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1. Diamond C, Taylor TH, Aboumrad T, Anton-Culver H: Changes in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: incidence, presentation, treatment, and survival. Cancer; 2006 Jan 1;106(1):128-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Changes in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: incidence, presentation, treatment, and survival.
  • BACKGROUND: The authors sought to determine whether the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) coincided with changes in the epidemiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
  • Among patients with systemic NHL, 54% received chemotherapy pre-HAART, and 72% received chemotherapy post-HAART.
  • A diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection preceding the NHL diagnosis and Stage IV NHL were associated with worse survival, whereas a diagnosis of NHL in the post-HAART period and chemotherapy were associated with better survival.
  • Among patients with systemic, AIDS-related NHL, there has been decreased high-grade histology, increased use of chemotherapy, and improved survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Adult. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Registries. Survival Rate


2. Winnicki M, Gariepy G, Sauthier PG, Funaro D: Hodgkin lymphoma presenting as a vulvar mass in a patient with crohn disease: a case report and literature review. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2009 Apr;13(2):110-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hodgkin lymphoma presenting as a vulvar mass in a patient with crohn disease: a case report and literature review.
  • OBJECTIVE: A case of Hodgkin lymphoma of the vulva and perineum is presented along with a review of the literature.
  • Incisional biopsy of the vulvar mass revealed histologic diagnosis and immunohistochemistry typical of classic Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • The patient was designated as having stage IV disseminated Hodgkin lymphoma, and chemotherapy with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine was instituted.
  • A significant reduction of the size of the vulvar mass was observed following 8 cycles of chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS.: Lymphoma of the vulva is rare with the majority being of the non-Hodgkin lymphoma type.
  • The most common subtypes of vulvar lymphoma reported are diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma.
  • Perianal Hodgkin lymphoma is also very rare but has been reported in association with human immunodeficiency virus infection, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and Crohn disease.
  • This is only the second reported case of Hodgkin lymphoma of the vulva and the second case of Hodgkin lymphoma involving the perianal area in a female patient.
  • There is currently no evidence that Crohn disease is associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Crohn Disease / complications. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology


3. Tsimberidou AM, Sarris AH, Medeiros LJ, Mesina O, Rodriguez MA, Hagemeister FB, Romaguera J, Pro B, McLaughlin P, Dang N, Cabanillas F: Hodgkin's disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: frequency, presentation and clinical outcome. Leuk Lymphoma; 2001 May;41(5-6):535-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hodgkin's disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: frequency, presentation and clinical outcome.
  • We report the frequency, presenting characteristics, progression-free survival, event-free survival, overall survival and AIDS-free survival of patients with previously untreated Hodgkin's disease (HD) in the setting of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Anderson Cancer Center between July 1985 and August 1999 with HD and HIV infection.
  • All available records were reviewed to determine presentation, clinical characteristics, treatment outcome, progression-free survival and overall survival.
  • We identified 887 patients with HD and 3,500 with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL).
  • The ratio of NHL to HD in HIV-negative versus HIV-positive patients was 3.9 versus 6.9, respectively.
  • There were 14 HIV-positive patients with HD and 97 with NHL.
  • The median age of the HIV-positive HD patients was 33 years, and 13 were male.
  • Three patients had Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the time of HD diagnosis, and seven had B-symptoms.
  • All patients received some antiretroviral therapy, but it was variable over the years.
  • Six patients died of complications arising from HIV infection, including one patient who had preexisting AIDS at HD presentation.
  • We conclude that in our referral patient population HIV infection is associated with preferential development of NHL rather than HD, which appears curable with standard treatment regimens.
  • Since HIV-related deaths exceed those caused by HD, future investigation should focus on integration of chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / virology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Actuarial Analysis. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11378571.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16672
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents
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4. Little RF, Gutierrez M, Jaffe ES, Pau A, Horne M, Wilson W: HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma: incidence, presentation, and prognosis. JAMA; 2001 Apr 11;285(14):1880-5
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  • [Title] HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma: incidence, presentation, and prognosis.
  • Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma often present with multiple poor prognostic features, including significant tumor burden, advanced immunosuppression, and other concurrent morbidities.
  • Strategies to manage such complex multiple-disease cases have often incorporated the assumption that prospects for long-term survival are poor and that intensive therapy cannot be tolerated and so is not justified.
  • Since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infection, life expectancy has improved substantially for patients in whom the virus can be successfully suppressed.
  • Thus, for complicated cases involving AIDS-associated malignancy, a reassessment of treatment strategies and the potential for long-term survival is warranted.
  • Here, we present the case of a patient with poor prognosis due to AIDS-associated lymphoma with leptomeningeal involvement, advanced immunosuppression, and deep venous thrombosis.
  • Successful strategies for achieving favorable outcomes currently exist with available therapies.


