  • There was no evidence of pituitary dysfunction in hormonal studies.
  • The tumor had negative immunohistochemical GH, ACTH and PRL staining.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pituitary Apoplexy / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Goserelin / therapeutic use. Humans. Male


18. Andersen M, Bjerre P, Schrøder HD, Edal A, Høilund-Carlsen PF, Pedersen PH, Hagen C: In vivo secretory potential and the effect of combination therapy with octreotide and cabergoline in patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2001 Jan;54(1):23-30
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  • [Title] In vivo secretory potential and the effect of combination therapy with octreotide and cabergoline in patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • The secretory capacity, in vivo, of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas may possibly predict tumour volume reduction during intensive medical therapy.
  • Ten patients (mean (range) 53 years (26-73)) with clinically non-functioning macroadenomas, > or = 10 mm were studied.
  • The secretory capacity of the adenomas was examined using basal, NaCl and TRH-stimulated LH, FSH and alpha-subunit levels.
  • The effect on tumour volume of 6 months' therapy with the combination of a somatostatin analogue, octreotide 200 microg x 3/day and a dopamine-D2-agonist, cabergoline 0.5 mg x 1/day was studied.
  • The basal LH, FSH and alpha-subunit levels were determined before and during 6 months' therapy with octreotide and cabergoline, and MR scans were used to evaluate tumour volume before and during this period of therapy.
  • A reduction in tumour volume (mean +/- SEM (range); 30% +/- 4% (18-46%)) during 6 months of combination therapy with octreotide and cabergoline was recorded only in patients with in vivo secretory potential.
  • Tumour volume was not reduced in four patients: in three of these patients it remained unchanged while in one patient it was observed to have increased (by 14%).
  • Of the six patients with pretherapy secretory capacity, one displayed a very high basal level of alpha-subunit (74 microg/l) despite unmeasurable levels of LH and TSH, and an FSH-level of 1 IU/l.
  • During six months of therapy with octreotide and cabergoline, the basal levels of LH, FSH and alpha-subunit were reduced by > or = 50% in seven patients - including the six patients with in vivo secretion prior to therapy.
  • No new visual field defects were detected during therapy and no deterioration of existing visual field defects was recorded.
  • The medical therapy was well tolerated.
  • The in vivo basal and TRH-stimulated secretory capacity of LH, FSH and alpha-subunit predicted tumour reduction following intensive medical therapy in all of our patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / secretion. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Humans. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Thyrotropin / blood

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  • (PMID = 11167922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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22. Zatelli MC, Ambrosio MR, Bondanelli M, degli Uberti EC: In vitro testing of new somatostatin analogs on pituitary tumor cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2008 May 14;286(1-2):187-91
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  • [Title] In vitro testing of new somatostatin analogs on pituitary tumor cells.
  • Somatostatin has been discovered as a somatotroph release inhibitory factor (SRIF), and, indeed, it has been demonstrated that SRIF and its analogs can inhibit pituitary tumor hormone secretion and control neoplastic bulk.
  • Several in vitro studies have contributed to the current knowledge of the mechanisms by which SRIF and its analogs may influence pituitary adenomas, opening the way to new possible therapeutic strategies.
  • This review focuses on the results obtained by testing several SRIF analogs in vitro on pituitary adenomas, concerning both secretory activity and cell viability.
  • These studies provide the basis for further investigations, both at basic and clinical level, of the application of SRIF analogs in the pituitary field.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Survival / drug effects. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18243520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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23. Pivonello R, Matrone C, Filippella M, Cavallo LM, Di Somma C, Cappabianca P, Colao A, Annunziato L, Lombardi G: Dopamine receptor expression and function in clinically nonfunctioning pituitary tumors: comparison with the effectiveness of cabergoline treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2004 Apr;89(4):1674-83
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  • [Title] Dopamine receptor expression and function in clinically nonfunctioning pituitary tumors: comparison with the effectiveness of cabergoline treatment.
  • The aim of this study was to correlate dopamine receptors and D(2) isoform expression with the cabergoline effect on alpha-subunit secretion in vitro and tumor mass in vivo in clinically nonfunctioning pituitary tumors.
  • Eighteen patients were subjected to neurosurgery, and a tumor sample was used for dopamine receptor and D(2) isoform expression evaluation by RT-PCR and the in vitro functional studies.
  • After neurosurgery, nine of 18 patients with persistent tumor were treated with cabergoline and tumor mass was evaluated before and after 1 yr treatment.
  • The in vitro inhibition of alpha-subunit concentration was found in 56% of cases and was associated with D(2) expression (chi(2) = 5.6; P < 0.05).
  • After 1 yr of cabergoline treatment, tumor shrinkage was evident in 56% of patients and was associated with D(2) expression (chi(2) = 5.6; P < 0.05).
  • The expression of D(2short) rather than D(2long) isoform is associated with the most favorable response of the tumor to cabergoline treatment.
  • In conclusion, this study demonstrates D(2) receptor expression and function in nearly 70% of cases, suggesting a role of this drug in the treatment schedule of clinically nonfunctioning pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Dopamine / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Protein Subunits. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / metabolism. Receptors, Dopamine D4. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Visual Fields / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15070930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DRD4 protein, human; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Protein Subunits; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 137750-34-6 / Receptors, Dopamine D4; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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24. Losa M, Mortini P, Giovanelli M: [The role of somatostatin analogues in the treatment of hypophyseal adenomas]. Minerva Endocrinol; 2003 Mar;28(1):39-51
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  • [Title] [The role of somatostatin analogues in the treatment of hypophyseal adenomas].
