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1. Andersen M, Bjerre P, Schrøder HD, Edal A, Høilund-Carlsen PF, Pedersen PH, Hagen C: In vivo secretory potential and the effect of combination therapy with octreotide and cabergoline in patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2001 Jan;54(1):23-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] In vivo secretory potential and the effect of combination therapy with octreotide and cabergoline in patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • The secretory capacity, in vivo, of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas may possibly predict tumour volume reduction during intensive medical therapy.
  • Ten patients (mean (range) 53 years (26-73)) with clinically non-functioning macroadenomas, > or = 10 mm were studied.
  • The secretory capacity of the adenomas was examined using basal, NaCl and TRH-stimulated LH, FSH and alpha-subunit levels.
  • The effect on tumour volume of 6 months' therapy with the combination of a somatostatin analogue, octreotide 200 microg x 3/day and a dopamine-D2-agonist, cabergoline 0.5 mg x 1/day was studied.
  • The basal LH, FSH and alpha-subunit levels were determined before and during 6 months' therapy with octreotide and cabergoline, and MR scans were used to evaluate tumour volume before and during this period of therapy.
  • A reduction in tumour volume (mean +/- SEM (range); 30% +/- 4% (18-46%)) during 6 months of combination therapy with octreotide and cabergoline was recorded only in patients with in vivo secretory potential.
  • Tumour volume was not reduced in four patients: in three of these patients it remained unchanged while in one patient it was observed to have increased (by 14%).
  • Of the six patients with pretherapy secretory capacity, one displayed a very high basal level of alpha-subunit (74 microg/l) despite unmeasurable levels of LH and TSH, and an FSH-level of 1 IU/l.
  • During six months of therapy with octreotide and cabergoline, the basal levels of LH, FSH and alpha-subunit were reduced by > or = 50% in seven patients - including the six patients with in vivo secretion prior to therapy.
  • No new visual field defects were detected during therapy and no deterioration of existing visual field defects was recorded.
  • The medical therapy was well tolerated.
  • The in vivo basal and TRH-stimulated secretory capacity of LH, FSH and alpha-subunit predicted tumour reduction following intensive medical therapy in all of our patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / secretion. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Humans. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Thyrotropin / blood

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  • (PMID = 11167922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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2. Yaman E, Benekli M, Coskun U, Sezer K, Ozturk B, Kaya AO, Yildiz R, Uluoglu O, Buyukberber S: Intrasellar plasmacytoma: an unusual presentation of multiple myeloma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2008 Sep;150(9):921-4; discussion 924
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Occasionally, they can be misdiagnosed as a nonfunctioning adenoma because of radiological and clinical similarities.
  • Initial diagnosis of a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma was later overruled by a repeat biopsy, which showed a plasmacytoma.
  • The tumor stained positively for CD138 and kappa light chain.
  • Further studies confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma.
  • The patient was successfully treated with radiotherapy followed by systemic chemotherapy.
  • Because they have different therapeutic implications, extramedullary plasmacytomas involving pituitary gland should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a nonfunctioning pituitary mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / complications. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Plasmacytoma / diagnosis. Plasmacytoma / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Sella Turcica. Syndecan-1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18726062.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains; 0 / Syndecan-1
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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3. Gur C, Lalazar G, Salmon A, Dubiner V, Gross DJ: Metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting as a pituitary space occupying lesion: a case report. Pituitary; 2008;11(3):293-7
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  • [Title] Metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting as a pituitary space occupying lesion: a case report.
  • Neuroendocrine tumor metastases to the pituitary gland are very rare.
  • There are few case reports of carcinoid tumor metastases to the pituitary, but no cases of pancreatic neuroendocrine pituitary metastases have been reported.
  • In this report we present a 55-year-old female with a sellar mass, ophthalmoplegia and headaches initially thought to represent an invasive null cell pituitary adenoma.