5. Perez K, Castillo J, Dezube BJ, Pantanowitz L: Human Immunodeficiency Virus-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2010 Mar;51(3):430-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human Immunodeficiency Virus-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
  • Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a distinct subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) characterized by the expression of CD30 in lymphoma cells.
  • Like aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the risk of developing PTCL is also increased in the setting of HIV infection.
  • To date, the occurrence of ALCL in HIV-positive individuals is limited to a few case reports and small case series.
  • A total of 37 cases of HIV-associated ALCL were identified after reviewing the available published literature.
  • Analysis of these cases showed that this group of HIV-infected patients was on average 38 years of age with a male-to-female ratio of 4:1, and a reported median CD4 cell count of 83 cells/mm(3).
  • HIV-associated ALCL cells rarely expressed anaplastic lymphoma kinase.
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection was associated with one-third of the cases.
  • The administration of chemotherapy and early stages at presentation were identified as good prognostic factors, while the use of HAART showed a statistical trend toward improved survival in HIV-associated ALCL.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / pathology. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / virology


6. Israel R, Dorer R, Aboulafia DM: Case report of human immunodeficiency virus infection, Hodgkin lymphoma, and pregnancy. Am J Med Sci; 2010 Feb;339(2):185-7
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  • [Title] Case report of human immunodeficiency virus infection, Hodgkin lymphoma, and pregnancy.
  • As the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in women of child bearing age continues to increase in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is the most common non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining malignancy, we anticipate that the number of cases of HIV-associated HL in pregnant women will increase in the near future.
  • Herein, we describe the case of a pregnant 30-year-old HIV-infected Ethiopian woman with a CD4 count of 254 cells/microL and an HIV viral load of 1200 copies/mL who presented to medical attention with progressive neck adenopathy.
  • After a spontaneous miscarriage of 10 weeks into her pregnancy, the patient began highly active antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy.
  • Through a literature review, we identified 2 additional case reports involving HIV, HL and pregnancy.
  • One patient received 3 cycles of chemotherapy, refused further treatment, delivered an HIV-seropositive girl, and died shortly after from complications of presumed pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia.
  • The second patient received both active antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy, delivered an HIV-seronegative boy, and remained in complete remission at 9 months follow-up.
  • We conclude by offering recommendations for the staging and treatment of pregnant, HIV-infected patients with HL.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Hodgkin Disease / complications. Pregnancy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Humans. Viral Load


7. Farris AB 3rd, Kradin RL: Follicular localization of dendritic cells in a xanthomatous inflammatory tumor of lung associated with human herpes virus-8 infection. Virchows Arch; 2006 Dec;449(6):726-9
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  • [Title] Follicular localization of dendritic cells in a xanthomatous inflammatory tumor of lung associated with human herpes virus-8 infection.
  • A 17-year-old man was treated with chemotherapy and radiation for nodular sclerosing Hodgkin lymphoma that presented as a left chest wall mass.
  • Most of the xanthomatous macrophages expressed human herpes virus-8 antigen.
  • The current World Health Organization classification of "inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors" is examined, and the association of a subset of "inflammatory pseudotumors" with immunodeficiency states and opportunistic infection is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Dendritic Cells, Follicular / pathology. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / pathology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Activin Receptors, Type II / analysis. Adolescent. Antigens, CD1 / analysis. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17106709.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD1; 0 / CD1a antigen; EC 2.7.11.30 / ACVRL1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.30 / Activin Receptors, Type II
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8. Diamond C, Taylor TH, Im T, Wallace M, Saven A, Anton-Culver H: How valid is using cancer registries' data to identify acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma? Cancer Causes Control; 2007 Mar;18(2):135-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] How valid is using cancer registries' data to identify acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the accuracy of cancer registry data regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) status of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • METHODS: We used the population-based San Diego/Orange County cancer registry to identify 392 patients with HIV-related NHL diagnosed 1994-1999.
  • After matching for age, sex, race, period of NHL diagnosis, and hospital type, we were able to find 324 corresponding patients among the remaining 4,863 NHL patients diagnosed 1994-1999 (who did not have HIV infection according to cancer registry records).
  • We sought to review these patients' charts at 41 hospitals with 15 separate institutional review boards to determine if the HIV serostatus from the cancer registry was correct.
  • We performed a forward conditional multivariate logistic regression to determine characteristics associated with a false positive HIV status.
  • Compared to correctly identified patients, false positives were more likely to be > or =50 years old, female, and treated with chemotherapy and less likely to be single with high grade or extranodal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Medical Records / standards. Population Surveillance / methods. Registries / standards. SEER Program / standards