  • Somatostatin analogues are widely employed in the treatment of hypophyseal adenomas.
  • The most widely used analogues at the present time are octreotide and lanreotide.
  • Both octreotide and lanreotide have proved their effectiveness in the treatment of GH- and TSH-secretory hypophyseal adenomas.
  • In those patients who respond to pharmacological treatment we often achieve not only the control of hormonal hypersecretion, but also a reduction in the volume of hypophyseal neoplasia.
  • In the other types of hypophyseal adenoma, on the other hand, somatostatin analogues have proved to have little effect: apart from isolated cases of effectiveness in non-functioning adenomas, the administration both of octreotide and lanreotide to patients with Cushing's disease or prolactinoma did not significantly modify the hormonal hypersecretion or tumoural volume.
  • The side-effects of somatostatin analogues are comparatively rare and of moderate entity: only a small percentage of patients requires the treatment to be suspended owing to the occurrence of side-effects.
  • Octreotide, bound to radioactive substances or to toxins, has also been utilised for the selective destruction of neoplastic tissues expressing the sst(2) receptor of somatostatin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / etiology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Combined Modality Therapy. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Forecasting. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / secretion. Octreotide / adverse effects. Octreotide / pharmacology. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Peptides, Cyclic / adverse effects. Peptides, Cyclic / pharmacology. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Receptors, Somatostatin / drug effects. Receptors, Somatostatin / physiology. Thyrotropin / secretion. Treatment Outcome. Yttrium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12621362.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / Yttrium Radioisotopes; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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25. Cerovac V, Monteserin-Garcia J, Rubinfeld H, Buchfelder M, Losa M, Florio T, Paez-Pereda M, Stalla GK, Theodoropoulou M: The somatostatin analogue octreotide confers sensitivity to rapamycin treatment on pituitary tumor cells. Cancer Res; 2010 Jan 15;70(2):666-74
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  • [Title] The somatostatin analogue octreotide confers sensitivity to rapamycin treatment on pituitary tumor cells.
  • Rapamycin and its analogues have significant antiproliferative action against a variety of tumors.
  • Here, we investigated this model using the somatostatin analogue octreotide as a tool to decrease levels of activated Ser(473)-phosphorylated Akt (pAkt-Ser(473)) in pituitary tumor cells that express somatostatin receptors.
  • Octreotide potentiated the antiproliferative effects of rapamycin in immortalized pituitary tumor cells or human nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma cells in primary cell culture, sensitizing tumor cells even to low rapamycin concentrations.
  • Combined treatment of octreotide and rapamycin triggered G(1) cell cycle arrest, decreasing E2F transcriptional activity and cyclin E levels by increasing levels of p27/Kip1.
  • These findings show that adjuvant treatment with a somatostatin analogue can sensitize pituitary tumor cells to the antiproliferative effects of rapamycin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Octreotide / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sirolimus / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / biosynthesis. Drug Synergism. Humans. Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins / metabolism. Oncogene Protein v-akt / metabolism. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Up-Regulation


26. Florio T, Barbieri F, Spaziante R, Zona G, Hofland LJ, van Koetsveld PM, Feelders RA, Stalla GK, Theodoropoulou M, Culler MD, Dong J, Taylor JE, Moreau JP, Saveanu A, Gunz G, Dufour H, Jaquet P: Efficacy of a dopamine-somatostatin chimeric molecule, BIM-23A760, in the control of cell growth from primary cultures of human non-functioning pituitary adenomas: a multi-center study. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Jun;15(2):583-96
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  • [Title] Efficacy of a dopamine-somatostatin chimeric molecule, BIM-23A760, in the control of cell growth from primary cultures of human non-functioning pituitary adenomas: a multi-center study.
  • Dopamine D2 and somatostatin receptors (sstrs) were reported to affect non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) proliferation in vitro.
  • We established an experimental protocol allowing reproducible evaluation of NFPA cell proliferation in vitro, to test and compare the antiproliferative effects of dopamine and somatostatin analogs (alone or in combination) with the activity of the dopamine-somatostatin chimeric molecule BIM-23A760.
  • The protocol was utilized by four independent laboratories, studying 38 fibroblast-deprived NFPA cell cultures.
  • BIM-23A760, a molecule with high affinity for D2R and sstr2, significantly inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation in 23 out of 38 (60%) NFPA cultures (EC50=1.2 pM and Emax=-33.6+/-3.7%).
  • BIM-23A760 effects were similar to those induced by the selective D2R agonist cabergoline that showed a statistically significant inhibition in 18 out of 27 tumors (compared with a significant inhibition obtained in 17 out of 27 tumors using BIM-23A760, in the same subgroup of adenomas analyzed), while octreotide was effective in 13 out of 27 cases.
  • In conclusion, superimposable data generated in four independent laboratories using a standardized protocol demonstrate that, in vitro, chimeric dopamine/sstr agonists are effective in inhibiting cell proliferation in two-thirds of NFPAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / pathology. Dopamine / analogs & derivatives. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Cell Division / drug effects. Dopamine Antagonists / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Ergolines / pharmacology. Female. Fibroblasts / cytology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Octreotide / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Sulpiride / pharmacology. Thymidine / metabolism. Tritium. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18509006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / BIM 23A760; 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 3; 10028-17-8 / Tritium; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 7MNE9M8287 / Sulpiride; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; VC2W18DGKR / Thymidine; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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27. Zatelli MC, Piccin D, Vignali C, Tagliati F, Ambrosio MR, Bondanelli M, Cimino V, Bianchi A, Schmid HA, Scanarini M, Pontecorvi A, De Marinis L, Maira G, degli Uberti EC: Pasireotide, a multiple somatostatin receptor subtypes ligand, reduces cell viability in non-functioning pituitary adenomas by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor secretion. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Mar;14(1):91-102
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  • [Title] Pasireotide, a multiple somatostatin receptor subtypes ligand, reduces cell viability in non-functioning pituitary adenomas by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor secretion.