  • However a histological (trans-sphenoidal and liver biopsies) and systemic investigation proved it to be a metastasis of an undiagnosed pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Our patient was unique in respect to the location of the metastasis and the uncharacteristically high proliferative index of her tumor.
  • She received conventional therapy consisting of Sandostatin, chemotherapy and radiotherapy as well as labeled somatostatin following an avid uptake on octreotide scanning.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon


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4. Zhang W, Murao K, Imachi H, Iwama H, Chen K, Fei Z, Zhang X, Ishida T, Tamiya T: Suppression of prolactin expression by cabergoline requires prolactin regulatory element-binding protein (PREB) in GH3 cells. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Jul;42(8):557-61
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  • The prolactin regulatory element-binding protein (PREB) is a transcriptional factor that regulates prolactin (PRL) promoter activity in the anterior pituitary.
  • Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary tumors.
  • Administration of cabergoline, a selective dopamine D2-receptor agonist, has become the initial therapy of choice for most patients with prolactinomas.
  • Samples of ten prolactinomas and ten nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of PREB.
  • The effect of cabergoline on PREB expression was assessed by western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong positive PREB expression in the prolactinoma tissue, but extremely weak or undetected expression in the nonfunctioning pituitary tumor tissue.
  • Western blots probed with a PREB-specific antiserum revealed that the relative abundance of the PREB protein in the GH3 cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to cabergoline treatment, as did the relative abundance of PREB mRNA.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Ergolines / pharmacology. Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors / metabolism. Prolactin / genetics. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Prolactinoma / metabolism. Prolactinoma / pathology. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Transcription, Genetic / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
  • (PMID = 20411477.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors; 0 / PREB protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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5. Colao A, Filippella M, Pivonello R, Di Somma C, Faggiano A, Lombardi G: Combined therapy of somatostatin analogues and dopamine agonists in the treatment of pituitary tumours. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Apr;156 Suppl 1:S57-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined therapy of somatostatin analogues and dopamine agonists in the treatment of pituitary tumours.
  • Pituitary tumours express both somatostatin and dopamine receptors.
  • Medical treatment with somatostatin analogues is a cornerstone of GH- and TSH-secreting tumours, while treatment with dopamine agonists is a cornerstone of prolactin-secreting tumours.
  • Dopamine agonists have also demonstrated some efficacy in patients with GH- and TSH-secreting adenomas.
  • Neither ACTH-secreting nor clinically non-functioning tumours have a well-established medical treatment.
  • Nevertheless, some recent results have indicated a potential usefulness of the dopamine agonist cabergoline in patients with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease.
  • Combination treatment with both somatostatin analogues and dopamine agonists has been poorly investigated.
  • Some studies conducted in small series have documented an additive effect of both drugs in patients with GH-secreting adenomas.
  • No data are available in other pituitary tumour histotypes.
  • Preliminary observations in patients with clinically non-functioning adenomas are very promising.

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  • [ErratumIn] Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Oct;157(4):543
  • (PMID = 17413190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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6. Svensson J, Finer N, Bouloux P, Bevan J, Jonsson B, Mattsson AF, Lundberg M, Harris PE, Koltowska-Häggström M, Monson JP, KIMS International Board: Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in GH deficient adults: predictors of one-year metabolic and clinical response. Growth Horm IGF Res; 2007 Feb;17(1):67-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in GH deficient adults: predictors of one-year metabolic and clinical response.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether baseline status could predict the responsiveness to one-year growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in adult GH deficient (GHD) patients.
  • DESIGN: A total of 380 European patients with adult onset GHD due to non-functioning pituitary adenoma that had been enrolled in Pfizer International Metabolic Database (KIMS), and that had completed one year of GH replacement therapy within KIMS, were studied.
  • Quality of life (QoL)-Assessment of GHD in Adults (QoL-AGHDA), waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, and serum lipid pattern improved.
  • Women received a higher dose of GH than men after one year, and demonstrated similar treatment response.