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  • (PMID = 17235495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-5243
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer causes & control : CCC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Causes Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA96480
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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9. Rafailidis PI, Kakisi OK, Vardakas K, Falagas ME: Infectious complications of monoclonal antibodies used in cancer therapy: a systematic review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials. Cancer; 2007 Jun 1;109(11):2182-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infectious complications of monoclonal antibodies used in cancer therapy: a systematic review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials.
  • The introduction of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) into the treatment of cancer has led to improvements in patient survival.
  • However, to the authors' knowledge, little attention has been paid to the infectious complications associated with their use.
  • The authors performed a systematic review of the literature to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that included in their outcomes a comparison of the infectious complications of a MoAb plus chemotherapy or radiotherapy versus the therapy regimen given without the addition of a MoAb.
  • Six RCTs compared rituximab in conjunction with the combination of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) versus CHOP alone for the treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
  • No significant increase in the incidence of infections was observed with the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy (based on data from 5 RCTs).
  • However, in patients who were seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a 12% increase in infection-related deaths and a rate of higher opportunistic infections was associated with the rituximab-containing regimen (data taken from 1 RCT).
  • Five RCTs either compared trastuzumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone or trastuzumab monotherapy versus observation in patients with breast cancer.
  • The addition of trastuzumab to the various chemotherapy regimens was found to cause a slight increase in the frequency of high-grade infections while bevacizumab caused a negligible increase in Grade III/IV infections compared with the same regimens given of chemotherapy alone.
  • Based on a single trial, a higher comparable increase in the rate of high-grade infections was noted with the use of cetuximab in addition to chemotherapy compared with chemotherapy alone.
  • MoAbs added to chemotherapy appear to have infectious complications that are comparable to the chemotherapy-alone regimen when administered for the treatment of NHL, with the exception of HIV-seropositive patients.
  • Trastuzumab, which is reported to have a clear benefit in the prognosis of breast cancer patients, was found to cause a small increase in Grade III/IV infectious complications; however, there was no apparent difference in the rate of infection-related death.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 17429839.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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10. Gea-Banacloche JC: Rituximab-associated infections. Semin Hematol; 2010 Apr;47(2):187-98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rituximab-associated infections.
  • Increased number of infections has been documented in patients treated with maintenance rituximab for low-grade lymphoma and in patients with concomitant severe immunodeficiency, whether caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or immunosuppressive agents like fludarabine.
  • From the practical standpoint, the most important infection is hepatitis B reactivation, which may be delayed and result in fulminant liver failure and death.
  • Special care should be placed on screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and preemptive antiviral treatment.
  • This review enumerates the described infectious complications, summarizes the possible underlying mechanisms of the increased risk, and makes recommendations regarding prevention, diagnosis and management.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Infection / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Autoimmune Diseases / complications. Autoimmune Diseases / drug therapy. Autoimmune Diseases / immunology. Disease Susceptibility. Enterovirus Infections / etiology. Enterovirus Infections / virology. Graft Rejection / prevention & control. HIV Infections / complications. Hepatitis B / complications. Hepatitis B / immunology. Hepatitis B virus / immunology. Hepatitis B virus / physiology. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. JC Virus / immunology. JC Virus / physiology. Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal / complications. Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal / immunology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / immunology. Meningoencephalitis / immunology. Meningoencephalitis / virology. Parvovirus B19, Human / immunology. Parvovirus B19, Human / physiology. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / etiology. Postoperative Complications / chemically induced. Postoperative Complications / immunology. Risk Factors. Rituximab. Virus Activation / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20350666.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8686
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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11. Gilaberte M, Gallardo F, Bellosillo B, Saballs P, Barranco C, Serrano S, Pujol RM: Recurrent and self-healing cutaneous monoclonal plasmablastic infiltrates in a patient with AIDS and Kaposi sarcoma. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Oct;153(4):828-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare variant of diffuse large cell lymphoma that often involves the oral cavity of HIV+ patients.
  • We report a 44-year-old man with AIDS and Kaposi sarcoma (KS) previously treated with doxorubicin who, following treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy, developed an erythematous infiltrated nodule on the right arm.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization within the plasmablastic cells.
  • Polymerase chain reaction amplification with specific primers for human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) performed on the skin biopsy specimen detected a specific band.
  • Two years later an infiltrated plaque developed on the abdominal wall.
  • PBL may be seen in patients with transplants or receiving chemotherapy, but is usually observed in patients with advanced AIDS.
  • The observation of recurrent self-healing EBV- and HHV-8-associated cutaneous monoclonal plasmablastic infiltrates, in a patient with AIDS and KS, expands the clinical spectrum of AIDS-associated plasmablastic lymphoproliferative disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / virology. Male. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Recurrence