  • Somatostatin (SRIF) analogs have been employed in medical therapy of non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFA), with contrasting results.
  • Previous evidence showed that SRIF can exert its antiproliferative effects by reducing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and action, and that VEGF expression may be related to pituitary tumor growth.
  • The aim of our study was to clarify the possible effects of a multireceptor SRIF ligand on VEGF secretion and cell proliferation in human NFA primary cultures.
  • We assessed the expression of SRIF receptors (SSTR1-5), the in vitro effects on VEGF secretion, and on cell viability of SRIF and of the stable SRIF analog pasireotide (SOM230), which activates SSTR1, 2, 3, and 5.
  • VEGF secretion and cell viability were reduced by SRIF and pasireotide in the 'responder' group, but not in the 'non-responder' group, including NFA expressing SSTR5.
  • In addition, SRIF and pasireotide completely abrogated the promoting effects of VEGF on NFA cell viability.
  • Our data demonstrate that pasireotide can inhibit NFA cell viability by inhibiting VEGF secretion, and suggest that the multireceptor-SSTR agonist pasireotide might be useful in medical therapy of selected NFA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Oligopeptides / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Somatostatin / pharmacology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Survival / drug effects. Female. Hormones / pharmacology. Humans. Ligands. Male. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17395978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide
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28. Trimarchi CP, Russo P: Cyclic estrogen-progestin hormone therapy as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of functional alterations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis: case reports. Endocr Res; 2002 Aug;28(3):155-60
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  • [Title] Cyclic estrogen-progestin hormone therapy as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of functional alterations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis: case reports.
  • We report a first case of a 30 year-old woman affected by polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) whose amenorrhea ceased after a 6-month combination treatment with cyclic estradiol-norethisterone acetate.
  • After the withdrawal of the hormone therapy, a stable recovery of periodic menses was observed.
  • We describe a second case of a 23 year-old woman whose amenorrhea was caused by a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to a non-functioning pituitary adenoma.
  • After the administration of the previously described therapy both a disappearance of the adenoma and a recover of periodic menses were observed.
  • The exogenous hormones may have reset the feedback between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland through mimicking the physiological hormones pattern of the 28-day cycle.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Amenorrhea / drug therapy. Estradiol / administration & dosage. Norethindrone / administration & dosage. Norethindrone / analogs & derivatives. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Feedback. Female. Humans. Hypogonadism / complications. Hypothalamus / drug effects. Hypothalamus / physiopathology. Ovary / physiopathology. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 12489565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0743-5800
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9S44LIC7OJ / norethindrone acetate; T18F433X4S / Norethindrone
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29. Svensson J, Finer N, Bouloux P, Bevan J, Jonsson B, Mattsson AF, Lundberg M, Harris PE, Koltowska-Häggström M, Monson JP, KIMS International Board: Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in GH deficient adults: predictors of one-year metabolic and clinical response. Growth Horm IGF Res; 2007 Feb;17(1):67-76
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  • [Title] Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in GH deficient adults: predictors of one-year metabolic and clinical response.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether baseline status could predict the responsiveness to one-year growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in adult GH deficient (GHD) patients.
  • DESIGN: A total of 380 European patients with adult onset GHD due to non-functioning pituitary adenoma that had been enrolled in Pfizer International Metabolic Database (KIMS), and that had completed one year of GH replacement therapy within KIMS, were studied.
  • Quality of life (QoL)-Assessment of GHD in Adults (QoL-AGHDA), waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, and serum lipid pattern improved.
  • Women received a higher dose of GH than men after one year, and demonstrated similar treatment response.
  • In multiple stepwise forward regression analyses, the one-year changes in QoL-AGHDA score, waist:hip ratio, and serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) level correlated inversely with the baseline values of the same variable.
  • In addition, the change after one year in QoL-AGHDA score correlated inversely with duration of hypopituitarism and baseline serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level, and the change in waist:hip ratio correlated inversely, although more weakly, with baseline serum HDL-C level and UK citizenship and positively with baseline waist circumference and the initial GH dose.
  • Therefore, when the decision to start GH replacement is undertaken, as many outcome variables as possible should be evaluated in order to adequately evaluate the likelihood of clinical benefit.
  • Finally, women have a similar response to GH replacement as men when individualised GH dosing schedules are employed and should therefore be selected for GH therapy to a similar extent.
  • [MeSH-major] Dwarfism, Pituitary / diagnosis. Dwarfism, Pituitary / drug therapy. Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cohort Studies. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Statistical. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Sex Characteristics. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17223598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-6374
  • [Journal-full-title] Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Growth Horm. IGF Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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30. Alameda C, Lucas T, Pineda E, Brito M, Uría JG, Magallón R, Estrada J, Barceló B: Experience in management of 51 non-functioning pituitary adenomas: indications for post-operative radiotherapy. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Jan;28(1):18-22
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  • [Title] Experience in management of 51 non-functioning pituitary adenomas: indications for post-operative radiotherapy.
  • OBJECT: The indications for additional radiotherapy (RT) after surgery for non-functioning pituitary adenoma are controversial.
  • METHODS: Review of cases treated for non-functioning pituitary adenoma.
  • Twenty-nine patients showed residual tumor after surgery and 22 did not.
  • Serial endocrine, visual and radiological evaluations were made after treatment to assess the efficacy and toxicity of surgery and RT.