  • In multiple stepwise forward regression analyses, the one-year changes in QoL-AGHDA score, waist:hip ratio, and serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) level correlated inversely with the baseline values of the same variable.
  • In addition, the change after one year in QoL-AGHDA score correlated inversely with duration of hypopituitarism and baseline serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level, and the change in waist:hip ratio correlated inversely, although more weakly, with baseline serum HDL-C level and UK citizenship and positively with baseline waist circumference and the initial GH dose.
  • Therefore, when the decision to start GH replacement is undertaken, as many outcome variables as possible should be evaluated in order to adequately evaluate the likelihood of clinical benefit.
  • Finally, women have a similar response to GH replacement as men when individualised GH dosing schedules are employed and should therefore be selected for GH therapy to a similar extent.
  • [MeSH-major] Dwarfism, Pituitary / diagnosis. Dwarfism, Pituitary / drug therapy. Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cohort Studies. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Statistical. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Sex Characteristics. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17223598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-6374
  • [Journal-full-title] Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Growth Horm. IGF Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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7. Hagen C, Schroeder HD, Hansen S, Hagen C, Andersen M: Temozolomide treatment of a pituitary carcinoma and two pituitary macroadenomas resistant to conventional therapy. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Oct;161(4):631-7
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  • [Title] Temozolomide treatment of a pituitary carcinoma and two pituitary macroadenomas resistant to conventional therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: Aggressive pituitary tumours may be difficult to treat.
  • In a small number of cases, TMZ therapy has been reported to reduce pituitary tumour size and hormone hypersecretion.
  • DESIGN: We present three patients with pituitary tumours treated with TMZ.
  • One tumour was initially a macroprolactinoma that developed into a mixed GH- and prolactin-secreting carcinoma (patient A).
  • Two adenomas, a macroprolactinoma (patient B) and a clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma (patient C), were highly invasive.
  • The three patients suffered from extensive tumour mass effects, and all tumours were resistant to conventional treatment.
  • RESULT: During TMZ therapy, tumour sizes were significantly reduced, hormone levels normalized and symptoms of mass effects decreased in all three cases.
  • Three years after the terminating treatment, the tumour has not regrown and hormone levels are normalized.
  • CONCLUSION: TMZ therapy significantly decreased tumour volume, hormone hypersecretion and symptoms in all three patients, corresponding to the pathological findings regarding MGMT.
  • TMZ therapy may be a new option for the treatment of resistant pituitary adenomas.


8. Cerovac V, Monteserin-Garcia J, Rubinfeld H, Buchfelder M, Losa M, Florio T, Paez-Pereda M, Stalla GK, Theodoropoulou M: The somatostatin analogue octreotide confers sensitivity to rapamycin treatment on pituitary tumor cells. Cancer Res; 2010 Jan 15;70(2):666-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The somatostatin analogue octreotide confers sensitivity to rapamycin treatment on pituitary tumor cells.
  • Rapamycin and its analogues have significant antiproliferative action against a variety of tumors.
  • Here, we investigated this model using the somatostatin analogue octreotide as a tool to decrease levels of activated Ser(473)-phosphorylated Akt (pAkt-Ser(473)) in pituitary tumor cells that express somatostatin receptors.
  • Octreotide potentiated the antiproliferative effects of rapamycin in immortalized pituitary tumor cells or human nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma cells in primary cell culture, sensitizing tumor cells even to low rapamycin concentrations.
  • Combined treatment of octreotide and rapamycin triggered G(1) cell cycle arrest, decreasing E2F transcriptional activity and cyclin E levels by increasing levels of p27/Kip1.