12. Casper C, Nichols WG, Huang ML, Corey L, Wald A: Remission of HHV-8 and HIV-associated multicentric Castleman disease with ganciclovir treatment. Blood; 2004 Mar 1;103(5):1632-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Remission of HHV-8 and HIV-associated multicentric Castleman disease with ganciclovir treatment.
  • Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a lymphoproliferative disorder associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection among persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
  • Treatment often includes chemotherapy, and progression to non-Hodgkin lymphoma frequently occurs.
  • Two patients experienced a reduction in the frequency of episodic flares of MCD and detectable HHV-8 DNA with intravenous or oral ganciclovir, whereas the third patient recovered from an acute episode of renal and respiratory failure with intravenous ganciclovir therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Ganciclovir / therapeutic use. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / virology. HIV / metabolism. Herpesvirus 8, Human / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. DNA, Viral / blood. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Blood. 2004 Jun 1;103(11):4368-9; author reply 4369 [15155471.001]
  • (PMID = 14615380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 01839; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 054162; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P01 AI30731; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U19 AI31448
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / DNA, Viral; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
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13. Caselli D, Klersy C, de Martino M, Gabiano C, Galli L, Tovo PA, Aricò M: Human immunodeficiency virus-related cancer in children: incidence and treatment outcome--report of the Italian Register. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Nov 15;18(22):3854-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human immunodeficiency virus-related cancer in children: incidence and treatment outcome--report of the Italian Register.
  • PURPOSE: To outline the incidence, presenting features, treatment response, and outcome of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated malignancies in infancy and childhood, together with the estimated risk of HIV-associated cancer in children born to mothers infected with HIV.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Italian Register for HIV Infection in Children collected data by specific registration and follow-up forms.
  • By March 1999, 5,060 children were recruited, including 4,889 with perinatal exposure to HIV-1.
  • RESULTS: Of the 1,331 children observed for a median time of 6.5 years, 35 developed 36 malignancies, four of which occurred in patients with blood-borne risk.
  • For the 1,163 vertically infected children, the cumulative number of years of observation was 7,178 child-years and the cumulative incidence of HIV-associated tumors was 4.18 per 1,000 children/yr (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.92 to 5.98).
  • In this group, 10 tumors were observed, with a cumulative incidence of HIV-associated tumors of 3.57 per 1,000 children per year (95% CI, 1.92 to 6.63).
  • Cancer-directed treatment should be given promptly to these patients, who have a fair chance to survive their tumor in view of potential highly aggressive antiretroviral therapy-associated improvement in survival and quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical. Italy / epidemiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Male. Pregnancy. Prospective Studies. Registries. Treatment Outcome


14. Lester R, Li C, Phillips P, Shenkier TN, Gascoyne RD, Galbraith PF, Vickars LM, Leitch HA: Improved outcome of human immunodeficiency virus-associated plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a report of two cases. Leuk Lymphoma; 2004 Sep;45(9):1881-5
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  • [Title] Improved outcome of human immunodeficiency virus-associated plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a report of two cases.
  • Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a recently described type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) that occurs in up to 3% of patients with HIV infection.
  • Although the clinical-pathological features of several patients with HIV-associated plasmablastic lymphoma are documented, detailed description of clinical outcome is limited to isolated case reports.
  • Generally, the response to lymphoma therapy is poor and survival is short.
  • Response to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), however, has also been described.
  • In this report, we describe the clinical course of two patients diagnosed with HIV-associated PBL in the era of HAART.
  • He is currently in complete remission (CR) eight months from diagnosis of relapse after receiving a full course of combination chemotherapy with modified CHOP, and 25 months from initial diagnosis.
  • A second patient responded to brief chemotherapy in conjunction with HAART and is in clinical CR ten months from diagnosis.
  • We advocate a high index of suspicion for primary PBL or its recurrence in patients with HIV infection, a history of low CD4 counts or high viral load, and oral or gastrointestinal symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV / physiology. Mouth Neoplasms / complications. Mouth Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome


15. Molina A, Krishnan AY, Nademanee A, Zabner R, Sniecinski I, Zaia J, Forman SJ: High dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Cancer; 2000 Aug 1;89(3):680-9
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  • [Title] High dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has allowed the exploration of more dose-intensive therapy such as autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in selected patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
  • METHODS: The authors report on the use of myeloablative chemotherapy with ASCT in two HIV positive patients with NHL.
  • The first patient underwent ASCT at the time of first disease remission for poor risk, diffuse, large cell NHL and the second patient had multiply recurrent, chemosensitive Burkitt lymphoma.
  • RESULTS: The target dose of >/= 5 x 10(6)/kg CD34 positive peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) utilized for ASCT was collected using granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) after chemotherapy for mobilization while both patients were receiving concomitant HAART for HIV infection.
  • Both patients remained in clinical disease remission from their lymphoma at 28 months and 20 months after transplant, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ASCT is feasible in patients with HIV-associated NHL.
  • Adequate numbers of CD34 positive PBSC can be procured from patients receiving HAART and chemotherapy for NHL.
  • Selected patients with HIV-related lymphoma can tolerate the high dose CBV myeloablative chemotherapy regimen without increased acute regimen-related toxicity.
  • Given the poor prognosis of patients with HIV-associated NHL treated with conventional chemotherapy, further investigation of this approach should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD34. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / immunology. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization. Humans. Male. Transplantation, Autologous. Viral Load

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 10931469.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI38592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA30206; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA33572
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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16. Fluri S, Ammann R, Lüthy AR, Hirt A, Aebi C, Duppenthaler A, Leibundgut K: High-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for children with HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Dec;49(7):984-7
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  • [Title] High-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for children with HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • In contrast to adults, autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) as part of the salvage strategy after high-dose chemo/radiotherapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is not yet established for children.
  • We report on a 13-year patient with congenital HIV infection and refractory Burkitt lymphoma, who was successfully treated by high-dose therapy (HDT) including rituximab followed by ASCT.
  • After 26 months follow-up the patient remains in complete remission and his HIV parameters have normalized with continued highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • HIV infection may no longer exclude children from ASCT as part of salvage therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Burkitt Lymphoma / therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy. Transplantation Conditioning
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Follow-Up Studies. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome


17. Segura Huerta A, López Tendero P, Romera Barroso B, Yuste Izquierdo AL, Gironés Sarrió R, Pérez Fidalgo JA, Gómez Codina J, López Aldeguer J: [Non-Hodgkin lymphomas with systemic presentation in patients with HIV infection. Clinical and prognostic factors in a series evaluated before the introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)]. Rev Clin Esp; 2004 Jun;204(6):303-7
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  • [Title] [Non-Hodgkin lymphomas with systemic presentation in patients with HIV infection. Clinical and prognostic factors in a series evaluated before the introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)].
  • [Transliterated title] Linfomas no hodgkinianos de presentación sistémica e infección por VIH. Análisis clínico y de factores pronóstico en una serie tratada antes de la introducción del tratamiento antirretrovírico de gran actividad.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: We studied patients with acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) from January 1985 to October 2001.
  • Burkitt's lymphoma was diagnosed in 34%, and diffuse large cell B lymphoma in 29.5%.
  • A history of AIDS diagnosis was detected in 20 cases (45%).
  • Chemotherapy was used in 64% of the patients, radiation therapy in 2% and both in 11%.
  • Nine (20%) patients are alive (5 without disease), 22 (50%) died because of NHL, 5 (11%) died because of treatment associated toxicity and 8 died because of other causes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HIV and NHL has multiple factors of poor prognosis.
  • The survival is limited and chemotherapy toxicity is high.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. HIV-1. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