  • Twenty-seven patients with residual tumor after surgery received RT (22 of them during the post-operative period and 5 after an interval of several yr: 3 because of increased tumor size and 2 with stable residual lesion); tumors in 14 of these patients decreased in size, 11 appeared to be stable on imaging and one patient showed some increase in tumor size (one patient was not followed-up).
  • The residual tumors of the 2 non-irradiated patients remained stable after 5 and 7 yr, respectively.
  • Twenty-two patients without residual disease after surgery (11 with post-operative irradiation, 1 with RT 5 yr after transsphenoidal surgery because of tumor recurrence, and 10 without RT) have shown no evidence of tumor regrowth on serial images.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Radiotherapy can be avoided in patients with complete macroscopic resection and absence of residual tumor in post-operative images; they must be carefully followed using imaging techniques and, in the case of recurrence, they should be re-operated and/or irradiated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hormones / blood. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Postoperative Care. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography. Vision, Ocular / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15816366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
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31. Lohmann T, Trantakis C, Biesold M, Prothmann S, Guenzel S, Schober R, Paschke R: Minor tumour shrinkage in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas by long-term treatment with the dopamine agonist cabergoline. Pituitary; 2001 Aug;4(3):173-8
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  • [Title] Minor tumour shrinkage in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas by long-term treatment with the dopamine agonist cabergoline.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to define safety and efficacy of medical therapy in the treatment of nonfunctioning pituitary tumours.
  • DESIGN: We studied thirteen patients with a clinically nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma for response to cabergoline treatment for 1 year.
  • METHODS: We determined the outcome of treatment by visual perimetry, computed tumour size measurement in MRI and hormonal response (changes in pituitary function, reduction of alpha-subunit).
  • RESULTS: Seven/13 patients on cabergoline had a tumour shrinkage above 10% of the initial tumour volume.
  • In 4 patients, this tumour shrinkage was correlated to an increasing distance of the tumour to the optic chiasm.
  • Only 2/9 patients with visual field defects before therapy showed improvements in visual acuity under cabergoline.
  • Neither LH and/or FSH expression in the tumour cells nor the reduction of the alpha-subunit serum levels by medical therapy was correlated to tumour shrinkage.
  • CONCLUSION: Given that these patients had advanced disease which makes it difficult to find significant therapeutic effects, medical therapy with potent dopamine agonists such as cabergoline may evolve as a novel therapeutic option in a subgroup of patients with clinically nonfunctioning tumours declining operation and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / pathology. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prolactin / blood. Treatment Outcome. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 12138990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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32. Nobels FR, de Herder WW, van den Brink WM, Kwekkeboom DJ, Hofland LJ, Zuyderwijk J, de Jong FH, Lamberts SW: Long-term treatment with the dopamine agonist quinagolide of patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2000 Nov;143(5):615-21
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term treatment with the dopamine agonist quinagolide of patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the effect of prolonged treatment with the dopamine agonist quinagolide on serum gonadotropin and alpha-subunit concentrations and tumor volume in patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (CNPA).
  • The median duration of treatment was 57 months (range 36-93 months).
  • Blood samples for measurement of serum gonadotropin and alpha-subunit concentrations were drawn before treatment, after 5 days, and at each outpatient visit.
  • Computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary region and Goldmann perimetry were done before and at regular intervals during treatment.
  • The levels remained low during the entire treatment period.
  • In two out of three patients with pre-existing visual field defects a slight improvement was shown during the first months of treatment, but eventually deterioration occurred in all three patients.
  • A fourth patient developed unilateral ophthalmoplegia during treatment.
  • During the first year tumor volume decreased in three patients, but in two of them regrowth occurred after a few months.
  • In six patients progressive tumor growth occurred despite sustained suppression of gonadotropin or alpha-subunit levels.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term treatment of patients with CNPA with high doses of the dopamine agonist quinagolide could not prevent progressive increase in tumor size in most patients.
  • Additional studies are needed to investigate whether subgroups of patients, e.g. those with positive dopamine receptor scintigraphy or those with marked hypersecretion of intact gonadotropins or subunits, will respond more favorably to treatment with dopamine agonists.

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  • (PMID = 11078985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Gonadotropins; 80Q9QWN15M / quinagolide; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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33. Widhalm G, Wolfsberger S, Preusser M, Woehrer A, Kotter MR, Czech T, Marosi C, Knosp E: O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase immunoexpression in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: are progressive tumors potential candidates for temozolomide treatment? Cancer; 2009 Mar 1;115(5):1070-80
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  • [Title] O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase immunoexpression in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: are progressive tumors potential candidates for temozolomide treatment?
  • BACKGROUND: Currently, no effective alternative treatment exists for progressive, regrowing, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) that are resistant to conventional multimodality therapy.
  • Temozolomide (TMZ) was proposed as a treatment option for pituitary carcinomas and aggressive pituitary adenomas.
  • Recently, it was suggested that the responsiveness of pituitary tumors to TMZ depends on the immunoexpression of O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT).
  • Therefore, the authors of this report assessed MGMT expression in a series of patients with progressive, regrowing NFPAs to evaluate whether TMZ may serve as alternative treatment option.
  • METHODS: On the basis of postoperative magnetic resonance imaging, 45 patients with NFPAs were allocated to either a group with progressive, regrowing tumors (n = 24) or a tumor-free group (n = 21), which served as a control.
  • MGMT expression was assessed semiquantitatively by immunohistochemistry (low expression was defined as <or=50% immunostained adenoma cells, and high expression was defined as >50% immunostained adenoma cells) and was compared between the 2 groups.