  • These findings show that adjuvant treatment with a somatostatin analogue can sensitize pituitary tumor cells to the antiproliferative effects of rapamycin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Octreotide / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sirolimus / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / biosynthesis. Drug Synergism. Humans. Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins / metabolism. Oncogene Protein v-akt / metabolism. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Up-Regulation


9. Lin SH, Hung YH, Lin YF: Severe hyponatremia as the presenting feature of clinically non-functional pituitary adenoma with hypopituitarism. Clin Nephrol; 2002 Jan;57(1):85-8
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  • [Title] Severe hyponatremia as the presenting feature of clinically non-functional pituitary adenoma with hypopituitarism.
  • We present two cases in which severe hyponatremia developed with weakness, light-headedness and seizure.
  • Computerized tomography of the brain revealed an adenoma of the pituitary gland.
  • These two cases illustrate that severe hyponatremia may be the presenting feature of clinically non-functional pituitary adenoma with hypopituitarism, which should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of hyponatremia mimicking SIADH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Hyponatremia / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Thyroid Hormones / therapeutic use. Thyroxine / administration & dosage. Vasopressins / blood. Vasopressins / deficiency

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  • (PMID = 11837807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0430
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 11000-17-2 / Vasopressins; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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10. Talvinen K, Tuikkala J, Grönroos J, Huhtinen H, Kronqvist P, Aittokallio T, Nevalainen O, Hiekkanen H, Nevalainen T, Sundström J: Biochemical and clinical approaches in evaluating the prognosis of colon cancer. Anticancer Res; 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6C):4745-51
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  • BACKGROUND: Colorectal adenocarcinoma is a common malignant neoplasm in the Western world.
  • To achieve optimal treatment results, the risk estimation of recurrence should be as accurate as possible.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue material from tumour and normal mucosa was taken from six patients and was analysed to screen aberrantly expressed genes using cDNA microarray.
  • For this purpose a tissue array material of 114 colorectal cancer patients was obtained.
  • RESULTS: Processes such as cellular defense, cell structure, motility and cell division were found to be notably represented among the most deregulated genes.
  • A significant portion of the overexpressed genes included those functioning in the cell cycle.
  • CONCLUSION: Tumour stage is superior in estimating the prognosis of patients with colonic cancer compared with the grading of cell cycle regulators or histological grade of the cancer.
  • The study of regional lymph nodes is essential to identify the patients who would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Staging. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. Securin. Up-Regulation. cdc25 Phosphatases / biosynthesis. cdc25 Phosphatases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17214335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human; EC 3.1.3.16 / CDC25B protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / cdc25 Phosphatases
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11. Deniz K, Tanriverdi F, Selçuklu A, Kontaş O, Keleştimur F: Signet ring-like cells in pituitary adenoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2008;204(3):209-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Signet ring-like cells in pituitary adenoma.
  • We describe a case of non-functioning pituitary adenoma in a 35-year-old woman with a prior history of fertility problems.
  • Histological examination of the tumor revealed signet ring-like cell areas admixed with minor conventional round-polygonal neoplastic cells.
  • The two populations of tumor cells showed strong immunoreactivity for chromogranin and synaptophysin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chorionic Gonadotropin / therapeutic use. Chromogranins / metabolism. Clomiphene / therapeutic use. Female. Fertility Agents, Female / therapeutic use. Headache / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infertility, Female / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18207654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Fertility Agents, Female; 0 / Synaptophysin; 1HRS458QU2 / Clomiphene
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12. Colao A, Lombardi G, Annunziato L: Cabergoline. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2000 Mar;1(3):555-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cabergoline (CAB) (1-[(6-allelylergolin-8 beta-yl)carbonyl]-1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-3-ethyl-urea) is an ergoline derivative with potent, selective and long-lasting inhibitory activity on prolactin (PRL) secretion acting on dopamine receptors present in pituitary lactotrophes.
  • In cultures of rat anterior pituitary cells, the concentrations of CAB and bromocriptine required to inhibit PRL secretory activity by 50% (IC50) were 0.1 and 3.4 nmol/l, respectively.
  • Notable tumour shrinkage until tumour disappearance was observed during CAB treatment in most patients with macroprolactinoma.