18. Bonnet F, Lewden C, May T, Heripret L, Jougla E, Bevilacqua S, Costagliola D, Salmon D, Chêne G, Morlat P: Malignancy-related causes of death in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Cancer; 2004 Jul 15;101(2):317-24
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  • [Title] Malignancy-related causes of death in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), malignancies accounted for less than 10% of all deaths among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.
  • This figure may have increased, and the observed types of malignant disease may have been modified, as a result of decreased occurrence of opportunistic infections, the chronicity of HIV infection, the possible oncogenic role of HIV itself, and the aging of the HIV-infected population.
  • METHODS: All French hospital wards involved in the management of HIV infection were asked to prospectively document the deaths of HIV-infected patients in the year 2000.
  • Acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS)-related malignancies were the underlying cause of 149 deaths (15%); among these malignancies were non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 105 [11%]), noncerebral lymphoma (n = 78 [median CD4 count, 86 x 10(6) per liter; interquartile range [IQR], 35-231 x 10(6) per liter), and primary cerebral lymphoma (n = 27 [median CD4 count, 20 x 10(6) per liter; IQR, 4-109 x 10(6) per liter).
  • Kaposi sarcoma was associated with 40 deaths (4%), and cervical carcinoma was associated with 5 (0.5%).
  • Non-AIDS-related malignancies were the underlying cause of 120 deaths (13%); these non-AIDS-related malignancies included 103 solid tumors (50 respiratory tumors, 19 hepatocarcinomas, 9 digestive tumors, and 6 anal tumors; median CD4 count, 218 x 10(6) per liter; IQR, 108-380 x 10(6) per liter) and 17 hemopathies (12 Hodgkin lymphomas, 4 myeloid leukemias, and 1 myeloma; median CD4 count, 113 x 10(6) per liter; IQR, 56-286 x 10(6) per liter).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant disease has been a major cause of death among HIV-infected patients in industrialized nations since the introduction of HAART.
  • Whereas lethal hemopathies and Kaposi sarcoma are associated with advanced immunosuppression, lethal solid tumors can occur in patients with controlled HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / complications. Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / mortality. Adult. Female. France / epidemiology. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / mortality. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies


19. Bonnet F, Balestre E, Thiébaut R, Morlat P, Pellegrin JL, Neau D, Dabis F, Groupe d'Epidemiologie Clinique du SIDA en Aquitaine: Factors associated with the occurrence of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: Aquitaine Cohort, France. Clin Infect Dis; 2006 Feb 1;42(3):411-7
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  • [Title] Factors associated with the occurrence of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: Aquitaine Cohort, France.
  • BACKGROUND: High grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) remains the most common Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-associated neoplasia and an important cause of mortality in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in industrialized countries in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • METHOD: A case-control study was implemented in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients.
  • RESULTS: Variables associated with a decreased risk of NHL were the use of HAART during follow-up for at least 6 months (odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.98), receipt of a diagnosis of AIDS before the censoring date (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18-0.76), and undetectable level of HIV RNA during follow-up (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.15-0.77).
  • The use of antiherpetic drug for at least 6 months was associated with a nonsignificant decreased risk of NHL (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.11-1.44; P=.16).
  • In multivariate analysis, variables significantly associated with a decreased risk of NHL were the use of HAART for at least 6 months during follow-up (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.87) and receipt of an AIDS-related diagnosis before the censoring date (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.21-0.93).
  • Age, transmission group, hepatitis B and C coinfections, CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell count nadir, and previous history of herpes virus infection were not associated with an increased risk for NHL.
  • CONCLUSION: The use of HAART for at least 6 months was associated with a decreased risk of NHL, whereas uncontrolled HIV RNA load may be associated with an increased risk.
  • The role of antiherpetic drugs needs further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Cohort Studies. Female. France. HIV-1 / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. RNA, Viral / blood. Risk Factors. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology


20. Riedel DJ, Gonzalez-Cuyar LF, Zhao XF, Redfield RR, Gilliam BL: Plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity: a rapidly progressive lymphoma associated with HIV infection. Lancet Infect Dis; 2008 Apr;8(4):261-7
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  • [Title] Plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity: a rapidly progressive lymphoma associated with HIV infection.
  • Plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity is a form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and was first described in 1997.
  • We describe a case of plasmablastic lymphoma in an HIV-infected patient who presented with an expanding oral lesion and symptoms of a toothache.
  • We review all cases of plasmablastic lymphoma that have been reported in the literature.
  • Plasmablastic lymphoma is strongly associated with immunodeficiency, and most particularly, with HIV infection.
  • The pathophysiological origin of plasmablastic lymphoma has not been fully characterised, but the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has often been documented in biopsy specimens, supporting a role for EBV in the pathogenesis of this lymphoma.
  • The differential diagnosis for an expanding oral lesion includes both infectious and malignant processes.
  • Biopsy is essential for making a correct and prompt diagnosis.
  • Treatment usually involves chemotherapy, but antiretroviral therapy may also have an important role.
  • Infectious disease clinicians should be aware of this newly described and increasingly encountered lymphoma, since it is prominently associated with immunosuppression and may be mistaken for other entities.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Mouth / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Head / radiography. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Toothache / etiology