  • RESULTS: At the time of initial surgery, low MGMT expression was observed in 12 of 24 patients (50%) in the study group with progressive, regrowing NFPAs.
  • In the control group of tumor-free patients, only 5 of 21 patients (24%) exhibited low MGMT expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current data has suggested that half of the patients with progressive, regrowing NFPAs exhibit low MGMT expression and are potential candidates for treatment with TMZ.
  • These findings provide a rationale for the use of TMZ as an alternative treatment approach in this subgroup if conventional therapy, including reoperation, radiosurgery, and radiotherapy, fails.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / enzymology. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Reoperation. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 19156926.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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34. Colao A, Dorato M, Pulcrano M, Rossi FW, Auriemma RS, Lombardi G, Lastoria S: [Somatostatin analogs in the clinical management of pituitary neoplasms]. Minerva Endocrinol; 2001 Sep;26(3):181-91
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  • [Title] [Somatostatin analogs in the clinical management of pituitary neoplasms].
  • The medical approach to patients with secreting or clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma as made considerable progress thanks to the use of new somatostatin analogs.
  • Good results were obtained using slow-release analog treatment also in TSH-secreting adenomas, whereas the therapeutic efficacy of these peptides in clinically non-functioning adenomas is still controversial.
  • Treatment with somatostatin analogs improves symptoms, normalises hormone secretion and in some cases may induce a reduction in the volume of pituitary adenomas.
  • Scintigraphy with octreotide may help to select patients who respond to this form of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pentetic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Indium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / secretion. Kidney Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Melanoma / radionuclide imaging. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thymoma / radionuclide imaging. Thymus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyrotropin / secretion. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11753242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 142694-57-3 / SDZ 215-811; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 7A314HQM0I / Pentetic Acid; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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35. Stepień H, Lawnicka H, Mucha S, Wagrowska-Danilewicz M, Stepień B, Siejka A, Komorowski J: Inhibitory effect of thalidomide on the growth, secretory function and angiogenesis of estrogen-induced prolactinoma in Fischer 344 rats. Life Sci; 2006 Sep 27;79(18):1741-8
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  • [Title] Inhibitory effect of thalidomide on the growth, secretory function and angiogenesis of estrogen-induced prolactinoma in Fischer 344 rats.
  • The process of angiogenesis has been found to be essential for the development of estrogen-induced pituitary prolactinoma in Fischer 344 rats.
  • Thalidomide [(alpha-(N-phthalimido)-glutarimide] is known to be a potent immunomodulatory drug with antiangiogenic properties, but its effect on lactotroph cell secretory function and pituitary prolactinoma formation has not been described yet.
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of thalidomide on secretion of prolactin (PRL) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis within the anterior pituitary gland in long-term diethylstilboestrol (DES)-treated male F344 rats in vivo and in vitro.
  • It was found that DES sharply increased serum PRL and VEGF levels.
  • On the other hand, simultaneous treatment of F344 rats with thalidomide for the last 15 days of the experiment attenuated the stimulatory effect of DES on PRL and VEGF secretion.
  • It also diminished prolactin cell proliferation evaluated as the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive stained cell nuclei and increased the number of apoptotic bodies determined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method in sections of the DES-induced pituitary prolactinoma.
  • The density of pituitary microvessels evaluated by microscopic counting of CD-31-positive blood vessels was also diminished by the tested drug.
  • In addition, thalidomide (10(-4) to 10(-6) M) inhibited cell proliferation, prolactin and VEGF secretion from rat pituitary prolactinoma cells cultured in vitro.
  • In conclusion, our results provide strong evidence for the antiprolactin and antitumor activity of thalidomide in experimentally DES-induced pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactin / metabolism. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Thalidomide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, CD31 / analysis. Apoptosis. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Diethylstilbestrol / toxicity. Estrogens / toxicity. Pituitary Gland / chemistry. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A

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  • (PMID = 16846617.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-3205
  • [Journal-full-title] Life sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Life Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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36. Greenman Y, Tordjman K, Osher E, Veshchev I, Shenkerman G, Reider-Groswasser II, Segev Y, Ouaknine G, Stern N: Postoperative treatment of clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas with dopamine agonists decreases tumour remnant growth. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Jul;63(1):39-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Postoperative treatment of clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas with dopamine agonists decreases tumour remnant growth.
  • OBJECTIVE: There is no consensus as to the optimal postoperative treatment of patients with clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) in whom total tumour removal has not been achieved.
  • In this study we assessed whether dopamine agonist (DA) treatment can prevent postoperative remnant enlargement in NFPA.
  • RESULTS: Tumour mass decreased or remained stable in 18/20 patients in whom DA treatment was initiated upon detection of residual tumour on postoperative MRI (group I).
  • In 13 subjects (group II), DA therapy was started when tumour remnant growth became evident during the course of routine follow-up.
  • Tumour growth stabilized or decreased in 8/13 (61.5%) of these patients.
  • In contrast, tumour size remained stable in only 38.3% (18/47) of the untreated subjects (P < 0.0001 for comparisons among the three groups) and increased in the remaining 29 patients.
  • Tumour enlargement free mean survival time was 103.7 +/- 8.8 months (CI 86.3-121) for group I, 43.9 +/- 9.6 months (CI 25.2-62.8) for group II and 36.7 +/- 3.8 (CI 29.2-44.2) for the control group (P = 0.0017).