  • In view of the limited data on CAB-associated pregnancies and the long half-life of the drug, it is currently recommended that women seeking to became pregnant, once ovulatory cycles have been established, should discontinue CAB therapy 1 month before they intend to conceive.
  • The great efficacy of CAB together with its excellent tolerability makes this drug the current treatment of choice for the majority of patients with hyperprolactinaemic disorders.
  • Very recently, the efficacy of CAB treatment has been reported in patients with acromegaly and clinically non-functioning adenomas with controversial results.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Hyperprolactinemia / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11249538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-6566
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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13. Colao A, Ferone D, Lastoria S, Cerbone G, Di Sarno A, Di Somma C, Lucci R, Lombardi G: Hormone levels and tumour size response to quinagolide and cabergoline in patients with prolactin-secreting and clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas: predictive value of pituitary scintigraphy with 123I-methoxybenzamide. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2000 Apr;52(4):437-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hormone levels and tumour size response to quinagolide and cabergoline in patients with prolactin-secreting and clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas: predictive value of pituitary scintigraphy with 123I-methoxybenzamide.
  • BACKGROUND: Dopamine agonists are indicated as primary therapy for PRL-secreting pituitary adenomas, while controversial results have been reported in nonfunctioning adenomas (NFA).
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the in vivo visualization of dopamine D2 receptor expression detected by pituitary scintigraphy using 123I-methoxybenzamide (123I-IBZM) was correlated with the response to chronic treatment with quinagolide or cabergoline.
  • STUDY DESIGN: All patients underwent an acute test with quinagolide: at 3-day intervals and in random order all patients received the drug (0.075 mg at 0800 h), or placebo.
  • Blood samples were taken 15 and 5 minutes before and every 30 minutes for 6 h after drug or placebo administration.
  • After 6 months of treatment, 10 patients were randomised to continue the treatment with quinagolide and the remaining 10 received cabergoline for the remaining 6 months.
  • At study entry, a magnetic resonance imaging (MR) study of the pituitary region and 123I-IBZM pituitary scintigraphy were performed.
  • MR was repeated after 12 months of treatment to evaluate tumour shrinkage: reduction of tumour volume = 80% in prolactinomas and = 50% in NFA was considered significant.
  • After 12 months of treatment with quinagolide and cabergoline, circulating PRL levels were decreased in all 10 patients with prolactinoma (571.8 +/- 255.9 mU/l), being normalized in 7 patients.
  • Significant adenoma shrinkage was recorded in 4 patients with prolactinoma among the 7 with intense pituitary uptake of 123I-IBZM.
  • Significant adenoma shrinkage was recorded only in the 2 out of 10 patients with NFA with intense pituitary uptake of 123I-IBZM.
  • A significant positive correlation was found between the degree of uptake (considered as score) and the response to quinagolide or cabergoline treatment (considered as percent hormone suppression) either in patients affected with PRL-secreting adenoma (r = 0.856, P < 0.005) or in those affected with NFA (r = 0.787, P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: An intense 123I-IBZM uptake in patients with non-functioning adenomas was predictive of a good response to a chronic treatment with quinagolide and cabergoline.
  • This result suggests that a pituitary 123I-IBZM scintigraphy could be considered in selected patients with non-functioning adenomas before starting medical treatment with dopamine agonists.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Benzamides. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Selection. Predictive Value of Tests. Prolactin / blood. Prolactinoma / blood. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 10762286.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 5813-86-5 / 3-methoxybenzamide; 80Q9QWN15M / quinagolide; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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14. Colao A, Di Sarno A, Marzullo P, Di Somma C, Cerbone G, Landi ML, Faggiano A, Merola B, Lombardi G: New medical approaches in pituitary adenomas. Horm Res; 2000;53 Suppl 3:76-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New medical approaches in pituitary adenomas.