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  • [ErratumIn] Lancet Infect Dis. 2010 Apr;10(4):226
  • (PMID = 18353267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Infect Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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21. Campanini A, Marani M, Mastroianni A, Cancellieri C, Vicini C: Human immunodeficiency virus infection: personal experience in changes in head and neck manifestations due to recent antiretroviral therapies. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2005 Feb;25(1):30-5
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  • [Title] Human immunodeficiency virus infection: personal experience in changes in head and neck manifestations due to recent antiretroviral therapies.
  • Both the incidence and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection are increasing in the world.
  • Diseases of ENT districts are more frequent in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and involve all the otolaryngological sites.
  • The otorhinolaryngological manifestations in association with HIV infection are mainly atypical, so common in the clinical practice, really aspecific and very frequent in ENT daily routine (such as sinusitis, otitis, etc.) and, therefore, immunodeficiency may not be suspected.
  • In other cases, ENT evidence is more peculiar or unusual, such as opportunistic infections, rare neoplasm and tumours with an unusual course, giving a very high suspect of a human immunodeficiency virus-related infection.
  • The most frequent malignant neoplasm is Kaposi's Sarcoma which is extremely rare in non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects; the second most frequent is non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with 50% in extranodal sites (oral and maxillary sinus).
  • Following a review of the literature, modifications caused by current antiretroviral treatment on head and neck manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection have been evaluated.
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy is a new therapeutic strategy, based on poly-chemo-therapeutic schemes, providing simultaneously two or more anti-retroviral drugs.
  • We have used highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus infection since 1997, substituting previous mono-chemotherapy based on Zidovudine or Didanosine alone.
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy is extremely efficient in reducing the viral load of human immunodeficiency virus and increasing CD4+ T-lymphocyte count.
  • These biological effects are associated with an improvement in immune functions.
  • To evaluate the effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on otorhinolaryngological manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus infection, we performed a retrospective study on 470 adults, observed over 14 years (1989-2002) and constantly receiving the same treatment, with follow-up from 7 to 80 months.
  • A total of 250 subjects underwent mono-antiretroviral chemotherapy (1989-1996), while 220 underwent highly active antiretroviral therapy (1997-2002).
  • The results of the retrospective study showed that highly active antiretroviral therapy has greatly improved the control of the immune-deficiency (increasing the range of CD4+), reducing the number of otorhinolaryngological manifestations (also tumours).
  • On the other hand, 2 patients presented sudden unilateral hearing loss following treatment: toxicity due to association of new drugs cannot be excluded.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD4 / immunology. Didanosine / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Prevalence. Pseudomonas Infections / epidemiology. Zidovudine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16080313.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-100X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD4; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine; K3GDH6OH08 / Didanosine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2639849
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22. Re A, Casari S, Cattaneo C, Facchetti F, Cadeo G, Carosi G, Rossi G: Hodgkin disease developing in patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus results in clinical features and a prognosis similar to those in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer; 2001 Dec 1;92(11):2739-45
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  • [Title] Hodgkin disease developing in patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus results in clinical features and a prognosis similar to those in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Unlike aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin disease (HD) develops rarely in patients who are infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and its characteristics are not well defined.
  • The authors analyzed the clinicopathologic and prognostic features from a consecutive series of patients with HIV-associated HD who were observed at their institution and compared them with the features observed in a concurrent series of patients with systemic HIV-related NHL.
  • METHODS: Eighteen patients with HIV infection who were diagnosed and treated uniformly from 1985 to 1999 at a single primary referral center were analyzed.
  • Their demographic, immunologic, and clinicopathologic features; responses to treatment; and outcomes were compared with those of 98 patients with systemic NHL of aggressive histology who were diagnosed during the same period and with 165 HIV negative patients with HD.
  • RESULTS: HIV-associated HD and NHL occurred in patients with similar age, gender, HIV risk factors, degree of immunodeficiency, and incidence of previous acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
  • The clinical presentation of HIV-associated HD was atypical and was more aggressive than in HIV negative patients (mediastinal involvement, 11%; Stage III-IV, 84%; B symptoms, 83%).
  • It was similar to HIV-related NHL, except for the frequency of extralymph node disease, which was seen less frequently in patients who had HD (56%) compared with patients who had NHL (82%; P = 0.025), and the frequency of bone marrow involvement, which was unexpectedly higher in patients who had HD (50%) compared with patients who had NHL (20%; P = 0.011).
  • Potentially curative treatment was administered to 77% of patients with HD and 66% of patients with NHL.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HIV-associated HD is an aggressive disease with demographic, clinical, and prognostic features nearly identical to those of HIV-related NHL.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications. Hodgkin Disease / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