  • Treatment vs. control hazard ratio for tumour enlargement was 0.135 for group I (P = 0.007, 95% CI 0.032-0.577) and 0.892 for group II (P = 0.817; 95% CI 0.34-2.34).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Dopamine agonist therapy is associated with a decreased prevalence of residual tumour enlargement in patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, particularly when treatment is instituted before tumour remnant growth is detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Humans. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Postoperative Period. Survival Analysis. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone / blood. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15963059.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 5Y5F15120W / Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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37. Zatelli MC, Minoia M, Filieri C, Tagliati F, Buratto M, Ambrosio MR, Lapparelli M, Scanarini M, Degli Uberti EC: Effect of everolimus on cell viability in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Feb;95(2):968-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of everolimus on cell viability in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: Pituitary adenomas can cause specific syndromes due to hormone excess and/or determine sellar mass symptoms.
  • Pituitary cell growth can sometimes be influenced by medical therapy, such as for somatotroph adenomas treated with somatostatin analogs or prolactinomas treated with dopaminergic drugs.
  • However, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs) are still orphans of medical therapy.
  • Everolimus (RAD001), a derivative of rapamycin, is a well-known immunosuppressant drug, which has been recently shown to have antineoplastic activity in several human cancers.
  • Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated after 48 h, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion was assessed after an 8-h incubation.
  • RESULTS: In 28 cultures (70%), Everolimus significantly reduced cell viability (by approximately 40%; P < 0.05 vs. control), promoted apoptosis (+30%; P < 0.05 vs. control), inhibited p70S6K activity (-20%), and blocked IGF-I proliferative and antiapoptotic effects.
  • In selected tissues cotreatment with SOM230, but not cabergoline, exerted an additive effect.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Everolimus reduced NFA cell viability by inducing apoptosis, with a mechanism likely involving IGF-I signaling but not VEGF secretion, suggesting that it might represent a possible medical treatment of invasive/recurrent NFAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Ergolines / pharmacology. Everolimus. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptors, Somatostatin / physiology. Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa / metabolism. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / pharmacology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / secretion

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  • (PMID = 19965918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide; 9HW64Q8G6G / Everolimus; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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38. Neto LV, Machado Ede O, Luque RM, Taboada GF, Marcondes JB, Chimelli LM, Quintella LP, Niemeyer P Jr, de Carvalho DP, Kineman RD, Gadelha MR: Expression analysis of dopamine receptor subtypes in normal human pituitaries, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas and somatotropinomas, and the association between dopamine and somatostatin receptors with clinical response to octreotide-LAR in acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Jun;94(6):1931-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression analysis of dopamine receptor subtypes in normal human pituitaries, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas and somatotropinomas, and the association between dopamine and somatostatin receptors with clinical response to octreotide-LAR in acromegaly.
  • CONTEXT: Dopamine receptor (DR) and somatostatin receptor subtype expression in pituitary adenomas may predict the response to postsurgical therapies.
  • OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to assess and compare the mRNA levels of DR1-5 and somatostatin receptors 1-5 in normal pituitaries (NPs), nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), and somatotropinomas.
  • DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Eight NPs, 30 NFPAs, and 39 somatotropinomas were analyzed for receptor mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR.
  • The fact that DR1, DR4, and DR5 are also expressed in many adenomas tested suggests that these receptors might also play a role in the therapeutic impact of postsurgical medical therapies in patients with NFPA and acromegaly.

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  • (PMID = 19293270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / 30677
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2730344
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39. Lamberts SW, Hofland LJ: Future treatment strategies of aggressive pituitary tumors. Pituitary; 2009;12(3):261-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Future treatment strategies of aggressive pituitary tumors.
  • While surgery remains the first-line treatment of most aggressive pituitary adenomas, medical therapy is important as second-line or adjunctive therapy in a large proportion of patients.
  • Dopamine agonists (DAs) are the best treatment for prolactinomas, but when DAs are not tolerated, new somatostatin receptor subtype 5 (SSTR(5)) inhibitors may offer an alternative in the future.
  • In acromegaly, the existing somatostatin analogs, octreotide and lanreotide, will remain the medical treatment of choice for the foreseeable future.
  • There is an urgent need for medical therapies in Cushing's disease, and the SSTR(5) analogs could offer an effective treatment in a proportion of patients within the next few years.
  • Finally, the medical management options for non-functioning pituitary adenomas are also very limited, and a new chimeric agent with activity towards dopamine receptors, SSTR(5) and SSTR(2) may help reduce adenoma recurrence in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Humans. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / drug therapy. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / surgery. Receptors, Somatostatin / antagonists & inhibitors. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19003539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 20
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2712619
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40. Kelestimur F, Jonsson P, Molvalilar S, Gomez JM, Auernhammer CJ, Colak R, Koltowska-Häggström M, Goth MI: Sheehan's syndrome: baseline characteristics and effect of 2 years of growth hormone replacement therapy in 91 patients in KIMS - Pfizer International Metabolic Database. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Apr;152(4):581-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sheehan's syndrome: baseline characteristics and effect of 2 years of growth hormone replacement therapy in 91 patients in KIMS - Pfizer International Metabolic Database.
  • OBJECTIVE: Sheehan's syndrome occurs as a result of ischaemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum haemorrhage.
  • However, little is known about the effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in patients with Sheehan's syndrome.
  • DESIGN: The demographic background characteristics of 91 GH-deficient patients with Sheehan's syndrome (mean age +/- s.d., 46.3 +/- 9.4 years) were compared with those of a group of 156 GH-deficient women (mean age +/- s.d., 51.5 +/- 13.1 years) with a non-functional pituitary adenoma (NFPA).
  • The baseline characteristics and the effects of 2 years of GH replacement therapy were also studied in the 91 patients with Sheehan's syndrome and an age-matched group of 100 women with NFPA (mean age +/- s.d.