  • Recently, the medical approach to patients with secreting and clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas has received great impulse thanks to the availability of new, selective and long-lasting compounds with dopaminergic activity, such as cabergoline, and of somatostatin analogues provided in slow-release formulations, such as lanreotide and octreotide long acting release (LAR).
  • In particular, the use of cabergoline has induced control of hyperprolactinaemia and tumour shrinkage in the great majority of patients with micro- and macroprolactinomas.
  • Cabergoline treatment restores fertility both in women and men, and partially improves osteoporosis, one of the major complications of hyperprolactinaemia.
  • In acromegaly, disease control (growth hormone [GH] <2.5-1.0 microg/l as a fasting or glucose-suppressed value, respectively, together with age-normalised insulin-like growth factor [IGF]-I) is achievable in more than half of patients receiving treatment with lanreotide or octreotide-LAR.
  • Improvement in cardiomyopathy, sleep apnoea and arthropathy has been reported during GH/IGF-I suppression after pharmacotherapy.
  • A synthetic GH analogue, B2036-PEG, that antagonises endogenous GH binding to its receptor-binding sites and a GH-releasing hormone antagonist that blocks the effect of this releasing factor on the hypothalamus and pituitary are presently under investigation in acromegaly.
  • Beneficial effects of subcutaneous octreotide and lanreotide have also been reported in adenomas secreting thyroid-stimulating hormone, while the results of treatment with dopamine agonists or somatostatin analogues remain disappointing in patients with clinically non-functioning adenomas.
  • In these patients the possibility of visualising in vivo the expression of D(2) receptors using specific radiotracers such as (123)I-methoxybenzamide has allowed selection of patients likely to respond to cabergoline.
  • Scant effects of pharmacotherapy have also been reported in patients with adenomas secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Dopamine Agents / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 10971110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agents; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 118
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15. Trimarchi CP, Russo P: Cyclic estrogen-progestin hormone therapy as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of functional alterations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis: case reports. Endocr Res; 2002 Aug;28(3):155-60
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  • [Title] Cyclic estrogen-progestin hormone therapy as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of functional alterations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis: case reports.
  • We report a first case of a 30 year-old woman affected by polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) whose amenorrhea ceased after a 6-month combination treatment with cyclic estradiol-norethisterone acetate.
  • After the withdrawal of the hormone therapy, a stable recovery of periodic menses was observed.
  • We describe a second case of a 23 year-old woman whose amenorrhea was caused by a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to a non-functioning pituitary adenoma.
  • After the administration of the previously described therapy both a disappearance of the adenoma and a recover of periodic menses were observed.
  • The exogenous hormones may have reset the feedback between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland through mimicking the physiological hormones pattern of the 28-day cycle.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Amenorrhea / drug therapy. Estradiol / administration & dosage. Norethindrone / administration & dosage. Norethindrone / analogs & derivatives. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Feedback. Female. Humans. Hypogonadism / complications. Hypothalamus / drug effects. Hypothalamus / physiopathology. Ovary / physiopathology. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 12489565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0743-5800
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9S44LIC7OJ / norethindrone acetate; T18F433X4S / Norethindrone
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16. Inenaga C, Morii K, Tamura T, Tanaka R, Takahashi H: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the sellar region. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2003 Jul;145(7):593-7; discussion 597
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  • However, no such malignant tumour has been described in the sellar region.
  • Upon initial admission, no endocrinological abnormalities were found, and computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass with calcification in the sella and right cavernous sinus.
  • INTERVENTION: For this malignant tumour, three surgical resections, two sessions of gamma-knife radiosurgery, one session of fractional irradiation, and one cycle of chemotherapy were performed, resulting in only brief arrest of the tumour growth.
  • Pathologically, the tumour consisted of undifferentiated small cells of high cellularity, and islands of hyaline cartilage.
  • CONCLUSION: Although malignant tumours in the sellar region are rare, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of various sellar tumours typified by non-functioning pituitary adenoma, and mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is one possible candidate.