23. Bibas M, Antinori A: EBV and HIV-Related Lymphoma. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis; 2009;1(2):e2009032
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  • [Title] EBV and HIV-Related Lymphoma.
  • HIV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders represent a heterogeneous group of diseases, arising in the presence of HIV-associated immunodeficiency.
  • The overall prevalence of HIV-associated lymphoma is significantly higher compared to that of the general population and it continues to be relevant even after the wide availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (1).
  • Moreover, they still represent one of the most frequent cause of death in HIV-infected patients.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a γ-Herpesviruses, is involved in human lymphomagenesis, particularly in HIV immunocompromised patients.
  • It has been largely implicated in the development of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders as Burkitt lymphoma (BL), Hodgkin disease (HD), systemic non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NC).
  • Virus-associated lymphomas are becoming of significant concern for the mortality of long-lived HIV immunocompromised patients, and therefore, research of advanced strategies for AIDS-related lymphomas is an important field in cancer chemotherapy.
  • Detailed understanding of the EBV lifecycle and related cancers at the molecular level is required for novel strategies of molecular-targeted cancer chemotherapy The linkage of HIV-related lymphoma with EBV infection of the tumor clone has several pathogenetic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications which are reviewed herein.

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  • (PMID = 21416008.001).
  • [ISSN] 2035-3006
  • [Journal-full-title] Mediterranean journal of hematology and infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3033170
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24. Abruzzo LV, Rosales CM, Medeiros LJ, Vega F, Luthra R, Manning JT, Keating MJ, Jones D: Epstein-Barr virus-positive B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders arising in immunodeficient patients previously treated with fludarabine for low-grade B-cell neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol; 2002 May;26(5):630-6
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  • [Title] Epstein-Barr virus-positive B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders arising in immunodeficient patients previously treated with fludarabine for low-grade B-cell neoplasms.
  • We describe five patients with treated low-grade B-cell neoplasms who subsequently developed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (BLPDs).
  • The low-grade B-cell neoplasms were B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in four patients and splenic marginal zone lymphoma in one patient.
  • All patients had received treatment with fludarabine for the low-grade B-cell neoplasm, and three had also received Campath-1H.
  • The EBV-BLPDs arose 2-12 months after completion of fludarabine therapy and morphologically resembled the EBV-BLPDs that occur in the setting of iatrogenic immunodeficiency.
  • Two patients did not receive therapy for the EBV-BLPD.
  • One patient received aggressive multiagent chemotherapy with a complete response initially, but the EBV-BLPD recurred after 12 months.
  • One patient received antiviral therapy and responded completely but died 2 months later of an opportunistic infection.
  • We conclude that patients with low-grade B-cell neoplasms treated with fludarabine, possibly in combination with other immune suppressive agents, may subsequently develop EBV-BLPDs that morphologically resemble other iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated BLPDs.
  • A subset of these lesions may regress without systemic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / chemically induced. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Immunocompromised Host. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / chemically induced. Ribosomal Proteins. Vidarabine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 11979093.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ribosomal Proteins; 135844-68-7 / RPL22 protein, human; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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25. Behler CM, Kaplan LD: Advances in the management of HIV-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2006 Sep;18(5):437-43
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  • [Title] Advances in the management of HIV-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Even with a decrease in AIDS-defining illnesses after the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma remains an important problem.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Low CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, disease stage, performance status, serum lactate dehydrogenase, and number of extranodal sites of disease are all important prognostic factors for HIV-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Recent studies have examined the role of infusional chemotherapy, as well as immunotherapy, in the treatment of aggressive HIV-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed or refractory HIV-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • New developments in the association of viral infection and pathogenesis of certain subtypes of HIV-non-Hodgkin lymphoma have also recently been reported.
  • SUMMARY: Outcomes of HIV-non-Hodgkin lymphoma are improving with the routine use of highly active antiretroviral therapy and combination chemotherapy.
  • For aggressive HIV-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, infusional chemotherapy regimens are well tolerated and lead to complete response in about 50-75% of cases and a 2-3 years overall survival of 40-60%.
  • The potential benefit of adding rituximab to combination chemotherapy may be offset by infectious complications in severely immunosuppressed patients.
  • HIV-associated Burkitt lymphoma should be treated with an intensive regimen rather than standard cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone-like chemotherapy.
  • Autologous stem cell transplantation should be considered for selected patients with relapsed or refractory HIV-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 16894290.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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