  • Patients with Sheehan's syndrome were significantly younger at pituitary disorder onset, diagnosis of GHD and at entry into KIMS than patients with NFPA (P < 0.01), and had significantly lower insulin-like growth factor I levels (P < 0.001).
  • At baseline, quality of life (QoL) was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in patients with Sheehan's syndrome compared with those with NFPA (P < 0.001).
  • With regard to treatment effects, lean body mass increased significantly (P < 0.05), QoL improved significantly (P < 0.05) and total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in patients with Sheehan's syndrome after 1 year of GH replacement therapy.
  • Similar significant changes in QoL and lipid profiles occurred in patients with NFPA after 2 years of GH replacement.
  • Blood pressure remained unchanged in patients with Sheehan's syndrome, but decreased significantly (P < 0.01) in the group with NFPA after 1 year, before returning to pretreatment levels at 2 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, patients with Sheehan's syndrome have more severe GHD compared with individuals with NFPA.
  • GH replacement therapy in patients with Sheehan's syndrome may have beneficial effects on QoL, body composition and lipid profile.

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  • (PMID = 15817914.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipids; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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41. Shomali ME, Katznelson L: Medical therapy of gonadotropin-producing and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. Pituitary; 2002;5(2):89-98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medical therapy of gonadotropin-producing and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • Clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas are one of the most common types of pituitary tumors.
  • Unless they present with symptoms related to local mass effect, most tumors are detected incidentally when imaging studies are performed for other reasons.
  • Although clinically nonfunctioning, most of these tumors have evidence, in vitro, of gonadotropin hormone or glycoprotein subunit production.
  • The gonadotropins or their monomer submits rarely cause clinically identifiable effects.
  • When these tumors present as macroadenomas, often with associated mass effect and hypopituitarism, primary therapy is neurosurgery.
  • The role for medical therapy will be reviewed here.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / secretion. Gonadotropins / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 12675506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR01066; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R29 AG15882
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Gonadotropins; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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42. Saveanu A, Gunz G, Dufour H, Caron P, Fina F, Ouafik L, Culler MD, Moreau JP, Enjalbert A, Jaquet P: Bim-23244, a somatostatin receptor subtype 2- and 5-selective analog with enhanced efficacy in suppressing growth hormone (GH) from octreotide-resistant human GH-secreting adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2001 Jan;86(1):140-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bim-23244, a somatostatin receptor subtype 2- and 5-selective analog with enhanced efficacy in suppressing growth hormone (GH) from octreotide-resistant human GH-secreting adenomas.
  • Although both somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) and SSTR5 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) are consistently expressed in GH-secreting adenomas, SSTR2 has been believed to be the key modulator of somatostatin-mediated inhibition of GH release.
  • Recently, however, it was demonstrated that an SSTR5 preferential agonist, BIM-23268, not only suppressed PRL release from prolactinomas and mixed GH-PRL adenomas, but also inhibited GH release in about half of GH adenomas.
  • In addition, the SSTR5-preferring analog showed a slight additive effect when used in combination with SSTR2 preferential drugs at submaximal concentrations in octreotide partially sensitive adenomas.
  • In the present study we quantified SSTR2 and SSTR5 mRNA expression and the GH-suppressive effects of somatostatin-14; octreotide; a SSTR2-preferential compound, BIM-23197; a SSTR5-preferential compound, BIM-23268; and a new SSTR2- and SSTR5-bispecific compound, BIM-23244, in GH-secreting tumors classified as either full responders to octreotide (n = 5) or partially sensitive to octreotide (n = 5).
  • The octreotide-sensitive GH secretory adenomas presented with a high level of both SSTR2 and SSTR5 mRNA expression [222 +/- 61 and 327 +/- 136 pg/pg glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), respectively].
  • In these tumors the suppression of GH release was similarly achieved at picomolar ranges by octreotide, BIM-23197, and BIM-23244 (EC(50) = 25 +/- 15, 3 +/- 2, and 3 +/- 3 pmol/L, respectively).
  • The compounds preferential for only SSTR5 were unable to inhibit GH release in such tumors.
  • Among the octreotide partially responsive tumors, SSTR2 mRNA expression was 9-fold lower than in the octreotide-sensitive tumors (25 +/- 12 vs. 222 +/- 61 pg/pg GAPDH; P < 0.015), whereas SSTR5 mRNA expression was approximately 7-fold higher than in the octreotide-sensitive tumors (2271 +/- 1197 pg/pg GAPDH).
  • In these octreotide partially responsive tumors, the SSTR5-preferential compound, BIM-23268, and the SSTR2- and SSTR5-bispecific compound, BIM-23244, were quite effective in suppressing GH secretion (EC(50) = 25 +/- 13 and 50 +/- 31 pmol/L, respectively).
  • Similarly, BIM-23244, was able to suppress by 51 +/- 5% PRL release from five mixed GH- and PRL-secreting adenomas.
  • These data indicate that due to heterogeneous expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5 receptor subtypes, in GH-secreting tumors, a bispecific analog, such as BIM-23244, that can activate both receptors could achieve better control of GH hypersecretion in a larger number of acromegalic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Receptors, Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / metabolism. Adult. Drug Resistance. Female. Hormones / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prolactin / secretion. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11231991.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIM-23244; 0 / Hormones; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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43. Gur C, Lalazar G, Salmon A, Dubiner V, Gross DJ: Metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting as a pituitary space occupying lesion: a case report. Pituitary; 2008;11(3):293-7
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  • [Title] Metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting as a pituitary space occupying lesion: a case report.