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  • (PMID = 12910404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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17. Guerra Y, Lacuesta E, Marquez F, Raksin PB, Utset M, Fogelfeld L: Apoplexy in non functioning pituitary adenoma after one dose of leuprolide as treatment for prostate cancer. Pituitary; 2010;13(1):54-9
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  • [Title] Apoplexy in non functioning pituitary adenoma after one dose of leuprolide as treatment for prostate cancer.
  • We report the case of a 60 year old male who complained of headache and blurry vision--that progressed to left ophthalmoplegia and ptosis--after receiving a dose of leuprolide for Prostate cancer therapy.
  • The patient underwent transsphenoidal debulking, and the tissue obtained demonstrated immunohistochemical staining for LH.
  • A literature review revealed nine previously reported cases of pituitary apoplexy after GnRH agonist therapy for prostate cancer.
  • In most cases, the sellar tissues stained for LH, consistent with a gonadotropinoma.
  • Particular attention to clinical findings suggestive of a non functioning pituitary tumor in patients receiving GnRH agonist therapy is critical as routine screening with MRI is not practical.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Leuprolide / adverse effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Stroke / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sella Turcica


18. Colao A, Dorato M, Pulcrano M, Rossi FW, Auriemma RS, Lombardi G, Lastoria S: [Somatostatin analogs in the clinical management of pituitary neoplasms]. Minerva Endocrinol; 2001 Sep;26(3):181-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Somatostatin analogs in the clinical management of pituitary neoplasms].
  • The medical approach to patients with secreting or clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma as made considerable progress thanks to the use of new somatostatin analogs.
  • Good results were obtained using slow-release analog treatment also in TSH-secreting adenomas, whereas the therapeutic efficacy of these peptides in clinically non-functioning adenomas is still controversial.
  • Treatment with somatostatin analogs improves symptoms, normalises hormone secretion and in some cases may induce a reduction in the volume of pituitary adenomas.
  • Scintigraphy with octreotide may help to select patients who respond to this form of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pentetic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Indium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / secretion. Kidney Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Melanoma / radionuclide imaging. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thymoma / radionuclide imaging. Thymus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyrotropin / secretion. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11753242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 142694-57-3 / SDZ 215-811; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 7A314HQM0I / Pentetic Acid; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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19. Kreitschmann-Andermahr I, Poll EM, Reineke A, Gilsbach JM, Brabant G, Buchfelder M, Fassbender W, Faust M, Kann PH, Wallaschofski H: Growth hormone deficient patients after traumatic brain injury--baseline characteristics and benefits after growth hormone replacement--an analysis of the German KIMS database. Growth Horm IGF Res; 2008 Dec;18(6):472-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • All 84 TBI patients were matched with 84 patients with GHD due to non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) also included in this database.
  • Analysis of clinical and outcome variables was performed, with comparisons of childhood vs. adult TBI, and TBI vs. NFPA patients, at baseline and one-year follow-up.
  • RESULTS: TBI patients with GHD were significantly younger at the onset of pituitary disease and exhibited a significantly longer time span between GHD diagnosis and KIMS entry than NFPA patients.
  • At 1-year follow-up, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) standard deviation score levels had returned to the normal range and quality of life (QoL), as measured by QoL- Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (AGHDA) questionnaire, improved significantly in TBI as in NFPA patients.
  • CONCLUSION: This analysis provides preliminary data that TBI patients with GHD benefit from hGH replacement in terms of improved QoL in a similar fashion as do NFPA patients.
  • Moreover, it suggests that belated diagnosis and treatment in childhood-onset GHD due to TBI might be related to a shorter final height in these children.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / physiopathology. Databases, Factual. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Humans. Hypopituitarism / complications. Hypopituitarism / drug therapy. Hypopituitarism / physiopathology. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18829359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2238
  • [Journal-full-title] Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Growth Horm. IGF Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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