  • Neuroendocrine tumor metastases to the pituitary gland are very rare.
  • There are few case reports of carcinoid tumor metastases to the pituitary, but no cases of pancreatic neuroendocrine pituitary metastases have been reported.
  • In this report we present a 55-year-old female with a sellar mass, ophthalmoplegia and headaches initially thought to represent an invasive null cell pituitary adenoma.
  • However a histological (trans-sphenoidal and liver biopsies) and systemic investigation proved it to be a metastasis of an undiagnosed pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Our patient was unique in respect to the location of the metastasis and the uncharacteristically high proliferative index of her tumor.
  • She received conventional therapy consisting of Sandostatin, chemotherapy and radiotherapy as well as labeled somatostatin following an avid uptake on octreotide scanning.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 17638085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Colson A, Brooke AM, Walker D, Besser GM, Chew SL, Grossman AB, Jenkins PJ, Drake WM, Monson JP: Growth hormone deficiency and replacement in patients with treated Cushing's Disease, prolactinomas and non-functioning pituitary adenomas: effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, lipid status and bone mineral density. Horm Res; 2006;66(6):257-67
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Growth hormone deficiency and replacement in patients with treated Cushing's Disease, prolactinomas and non-functioning pituitary adenomas: effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, lipid status and bone mineral density.
  • We report the effects of 5 years GH treatment in 124 GH deficiency adults; 42 patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA), 43 with treated PRL and 39 with treated CD.
  • RESULTS: Mean body mass index remained unchanged in the PRL group and tended to increase in the NFPA group.
  • Decreases in waist and waist/hip ratio were seen in all groups at 6 months.
  • Baseline lumbar spine and hip BMD were lower in the PRL and CD groups than in the NFPA group, decreased over 1 year in all groups and subsequently increased by 2 years in NFPA with a subsequent increase in lumbar spine BMD in PRL and CD groups delayed to 3-5 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Baseline characteristics and response to GH replacement are qualitatively similar in NFPA, PRL and CD patients.
  • Because improvements in BMD occur later in PRL and CD patients, an extended trial of GH therapy may be indicated in those patients who were commenced on GH therapy as an additional treatment for reduced BMD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / therapy. Blood Glucose / metabolism. Body Composition / drug effects. Bone Density / drug effects. Human Growth Hormone / deficiency. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Lipid Metabolism / drug effects. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / physiopathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Prolactinoma / physiopathology. Prolactinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16914933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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45. Korbonits M, Carlsen E: Recent clinical and pathophysiological advances in non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Horm Res; 2009 Apr;71 Suppl 2:123-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recent clinical and pathophysiological advances in non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary adenomas are being recognized and diagnosed with increasing frequency.
  • One of the most common forms of pituitary lesion is the clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA), which is often diagnosed incidentally.
  • The vast majority of pituitary adenomas are sporadic, but familial adenomas can occur in the multiple pituitary adenoma type 1 syndrome, in Carney complex or in familial isolated pituitary adenoma.
  • Distinguishing NFPA from prolactinomas can occasionally cause a differential diagnostic problem due to the 'stalk effect'.
  • NFPA often show hormone synthesis on tissue immunostaining without causing clinical symptoms.
  • Most often these are silent gonadotroph adenomas, with silent corticotroph or somatotroph adenomas occurring less frequently.
  • It is unclear why these silent adenomas do not release hormones at a clinically recognizable level, although it is probable that there is a continuum between fully functional and completely silent adenomas.
  • Temozolomide has been successfully used for the treatment of a few aggressive pituitary adenomas, and the response to this drug could be influenced by the expression of the DNA repair enzyme O-6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase.
  • The early diagnosis, prediction of long-term outcome and treatment of NFPAs remain a challenge for endocrinologists.
  • [MeSH-major] Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma. Prolactinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / therapy. Female. Humans. Male

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19407508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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46. Kreitschmann-Andermahr I, Poll EM, Reineke A, Gilsbach JM, Brabant G, Buchfelder M, Fassbender W, Faust M, Kann PH, Wallaschofski H: Growth hormone deficient patients after traumatic brain injury--baseline characteristics and benefits after growth hormone replacement--an analysis of the German KIMS database. Growth Horm IGF Res; 2008 Dec;18(6):472-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • All 84 TBI patients were matched with 84 patients with GHD due to non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) also included in this database.
  • Analysis of clinical and outcome variables was performed, with comparisons of childhood vs. adult TBI, and TBI vs. NFPA patients, at baseline and one-year follow-up.
  • RESULTS: TBI patients with GHD were significantly younger at the onset of pituitary disease and exhibited a significantly longer time span between GHD diagnosis and KIMS entry than NFPA patients.
  • At 1-year follow-up, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) standard deviation score levels had returned to the normal range and quality of life (QoL), as measured by QoL- Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (AGHDA) questionnaire, improved significantly in TBI as in NFPA patients.
  • CONCLUSION: This analysis provides preliminary data that TBI patients with GHD benefit from hGH replacement in terms of improved QoL in a similar fashion as do NFPA patients.
  • Moreover, it suggests that belated diagnosis and treatment in childhood-onset GHD due to TBI might be related to a shorter final height in these children.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / physiopathology. Databases, Factual. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Humans. Hypopituitarism / complications. Hypopituitarism / drug therapy. Hypopituitarism / physiopathology. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18829359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2238
  • [Journal-full-title] Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Growth Horm. IGF Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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47. Greenman Y: Dopaminergic treatment of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Aug;3(8):554-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dopaminergic treatment of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Dopamine Agents / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Humans. Prolactin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17579584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8374
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agents; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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